Forced Vibration

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/u11l4b.cfm

home - about - terms - credits - feedback

1 de 3

12/12/2011 15:17

but the noise would not even be close in comparison to the loudness produced by an acoustic guitar. This is resonance . The red bobs are mounted on the longer poles and they have the lowest natural frequency of vibration. A louder sound is always produced when an accompanying object of greater surface area is forced into vibration at the same natural frequency.when one object vibrating at the same natural frequency of a second object forces that second object into vibrational motion. thus giving it a different natural frequency of vibration. The sound box in turn forces air particles inside the box into vibrational motion at the same natural frequency as the string. strums. This causes an increase in the amplitude and thus loudness of the sound. they share the same natural frequency.the one which wasn't hit with the mallet. The blue bobs are mounted on the shorter poles and have the highest natural frequency of vibration. the tuning fork easily begins vibrating at its natural frequency. They are! What is happening? In this demonstration. the panel begins vibrating at the same natural frequency of the tuning fork. The entire system (string. This is because the frequency of the first red bob is tuned to the frequency of the second red bob. Energy. The tendency of one object to force another adjoining or interconnected object into vibrational motion is referred to as a forced vibration. The two forks are connected by the surrounding air particles.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. Surrounding air particles are set into vibrational motion at the same natural frequency of 256 Hz and every student in the classroom hears the sound. This in turn forces the attached bar to vibrate at the same frequency. and suppose a second tuning fork/sound box system having the same natural frequency (say 256 Hz) is placed on the table near the first system. a sound is produced as the tines of the tuning fork set surrounding air particles into vibrational motion. Suppose the first tuning fork is struck with a rubber mallet and the tines begin vibrating at its natural frequency . a large vibration results.cfm » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Sound Waves and Music Sound Waves and Music . Each metal pole and attached bob has a different length. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Natural Frequency | Forced Vibration | Standing Wave Patterns Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics Forced Vibration Student Extras Musical instruments and other objects are set into vibration at their natural frequency when a Teacher's Guide person hits. and why a piano string is attached to a sounding board. The sound produced by the tuning fork is barely audible to students in the back rows of the room. Amazing!! The demonstration is often repeated to assure that the same surprising results are observed. one tuning fork forces another tuning fork into vibrational motion at the same natural frequency. guitar. If the tuning fork is held in your hand and hit with a rubber mallet. they are colored red. strikes. which are in turn mounted to a metal bar. The apparatus consists of three sets of two identical plastic bobs mounted on a very elastic metal pole. if the tuning fork is set upon the whiteboard panel or the glass panel of the overhead projector. This is often demonstrated in a Physics class with an odd-looking mechanical system resembling an inverted pendulum. Since the incoming sound waves share the same natural frequency as the second tuning fork. As the air particles surrounding the first fork ( and its connected sound box) begin vibrating. Only now the sound is being produced by the second tuning fork . The vibrating whiteboard or overhead projector panel in turn forces surrounding air particles into vibrational motion and the result is an increase in the amplitude and thus loudness of the sound.at its natural frequency. These vibrations set its sound box and the air inside the sound box vibrating at the same natural frequency of 256 Hz. This is an example of resonance . Regardless of the vibrating system. a guitar string is strummed or plucked.256 Hz. In the case of the guitar string mounted to the sound box. Neither of the tuning forks is vibrating. The energy carried by this sound wave through the air is tuned to the frequency of the second tuning fork.com/class/sound/u11l4b. Suppose that a tuning fork is mounted on a sound box and set upon the table. If you were to take a guitar string and stretch it to a given length and a given tightness and have a friend pluck it. why a guitar utilizes a sound box.Forced Vibration http://www. For instance. Now consider a related situation that resembles another common Physics demonstration. a piano string is hit with a hammer when a pedal is played.physicsclassroom. why a commercial music box mechanism is mounted on a sounding board. and enclosed air) begins vibrating and forces surrounding air particles into vibrational motion. (Note the length-wavelength-frequency relationship that was discussed earlier. the vibrating string is capable of forcing the sound box into vibrating at that same natural frequency.) When the red bob is disturbed. plucks or somehow disturbs the object. if the string is attached to the sound box of the guitar. The tuning fork forces surrounding glass (or vinyl) particles into vibrational motion. However. The result of resonance is always a large vibration. if resonance occurs. On the other hand. This same principle of a forced vibration is often demonstrated in a Physics classroom using a tuning fork. it begins vibrating at its natural frequency.Lesson 4 Resonance and Standing Waves Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . and this forces the other attached red bob into vibrating at the same natural frequency. blue and green (a set of three colors that will be significant later in The Physics Classroom Tutorial). the pressure waves that it creates begin to impinge at a periodic and regular rate of 256 Hz upon the second tuning fork (and its connected sound box). and the tines of a tuning fork are hit with a rubber mallet. Then the tines of the tuning fork are grabbed to prevent their vibration and remarkably the sound of 256 Hz is still being heard. only the red bob would resonate.one bob vibrating at a given frequency forcing a second object with the same natural frequency into vibrational motion. While the green and the blue bobs were disturbed by the vibrations transmitted through the metal bar. you would hear a noise. This principle of forced vibration explains why demonstration tuning forks are mounted on a sound box. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery Watch It! 2 de 3 12/12/2011 15:17 . Whatever the case. the fact that the surface area of the sound box is greater than the surface area of the string means that more surrounding air particles will be forced into vibration. The result is that the second red bob begins vibrating with a huge amplitude. This input of energy disturbs the particles and forces the object into vibrational motion . The bobs are often color-coded to distinguish between them. a person or thing puts energy into the instrument by direct contact with it.

In conclusion. a loud sound is heard. All rights reserved. Next Section: Standing Wave Patterns Jump To Lesson 5: Musical Instruments 3 de 3 12/12/2011 15:17 .physicsclassroom. When one of the objects is vibrating. resonance occurs when two interconnected objects share the same vibrational frequency. it forces the second object into vibrational motion.) While adjusting the height of the liquid in the tube. As the length of the air column is decreased. and thus adjusts the length of the air column inside the tube. The raising and lowering of the reservoir adjusts the height of water in the open-air tube. (Again note the length-wavelength-frequency relationship that was discussed earlier. the natural frequency of the air column is increased.Forced Vibration http://www. When the natural frequency of the air column is tuned to the frequency of the vibrating tuning fork. Another common classroom demonstration of resonance involves a plastic tube containing an air column. the vibrating tuning fork forces air particles within the air column into vibrational motion.cfm Hosted by comPADRE. The length of the air column was adjusted by raising and lowering a reservoir of water (dyed red). resonance occurs and a loud sound results. © 1996-2011 The Physics Classroom. And if a sound wave within the audible range of human hearing is produced. the tuning fork and the air column share the same vibrational frequency. a vibrating tuning fork is held above the air column of the tube. The result is a large vibration. Once more in this resonance situation.com/class/sound/u11l4b. Quite amazingly.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful