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David Scott1 Diethelm Wrtz2 u Christine Dong1

Outline

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Base R Contributed Packages Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

Outline

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Base R Contributed Packages Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

Outline

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Base R Contributed Packages Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

Outline

Outline

Outline

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

Distributions

Distributions are how we model uncertainty There is well-established theory concerning distributions There are standard approaches for tting distributions There are many distributions which have been found to be of interest Software implementation of distributions is a well-dened subject in comparision to say modelling of time-series

Distributions

Distributions are how we model uncertainty There is well-established theory concerning distributions There are standard approaches for tting distributions There are many distributions which have been found to be of interest Software implementation of distributions is a well-dened subject in comparision to say modelling of time-series

Distributions

Distributions are how we model uncertainty There is well-established theory concerning distributions There are standard approaches for tting distributions There are many distributions which have been found to be of interest Software implementation of distributions is a well-dened subject in comparision to say modelling of time-series

Distributions are how we model uncertainty There is well-established theory concerning distributions There are standard approaches for tting distributions There are many distributions which have been found to be of interest Software implementation of distributions is a well-dened subject in comparision to say modelling of time-series

Distributions are how we model uncertainty There is well-established theory concerning distributions There are standard approaches for tting distributions There are many distributions which have been found to be of interest Software implementation of distributions is a well-dened subject in comparision to say modelling of time-series

Introduction

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

Introduction

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

Introduction

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

In base R there are 20 distributions implemented, at least in part All univariateconsider univariate distributions only Numerous other distributions have been implemented in R

CRAN packages solely devoted to one or more distributions CRAN packages which implement distributions incidentally (e.g. VGAM) implementations of distributions not on CRAN, e.g Jim Lindseys work

Introduction

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

Introduction

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

Introduction

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

There are overlaps in coverage of distributions in R Implementations of distributions in R are inconsistent

naming of objects parameterizations function arguments functionality return structures

Standardization

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

Standardization

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

Standardization

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

There are benets to a standardized approach

easier for users easier for developers fewer errors

Base R Contributed

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

Base R Contributed

Distributions in Base R

Implementation in R is essentially the provision of dpqr functions: the density (or probability) function, distribution function, quantile or inverse distribution function and random number generation The distributions are the binomial (binom), geometric (geom), hypergeometric (hyper), negative binomial (nbinom), Poisson (pois), Wilcoxon signed rank statistic (signrank), Wilcoxon rank sum statistic (wilcox), beta (beta), Cauchy (Cauchy), non-central chi-squared (chisq), exponential (exp),F (f), gamma (gamma), log-normal (lnorm), logistic (logis), normal (norm), t (t), uniform (unif), Weibull (weibull), and Tukey studentized range (tukey) for which only the p and q functions are implemented

Base R Contributed

Distributions in Base R

Implementation in R is essentially the provision of dpqr functions: the density (or probability) function, distribution function, quantile or inverse distribution function and random number generation The distributions are the binomial (binom), geometric (geom), hypergeometric (hyper), negative binomial (nbinom), Poisson (pois), Wilcoxon signed rank statistic (signrank), Wilcoxon rank sum statistic (wilcox), beta (beta), Cauchy (Cauchy), non-central chi-squared (chisq), exponential (exp),F (f), gamma (gamma), log-normal (lnorm), logistic (logis), normal (norm), t (t), uniform (unif), Weibull (weibull), and Tukey studentized range (tukey) for which only the p and q functions are implemented

Base R Contributed

Constributed Packages

Many distributions are implemented in R The following list is not completesee the task view

http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Distributions.html

Primarily packages which deal with a particular distribution or set of related distributions Some packages not on CRAN are nonetheless available I know of other implementations not on CRAN and not available

Base R Contributed

Constributed Packages

Many distributions are implemented in R The following list is not completesee the task view

http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Distributions.html

Primarily packages which deal with a particular distribution or set of related distributions Some packages not on CRAN are nonetheless available I know of other implementations not on CRAN and not available

Base R Contributed

Constributed Packages

Many distributions are implemented in R The following list is not completesee the task view

http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Distributions.html

Primarily packages which deal with a particular distribution or set of related distributions Some packages not on CRAN are nonetheless available I know of other implementations not on CRAN and not available

Base R Contributed

Many distributions are implemented in R The following list is not completesee the task view

http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Distributions.html

Base R Contributed

Many distributions are implemented in R The following list is not completesee the task view

http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Distributions.html

Base R Contributed

Packages

Package Name actuar Description Collection of functions and data sets related to actuarial science applications, including loss distributions Package for the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution Functions for extreme value distributions The Davies quantile function Bayesian analysis in extreme value theory Extreme values in R Exact distributions for rank and permutation tests Extreme value toolkit A package on generalized hyperbolic distributions Estimation and use of the generalised (Tukey) lambda distribution The hyperbolic distribution

Software for Distributions in R

Base R Contributed

Packages

Package Name ig ismev lmomco Lmoments mnormt mvtnorm normalp POT Rmetrics Description Package for the robust and classical versions of the inverse Gaussian distribution An introduction to statistical modeling of extreme values L-moments, trimmed L-moments, L-comoments, and many distributions L-moments and quantile mixtures The multivariate normal and t distributions Multivariate normal and t distribution Package for exponential power distributions (EPD) Generalized Pareto distribution and peaks over threshold An environment for teaching nancial engineering and computational nance with R

Software for Distributions in R

Base R Contributed

Packages

Package Name skewt sn SuppDists tdist triangle VarianceGamma Description The skewed Student-t distribution The skew-normal and skew-t distributions Supplementary distributions Distribution of a linear combination of independent Students t-variables Provides the standard distribution functions for the triangle distribution The variance gamma distribution

Base R Contributed

Packages

Package Name actuar Distributions Burr, inverse Burr, generalized beta, generalized Pareto, inverse exponential, inverse gamma, inverse paralogistic, inverse Pareto, inverse transformed gamma, inverse Weibull, log-gamma, log-logistic, paralogistic, Pareto, transformed gamma Skew-normal, skew-t, generalized hyperbolic, hyperbolic, normal inverse Gaussian, generalized hyperbolic Student-t, stable Generalized extreme value, generalize Pareto Generalized exponential, double exponential Johnson Type IV, reciprocal gamma

fBasics (Rmetrics)

Base R Contributed

Packages

Package Name HyperbolicDist QRMlib Distributions generalized hyperbolic, hyperbolic, generalized inverse Gaussian, skew-Laplace generalized extreme value, generalized hyperbolic, generalized Pareto, Gumbel, probit-normal Friedman chi-squared, Johnson system (types IIV), Kendalls tau, Kruskal-Wallis, normal scores, generalized hypergeometric, inverse Gaussian

SuppDists

Base R Contributed

Jim Lindseys packages include multiple distributions also Package Name rmutil Distributions beta-binomial, Box-Cox, Burr, Consul, double binomial, double Poisson, gamma count, generalized extreme value, generalized gamma, generalized inverse Gaussian, generalized logistic, generalized Weibull, Hjorth, Laplace, Lvy, multiplicative binoe mial, multiplicative Poisson, Pareto, power exponential, power variance function Poisson, simplex, skew-Laplace, two-sided power stable

stable

Introduction Current Software for Distributions Implementation in Base R Design for Distribution Implementation

dpqr Functions

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

dpqr Functions

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

dpqr Functions

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Any experienced R user will be aware of the naming conventions for the density, cumulative distribution, quantile and random number generation functions for the base R distributions The argument lists for the dpqr functions are standard First argument is x, p, q and n for respectively a vector of quantiles, a vector of quantiles, a vector of probabilities, and the sample size rwilcox is an exception using nn because n is a parameter Subsequent arguments give the parameters The gamma distribution is unusual, with argument list shape, rate =1, scale = 1/rate This mechanism allows the user to specify the second parameter as either the scale or the rate

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

dpqr Functions

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

dpqr Functions

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

dpqr Functions

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

Other arguments dier among the dpqr functions The d functions take the argument log, the p and q functions the argument log.p These allow the extension of the range of accurate computation for these quantities The p and q functions have the argument lower.tail The dpqr functions are coded in C and may be found in the source software tree at /src/math/ They are in large part due to Ross Ihaka and Catherine Loader Martin Mchler is now responsible for on-going maintenance a

The algorithms used in the dpqr functions are well-established algorithms taken from a substantial scientic literature There are also tests performed, found in the directory tests in two les d-p-q-r-tests.R and p-r-random-tests.R Tests in d-p-q-r-tests.R are inversion tests which check that qdist(pdist(x))=x for values x generated by rdist There are tests relying on special distribution relationships, and tests using extreme values of parameters or arguments For discrete distributions equality of cumsum(ddist(.))=pdist(.)

The algorithms used in the dpqr functions are well-established algorithms taken from a substantial scientic literature There are also tests performed, found in the directory tests in two les d-p-q-r-tests.R and p-r-random-tests.R Tests in d-p-q-r-tests.R are inversion tests which check that qdist(pdist(x))=x for values x generated by rdist There are tests relying on special distribution relationships, and tests using extreme values of parameters or arguments For discrete distributions equality of cumsum(ddist(.))=pdist(.)

The algorithms used in the dpqr functions are well-established algorithms taken from a substantial scientic literature There are also tests performed, found in the directory tests in two les d-p-q-r-tests.R and p-r-random-tests.R Tests in d-p-q-r-tests.R are inversion tests which check that qdist(pdist(x))=x for values x generated by rdist There are tests relying on special distribution relationships, and tests using extreme values of parameters or arguments For discrete distributions equality of cumsum(ddist(.))=pdist(.)

The algorithms used in the dpqr functions are well-established algorithms taken from a substantial scientic literature There are also tests performed, found in the directory tests in two les d-p-q-r-tests.R and p-r-random-tests.R Tests in d-p-q-r-tests.R are inversion tests which check that qdist(pdist(x))=x for values x generated by rdist There are tests relying on special distribution relationships, and tests using extreme values of parameters or arguments For discrete distributions equality of cumsum(ddist(.))=pdist(.)

The algorithms used in the dpqr functions are well-established algorithms taken from a substantial scientic literature There are also tests performed, found in the directory tests in two les d-p-q-r-tests.R and p-r-random-tests.R Tests in d-p-q-r-tests.R are inversion tests which check that qdist(pdist(x))=x for values x generated by rdist There are tests relying on special distribution relationships, and tests using extreme values of parameters or arguments For discrete distributions equality of cumsum(ddist(.))=pdist(.)

Tests in p-r-random-tests.R are based on an inequality of Massart: Pr sup |Fn (x) F (x)| >

x

2 exp(2n2 )

where Fn is the empirical distribution function for a This is a version of the Dvoretsky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality with the best possible constant, namely the leading 2 in the right hand side of the inequality The inequality above is true for all distribution functions, for all n and Distributions are tested by generating a sample of size 10,000 and comparing the dierence between the empirical distribution function and distribution function

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Tests in p-r-random-tests.R are based on an inequality of Massart: Pr sup |Fn (x) F (x)| >

x

2 exp(2n2 )

where Fn is the empirical distribution function for a This is a version of the Dvoretsky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality with the best possible constant, namely the leading 2 in the right hand side of the inequality The inequality above is true for all distribution functions, for all n and Distributions are tested by generating a sample of size 10,000 and comparing the dierence between the empirical distribution function and distribution function

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Tests in p-r-random-tests.R are based on an inequality of Massart: Pr sup |Fn (x) F (x)| >

x

2 exp(2n2 )

where Fn is the empirical distribution function for a This is a version of the Dvoretsky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality with the best possible constant, namely the leading 2 in the right hand side of the inequality The inequality above is true for all distribution functions, for all n and Distributions are tested by generating a sample of size 10,000 and comparing the dierence between the empirical distribution function and distribution function

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Tests in p-r-random-tests.R are based on an inequality of Massart: Pr sup |Fn (x) F (x)| >

x

2 exp(2n2 )

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Besides the obvious dpqr functions, what else is needed?

moments, at least low order ones the mode for unimodal distributions moment generating function and characteristic function functions for changing parameterisations functions for tting of distributions and t diagnostics goodness-of-t tests methods associated with t results: print, plot, summary, print.summary and coef for maximum likelihood ts, methods such as logLik and profile

Fitting Diagnostics

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

For maximum likelihood estimation, contour plots and perspective plots for pairs of parameters, and likelihood prole plots

Fitting Diagnostics

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

For maximum likelihood estimation, contour plots and perspective plots for pairs of parameters, and likelihood prole plots

Fitting Diagnostics

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

For maximum likelihood estimation, contour plots and perspective plots for pairs of parameters, and likelihood prole plots

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

To assess the t of a distribution, diagnostic plots should be provided Some useful plots are

a a a a histogram or empirical density with tted density log-histogram with tted log-density QQ-plot with optional tted line PP-plot with optional tted line

Fitting

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Fitting

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Fitting

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Some generic tting routines are currently available mle from stats4 can be used to t distributions but the log likelihood and starting values must be supplied fitdistr from MASS will automatically t most of the distributions from base R Other distributions can be tted using mle by supplying the density and started values In designing tting functions, the structure of the object returned and the methods available are vital aspects mle returns an S4 object of class mle fitdistr produces and S3 object of class fitdistr

Fitting

The methods available for an object of class mle are: Method Action connt Condence intervals from likelihood proles logLik Extract maximized log-likelihood prole Likelihood prole generation show Display object briey summary Generate object summary update Update t vcov Extract variance-covariance matrix For fitdistr the methods are print, coef, and logLik Neither function returns the data, so a plot method which produces suitable diagnostic plots is not possible Ideally a t should return and object of class distFit say, and the mle class should extend that

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Fitting

The methods available for an object of class mle are: Method Action connt Condence intervals from likelihood proles logLik Extract maximized log-likelihood prole Likelihood prole generation show Display object briey summary Generate object summary update Update t vcov Extract variance-covariance matrix For fitdistr the methods are print, coef, and logLik Neither function returns the data, so a plot method which produces suitable diagnostic plots is not possible Ideally a t should return and object of class distFit say, and the mle class should extend that

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Fitting

The methods available for an object of class mle are: Method Action connt Condence intervals from likelihood proles logLik Extract maximized log-likelihood prole Likelihood prole generation show Display object briey summary Generate object summary update Update t vcov Extract variance-covariance matrix For fitdistr the methods are print, coef, and logLik Neither function returns the data, so a plot method which produces suitable diagnostic plots is not possible Ideally a t should return and object of class distFit say, and the mle class should extend that

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

The methods available for an object of class mle are: Method Action connt Condence intervals from likelihood proles logLik Extract maximized log-likelihood prole Likelihood prole generation show Display object briey summary Generate object summary update Update t vcov Extract variance-covariance matrix For fitdistr the methods are print, coef, and logLik Neither function returns the data, so a plot method which produces suitable diagnostic plots is not possible Ideally a t should return and object of class distFit say, and the mle class should extend that

David Scott, Diethelm Wrtz, Christine Dong u Software for Distributions in R

Some Principles

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

Some Principles

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

Some Principles

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

There are obvious advantages in a standard design, both for developers and for users Some principles are

the major guide to the design should be what exists in base R the design should be logical with as few special cases as possible the design should minimize the possibility of programming mistakes by users and developers the design should simplify as much as possible the provision of the range of facilities needed to implement a distribution

Function Name ddist pdist qdist rdist distMean distVar distSkew distKurt distMode distMoments distMGF distChFn distChangePars distFit distTest Description Density function or probability function Cumulative distribution function Quantile function Random number generator Theoretical mean Theoretical variance Theoretical skewness Theoretical kurtosis Mode of the density Theoretical moments (and mode) Moment generating function Characteristic function Change parameterization of the distribution Result of tting the distribution to data Test the distribution

Software for Distributions in R

Some Alternatives

Use dots: hyperb.mean, usually deprecated because of confusion with S3 methods Use initial letters: mhyperb, but what about the mgf, multivariate distributions?

Some Alternatives

Use dots: hyperb.mean, usually deprecated because of confusion with S3 methods Use initial letters: mhyperb, but what about the mgf, multivariate distributions?

Function Arguments

Specication of parameters could allow for the parameters to be specied as a vector This is helpful for maximum likelihood estimation The approach used for the gamma distribution can be used to allow for both single parameter specication and vector parameter specication Separate parameters should be in the order of location, scale, skewness, kurtosis

Function Arguments

Specication of parameters could allow for the parameters to be specied as a vector This is helpful for maximum likelihood estimation The approach used for the gamma distribution can be used to allow for both single parameter specication and vector parameter specication Separate parameters should be in the order of location, scale, skewness, kurtosis

Function Arguments

Specication of parameters could allow for the parameters to be specied as a vector This is helpful for maximum likelihood estimation The approach used for the gamma distribution can be used to allow for both single parameter specication and vector parameter specication Separate parameters should be in the order of location, scale, skewness, kurtosis

Specication of parameters could allow for the parameters to be specied as a vector This is helpful for maximum likelihood estimation The approach used for the gamma distribution can be used to allow for both single parameter specication and vector parameter specication Separate parameters should be in the order of location, scale, skewness, kurtosis

Classes

I dont have a view on whether S3 or S4 classes should be used, but probably S4 classes should be aimed for For a t from a distribution, the class could be called distfit A t for a particular distribution would add the distribution name: hyperbfit, distfit with S3 methods For S4 methods the class distfit would be extended Similar ideas would be used for tests: a Kolomogorov-Smirnov test would have class kstest, htest with S3 methods

Classes

I dont have a view on whether S3 or S4 classes should be used, but probably S4 classes should be aimed for For a t from a distribution, the class could be called distfit A t for a particular distribution would add the distribution name: hyperbfit, distfit with S3 methods For S4 methods the class distfit would be extended Similar ideas would be used for tests: a Kolomogorov-Smirnov test would have class kstest, htest with S3 methods

Classes

I dont have a view on whether S3 or S4 classes should be used, but probably S4 classes should be aimed for For a t from a distribution, the class could be called distfit A t for a particular distribution would add the distribution name: hyperbfit, distfit with S3 methods For S4 methods the class distfit would be extended Similar ideas would be used for tests: a Kolomogorov-Smirnov test would have class kstest, htest with S3 methods

I dont have a view on whether S3 or S4 classes should be used, but probably S4 classes should be aimed for For a t from a distribution, the class could be called distfit A t for a particular distribution would add the distribution name: hyperbfit, distfit with S3 methods For S4 methods the class distfit would be extended Similar ideas would be used for tests: a Kolomogorov-Smirnov test would have class kstest, htest with S3 methods

I dont have a view on whether S3 or S4 classes should be used, but probably S4 classes should be aimed for For a t from a distribution, the class could be called distfit A t for a particular distribution would add the distribution name: hyperbfit, distfit with S3 methods For S4 methods the class distfit would be extended Similar ideas would be used for tests: a Kolomogorov-Smirnov test would have class kstest, htest with S3 methods

Testing

Testing is vital to quality of software and developers should provide test data and code Firstly test parameter sets should be provided, which cover the range of the parameter set Unit tests should be provided for all functions: the RUnit package supports this The distributions in Rmetrics have tests of this type, although further development seems warranted The Massart inequality seems ideal to use in testing

Testing

Testing is vital to quality of software and developers should provide test data and code Firstly test parameter sets should be provided, which cover the range of the parameter set Unit tests should be provided for all functions: the RUnit package supports this The distributions in Rmetrics have tests of this type, although further development seems warranted The Massart inequality seems ideal to use in testing

Testing

Testing is vital to quality of software and developers should provide test data and code Firstly test parameter sets should be provided, which cover the range of the parameter set Unit tests should be provided for all functions: the RUnit package supports this The distributions in Rmetrics have tests of this type, although further development seems warranted The Massart inequality seems ideal to use in testing

Testing is vital to quality of software and developers should provide test data and code Firstly test parameter sets should be provided, which cover the range of the parameter set Unit tests should be provided for all functions: the RUnit package supports this The distributions in Rmetrics have tests of this type, although further development seems warranted The Massart inequality seems ideal to use in testing

Testing is vital to quality of software and developers should provide test data and code Firstly test parameter sets should be provided, which cover the range of the parameter set Unit tests should be provided for all functions: the RUnit package supports this The distributions in Rmetrics have tests of this type, although further development seems warranted The Massart inequality seems ideal to use in testing

Final Thoughts

The distr package is an object-oriented implementation of distributions It facilitates operations on distributions such as convolutions It uses sampling for calculation of moments and distribution functions The package VarianceGamma has been designed and implemented using these ideas Implementing the logarithm options of the dpq functions is quite dicult for the distributions in which I am interested

Final Thoughts

The distr package is an object-oriented implementation of distributions It facilitates operations on distributions such as convolutions It uses sampling for calculation of moments and distribution functions The package VarianceGamma has been designed and implemented using these ideas Implementing the logarithm options of the dpq functions is quite dicult for the distributions in which I am interested

Final Thoughts

The distr package is an object-oriented implementation of distributions It facilitates operations on distributions such as convolutions It uses sampling for calculation of moments and distribution functions The package VarianceGamma has been designed and implemented using these ideas Implementing the logarithm options of the dpq functions is quite dicult for the distributions in which I am interested

The distr package is an object-oriented implementation of distributions It facilitates operations on distributions such as convolutions It uses sampling for calculation of moments and distribution functions The package VarianceGamma has been designed and implemented using these ideas Implementing the logarithm options of the dpq functions is quite dicult for the distributions in which I am interested

The distr package is an object-oriented implementation of distributions It facilitates operations on distributions such as convolutions It uses sampling for calculation of moments and distribution functions The package VarianceGamma has been designed and implemented using these ideas Implementing the logarithm options of the dpq functions is quite dicult for the distributions in which I am interested

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