Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871)[1] was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer

who originated the concept of a programmable computer.[2] Considered a "father of the computer",[3] Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs.[4] Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine.

Birth
Babbage's birthplace is disputed, but he was most likely born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London, England. A blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event.[5] His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792. However after the obituary appeared, a nephew wrote to say that Charles Babbage was born one year earlier, in 1791. The parish register of St. Mary's Newington, London, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791.[6][7][8] Babbage's father, Benjamin Babbage, was a banking partner of the Praeds who owned the Bitton Estate in Teignmouth. His mother was Betsy Plumleigh Teape. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East

and several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812. in Baker Street. In response. Joseph Louis Lagrange. John Herschel.received an honorary degree without examination in 1814 edit] Marriage. Cambridge in October 1810.[16] but only four — Benjamin Herschel. Cambridge.S The Illustrated London News (4 November 1871).well-stocked library that prompted Babbage's love of mathematics. Middlesex under the Reverend Stephen Freeman. dedicated to liberating its members from the madhouse. concerned with investigating supernatural phenomena. Charles' wife Georgiana died in Worcester on 1 September 1827. London Charles and Georgiana had eight children.[12] As a student. F. should any be [committed to one. His parents ordered that his "brain was not to be taxed too much " and Babbage felt that "this great idleness may have led to some of my childish reasonings." For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes. but did not graduate with honours. Dugald Bromhead and Henry Prevost — survived childhood. Michael's Church.[11] He had read extensively in Leibniz. Babbage. Enfield. He studied Babbage arrived at Trinity College. :Education Wikisource has original text related to this article .[13][14 In 1812 Babbage transferred to Peterhouse. Thomas Simpson. the same year as his father. South Devon.[11] He was the top mathematician at Peterhouse. George Peacock. Babbage married Georgiana Whitmore at St. The academy had a .The Times/The Late Mr. Georgiana Whitmore. family. and the Extractors Club. .Teignmouth. he. and Lacroix and was seriously disappointed in the mathematical instruction available at Cambridge.[15] Shropshire (where Babbage engineered the central heating system).R. Michael's Church in Teignmouth. Herschel. Babbage was also a member of other societies such as the Ghost Club. Around the age of eight he was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever.[10] He then joined a 30-student Holmwood academy.[9]His father's money allowed Charles to receive instruction from several schools and tutors during the course of his elementary education. but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time.Portland Place. their second son (also named Charles) and . Devon. The couple lived at Dudmaston Hall. Babbage and Ryan married two sisters. death] Grave of Charles Babbage at Kensal Green CemeteryOn 25 July 1814. He instead . and Benjamin Babbage became a warden of the nearby St. before moving to 5 Devonshire Street. and Peacock were also close friends with future judge and patron of science Edward Ryan. Charles Babbage.

Babbage died "of renal adequacy. Here.[21] The her half of Babbage's brain is on display in the Science [useum. went on to create six working difference engines based on his father's designs. pioneer of the Harvard Mark I. their basic architecture was very similar to a modern computer. Henry Prevost Babbage (1824–1918). and as buried in London's Kensal Green Cemetery. although they were not actually completed. The data and program memory were separated.[23] one of which was sent to Harvard University where it was later discovered by Howard H.[22 C w A in a la c B in ot M His youngest son. and the work itself. when the idea occurred to him of computing all tabular functions by machinery. largely because of funding problems and personality issues. ccording to Horsley. for the first time. which he knew to be full of mistakes. Aiken. which was restricted to addition and subtraction. suggesting that calculations could be mechanised. Bowden. He directed the building of some steam-powered machines that achieved some success. The French government had produced several tables by a new method. is now on display at the Science [Museum. secondary to cystitis. previously on display at Dudmaston Hall. Pitman— Babbage's machines were among the first mechanical computers. using parts found in his laboratory“ In 1812 he was sitting in his rooms in the Analytical Society looking at a table of logarithms. operation was instruction-based.[18][19] A opy of the original is also available. Henry Prevost's 1910 Analytical Engine Mill."[17] In 1983 the utopsy report for Charles Babbage was discovered and ter published by his great-great-grandson. and the machine had a separate I/O unit.travelling on the Continent incurred a delay in his machines' construction harles Babbage died at age 79 on 18 October 1871. half a dozen more broke down the operations into simple stages. His subsequent decision to spend a year .[24 edit] Design of computers] Part of Babbage's difference engine (#1).[20] Half of abbage's brain is preserved at the Hunterian Museum the Royal College of Surgeons in London.more reliable B. the control unit could make conditional jumps. and Babbage was seized by the idea that the labours of the unskilled computers could be taken over completely by machinery which would be quicker and . London. V.their newborn son Alexander. assembled after his death by Babbage's son. mass production was applied to arithmetic. Faster than thought. Although Babbage's machines were mechanical and unwieldy. For more . was done by eighty [human] computers who knew only these two arithmetical processes. Three or four of their mathematicians decided how to compute the tables.

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