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The protection of the enviroment Mains masure related to european agriculture

In the EU almost 50% of the territory is covered by farmland (both arable land and permanent grassland). Agriculture therefore plays a key role in land management and has a huge responsibility in the preservation of natural resources. The desired relationship between agriculture and the environment can be captured by the term "sustainable agriculture". This calls for management of natural resources in a way which ensures that their benefits are also available for the future. The agriculture sector performs its tasks with a view to the protection, preservation and improvement in the quality of water, air and soil, in the abundance of bio-diversity and in preservation and enrichment of the EU's landscape. Given the important interactions between agricultural land use and environmental processes, appropriate environmental management in the sector is crucial for the achievement of EU environment policy targets. This objective cannot be reached only via environmental legislation but also need to be supported through changes in policies that affect the sector directly, in particular the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Measures in all policy domains need to take account of the positive as well as negative interaction of agriculture with the environment. Main task of the agriculture sector in the DG Environment is to pursue the integration of environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), influence its developments and to ensure the continued "greening" of this policy and to decrease any adverse effects of agriculture on the environment. Our tasks are: 1. to contribute to the development of policy on environmental issues with a link to agriculture (e.g. water, biodiversity, soil) and promote these issues when opportunities relating to the CAP present themselves. 2. to work closely with DG AGRI to ensure the proper application of the crosscompliance conditions attached to direct CAP payments to farmers, and to ensure that, in the few remaining coupled Common Market regimes (CMO), environmental concerns are as well integrated as possible. 3. to work closely with DG AGRI in examining all the Rural Development Plans (RDP) prior to approval, as well as modifications which Member States propose, and seek to ensure that the measures proposed are compatible with environmental protection requirements, and that the most is made of environmental opportunities provided by Rural Development funding. 4. to contribute to the development of policy concerning environmentally friendly farming systems e.g. integrated production, organic farming. 5. to examine agricultural state aid proposals for environmental implications. 6. to contribute to discussions on the relationship between agriculture and the environment in relation to candidate countries and enlargement, and international fora such as the OECD and WTO.

Natural Environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species.[1] The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil,rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation,electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity. The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment, which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment.

It is difficult to find absolutely natural environments, and it is common that the naturalness varies in a continuum, from ideally 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More precisely, we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, and see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform.[2] If, for instance, we take an agricultural field, and consider the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil, we will find that whereas the first is quite similar to that of an undisturbed forest soil, the structure is quite different. Natural environment is often used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna.

Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel and other products used to sustain human life.[1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming ofdomesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture generally speaking refers to human activities, although it is also observed in certain species of ant and termite.[2][3] The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultra, from ager, "a field",[4] and cultra, "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil".[5] Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of fields". The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on largescale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e.g. permaculture or organic agriculture). Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. Pre-industrial agriculture was typically subsistence agriculture in which farmers raised most of their crops for their own consumption instead of for trade. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques, such as the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate which made the traditional practice of recycling nutrientswith crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.[6] Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.[7]

Politics (from Greek politikos "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the art or science of influencing people on a civic, or individual level, when there are more than 2 people involved. Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy". [1] The history of politics is reflected in the origin and development, and economics of the institutions of government. The greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls, archdukes and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the Council. A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the Council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.[9]

An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital, and land resources; and the manufacturing, production, trade,distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area. A given economy is the result of a process that involves its technological evolution, history and social organization, as well as its geography, natural resourceendowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. A market-based economy may be described as a spatially limited social network where goods and services are freely produced and exchanged according todemand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network. Capital and labor can move freely across places, industries and firms in search of higher profits, dividends, interest, compensations and benefits. Rent on land allocates this generally fixed resource among competing users. Contemporary Capitalism is a market economy in which most of the production capacity is owned and directed by the private sector. Government role is limited, to a great extent, to the following tasks: providing for defense and internal security, administering justice and prisons, making laws and regulations, enforcing contracts, laws and regulations, correcting market imperfections and failures, ensuring full employment without inflation, promoting balanced economic growth and development, providing for the poor, children, and elderly, protecting against and assisting in emergencies and natural disasters, providing basic opportunities to all members of society, preventing future calamities and disasters, and pursuing national goals established by society at large such as protection of the environment and natural resources. Government levies taxes and borrow money to pay for the goods and services it provides to society.

Facultatea de Management
Specializare : Inginerie Economica in Agricultura si Dezvoltare Rurala


Referat Engleza de Afaceri

Profesor Coordonator : Victor Tita

Student : Turcin Alexandru George Anul : III / Semestrul : I