Track Detail Procedure English | Track (Rail Transport) | Structural Load

INDONESIAN RAILWAY TECHNICAL STANDARD ON DETAILED PROCEDURE FOR TRACK STRUCTURE DESIGN

Indonesian Railway Technical Standard

Track : Detailed Procedure

Table of Content
1. Scope 2. Objective 3. Definition 4. Basic Principle 5. Procedure for Track Structure Design 6. Loading 6.1 Application of Load 6.2 Train load in the straight line section 6.3 Train load in the curved section 6.4 Design load conditions on Combination of train loads 7. Design specifications of Track materials 7.1 General 7.2 Rail 7.3 Sleepers 7.4 Rail Fastening 7.4.1 F type and other similar fastening 7.4.2 Fastening Apparatus with Dog Spikes 7.4.3 The Other Fastening Apparatus 7.5 Ballast Materials 7.6 Roadbed 8. Examination on Excessive loads 8.1 General 8.2 Examination on Rail bending stress 8.2.1 The first method of examination of rail bending stress 8.2.2 The second method of examination of rail bending stress 8.3 Examination on Roadbed Strength 8.3.1 The First method of examination of Roadbed strength 8.3.2 The second method of examination of roadbed strength 8.4 Examination on Cracks in PC Sleeper 8.5 Examination on Cracks in Track slab 8.6 Examination on Damage to Rail Fastening 8.7 Examination on Occurrence of Sudden Irregularity of Alignment 8.8 Examination on Push-out and Pull out of Dog spike without Base Plate 8.9 Examination on Pull-out of dog spike with base plate 1 1 1 2 3 6 6 6 7 8 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 24

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9. Examination on Repeated load 25 9.1 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Longitudinal level of rail 25 9.1.1 Examination with the First Method 25 9.1.2 Examination by the Second Method 27 9.2 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Alignment 28 9.2.1 Allowable Development of Alignment Irregularity 28 9.2.2 Estimated Development of Alignment Irregularity 30 9.2.3 Examination on Development of Alignment Irregularity 30 9.3 Examination on Damage to rail holding part of the rail fastenings and lateral pressure receiving part of the rail fastenings 31 9.3.1 Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part of the Rail Fastenings 31 9.3.2 Examination on Damage to Lateral Pressure Receiving Part of the Rail Fastenings 31 9.3.3 Examination on Rail Pad 10. Examination on Buckling Safety 11. Structure of Turnout 12. Additional Rule 32 33 34 35

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List of Table

Table 5-1 Test of factor Table 6.4-1 Table 6.4-2

3 8 9

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Track : Detailed Procedure

1. Scope
(1) These detailed procedures shall be applied to the track structure design intended for new installation, improvement of the track, speed-up of trains or rolling stocks, increase in transportation capacity etc, and to confirmation of the obtainable strength and the workable mode of maintenance of the track. These detailed procedures shall be applied to both of the existing lines and the new lines. In case that application of each of the procedures on “As is” basis (i.e. without any modification thereto) proves impractical, or use of the new technology already developed is apparently more suitable, after careful examination/study, application of the method different from the detailed procedures and considered the most suitable may be used.

(2)

(3)

2. Objective
The objective under the Detailed Procedures is to design the track structure in such a manner that it shall be so designed that it can ensure not only the safety in train operation, but efficient and economical management, as well.

3. Definition
(Not used)

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard

Track : Detailed Procedure

4. Basic Principle
(4) The track structure shall bear the train load and guide a train or rolling stock, in connection with which, the operating stability and the ride comfort of a train of rolling stock shall be fully secured. Therefore, full attention shall be paid to the strength, durability of the materials building up the track system and the irregularity of track, in track structure design. For ballast tracks, maintenance against development of track irregularity due to repeated operation of trains or rolling stocks, is absolutely necessary. Hence, track structure shall be decided, taking into full account, such factors as the state of the track concerned, the maintenance method, the cost/expenses to be incurred thereby, etc.

(5)

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5. Procedure for Track Structure Design

In designing the track structure, any of the following items shall be fully considered and the requirements specified therein, shall be met with. (6) Examination on Stress being Generated to Track Materials and Panels With regard to excessive load and repeated load accompanied by operation of a train or rolling stock, the stress being generated to each track material shall be calculated taking into consideration the track structural conditions, the rolling stock and the track situations and so on. Appropriateness of the track structure shall be judged, by comparison of the value calculated above and the permissible values of fatigue and destructive strength of the material obtained from the safety in train operation. Depending on the curve passing speed of a train or rolling stock, abruptly occurring irregularity to track alignment shall also be checked and confirmed. Depend on track type and condition, type of material use and operation condition, the items for confirmation shall be specified in the following table 5-1. Table 5-1 Test of factor Items and Methods for Confirmation in Design of Track Structure (Used for both existing line and Shinkansen line) Condition for confirmation New railway track, material or new operation condition Item for confirmation Examination on excessive load Examination on rail bending stress Examination on pressure to roadbed Examination on crack to PC sleeper Examination on crack to slab O O O O New/Rehabilitation with existing operation condition X X X X

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Examination on damage to rail holding and lateral force receiving part of rail fastenings Examination on occurrence of rapid alignment irregularity Examination on Dog spike’s push-out and pullout Examination on development of longitudinal level irregularity Examination development of alignment irregularity Examination on damage to rail holding and lateral pressure receiving parts of rail fastenings Examination on buckling safety

O

X

O (Confirmed by First method)

O (Confirmed by First method)

O

O

Examination on repeated load

(Confirmed by First method, if necessary)

O

X

O

X

Note: The items marked with (x) shall be applied to the existing lines under the conditions described in detailed procedures (Regulation) hereof. (7) Examination on Development of Irregularity of Ballast Track The development of the track irregularity due to repeated operation of trains or rolling stocks (Level, Alignment) shall be estimated by the track structural and the train load conditions, and the estimated value shall be compared with the permissible value of the track irregularity obtained from the target level of maintenance in respect of the rolling stock and its operating situation and the safety in operation and the ride comfort, and appropriateness of the track structure shall be judged by the same comparison. Examination on Buckling Safety

(8)

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Regarding the increase in Axial force in rail due to rise in temperature, the buckling safety of track shall be checked and consequently appropriateness of the track structure shall be judged. (9) Structure of Turnouts Structure of turnouts shall be checked and confirmed, in terms of whether or no, they are so structured or shaped that they can guide a train or rolling stock into the main line track side or the branch line side and let it pass through.

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6. Loading

6.1 Application of Load
Application of load shall be done according to the following: (1) For the examinations on development of track irregularity and on stress being generated to the track materials, mainly train load shall be taken into consideration. Regarding the examination on the buckling stability, what shall be considered as a main factor is Axial force in rail. (2) Train load is the load inflicted from the car wheel to the rail, being divided into the vertical load right angled to the track surface (wheel weight) and the lateral load in the horizontal direction (lateral stress). Train load is also classified into two kinds of loads, i.e. those for the straight line section and for the curved line section, in terms of kind of load inflicting factors. Furthermore, it is divided into the static load obtained from the rolling stock operating conditions and the track characteristics and the dynamic load followed by track irregularities, etc. (3) By combination of the train loads as specified in the preceding, the train load conditions to be used in “Examination on excessive train load” and “Examination on Repeated train load” shall be determined. (4) Only temperature load shall be used as the load inflicted in the axial direction in examining the buckling stability in the track. However, in case of the examination of rail-creep, brake load and start load shall be considered. (5) In case that the value actually measured is obtained through speed increasing test, etc., the actual value may be used.

6.2 Train load in the straight line section
(1) Vertical Train Load a. Vertical train load (Wheel load) at the straight line section is expressed as the total of the static and the dynamic loads.

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b. As the static load value, the static wheel load (1/2 of the axial load) shall be used. c. As the dynamic load value, a formula established by fully considering the following two factors, shall be used. i. Inertial force accompanied by vertical vibration of car body occurring from irregularity to longitudinal level. ii. Shock due to vertical vibration of the mass under the spring which support the vehicle (no suspended load) being caused by the unevenness between wheel and rail (2) Lateral Train Load a. Assuming that as the static load, side to lateral load (lateral force) will not exist, only the train load as the dynamic load, shall be considered. b. For the dynamic load, a formula established in the view of the inertia force of lateral vibration of car body due to irregularity of alignment, shall be used.

6.3 Train load in the curved section
(2) Vertical Load a. Vertical train load (wheel load) is expressed as the total of the static and dynamic loads. b. As the static load, increase and decrease by the load due to excessive centrifugal force shall be considered, in addition to the static wheel load. c. The dynamic load in the curved section shall be the same as Section 6.1.(3). (3) Lateral Load a. Lateral load (lateral force) in the curved section, is expressed as the total of the static and the dynamic loads. b. As the static load, a formula established with the view of curve changing lateral force and lateral force due to excessive centrifugal force, shall be considered. c. As the dynamic load, a formula established with the view of inertia force accompanied by lateral vibration of car body, shall be considered. However, in case of the track with ordinary rail joints, the dynamic lateral force mainly from axial shock occurring at the area near the joints shall also be taken into consideration.

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6.4 Design load conditions on Combination of train loads
(1) Load conditions in examination of stress of the materials against excessive load a. As the load conditions when examining the stress of a track material against its excessive load, “excessive load rarely taking place” in the section concerned shall be calculated. b. The value of the dynamic vertical and lateral load shall be three times as much as the standard deviation. c. In calculation of the dynamic vertical and lateral (right to left) load values, the target values for irregularities of longitudinal level and of alignment (as specified in the following table, the same hereinafter) shall be used. Table 6.4-1 Description Vertical vibration Full amplitude Lateral Vibration Full amplitude Safety Limit 4.0 m/s2 3.0 m/s2 in case of αh ≦ 0.60 m/s2 (4.2 – 2×αh) m/s2 in case of αh > 0.60 m/s2 αh: Lateral static (regular) acceleration Remarks

d. The static vertical load shall be used as the representative vertical load that is put on with the combination of lateral loads of the sleeper lateral stress or the rail lateral stress. (2) Load conditions in Examination of stress of a material against repeated load a. As the load conditions for examination of the material against repeated load, “considerable load often occurring” in the section concerned shall be calculated. b. Vertical and lateral dynamic load value to be used for examination of stress of the material shall be the same as that of the standard deviation. c. In calculation of the vertical and lateral dynamic load, the target values for the safety in irregularities of longitudinal level and alignment of track. d. As the vertical load that is combined with lateral load of the sleeper lateral stress or the rail lateral stress, etc., its static load value shall be used.

(3) Load conditions for Examination on Development of Irregularities of Track.

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a. The load conditions for examination on development of irregularities of track shall be calculated for the whole train load in the section concerned. b. The vertical and lateral dynamic load values to be used for estimation of development of track irregularities (longitudinal and alignment) shall be three times as much as the standard deviation beside its static load values. c. In calculation of the vertical and lateral dynamic loads, the target value in the ride comfort index(as specified in the table attached hereto, and referred to as the same, hereinafter) shall be used. Table 6.4-2 Target of ride comfort Vertical vibration Full amplitude Lateral vibration Full amplitude 2.5 m/s
2

Remark

2.0 m/s2 in case of αh ≦ 0.60 m/s2 (3.2 - 2×αh) m/s2 in case of αh > 0.60 m/s2

αh: Lateral static (regular) acceleration

d. For the vertical load that is put on with the lateral load in estimation of development of alignment irregularities, the static load value shall be used among the two types (i.e. dynamic and static). (4) Track Design load arrangement Regarding the vertical load and the lateral load, the factor of “Track Design load arrangement” shall be considered, in case that the nearest wheel are within the distance of 2.5m. (5) Track Design load in the axial direction a. It shall be assumed that the temperature load is generated, in case that the rail encounters a change in temperature when it is held in the direction of the axis and it is inflicted evenly in the axial direction of rail and uniformly to the whole cross-section of rail. b. Amount of temperature load in the long rail installed section, shall be obtained by the following formula. P = EAβ (t − to ) Where, P : Rail axial force

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E: A: β: t : to :

Young’s modulus of rail steel Rail cross-section modulus Rail steel liner expansion coefficient Long rail temperature Installation temperature of long rail

(6) Braking Load and Starting Load Regarding braking and starting loads, the corresponding specifications in the Design standard on concrete structures, steel and composite structures shall apply.

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7. Design specifications of Track materials 7.1 General
Design specifications to be used for track structure shall be as per the followings, but in the event that application of these values is considered impractical, the value obtained by relevant test or experiment, etc. and regarded as appropriate may be applied.

7.2 Rail
(1) Bending stiffness of rail(Vertical: EIx and Horizontal: EIy) Type of Rail 60kg R54 50N 50kg R42 40N 37kg R33 30kg (2) Section modulus of rail Type of Rail 60kg R54 50N 50kg R42 40N 37kg R33 Zx (cm3) 397 313 274 261 190 197 164 151 EIx (× 108 N-cm2) 648.9 492.7 411.6 366.2 290.6 289.4 199.8 217.7 126.8 EIy (× 108 N-cm2) 107.5 87.7 67.6 79.2 49.4 48.3 47.7 31.6 31.9

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30kg (3) Rail lateral stiffness Type of Rail 60kg R54 50N 50kg R42 40N 37kg R33 30kg

116

J (cm4) 512 418 322 377 235 230 227 151 152

(4) Material coefficient of steel used for design calculation Young’s modulus Shearing elasticity coefficient Poisson’s ratio Line expansion coefficient 210 GPa 81 GPa 0.3 1.14×10-5/oC

7.3 Sleepers
(1) PC Sleepers a. For any other calculation than bending stress, PC sleeper shall be treated as a rigid body. b. The standard coefficient of friction between sleeper and ballast shall be 0.65. (2) Wooden Sleepers a. The standard compressive spring coefficient of wooden sleeper shall be 100.0MN/m. b. The standard coefficient of friction between rail and sleeper shall be 0.60. c. The standard coefficient of friction between sleeper and ballast shall be 0.65.

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(3) The Others a. Firstly, the specifications shall be determined, according to the requirement for design of mass, shape and dimensions etc. b. In case that assumption of sleeper as a rigid body is impossible and spring coefficient to compression and bending of sleeper itself is unknown, then it may be decided, by carrying out tests or experiments.

7.4 Rail Fastening 7.4.1 F type and other similar fastening
(1) The fastening/Clip a. Lateral spring and Tip spring constants shall be obtained by theoretical calculation or experiment. b. Initial fastening capability shall be obtained by theoretical calculation. c. The standard coefficient of friction between rail and fastening spring shall be 0.25. d. The standard coefficient of friction between fastening spring and pad shall be 0.65. (2) Rail Pad a. Spring coefficient shall be obtained, depending on the quality, shape etc. of materials to be used. b. As regards the pads as specified in JIS standard, etc., the values as indicated in the same standard, shall be applied. (3) Spring Supporters (Support Plate) The compressive strength of spring supporter shall be obtained, according to JIS E 1118: Test on Compressive strength with necessary modification. (4) Compressive Strength of Support Plate Compressive strength of support plate shall be obtained, according to JIS E 1118: Test on compressive strength with necessary modification. (5) Pull-out Resistance of Buried Plate (Embedded Insert)

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Pull-out resistance of buried plate shall be obtained, according to JIS E1118: Test on pull out resistance with necessary modification.

7.4.2 Fastening Apparatus with Dog Spikes
(1) Clear indication shall be made as to whether or no tie plates are used. (2) As regards the factors or items that are used in design calculation for use of tie plates and specified in JIS standard etc., the values as indicated in the same standard shall be applied, and regarding the factors or items not specified in JIS standard, etc., the dimensions actually measured shall be applied. (3) Push out limit of dog spike shall be set as its standard at 7.0 kN. (4) Pull out limit of dog spike shall be set at 1.0mm as its standard.

7.4.3 The Other Fastening Apparatus
In case of use of the fastening apparatus corresponding to neither 3 nor 4 above, the design values shall be obtained, by theoretical calculation and performance of test/s.

7.5 Ballast Materials
In case of use of crushed stones, the design values shall be obtained as follows: (1) The width actually measured shall be treated as the standard for the width of ballast shoulder. Nevertheless, in a case (such as new installation of rail) that such a measurement is impossible, the design value may be used. (2) The standard unit mass shall be fixed at 1.7 t/m3. (3) Ballast spring constant shall be 200.0MN/m as its standard regardless of ballast thickness

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7.6 Roadbed
Such soil roadbed, stabilized roadbed, other types of roadbed, site ground roadbed as specified in “Standard on Design of Soil Structures” and the concrete-structured roadbed as specified in “Standard on Design of Concrete Structures” shall be treated as the Standard of Roadbed, whose design values shall be obtained as follows: (1) With regard to soil roadbed, stabilized roadbed, other type of roadbed, site ground roadbed, the geometrical features shall be clarified, and then a variety of factor values to be used for design calculations shall be obtained, by performing tests etc. a. The test method shall be as per “Standard Design of Earth Work”. However, the allowable bearing capacity of soil roadbed may be fixed at 2.88 kg/cm2. b. K30 value of plate bearing test c. Kohn Penetration resistance value d. Allowable bearing capacity of roadbed (3) Regarding concrete structured roadbed, it shall be treated as a rigid body, and the values referred to in (1) above, may be fixed as infinite. (4) In the event of use of any other roadbed than (1) and (2) or, of insertion of an intermediate material between ballast and roadbed and further it being impossible to classify into the rigid structure, the following items shall be determined/established by performing the necessary tests, etc. a. Spring coefficient of the roadbed and the intermediate material b. Allowable bearing capacity of the roadbed and the intermediate material

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8. Examination on Excessive loads

8.1 General
With regard to examination of excessive loads, the strength conforming to the train load, shall be secured and confirmed. (1) Rolling stocks entering the line for the first time (2) At the time of new laying and improvement of track (Examination to be conducted by use of the maximum speed) (3) At the time of improvement of the maximum speed or increase of the curve passing speed, in existing lines.

8.2 Examination on Rail bending stress
Among the line divisions where the highest speed train or rolling stock in the line section concerned(heaviest one among the highest speed trains) and the heaviest train or rolling stock run at their maximum speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, in the case of which, the rail bending stress under the excessive load and allowable stress shall be calculated, and examined.

8.2.1 The first method of examination of rail bending stress
When examining the rail bending stress by the first method, it shall be carried out according to the following procedure. (1) According to the real sudden rupture strength and the fatigue limit, figures/data on durability limit shall be obtained. (2) Residual stress shall be considered. (3) Temperature stress shall be considered for regular rail and long rail respectively.

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(4) From the figures on durability limit, the allowable stress of rail against train load shall be obtained. (5) Additional stress occurring from lateral force shall be taken into account. (6) Allowable stress for wheel load shall be calculated, and be multiplied by 0.8 into Permissible bending stress of rail (σP). Furthermore, rail fatigue limit of half amplitude in calculation of the allowable bending stress value (fatigue limit in terms of each type of rail) may be as per the following table, instead of the preceding (1) through (4). Fatigue limit of rail (Mpa) Regular rail 130 130 130 126 130 130 122 122 Long rail 112 112 112 107 112 112 102 102

Type of Rail R60 R54 50N 50 kg R42 40N 37kg 30kg

(7) Rail bending generated stress (σao , σai) shall be calculated and obtained. (8) The safety shall be confirmed, from and in the light of the relationship of σao ≦ σp, σai ≦ σp. σp ; Allowable bending stress

8.2.2 The second method of examination of rail bending stress
The second method of examination shall be as per the following procedure: (1) Allowable rail bending stress (σp) shall be fixed as the following. - Long rail : 130 Mpa (1300 kg/cm2)

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- Standard rail :

160 Mpa (1600 kg/cm2)

(2) Assuming the track deformation as a continuous elasticity supporting model, the maximum rail bending moment, shall be obtained from the influence line. (4) It shall be confirmed that the rail stress (σi) of which are generated by the maximum rail bending moment, and allowable bending stress should satisfy the relation materialized in the following formula. σi ≦ σp σp ; Allowable bending stress

8.3 Examination on Roadbed Strength
Among the curves where the highest speed train ( the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run through at the highest speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, against which, the roadbed- affected stress under the excessive load and the allowable stress shall be obtained, and the roadbed strength shall be examined.

8.3.1 The First method of examination of Roadbed strength
When examining the roadbed strength with the first method, the procedure thereof shall be as per the following: (1) The examination of roadbed strength shall be conducted by the following formula, with the values of the pressure to roadbed being calculated by the design load and the allowable bearing capacity of roadbed. Psmean ≦ qa Where, Psmeam : Average pressure to roadbed qa : Allowable bearing capacity of roadbed

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(2) The allowable bearing capacity of roadbed shall be calculated/obtained separately, according to “Standard on Design of soil structures” and “Standard on Design of foundation structures”. (3) Regarding the roadbed structured by any other than the material assumed as a rigid body, the method of (1) above, shall be applied.

8.3.2 The second method of examination of roadbed strength
When examining the roadbed strength with the second method, the procedure thereof shall be as per the following: (1) The allowable bearing capacity of roadbed may be applied at 2.88kg/cm2. (2) Assuming the rail deformation as a continuous elasticity supporting model, the maximum pressure to roadbed (Pbdy) shall be obtained, and it shall also satisfy the following formula, with the allowable bearing capacity of roadbed. Pbdy ≦ qa

8.4 Examination on Cracks in PC Sleeper
Among the curves where the highest speed train in the line division concerned (the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run at the highest speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, against which, the stress under the excessive load, shall be calculated/obtained, and then cross-examined with the acceptable stress obtained through the following: (1) Bearing pressure of ballast shall be assumed. (2) The acceptable value of the stress generated by the excessive load shall be obtained from the value of effective pre-stress.

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8.5 Examination on Cracks in Track slab
Cracks in Track slab shall be examined in the following manner. Among the curves where the highest speed train in the line division concerned (more specifically, the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run at the highest speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, towards which, the stress being generated by excessive loads being inflicted when the said rolling stocks run at the maximum speed, shall be calculated/obtained, and then cross-examined with the acceptable stress obtained from the following: (1) RC Track Slab Stress of reinforcement bar shall be calculated from the moment being generated by the load, but shall be within the limit of the allowable steelstress (1,800kg/cm2). (2) PRC Track Slab Stress of reinforcement bar shall be calculated from the moment being generated by the load, but shall be within the limit of the allowable steel stress (1,000kg/cm2) for RRC slab.

8.6 Examination on Damage to Rail Fastening

Among the curve sections where the highest speed train (the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run at the maximum speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, towards which, the stress being generated by excessive loads when the said rolling stocks run through it at the maximum speed, shall be calculated/obtained, and then examined in comparison with the allowable stress values for the following: (1) Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part The stress generated due to excessive loads or counter-action of the rail holding part to prevent irregular inclination of rail from occurring, shall be calculated/obtained, and then examination shall be made, in the form of comparison of the allowable stress or the permissible load, according to the following procedure.

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a. Limit line for durability of fastening springs shall be calculated and organized by real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield point etc. b. Initial fastening stress of the spring and bolt shall be considered. c. From the second sudden rupture limit and the second exhaustion limit in the durability limit figure, the allowable stress of the spring to the load shall be calculated and obtained. Further, in case of impossibility of theoretical calculation of the stress generated to the springs, etc., it may be obtained by tests. d. According to JIS E1118: Test on Pull-out resistance, the pull-out load limit to buried plate (embedded insert) shall be calculated, and the allowable load shall be fixed at 1/4 as much as the said pull-out resistance. e. From the fatigue limit and the yield point in the bolt durability figure, the allowable stress of the fastening bolt to the load shall be obtained. (2) Examination on Damage to Lateral Force Receiving Part of Rail Fastenings The stress being generated to lateral force receiving part shall be calculated/obtained, under the excessive load and then examined by comparison thereof with the allowable stresses obtained in the following: a. Durability limit Figure of fastening springs shall be calculated/obtained by real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield point. b. Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and the support plate or receiving plate shall be taken into account. c. From the second sudden rupture strength limit and the second exhaustion limit in the durability limit figure of fastening springs, the allowable stress to the load shall be obtained. d. According to JIS E1118: Test on Compressive Strength, the bearing pressure limit of support plate or receiving plate shall be calculated/obtained, and the allowable stress shall be half the said limit.

8.7 Examination on Occurrence of Sudden Irregularity of Alignment
In case of operating a train or rolling stock at more than 20 km/h higher speed than the basic speed specified in Basic Velocity under speed restriction through curves in the table

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on train operating speed, the safety towards occurrence of sudden irregularity of track alignment shall be examined. The examination shall, ini principle, be conducted by the lateral pressure to sleeper due to excessive loads and the lateral ballast resistance of sleeper under consideration of the differences according to the track structures and load conditions. However, another examination method may be used, so long as it can satisfy the formulas related to the design load. Rail pressure by static wheel load, lateral stress to rail from excessive lateral force, lateral ballast resistance shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that the following formula is met with.
Q r1 − Q r 2 < 0.85 g 0 + μPr12

Where,

Qr1 Qr2 go μ Pr12

: : : : :

Lateral pressure to outer rail Lateral pressure to inner rail Ballast lateral resistance Friction coefficient between sleeper and ballast Total of pressures of outer rail and of inner rail

8.8 Examination on Push-out and Pull out of Dog spike without Base Plate
In the following cases, in respect of the push-out and pull-out of dog spike, the lateral pressure to rail being generated excessive considerable loads, pull-out of dog spike and amount of irregular rail inclination, shall be examined. (1) Locations subjected to examination: a. For Locomotive i. Curve radius 600m or less ii. Curve radius less than 800m where a train or rolling stock runs at the speed more than 85km/h. b. For any other than Locomotive i. Curve radius of 600m or less

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ii. Curve radius of over 600m to under 800m where a train or rolling stock runs at the speed more than 95 km/h. iii. Curve radius of over 800m to under 1,400m where a train or rolling stock runs at the speed of more than 105 km/h. (2) Regarding the examination on Push-out of dog spike, the allowable stress as obtained as per the following, shall be examined: a. Maximum push-out force of dog spike for the sleeper to be used, shall be calculated/obtained; b. Friction coefficient between sleeper to be used and rail shall be calculated/obtained; c. Pressure to outer rail by static wheel load and lateral pressure to rail by excessive load, shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that they satisfy the following formula.
Qr1 < η × Pr1 + S h

Where, Qr1 Pr1 Sh η

: : : :

Lateral pressure to outer rail Vertical pressure to outer rail Maximum pull-out force of dog spike Friction coefficient between rail and sleeper

(3) Regarding the examination on pull out of dog spike, the pull-out limit of dog spike, shall be calculated/obtained. Regarding the pull-out of dog spike, the degree of irregular inclination of rail as obtained from excessive loads and the following values provided as per the following shall be examined. a. Pull-out limit of dog spike for the sleepers to be used shall be examined. b. Compressive strength coefficient of sleeper to be used, shall be calculated/obtained. c. Pressure to outer rail by static wheel load and lateral pressure to rail by excessive lateral under shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that they satisfy the following formula.

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δ lim + θr <

Pr1 D p2

1b 2 3

Where, θr δlim Dp2 b3

: : : :

Degree of irregular inclination of rail Pull-out limit of dog spike Compressive spring coefficient of sleeper Width of rail bottom

8.9 Examination on Pull-out of dog spike with base plate
Only for location where the bearing capacity of dog spikes etc. that connect baseplate to rail are continuously diminished, the degree of irregular inclination of rail by excessive loads towards the pull-out of dog spike, etc, shall be examined, as follows:

δ lim + θr <

D p 2′

Pr1

b3

Where, Dp2 b3´

: Dp2´ = Dp2 × b3´/b3 : Width of bottom of base plate

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Track : Detailed Procedure

9. Examination on Repeated load
In new installation of line, should the design maximum train speed and the design passing tonnage be increased, then examination on track structure and its maintenance shall be conducted as per the procedures specified in Sections 27 through 29 in order to confirm that the safety in train operation is ascertained/ maintained.

9.1 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Longitudinal level of rail
Regarding development of irregularity of longitudinal level, 1) The track structural conditions and the allowable irregularity of longitudinal level as estimated from the target for maintenance and the maintenance conditions, 2) The estimated irregularity of longitudinal level as made from the rolling stock and rolling stock-operation conditions, or 3) The maintenance target level corresponding to the performance of rolling stock and its operating speed shall be examined, in accordance with the following, and propriety/suitability of the track structure shall be judged.

9.1.1 Examination with the First Method
(1) Allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level a. Maintenance target level i) As the maintenance target level index, the safety limit and the riding comfort target shall be established. ii) The safety limit for the standard deviation for irregularity of longitudinal level is intended for securing the safety in rolling stock operation, should correspond to the safety limit against full amplitude vertical motion. iii) The riding comfort target in relation to the standard deviation for irregularity of longitudinal level is established for maintaining the riding comfort at a certain level, and the target corresponding to that for riding comfort under the “Full amplitude vertical motion” conditions. iv) The relation between the irregularity of longitudinal level and the vertical motion shall be according to the following formula. However, in case that it is possible to confirm the values through carrying out test/s, the values confirmed may be used, instead of the said formula.

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Track : Detailed Procedure

σ av = K v ⋅ σ v ⋅ V
Where, σav Kv σv V : : : : Standard deviation of vertical motion (m/s2) Car body vibration coefficient towards vertical motion Standard deviation of irregularity of longitudinal level (mm) Train operation speed (km/h)

b. Maintenance conditions i) Frequency of track maintenance shall be fixed as constant. ii) Considering type of the maintenance (MTT, TT) and track structural conditions(long rail or standard rail), the residual rate of irregularity of longitudinal level after completion of periodical repair works under the track maintenance, shall be established. c. Calculation of Allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level. Assuming that a round of damage to track and its restoration is repeated with a constant frequency under the ordinary maintenance circumstances, the allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level shall be calculated and established from the maintenance target level and the track maintenance conditions. (2) Estimated development of irregularity of longitudinal level The estimated development of irregularity of longitudinal level shall be calculated as per the following, taking into consideration the load conditions and the track structural conditions. a. Design load shall be calculated per wheel axle, and the location of the load is right on the sleeper. b. Amount of vertical displacement within the period as set forth as the frequency of maintenance shall be calculated/obtained by calculating the coefficients of development of vertical irregularity for all and every wheel axles and totaling them, as follows:

δ y = ∑ β yi

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Track : Detailed Procedure

Where, δy : Amount of Vertical irregularity within the maintenance frequency (mm) βyi : Coefficient of Vertical irregularity encountered at the time of passage of the I th wheel axle.

δ y = δ by + δ sy
Where, δy : Estimated amount of vertical irregularity δby : Estimated amount of ballast vertical irregularity δsy : Estimated amount of roadbed vertical irregularity c. Estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated at 1/6 of the vertical irregularity within the maintenance frequency, as follows:
Δσ ycal =

δy
6T

Where,

∆σycal : Estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity (mm/year) T : Frequency of maintenance involvement (per year)

(3) Examination on Development of longitudinal level irregularity Development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be examined by comparison of the estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity and the allowable development thereof.

9.1.2 Examination by the Second Method
(1) Calculation of Track strength(Structural coefficient M0) The strength of track structure (commonly called as Structural coefficient) shall be interpreted as the product of the impact coefficients for ballast pressure, ballast acceleration and for wheel axle, and shall be calculated/obtained by the following formula.
Mo = P × y × S

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Where, P : Maximum ballast pressure against a certain wheel load y : Maximum ballast acceleration against a certain wheel impact S : Impact coefficient (2) Maintenance target level corresponding to performance of rolling stock and its operation speed Maintenance target level to be preserved at shall be established, taking into due consideration, the upper limit of vertical car vibration acceleration, the performance capacity of rolling stock, the maximum operation speed, etc. (3) Estimation of development of longitudinal level irregularity Development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated by the passing tonnage, the average speed, the ratio of long rail laying, the roadbed conditions and the track strength (Track structural coefficient M0). (4) Calculation of Allowable development of longitudinal level irregularity For the purpose of properly sustaining the maintenance target level, allowable development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated from the frequency of maintenance. (5) Examination of Development of vertical irregularity Development of vertical irregularity shall be examined by comparing its estimated and its allowable values of development.

9.2 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Alignment
The examination on development of irregularity of alignment shall be conducted, when and if necessary. The allowable alignment irregularity obtained from the maintenance target level and the maintenance conditions and the estimated alignment irregularity as made from the track structure conditions and the curvilinear item, the rolling stock and rolling stock-operation conditions, shall be cross-examined, and propriety/suitability of the track structure shall be judged.

9.2.1 Allowable Development of Alignment Irregularity

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(1) Maintenance target level to be preserved at a. As the maintenance target level index, the safety limit and the riding comfort target shall be established. b. The safety limit for full amplitude lateral motion (αhcf) is intended for securing the safety in train operation, and when the lateral quasi-static acceleration remains in the range over a certain value, the value of the said safety limit shall be reduced. c. The riding comfort target for full amplitude lateral motion αhtg is intended for securing the riding comfort at a certain level considered satisfactory to the passengers, and when the lateral quasi-static acceleration remains in the range over a certain value, the target value shall be reduced. d. The relation between alignment irregularity and lateral motion shall be obtained by the following formula. However, should it be possible to confirm the relation through test/s, then the value actually obtained by the test/s may be used.

σ ah = K h .σ z .V
Where, σah Kh σz V : : : : Standard deviation of lateral motion (m/s2) Car body vibration coefficient regarding lateral motion Standard deviation of alignment irregularity (mm) Train speed (km/h)

(2) Maintenance conditions a. Frequency of track maintenance shall be fixed as constant. b. The residual rate of alignment irregularity after completion of the periodical maintenance work shall be established, according to type of the maintenance (MIT, TT) and the track structural conditions (long rail or standard rail). (3) Calculation of Allowable irregularity of alignment Assuming that damage to track and restoration thereof are repeated regularly and routinely within the frequency of maintenance, the allowable development of

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Track : Detailed Procedure

alignment irregularity shall be calculated/obtained by from the maintenance target level and the track maintenance conditions.

9.2.2 Estimated Development of Alignment Irregularity
Considering the load and the track structural conditions, the estimated development of alignment irregularity shall be calculated/obtained as per the following procedure. (1) Design load shall be calculated in terms of every and each wheel axle, and the location where load operates, shall be right on the sleeper. (2) Amount of lateral irregularity within the period of the frequency of the maintenance work, shall be obtained by calculating the coefficients of development of lateral alignment irregularity for all and every wheel axles and summing them up.

δ z = ∑ β zi
Where, δz : Amount of lateral irregularity within the frequency of Maintenance (mm) βzi : Coefficient of development of lateral irregularity occurring at the time that a train passes through the i th wheel axle. (3) Development of alignment irregularity shall be estimated at 1/6 of the amount of lateral irregularity, as follows:
Δσ zcal =

δz
6T

Where, Δσzcal : Estimated development of alignment irregularity (mm/year) T : Frequency of maintenance work (per year)

9.2.3 Examination on Development of Alignment Irregularity
Examination on Development of alignment irregularity shall be conducted by comparison between the estimated and the allowable development of alignment irregularity.

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Track : Detailed Procedure

9.3 Examination on Damage to rail holding part of the rail fastenings and lateral pressure receiving part of the rail fastenings
Rail fastening apparatus shall be examined by calculating the stress generated by repeated stress operating when the highest speed train (the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run through the smallest radius curve and crossexamining it with the allowable stress value obtained through the following.

9.3.1 Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part of the Rail Fastenings
Examination of damage to rail holding part shall be limited to the fastening spring, and the generated stress of the spring that resists irregular inclination of rail shall be calculated and cross-examined with the allowable stress or load obtained through the following procedure. (1) From the real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield point, a figure for the durability limit line of the fastening spring shall be obtained. (2) Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and bolt shall be considered. (3) From the first sudden rupture limit and the first exhaustion limit in the figure referred to in (1) above, the allowable stress of the spring to the load shall be calculated/obtained. Furthermore, should calculation of the stress generated to the wire spring be theoretically impossible, then it shall be obtained by some alternative method, say, relevant test/s.

9.3.2 Examination on Damage to Lateral Pressure Receiving Part of the Rail Fastenings
Examination of damage to lateral pressure receiving part shall be confined to the fastening spring. The generated stress shall be obtained, and be cross-examined with the allowable stress obtained through the following procedure.

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(1) From the real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield point, the fastening spring’s durability line figure shall be obtained. (2) Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and the support plate or the receiving plate shall be considered. (3) From the first sudden rupture limit and the first exhaustion limit in the said figure in (1), the allowable stress towards the load shall be obtained.

9.3.3 Examination on Rail Pad
After choice of material for the rail pad, the average and the maximum compressive stress and average strain of the rail pad againts ordinary load shall be obtained and examined by checking against the following limits. (1) Average compressive stress (2) Maximum compressive stress (at the edge) (3) Average strain 2.0 MPa 4.0 MPa 10.0%

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Track : Detailed Procedure

10. Examination on Buckling Safety

Buckling safety of rail against the increase of rail axial force caused as the temperature rises , shall be examined according to the following. However, regarding the existing lines, this examination may be omitted. (1) The maximum axial force (Pmax) occurring due to the anticipated change in the rail temperature, shall be calculated/ obtained. (2) From the rail lateral rigidity, lateral ballast resistance, bending rigidity of track panel and alignment, the minimum buckling force (Ptmin) shall be obtained and it shall be confirmed that the buckling force satisfy the following formula.

α=
Where, α: Degree of Safety

Pt min ≥ 1.2 Pmax

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Track : Detailed Procedure

11. Structure of Turnout
In principle, turnouts as specified in international standard shall be used. However, in case of use of the turnouts and/or parts not stipulated in the said standard, design of the turnout shall be made, in accordance with the specifications of widely accepted standards, with respect of the following: (1) Calculation of alignment and skeleton (2) Mode of bending of each rail (3) Mode of bending of tongue rail (4) Mode of bending of guard rail (5) Structure and dimensions of Crossing (6) Structure and dimensions of bed plate and accessories (7) Stress being generated to each member, shall be obtained, and shall be examined in the form of comparison with the allowable stress. Further, the calculation model to be used in computing the stress being generated to each member, shall be static structured beam, cantilever beam or elastic supporting beam, depending on the characteristics of the member.

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Track : Detailed Procedure

12. Additional Rule
(1) Effective date (2) Approval to special structure and other (3) Transition move

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Track : Detailed Procedure

Supplementary Provision

This Notice shall become effective on --, --, 2005

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