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# 3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

INTRODUCTION
Many shop people think three-axis accuracy and 3D accuracy are the same. The truth is that three-axis accuracy is one-dimensional because it specifies only the tolerance of linear measurements along each axis. 3D accuracy refers to linear measurement of each axis and the relationship of the X, Y and Z axes to one another is that, the straightness and squareness of each axis to one another within a defined work cube. Calibrating three-axis accuracy is relatively simple and is useful for identifying such problems as leadscrew / ballscrew pitch error or wear. Calibrating 3D accuracy is more complicated but doesnot necessarily take more time. However, it is a much better way to ensure the overall performance of a machine when cutting contoured surfaces and other 3D parts designed with 3D CAD software. For any shop, knowing when and how to do these different calibrations is important because each provides different information about machine performance. The basic concept of this method is that the laser beam direction (or the measurement direction) is not parallel to the motion of the linear axis. Therefore, the measured displacement errors are sensitive to errors that occur both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the linear axis. More precisely, the measured linear errors are the vector sum of all errors projected to the direction of the laser beam, including the displacement errors (parallel to the linear axis) the vertical straightness errors (perpendicular to the linear axis) and the horizontal straightness errors (perpendicular to the linear axis and the vertical straightness error direction)

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## WHY THE 3D CALIBRATION

Let's face it-we live in a 3D world. Engineers who are content with 2D drawings are fast becoming a minority. As a result, 3D is trickling down to the manufacturing floor. This has created a need for maintaining higher accuracy 3-axis machine tools. Because many more types of errors than linear displacement errors have a tremendous effect on 3D machining accuracy, the International Standards Organization (ISO) has begun the process of creating a standardized world-class definition of 3D accuracy. Twenty years ago, the largest machine tool errors were linear displacement errors, such as lead or ball screw pitch error and thermal expansion along an axis. However, linear displacement errors have been minimized with the use of compensation and linear encoders and ball screw cooling systems. As more components and molds are designed in 3D, additional errors, such as straightness and squareness, are superseding linear displacement errors in importance. Minimizing 3D errors has become increasingly important because machine tools are experiencing longer duty cycles and substantially faster spindle speeds, feed rates, and traverse rates, amplifying wear on machine tool positioning components and assemblies. Creating a new world standard for defining 3D accuracy is difficult because it must include a process for measuring 3D accuracy and be easily deployed and not time- or costprohibitive. If the process is unwieldy or expensive, it will be ignored and ultimately forgotten. Without an accepted standard, components of a product or assembly made by different suppliers may have widely varying tolerances. This will lead to increased part rejections, longer assembly time, and additional warranty and field repair costs. There are many theories for measuring 3D accuracy. The simplest theory calls for linear calibration or one-dimensional measurements parallel to the axis of movement. This assumes the only possible errors are lead or ball screw and thermal expansion errors. At the other extreme is Taylor's linear expansion theory, which requires 45 measurements to determine the 3D (volumetric) accuracy of a 3-axis machine tool. Other methods, such as the rigid body and body diagonal methods are in between the two extremes. ISO must Dept. of Tool & Die Engg. 2 AWH PTC

3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

Carefully consider all the methods and their tradeoffs to ensure that the standardized process for defining 3D (volumetric) accuracy is accurate and accepted by those who will be using it.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

ERROR
For making a object there will be consider the error in all axis in all level of the machine. According to Taylor's linear expansion theory there requires 45 measurements to determine the 3D (volumetric) accuracy of a 3-axis machine tool. It's not practical to require 45 different measurements for determining 3D accuracy. The cost for a service technician to perform these measurements and the several days the machine would be out of service make it cost prohibitive. So here the rigid body method is considered. The rigid body method considers 21 errors, including:

Three linear displacement errors Three vertical straightness errors Three horizontal straightness errors Three roll angular errors Three pitch angular errors Three yaw angular errors Three squareness errors The 3D (volumetric) error is de fined as the root-mean-square sum of the total of

these errors. The maximum and minimum absolute errors can be defined as the maximum and minimum absolute errors in the volume. Using a conventional laser interferometer for measuring the straightness and squareness errors requires an excessive amount of time, which is cost prohibitive. As a result, the rigid body method has not achieved a high level of acceptance.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## CALIBRATING 3AXIS ACCURACY

Calibrating three-axis accuracy is relatively simple and is useful for identifying such problems as leadscrew/ballscrew pitch error or wear. Calibrating 3D accuracy is more complicated but doesnt necessarily take more time. However, it is a much better way to ensure the overall performance of a machine when cutting contoured surfaces and other 3D parts designed with 3D CAD software. For any shop, knowing when and how to do these different calibrations is important because each provides different information about machine performance. Before launching into the differences between three-axis and 3D calibration, it is helpful to understand that most machine tool positioning systems are based on the Cartesian coordinate system, which uses a series of points along three coordinate axes (X, Y and Z) aligned perpendicular to one another to represent 3D objects or features. Much of the confusion surrounding three-axis and 3D calibration has to do with terminology. A shop that just calibrates linear displacement along each of the three axes may consider this three-axis calibration. However, the three axes are not calibrated for 3D accuracy because linear displacement does not consider the perpendicularity of the axes to one another. Based on rigid body geometry, which defines positions by forming 90-degree angles with an axis of a given reference frame, each of a given machine tool is three axes is susceptible to six errors for a total of 18. These six include three linear errors as well as pitch, yaw and roll angular errors, respectively. Taking into account three potential squareness errors leads to a grand total of 21 possible rigid body errors for a three-axis machine tool. By calibrating linear displacement error along each axis, only three errors will have been determined, leaving 18 errors undetermined.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## 1. THREE AXIS LINEAR CALIBRATIONS

Linear displacement along an axis of a CNC machine can be calibrated using a system based on laser Doppler displacement meter (LDDM) technology. This requires only two optic elements, which are temporarily mounted on a machine tool or coordinate measuring machine. This makes setting up the system and aligning the beam relatively easy and quick. The laser in this application meets standardized traceability requirements and features a stability check of better than 0.1 ppm, accuracy of 1.0 ppm and resolution up to 1 microinch. The laser reading head is mounted on the bed or table and a retroreflector (also called a target) is mounted on the spindle. The tuned laser beam aligns parallel to the axis. The operator programs the measurement increments along the axis. The spindle with the retroreflector starts at the home position. The system then moves the retroreflector to each specified incremental position and records the measurement. Incremental positioning and data capture can be accomplished automatically or manually. This process identifies deviations by comparing the measurement scale to the positions measured by the calibration system. These deviations are then used to calculate a compensation table. Some situations call for the application of a single linear correction factor. Others require incremental pitch correction factors are that is, errors may occur in only specific areas and are not uniform. across the axis. Relying on linear calibration (one-dimensional measurements parallel to the axis of movement) assumes that the only possible errors are leadscrew/ ballscrew and thermal expansion errors. Linear calibration along three axes is inadequate for ensuring accuracy of 3D parts. Many years ago, national and international standards-making bodies recognized this and introduced the ASME B5.54 and ISO230-6 machine tool performance measurement standards.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

2. 3D CALIBRATION
The ASME B5.54 and ISO230-6 standards resulted in two methods for 3D (volumetric) calibration, including the body diagonal displacement method and the proprietary sequential step diagonal measurement method. For years, the body diagonal displacement method defined by ASME B5.54 and ISO 230-6 has provided a quick check of volumetric error with good results. Because the measurements involved are relatively simple and quick to make, the cost and machine downtime are minimal. The body diagonal displacement method is a measurement of the volumetric positioning accuracy of a machine tool with a laser calibration system. A laser is mounted on the machine bed, and a retroreflector mounted on the spindle reflects the laser beam, which is aligned along the machine diagonal. With the laser pointing along the body diagonal direction and the retroreflector moving along the body diagonal at operator-specified increments, the laser calibration system records measurements at each position. Measuring the displacement error begins at the home position and at each increment along the three axes, which move together to reach a new position along the diagonal. The last four body diagonals use the same corners as the first four diagonals, except the directions are reversed. For that reason, there are only four body diagonal directions with forward movement and reverse movement (bi-directional) and only four setups in which measurements are taken after each simultaneous move of X, Y and Z. The accuracy of each position along the body diagonal depends on the positioning accuracy of all three axes and geometrical errors of the machine tool. In theory based on the calculation, the four body diagonal displacement errors are sensitive to all nine linear errors, which may be positive or negative; and these nine may cancel each other out. Because the errors are statistical in nature, the probability that all of the errors will be cancelled in all of the positions and in all four of the body diagonals is theoretically possible but highly unlikely.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

However, the body diagonal displacement method does not clarify the relationships between the body diagonal displacement errors and the 21 possible rigid body errors. Another concern about this method is that it assigns too much importance to angular errors. To understand the relationships and importance of angular errors, it is necessary to derive the relations between the 21 rigid body errors and the measured body diagonal displacement errors. Based on the above-derived relations, all the angular error terms are cancelled except for two. Therefore, the body diagonal displacement errors are sensitive to displacement errors, straightness errors and squareness errors but not angular errors. Because there are only four sets of data and nine sets of errors, the body diagonal displacement method does not generate enough information to determine the source of errors. Optodyne, a company that develops and markets laser calibration systems, developed the sequential step diagonal method to address these issues.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## LASER VECTOR METHOD DIAGRAM

Laser Vector method for volumetric calibration The basic concept of this method is that the laser beam direction (or the measurement direction) is not parallel to the motion of the linear axis. Therefore, the measured displacement errors are sensitive to errors that occur both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the linear axis. More precisely, the measured linear errors are the vector sum of all errors projected to the direction of the laser beam, including the displacement errors (parallel to the linear axis) the vertical straightness errors (perpendicular to the linear axis) and the horizontal straightness errors (perpendicular to the linear axis and the vertical straightness error direction). Collecting data with the laser beam pointing in four body diagonal directions identifies all 12 types of errors. Because the errors of each axis of motion are vectors with three perpendicular error components, this is considered a vector measurement technique

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## 7.1 3d-calibration device for the dynamical calibration of micro systems

Precise dimensional measurements on microstructures require not only very precise measuring machines but also efficient microprobing systems. Each microprobing system must be metrologically checked and precisely calibrated before it can be incorporated into a micro-coordinate measuring system. The investigations serve to exactly determine systematic deviations to subsequently correct them. The calibration device consists of commercially available components. In addition to the investigation of the static properties of microprobing systems, the work is mainly aimed at characterizing microprobing systems in dynamic terms in view of their potential use in so-called scanning measuring operations. In contrast to single-point probing, scanning dimensional measuring techniques offer considerably shorter measuring times and thus manufacture-oriented applications. The 3D calibration device is composed of two sub-assemblies and allows coarse positioning (25 mm x 25 mm x 12.5 mm) as well as precise fine-positioning by a capacitively controlled flexible hinge table with an operating range of 80 m. The coarse positioning table is made of special steel to ensure optimal long-time stability, and provided with cross-roller guideways of hardened steel which offer high stiffness and thus allow precise positioning. The angular deviations on each axis are smaller than 100 mrad. The table is operated with a DC servomotor in a closed control loop. The precise finepositioning table is moved with the aid of piezoelements.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

Figure 1: Schematic diagram 3d-calibration device of micro systems metrology frame which is at present equipped with two laser interferometers, allows Abbe error-free 2D microstructure probing in the nanometer range. The positional information and the probe signals can be simultaneously measured with a probing frequency of 5 kHz. Systematic investigations into the efficiency of the calibration device, which had first been realized with two-dimensional interferometric positional metrology, have been carried out. The positioning noise of the x- and y-axes amounts to 12 nmp-p in a detection bandwith of 5 kHz. Special probing strategies for microprobing systems have been tested. In the case of one-dimensional probing of an aluminium plate, a standard deviation of 20 nm was determined for the points probed. This order of magnitude is sufficient for the investigation of the dynamic properties and the calibration of 3D microprobing systems.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## 3D CALIBRATION FOR INSPECTION

8.1 Stereo camera system eases highly precise measurement
If one wants to precisely effect 3D measurement of industrial components, the noncontact measurement via stereo images is a good option. Specially for these purposes, the SOLVing3D GmbH (Garbsen near Hanover in Germany) has developed its camera system PrOMPT stereo. This robust and compact hardware equipment can be used as a mobile measurement device, or alternatively it can be integrated in existing plants, e.g., for 100% inspection. The smooth exchanging of the camera racks is part of the system. Optionally, the system provides racks for laser devices to project lines and crosses in different executions. The exchanging of lenses enables the variation of the volume of interest from 70x50x20 up to 390x290x200 mm. The precision of measurement ranges from 2 m up to 20 m. This high accuracy (1 : 10,000) can be achieved by the highly precise system calibration. Caused by newly developed 3D calibration bodies and a special mathematic model, the calibration is not only highly accurate but also easy to handle. An assistant leads through the calibration process, therefore also unskilled users can handle it. The entire image processing is based on the operators and algorithms of MVTec's machine vision software library HALCON. One special feature of the processing software is its robust point operator that not only detects marks but even precisely appoints boreholes under reflected light. The automation & assembly technologies GmbH, Bremen (Germany), employs the system for such borehole measurements in complex welded automotive assemblies (fig. 2). By inclusion of the stereo geometry for interpretation and intelligent image processing routines, boreholes can be measured by definition of only one point. During the teaching modus, this point has only to be approximately marked, the exact measurement of the

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

3D position and the diameter are automatically effected. Moreover, during the fully-automated inline mode, the measurements are completely controlled by the program. The target/actual comparison is executed under position- and rotation-invariancy by steric transformation. Thus, a precise positioning or guidance of the objects is not necessary. The cameras are delivered with precision lenses from Schneider-Kreuznach and different sensors with up to 6 mega pixels. Optionally, white, red, or infrared ring-lights as well as structured laser-lights are available. Furthermore, a high-end version of the PrOMPT.stereo camera system for up to 100 Hz recording frequency can be received.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## A DEFINITION OF VOLUMETRIC ERROR

We believe that volumetric error more accurately reflects the accuracy to be expected from a machine tool than any other measurement that can be made. Therefore, it's our position that volumetric error should be determined and listed on the specification sheet of every machine tool offered to industry. On the other hand, we appreciate that measuring true volumetric error is challenging. We hereby propose a method of approximating true volumetric error that correlates well to true error, but is less difficult to measure than true volumetric error. Traditionally, manufacturers have ensured part accuracy by linear calibration of each machine tool axis. The conventional definition of the 3-D volumetric positioning error is the root mean square of the three-axis displacement error. But linear calibration is inadequate to ensure the accuracy of 3-D parts, and using a laser interferometer to measure straightness and squareness errors can be relatively difficult. The performance or accuracy of a machine tool is determined by 3-D volumetric positioning error, which includes linear displacement error, straightness error, angular error, and thermally induced error. The body diagonal displacement error defined in ASME B5.54 or ISO 230-6 is a good quick check of volumetric error. All the errors will contribute to the four-body diagonal displacement errors. The B5.54 tests have been used by Boeing Aircraft Co. and others for years. Currently, the ASME and ISO are working on a new definition of volumetric accuracy. One conventional definition of 3-D volumetric error is the root mean square of the displacement error of the three axes. This value, ELv, works as long as the dominant errors are the three displacement errors or leadscrew pitch errors. But linear encoders and error compensation have reduced most of these errors significantly. The largest machine tool errors are now squareness and straightness errors, so ELv is no longer an adequate definition of volumetric error.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

True volumetric error includes three linear displacement errors, six straightness errors, and three squareness errors. True error (ELSv) can be defined as the root mean square sum of all the three errors in each axis direction. When using body diagonal displacement error measurement, body diagonal error (Ed) does not include squareness errors. But Ed is currently defined in ISO 230-6 and ASME B5.54 as a measure of volumetric error. Squareness errors can be included, and our new proposed measure volumetric error, ESd, includes squareness errors. Some definitions: ppp/nnn indicates body diagonal direction with the increments in X, Y, and Z all positive/negative, and npp/pnn indicates the increments in X, Y, and Z are negative/positive, positive/negative, and positive/negative, etc. Body diagonal errors in each direction are Dr(r) ppp/nnn, Dr(r) npp/pnn, Dr(r) pnp/npn, Dr(r) ppn/nnp. Based on the definition in ISO 230-6, E is defined as: Eppp/nnn=Max[Dr(r)ppp/nnn]-min[Dr(r)ppp/nnn] Enpp/pnn=Max[Dr(r)npp/pnn]-min[Dr(r)npp/pnn] Epnp/npn=Max[Dr(r)pnp/npn]-min[Dr(r)pnp/npn] Eppn/nnp=Max[Dr(r)ppn/nnp]-min[Dr(r)ppn/nnp]. And volumetric error is defined as: Ed=Max[Eppp/nnn, Enpp/pnn, Epnp/npn, Eppn/nnp]. This definition doesn't include squareness errors. To include squareness errors, define the volumetric error thusly: ESd=Max[Dr(r)ppp/nnn, Dr(r)npp/pnn, Dr(r)pnp/npn, Dr(r)ppn/nnp]-min[Dr(r)pp/nnn, Dr(r)npp/pnn, Dr(r)pnp/ npn, Dr(r)ppn/nnp]. The definition ELv is still commonly used as the definition of 3-D volumetric error, and ELSv including straightness and squareness errors is true volumetric error. The Ed is defined in ISO230-6 and ASME B5.54 as a measure of volumetric error. We propose ESd, including squareness errors, as a measure of volumetric error.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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## Seminar Report 2012-13

Measurements conducted on 10 mid-size machining centers reveal that when compared to true 3-D volumetric error ELSv, ELv underestimates volumetric error. The Ed underestimates true volumetric error and varies with squareness errors. Finally, ESd underestimates 3-D volumetric position error but is relatively stable and not influenced by squareness errors. Thus ESd is a good measure of volumetric error.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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## Seminar Report 2012-13

3. CONCLUSION
Minimizing 3D errors has become increasingly important because machine tools are experiencing longer duty cycles and substantially faster spindle speeds, feed rates, and traverse rates, amplifying wear on machine tool positioning components and assemblies. Here a good method is introduced for eliminating the volumetric error by the machine movement. This high accuracy (1 : 10,000) can be achieved by the highly precise system calibration. Caused by newly developed 3D calibration bodies and a special mathematic model, the calibration is not only highly accurate but also easy to handle. An assistant leads through the calibration process, therefore also unskilled users can handle it.

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

REFERENCES
[1] Schultschik, R., The components of the volumetric accuracy, Annals of the CIRP, Vol.25, No.1, pp223-228, 1977. [2] Methods for Performance Evaluation of Computer Numerically Controlled Machining Centers, An American National Standard, ASME B5.54-1992 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p69, 1992. [3] ISO 230-6: 2002 Test code for machine tools Part 6: Determination of positioning accuracy on body and face diagonals (Diagonal displacement tests), an International Standard, by International Standards Organization, 2002 Modern Machine Tools- The industrial source book ( January 1st week edition )

[1] http://www.optodyne.com/opnew4/www.toolingandproduction.com [2] http://www. Sourceonline.in [3] www.Googleimage.Com.in [4] www.InscoTemperature.com [5] www.superd.com.cn/en/

## Dept. of Tool & Die Engg.

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3D or 3axis Calibration

## Seminar Report 2012-13

VOTE OF THANKS
First of all I express my sincere gratitude to all who supported me in presenting the seminar especially my teachers and friends.

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