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Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil. deaquino@uema.br

A new type of antenna, which we have called Ferromagnetic Antenna, has been considered for Generation and Detection of Gravitational Radiation. A simple experiment, in which gravitational radiation at 10 GHz can be emitted and received in laboratory, is presented.

1. INTRODUCTION

The gravitational mass, mg , produces and responds to gravitational fields. It supplies the mass factors in Newton's famous inverse-square law 2 of Gravitation (F12 = Gmg1mg 2 r12 ). Inertial mass mi is the mass factor in Newton's 2nd Law of Motion (F = mi a ). Several experiments1-6, have been carried out since Newton to try to establish a correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. Some years ago J.F.Donoghue and B.R. Holstein7 have shown that the renormalized mass for temperature T = 0 is expressed by mr = m + δm0 where δm0 is the temperatureindependent mass shift. In addition, for T > 0 , mass renormalization leads to the following expressions for inertial and gravitational masses, respectively: ; mi = m + δm0 + δmβ

The expression of δm β obtained by Donoghue and Holstein refers solely to thermal radiation. The general equation of correlation between mg and mi will be deduced here. Then we will show that the gravitational mass can be changed by means of Extreme-Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation. Two experiments, using appropriated ELF radiation, has been carried out to test experimentally this equation. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. On the other hand, the detection of negative gravitational mass in both experiments suggest the possibility of dipole gravitational radiation. This fact is highly relevant because a gravitational wave transmitter can be built to generate detectable levels of gravitational radiation in the laboratory. We have concluded from the experiments that detectable gravitational radiation fluxes can be emitted from ferromagnetic materials dipoles subjected to appropriated ELF electromagnetic radiation. Here, we will present an experiment which involves the generation and detection of highfrequency gravitational waves based on this new technology.

**mg = m+δm0 −δmβ , where
**

temperature-dependent given by δmβ = παT 2 3mi .

δmβ is the mass shift

This means that a particle’s gravitational mass decreases with the increasing temperature and that only in absolute zero (T = 0 K ) are gravitational mass and inertial mass equivalent.

Consequently. In particular. except for anti-matter ( mi < 0 ).given by where follows H i = H g + δH [5] If δH = 0 . the inertial and gravitational masses at rest . µ and σ. in which the particle acquires a δp at the absorption and another δp at the emission. In the general case of absorption and posterior emission. H i . H i = H g . V = 0 .[4] and [6] reduces to [10] =U /v Where is the real part kr of the propagation vector k. is the k =| k |= kr + iki U electromagnetic energy absorbed or emitted by the particle and v is the phase velocity of the electromagnetic waves. produces an inertial Hamiltonian shift. we can look on the momentum shift (δp ) as due to absorption or emission of electromagnetic energy by the particle ( by means of radiation and/or by means of Lorentz's force upon the charge of the particle). and δH = 2 δp c + m c − mi c 2 2 2 4 i ( 2 ) [7] 2 [8] Hi − H g = (mi − mg )c 2 Substitution of Eqs[7] and [8] into Eq.[5] yields Hi = c pi2 + mi2c2 + Qϕ 2 2 Hg = c pg + mgc2 + Qϕ [1] [2] mi and mg are respectively.[9] is always negative. δp . . on the particle. In order to obtain the general expression of correlation between mg and mi . Note that the term inside the square bracket is always positive. A momentum shift . THE CORRELATION mg mi . the total inertial Hamiltonian shift is 2 δH = 2 ( pi + δp) c2 + mi2c4 − pi2c2 + mi2c4 [4] Note that δH is always positive.2.. and gravitational Hamiltonian. In addition from the Eqs. Thus.[1] and [2]. In the case of radiation ( photons with frequency f = ω 2π ). pi = pg = 0 . i. are the electromagnetic characteristics of the medium in which the incident (or emitted) radiation is ¡ ¡ pi2c2 + mi2c4 [3] Fundamentally δp is related to absorption or emission of energy. we will start with the definition of inertial Hamiltonian. we can write δp = n kr = n ω /( ω / kr ) = U /( dz / dt ) = i (m ( ) . H g . given by: dz ω c [11] v= = = dt κ r ε r µr 2 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1 2 ε . if n is the number of absorbed (or radiated) photons by the particle of mass mi . mg = mi .e. Eqs.. we can write: 2 2 Hi − H g = pi2c 2 + mi2c4 − pg c 2 + mg c 4 [6] For a particle at rest.e. pi is the inertial momentum and pg the gravitational momentum. the second term on the right hand side of Eq. δH . i. We now may define the correlation between H i and H g as δH = ( pi + δp)2 c2 + mi2c4 − − m g )c 2 = 2 δ p 2 c 2 + mi2 c 4 − mi c 2 From this equation we obtain 2 1 + δp − 1 mi [9] mg = mi − 2 mc i This is the general expression of correlation between gravitational and inertial mass. Q is the electric charge and ϕ is an electromagnetic potential.

Substitution of N into Eq. ε = εbody. we obtain 2 1 + U n − 1m 2 r [14] mg = 1 − 2 mc i i Substitution of U = n ω = nhf into Eq. µ = µ r µ0 where µ r is the relative magnetic permeability and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 H / m ). The result is n= N a S [16] Obviously the power P of the incident radiation ( photons with frequency f ).[10] follows that U U c U [12] δp = = = nr v c v c where nr is the index of refraction. gives 2 nhf − 1m [15] mg = mi − 2 1 + n 2 r mi c Light can be substantially slowed down or frozen completely by optically inducing a quantum interference in a Bose-Einstein condensate 8 . elementary particles (mainly electrons). thus we can write N = P / hf 2 . It is important to note that in the equation above. µ =µbody. and consequently .[18] we obtain 2 aD µσ mg = mi − 2 1 + mi c 4πf 3 − 1mi [20] This equation shows that. atoms or molecules can have their gravitational masses strongly reduced by means of ELF radiation. If t he speed of light is reduced to <0.1m/s. then according to the Statistical Mechanics.[19] into Eq. From the Eq.This means an enormous index of refraction at ~1014Hz. must be P = Nhf / ∆t = Nhf 2 . . Thus Eq. the incident(or emitted) radiation on this atom will be propagating inside the body .[15] tell us that the gravitational masses of the atoms of the Bose-Einstein condensate become negative. By the substitution of Eq.[11] reduces to v= 4πf µσ [19] By substitution of Eq. If N S is the average density of absorbed (or emitted) photons by the body (number of photons across the area unit).propagating ( ε = ε r ε 0 where ε r is the relative electric permittivity and ε 0 = 8.[15] can be rewritten in the following form: 2 aD [18] mg = mi − 2 1 + − 1m mi cvf For σ >> ωε Eq.[12] into Eq. the calculation of n can be made based on the well-known method of Probability of a Distribution . σ = σbody . and a ¢ 3 is the area of the surface of each particle of mass mi . the Eq. ferromagnetic materials with very-high µ request smaller value of D . Let us now consider the particular macroscopic case in which all the particles inside a body have the same mass mi .[16] gives n= a P a D = hf 2 S hf 2 [17] where D is the power density of the absorbed ( or emitted) radiation.[14].[9]. given by εµ c 2 [13] nr = = r r 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1 v 2 c is the speed in a vacuum and v is the speed in the medium.854 × 10−12 F / m . For an atom inside a body .

σ i = 1. ωµ dipole [26] RS = 2σ dipole Rr = (∆z ) 2 3. Substituting [22] into [21] gives 2π µi (∆zf )2 Rr = [23] 3 vi Note that when the medium surrounding the dipole is air and ω >> σ ε . . The antenna in Fig.[23] can be rewritten in the following form π 3 3 [24 ] σ i µ i f 9 The ohmic resistance of the dipole is 10 ∆z Rohmic ≅ RS [25] 2πr0 where r0 is the radius of the cross section of the dipole. a 9. The radiated power effective (rms) current I P = Rr I 2 and consequently 2 ω ε ri µ ri 2 1 + (σ i ωε i ) + 1 = c 2 ω ωc ω = (nr ) = = [22] c c vi vi = P (∆zI ) π 3 3 D= = [28] σ i µi f S S 9 where S is the effective area. atoms. it was built an apparatus ( System H ) presented in Fig. f is the frequency of the sound waves and D the power density ( or intensity ) of the sound radiation. etc. µi = 5. can have their gravitational masses strongly reduced by means of ELF sound radiation. vi is given by the Eq..19m 2 . β ≅ ω ε 0 µ0 .8 ×107 S / m .[18] is general for all types of wave. Here. We then conclude from the Eq.[18] that elementary particles. and RS is the surface resistance . The iron surrounding the dipole increases its inductance L . is the speed of sound in the medium.[18].1 is a halfwave dipole. encapsulated by a iron sphere (purified iron.[19]. Including no-electromagnetic waves like sound waves. v . This means that sound waves can also change the gravitational mass of a particle. We will check the effects of the ELF radiation upon the gravitational mass of the ferromagnetic material (iron sphere) surrounding the antenna. Rohmic ≅ Where ∆z µdipole f r0 4πσ dipole µ dipole = µ copper ≅ µ 0 [27] and for an is then σ dipole = σ copper = 5.. Basically. can be written as follows 9 ωµ i β i 2 Rr = ∆z [21] 6π where ∆z is the length of the dipole and εµ βi = ω i i 1 + (σ i ωε i )2 + 1 = 2 Thus.1). due to σ i >> ωε i .9mHz Transmitter coupled to a special antenna. for series RLC circuit the resonance frequency is f r = 1 2π LC .03 × 107 S / m ).95% Fe. v ≅ c and Rr reduces to the well-know expression 2 Rr ≅ (∆zω ) 6πε 0 c 3 . in the Eq. Then Eq. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS In order to check Eq. 99. The radiation resistance of the antenna for a frequency ω = 2πf .[20] experimentally. It can be easily shown that S is the outer area of the iron sphere ( Fig. For example.1. then when f = fr . In this case. if D ≈ 1 W / m 2 (120 dB ) and f = 1 µHz . 2 S = 4πrouter = 0. i. where vi is the velocity of the radiation through the iron.000µ 0 .4 One can easily show that the Eq.e. However.

2 For f = fr = 9. Thus.56% ) .38 × 10 − 4 I 4 − 1 mi ( ) ∆z = λ 2 = v 2 f = π µiσ i f = 0. the impedance of the antenna.40×10−10 m .9mHz is totally absorbed by the iron along a critical thickness δ = 5 z = 5 π fµ iσ i ≅ 0 .46×10−19m2 Consequently. Above this critical current. When the ELF radiation is absorbed the iron atoms their gravitational masses. Z ant .11m = 110 mm . C C 2 2 µi2σi ai 4 ] mgi = mi − 2 1 + 6cS m (∆zI) −1mi [30 i Note that the equation above doesn't depends on f . as a function of the current I . 2 Z ant = Rant + (X L − X C ) = Rant = Rr + Rohmic .070m = 70mm. In another previous experiment 11 we have built a system (called system-G) to test the Eq.[27].[20]. i.[20].. mgi becomes negative. become 2 µiσi ai 2 D − 1mi [29] mgi = mi − 2 1 + 4πc2 f 3 mi The equation above shows that the gravitational masses of the iron atoms can be nullified for I ≅ 8. becomes purely resistive.66× 10−27 kg = 9.[24]. from the Fig. The experiment showed that the gravitational mass can be reduced.5 X L − X C = 2πf r L − 1 = 2πf r C L L − = 0. mg (iron sphere ) . are on that Table to be compared with those supplied by the experiment. mgi . according to Eq. Thus. The radiation of frequency f = 9. ( ) [31] Consequently.58µΩ and the efficiency of the antenna is e = Rr Rr + Rohmic = 0.50kg ( inertial mass of the iron sphere ). for r0 = 13mm . according to Eq. nullified or made negative by means of appropriated ELF electromagnetic radiation. calculated by means of Eq. are changed and.[31]. assuming that the radius of the iron atom is 2 riron = 1. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. and in such a manner that all their atoms should be reached by the radiation.[20]. The Table 1 presents the experimental results obtained from the System H for the gravitational mass of the iron sphere. Indeed. the sphere has been designed with this purpose.[30] can be rewritten as follows mgi = mi − 2 1 + 2. We have checked the effects of the ELF Substitution of [28] into [29] yields . for miron sphere = 60.e.27× 10−26 kg then the Eq. according to Eq.851. the radiation resistance Rr . The values for mg (iron sphere ) .56µΩ and the ohmic resistance. calculated by means of Eq. a spiral antenna (half-wave dipole) was encapsulated by iron powder and the iron powder by a annealed iron toroid.9mHz the of the dipole is length and mi = 55.1 we conclude that the iron sphere will absorb practically all radiation emitted from the dipole. Therefore. is Rohmic ≅ 0.02µΩ .9956 (99. ai = 4πriron = 2.51A . Z ant = Rr + Rohmic = 4. is Rr = 4. In the system-G.

i. can be written as follows π 3 3 σµ f 9 The ohmic resistance is ∆z µ dipole f Rohmic ≅ r0 4πσ dipole Rr = (∆ z ) 2 [32 ] 4. as we will see soon after. the radiation resistance of the antenna for σ >> ωε . there is no dipole radiation in Einstein's theory of gravity. the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects.GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION When the gravitational field of an object changes. and for Telecommunication too.. there are several applications to this discovery.[23]. 2 ae 4 4 2 ] mge = me − 2 1+ µ σ 6m cS (∆zI) −1me [35 e ( ) Substitution of numerical values into Eq. The existence of gravitational waves follows from the General Theory of Relativity. This fact is highly relevant because now we can build a gravitational wave transmitter to generate detectable levels of gravitational radiation in the laboratory.σ = 1 . D . the system-G works with very high electric currents(up to 300A) while the system-H. From the technical point of view. for (current trough the ELF antenna) the gravitational mass of the free-electrons becomes .98%Fe.03 × 10 7 S / m ) [33] The radiated power for an effective (rms) current I is then 2 P = Rr I and consequently. the results have been similar. just up to 10A. Now we can build gravitational binaries. Let us consider an electric current IC through a conductor (annealed iron wire 99. But the detection of negative gravitational mass suggest the possibility of dipole gravitational radiation. according to Eq.4µHz .000 µ 0 . and to extract energy from any site of a gravitational field. the length of the dipole is ∆z = λ 2 = v 2 f = π µ σ f = 0. submitted to ELF electromagnetic radiation with power density D and frequency f . the power density.6 electromagnetic radiation upon the gravitational mass of ferromagnetic toroid surrounding the ELF antenna. with the same characteristics of the annealed iron wire). The dominant channel of emission is quadrupolar. gravitational waves (GW) too carry energy and momentum from their sources. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves . In Einstein's theory of gravity the gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light.1m 2 and I ≅ 100 A Thus. µ = 350 . Just as electromagnetic waves (EM). Unlike EM waves. For f = 69. however. If the ELF electromagnetic radiation come from a half-wave electric dipole ( copper ) encapsulated by an annealed iron (purified iron. of the emitted ELF radiation. is 2 P (∆zI ) π 3 3 D= = [34 ] σµ f S S 9 where S is the area surround of the dipole.[35] leads to the following equation ~ 10− 6 4 mge = me − 2 1 + I − 1me [36] 2 S S ≅ 0. The gravity control will be also very important to Transportation systems.10m The gravitational mass of the free-electrons into the wire ( electric current IC ) can be obtained by means of the substitution of [34] into [20].e. However.

σ = 1 .. Π = Π 0 sinωt . where z0 is the amplitude of the oscillations of z .4µHz (see Fig. the gravitoelectric dipole moment can be written as mg z . the energy across the area unit by time unit in the direction of propagation) is given by 12 π 2 Π 02 f 4 [37 ] F (φ ) = sin 2φ 3 2 2c εr The electric dipole moment . The oscillation of the gravitational masses of the "heavy" electrons through this ferromagnetic antenna will generate a gravitational radiation flux very greater than the flux which is generated by the electrons at the "normal " state ( mg ≅ me ). Thus the intensity of the emitted gravitational radiation 7 from an oscillating gravitational dipole. one can substitute Π 0 by qz0 .[38] refers to the total gravitational mass of the "heavy" electrons. The gravitational mass mg in Eq.98%Fe. must be equal to 1. Similarly to the electric dipole. The amplitude of oscillations of the half-wave gravitational dipole is c z0 = λ gw 2 = 2 f gw This means that to produce gravitational waves with frequency f gw = 10GHz . a gravitational radiation flux from astronomical source with frequency 1Hz and amplitude hw 0 ≅ 10 −22 ( the dimensionless .03 × 10 7 S / m ) subjected to ELF radiation with frequency f = 69. the length of the ferromagnetic dipole. where is the oscillating mg gravitational mass).5cm.4 × 10−8 m3 and m ge ≅ −200 me . Fgw (φ ) .[38] we obtain 2 − 9 sin φ [39] Fgw (φ ) ≅ 10 r2 At a distance r = 1m from the dipole the maximum value of Fgw (φ ) is Fgw (π ) ≅ 10 −9 W / m 2 2 For comparison. µ = 350 . Vant = 7.15 ) and by (by analogy with q mg electrodynamics. Now consider a half-wave electric dipole whose elements are two cylinders of annealed iron (99. The simplest way is merely the substitution of ε (electric permittivity) by ε G = 1 16πG (gravitoelectric permittivity 13. and z = z0 sinωt . This gives mg ≅ 10−6 kg . the intensity of the emitted radiation from a gravitational dipole is maximum at the equatorial plane ( φ = π 2 ) and zero at the oscillation direction( φ = 0 ).14. the intensity of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating electric dipole ( i. For the microwave ferromagnetic antenna in Fig. There are several ways to obtain the equivalent equation for the intensity of the emitted gravitational radiation from an oscillating gravitational dipole. As we know. where q is the oscillating electric charge.2. z0 .000 µ 0 .2). can be written as follows: 2 2 4 8π 3Gm g z 0 f gw [38] Fgw (φ ) = sin 2φ 3 2 cr where f gw is the frequency of the gravitational radiation (equal to the frequency of the electric current through the ferromagnetic dipole). can be written as qz . given by mg = 1029 free − electrons/ m3 Vantmge ( ) where Vant is the volume of the antenna.e.The energy flux carried by the emitted gravitational waves can be estimated by analogy to the oscillating electric dipole. By substitution of these values and mg ≅ −10 −6 kg into Eq. thus.mge ≅ −200me This means that they becomes "heavy" electrons.

61.Landau. 5229 . like all matter of the Universe. (2002) "Superconductors as quantum transducers and antennas for gravitational and electromagnetic radiation". Furthermore. J. v. M. the receiver would allow us to directly observe for the first time the Cosmic Microwave Background in Gravitational Radiation. p. Thiele. Y. there are many options. which. Dutton. Schultz.49. (1890). P. preprint gr-qc/0005107. 14. Math. M. 12. Stutzman. 6. Fekete. R. De Aquino. preprint gr-qc/0204012 p. (2000) " Gravitational Radiation". 82. p. Holstein. (1922) Ann. Sautenkov. 7. B.. . 8. Z.L.11. Panov.297. et al.18. R.2. and L. Hollberg. B. S. i.5. a gravitational waves transceiver. 8. Phys. The weakness with which gravitational waves interact with matter is well-known.H. Wet. Eötvos. (Addison-Wesley) p. Chiao. John Wiley & Sons. Roppl.G et.. It means that gravitational waves carry uncorrupted information even if they come from the most distant parts of the Universe.I (1971) Zh. Ungarn. Groups and Topology” (Les Houches Lectures). Scully. R.B..6 × 10 − 22 ≅ 10 W / m 10 100Hz As concerns detection of the gravitational radiation from dipole.542. A. If a gravitational wave is incident on the gravitational dipole(receiver) in Fig. v. 49. 892 .328 . W. D. 2100. Lett. G. H. Welch. Translation of the edition published by Addison-Wesley (1967). Slowe. 33. I.M. G. The amplitude of the oscillations will be the same of the emitter. 16. Ciufolini. (2000) " Possibility of Control of the Gravitational Mass by means of Extra-Low Frequencies Radiation". (2001) Science 293. (1961) Proc. Ber. R. 15. Consequently . Pékar. (1998) Science.. Hau. Fry.A. 2.J. 9. 1.5cm. Natur..2(b) the masses of the "heavy" electrons will be driven into oscillation. E. would allow us to communicate through the Earth. Zibrov. Phys (N. L. 1 c3 dhw Fgw = = 32π G dt f hw0 −9 2 = 1. M. which would picture the Universe.L. Los Alamos National Laboratory. IRE. Finn. (1999) Phys. 13. P. Ned.A. (1991) IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. E. and Lifshitz. 4. preprint gr-qc/0003069. 11. L. (1963) Experimental Relativity in “Relativity. V. D. A. F. p. V. Lukin. There is no significant scattering or absorption.442. −5 2 2 2 3. Edgard Blücher.F. Y.J. E. just at the beginning of the Big Bang. Eötvos. Alonso. Los Alamos National Laboratory.65. Proc. R. 68. D.e. p. al.105. Rev. Ed. W.873. p. Teor. of Physics. Antenna Theory and Design. John Wiley & Sons. (1951) The Classical Theory of Fields. Budde. Braginskii. Akad. V.(1972) Física. Kash.R (1987) European J. Thiele. REFERENCES 1. Forward. 20. Los Alamos National Laboratory.. 26. E. Rostovsev. Donoghue. 279. S. (1964) Ann. and M. 21.Kraus. based on the experiment presented in Fig. and there will be an induced electric current I ' through the ferromagnetic antenna of the receiver (see Fig. Eksp. Dicke. M.. M.8 amplitude of the gravitational waves of astronomical origin that could be detected on earth and with a frequency of about 1 kHz is between 10-17 and 10-22 ) has 16.. O. A similar gravitational dipole can also absorb energy from an incident gravitational wave.F.48. V.Y). Ch. is transparent to gravitational waves. Stutzman. (1917). Zeeman.D. Antenna Theory and Design. 663. 5. 8. 185. L. 1st edition.2(b)). Fiz. 10.

9mHz 26mm coiled spring 70mm r=123mm iron µ i σ i counterweight (dipole + wires) encapsulated antenna Cross section counterweight scale ferromagnetic sphere Front view Fig.1 .9 Transmitter 9.Schematic diagram of the System H .

27 59.46 0.(4) 56.00 8.00 3.00 5.48 60.00 1.(9) 51.(8) 11.16 -40.0 -12.51 9.50kg .(5) 0.87 51.(9) Table 1 Note: The inertial mass of the iron sphere is miron sphere = 60.00 8.(0) -12.(9) 43.82 11.00 60.34 56.09 29.(3) 59.(4) 60.5 60.00 6.00 10.00 2.(1) -40.(1) 29.00 4.10 mg (iron sphere ) I (A) theory 0.00 7.95 ( kg ) experimental 60.50 60.81 43.

4µHz Microwave Ferromagnetic Antenna (annealed iron dipole) 1.5cm Gravitational Radiation 10GHz (a) 69.5cm 10GHz 1.11 ELF antenna copper dipole encapsulted by annealed iron 10cm 69. .4µHz 69.5cm Emitter Faraday Cages Receiver (b) Fig.2 .4µHz Transmitter I' Gravitational Waves Induced Electric Current 1.Schematic diagram of the ferromagnetic antennas to produce and receive gravitational radiation.

98% iron. . σ=1.An improved design for the GW antenna.03×107S/m) ELF ( µHz ) ¥ SHF ( GHz ) fSHF λgw = ¥ λSHF fELF λELF £ λELF =v/fELF = =2(π/µσfELF) (medium = annealed iron) λgw=c/fgw ( medium = air ) fgw = fSHF SHF = Super High Frequency ELF = Extreme Low Frequency ¤ Fig. µ=350.000µ0.3 .12 Copper Insulating paint Annealed iron (99.

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