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Principal Aspects and Simulation of a Hybrid Demonstrator Vehicle’s Cooling System
G. Lang, F. Kitanoski
The Virtual Vehicle Research Center GmbH (vif), Graz, Austria
MAGNA Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & CoKG, Graz, Austria
Copyright © 2007 SAE International
This paper describes how the hybridization of conventional vehicles affects the cooling system layout. Combustion engines, electric drives, power electronics and batteries run at different temperature levels, thus, the heat loss should dissipate to individual cooling circuits. To ensure safe and reliable operation a thorough design of the cooling system is required. In the second part of the paper, the system layout for a SUV is shown. The hybrid vehicle presented here uses the power from an internal combustion engine and two electric drives. It features three different cooling circuits. The layout process is supported by a sophisticated simulation technique: by means of co-simulation of the mechanical, electrical and thermal systems, the system behavior has been analyzed under various ambient conditions and vehicle loads. The results of these simulations will be the basis for the final system layout and thermal management strategy of the vehicle. The cooling system should meet the challenge of the power electronics as well. Exceeding the maximum temperature allowed is not permitted because it would lead to the immediate destruction of the component. Demands on the internal combustion engine cooling systems and electrical components require thorough hardware integration. Therefore, a comprehensive simulation model of the entire thermal management of the vehicle is required. The main challenge of hardware integration lies in taking in consideration the entire system and the implementation of new technologies.
NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM
In addition to the conventional cooling system for the engine, the electrical drive and the energy storage of a hybrid vehicle needs cooling systems as well. The main reason why the cooling loop of the combustion engine is not used for the electrical system is because of the different temperature levels. When, for instance, the coolant temperature is reduced to the coolant temperature suitable for the power electronics (75°C), it would be very difficult to reject the heat losses of the entire system at such a low temperature level to the ambient. The size of the radiator would significantly increase. Currently, several methods are used to cool the power electronics and hybrid drive components for hybrid electric vehicles. Also, various coolants like waterethylene glycol, air, and oil can be used. For instance, the cooling system of the Toyota Prius has separate cooling loops for the engine and for the electric drive components. The latter is shown in Figure 1. The cooling system for the electrical drive components uses waterethylene glycol and operates at a coolant temperature of 65°C. A separate radiator is used to reject the heat to the ambient air.
With regards to the mechanical and thermal impact, passenger cars are a difficult environment on electrical components. The thermal integration of the electrical machine, the battery, and the power electronics leads to complex and coupled cooling systems. In a hybrid vehicle the electrical components may require one or more specific cooling loops beside the cooling system of the combustion engine. The latter is similar to the cooling system of conventional vehicles. Depending on the power train and on the kind of battery used, different cooling systems are advantageous. The optimal operating temperature of many batteries is approx. 30°C. This temperature needs to be held as constant as possible to ensure long battery durability. Under hot ambient conditions the temperature level can be held, for example, by using the AC-System.
Each battery operates over a narrow operating range to achieve optimum durability and performance. newly developed semiconductors which withstand high barrier layer temperatures up to 200°C are a promising alternative to conventional silicone semiconductors. the desired operating temperature for a Li-Ion battery is 25°C to 40°C . . especially at high ambient temperatures with an air conditioning system as a heat sink. then the thermal constraints of this loop become the main design parameters for the electronic system as well. J. Hsu  from Oak Ridge National Laboratory has explained the innovative Floating Loop system shown in Figure 3. When the coolant temperature rises (up to 115°C) the temperature of the power electronics rises as well. Without appropriate cooling. 2 kW heat can be rejected from the power electronics. Here. the optimum temperature level can be gained. and condenser). state of charge. if the separate cooling loop for the power electronics is eliminated and the electronics and the combustion engine share the main cooling loop. Although sharing some components and piping. It is one of the most applied technologies in hybrid vehicles. At 125°C. the silicon in electronic devices begins to break down. Rosenkranz et al. Figure 2 shows this dependency. mostly in full-hybrid-vehicles. temperature variations from module to module in a battery pack can result in a devastating effect on the batteries safety and durability. With improved cooling the motor can run at a higher efficiency due to decreased resistance losses in the coils. (60-70°C) high vibration common coolant circuit (115°C) Technology. The driving factors for higher system integration are clearly production costs and installation space . it is very important to regulate the operating temperature because it affects power. This system consists of the conventional cooling system which includes the passenger A/C system and shares some of its components (for example: piping. have proven that under pulse discharging conditions the specific power of the battery decreases by 40% when the cell temperature drops from 30°C to 0°C.The thermal limitations can only be maintained by employing an optimal thermal management. the temperature of the coils in the motors must be kept within the rating of the insulation material. For example. Furthermore. Performance as well as the life-cycle costs of hybrid vehicles depends mainly on the performance and durability of the battery packs. Depending on the system integration several operating temperature levels can be differed. translated] Furthermore. the motor performance will decrease. For this purpose an efficient battery thermal management shall be provided. capacity and charge acceptance during regenerative braking. high vibration low coolanttemp. Installation space built on integrated low vibration low coolanttemp. separately Cost. and also supply heat in cold climates.S. powerful and long-living battery. the cooling system remains operationally independent from the A/C system allowing the subsystems to operate together or alone. For example. Li-Ion with its superior performance level shows a 30% decreased weight and packaging volume compared to Ni-MH as Rosenkranz et al. Radiator Water pump Figure 1: Electrical drive cooling system [Toyota 08/2000 . A good thermal management system has to dissipate the resulting heat losses during the operation of the energy storage system. Production volume Figure 2: System integration and corresponding operating temperatures [1. Using this system. A small electric pump secures the flow in the additional loop of the refrigerant system. (60-70°C) Figure 3: The Floating Loop system [ORNL US Department for Energy 03/2006] The development of new and powerful hybrid battery systems is growing rapidly. Nickel-Metal-Hydride is a robust. Expansion tank With the two-phase cooling technology this system cools the power electronics and the electrical machine directly with evaporating refrigerant. have shown . The aim of thermal management is to maintain the desired temperature range for high-power battery packs. refrigerant. Also. Thus.translated] In particular.
The key parameters of the drive train are given in Table 1. automatically shifted 2 Asynchronous traction motors 2 x 50 kW 2 x 25 kW Li-Ion. To ensure cold start capabilities an auxiliary heater was added to the battery coolant circuit. Siemens VDO and TYCO. DRIVE TRAIN The layout of the drive train is shown in Figure 4. water cooled 200 – 410 V 350 Nm (rear axle) 500 Nm (front axle) Figure 5: The cooling system of the M-class hybrid vehicle  . The battery cooling circuit is coupled to the HVAC-System which serves as a heat sink even at high ambient temperatures. the drive can work as a parallel hybrid with electrical driven front and / or rear axle (the front axle can only be driven electrically). 3. thermal storage elements or thermal insulation or even a combination of all these methods can be applied to the cooling system. Furthermore.5 L V6 Gasoline 200 kW @ 6000 rpm 350 Nm @ 2400-5000 rpm 7 Gears. EM2) and four clutches (C1 – C4). Power Max. The cooling system of the vehicle described here is supplemented by two further cooling circuits: • The E-Motor cooling circuit for the electrical machines and the power electronics • The Energy storage cooling circuit for the battery The temperature level of the ICE cooling circuit is roughly at 95°C. Table 1: M-Class hybrid electrical vehicle: Key parameters of the drive train Internal Combustion Engine Type Max. Power (peak) Continuous Power Battery Type Voltage Range Max. The cooling circuit for the electrical system has a limitation of 75°C. 5] COOLING SYSTEM Additional heat producing components need to be integrated for the hybrid vehicle. THE DC M-CLASS DEMONSTRATOR VEHICLE The following paragraph describes the drive train and the cooling system of a hybrid electric vehicle which was built by MAGNA STEYR as a demonstrator vehicle. The E4WD module itself consists of two electrical traction motors (EM1. Different thermal requirements for the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the electrical components have a need for separate cooling circuits. If the thermal limitations of the battery are exceeded and the battery produces hazardous gases the battery management system should be able to ensure ventilation as well.Different cooling media such as air (Toyota Prius.ethylene glycol can be used. The vehicle is based on the current DaimlerChrysler ML350 and was built in cooperation with system-partners MAGNA POWERTRAIN. Torque Transmission Electrical Drive Train Type Max. Therefore. The cooling circuit of the ICE was not modified for the first demonstrator vehicle. a new cooling strategy has been required and the thermal management had to be adapted from the baseline vehicle. Hoses and valves. Torque (peak) Parallel hybrid Electrical axle Figure 4: Drive train concept of the M-class demonstrator vehicle [4. This highly integrated module is placed between the combustion engine and the automated gearbox. one additional radiator and one coolant / refrigerant heat exchanger were added to the baseline A/C system. With these clutches. The drive train is mounted in a longitudinal direction in the car and furthermore is extended by an electrical 4 wheel drive module (E4WD). Lexus. two additional water pumps. and Honda Civic) and water .
The torque (driving and braking mode) from the electrical machines (EM1. The electrical machines of the drive train were modeled in Simulink (Figure 7). For the simulation of the vehicle dynamics and the driver model. the ICE only has to supply that part of the overall traction moment which is not supplied by the electrical machines. The thermal system was simulated with the software KULI . The electrical power is fed to the battery model where the state of charge is calculated. The entire system (composed of the above mentioned three partial system models) was linked together via the Matlab-interface. Thereafter. battery. The heat is rejected to ambient air in the radiator. the two electrical traction motors are passed by the coolant in serial order. Downstream of the converter the coolant goes through an auxiliary water / oil cooler. the veDYNA model acted as the server using the other two models as clients. In the following section only the cooling circuit for the electrical components is described (Figure 9). The model features a Torquelimitation. modeled in Simulink . EM2) is fed to the gear box as a so called “external moment”. and charge / discharge controller is also modeled in Simulink. The thermal losses of the inverters are calculated depending on power and frequency (engine speed) and are routed to the thermal model. also the temperature of the electrical machine itself will be considered here. Torque limitation M drive Q • KULI M_act Losses Engine speed P_el Figure 7: Simulation model of the electrical drive with heat flow to thermal system (modeled in KULI) Q DC/AC Inverter Engine speed • KULI Recuperation/Charge Recuperation power Power SOC % Losses Drive power Q Drive/Discharge • KULI Figure 8: Simulation model of the electrical power system with heat flow to the thermal model THERMAL MODEL The thermal vehicle model consists of three partial systems: • Cooling circuit of the internal combustion engine • Cooling circuit of the electrical machines • Battery cooling circuit with HVAC-System The whole thermal system was modeled using the software tool KULI.SIMULATION MODEL The following paragraph gives a brief overview of the simulation model. Each motor is modeled with two point masses to account for the transient thermal behavior (Figure 10). Heat is supplied to the model from the electrical system via COM-controllers. The electrical system. DRIVE TRAIN Figure 6 shows the block diagram of the hybrid power train. The pressure losses on the coolant side of the whole system were carefully adjusted to measured values in order to reproduce the correct volumetric flow rates in the single branches. which is installed upstream of the condenser and the radiator of the ICE in the cooling package. This simplification was found to be acceptable because the goal of this part of the model was to predict the coolant outlet temperature and not the exact temperatures of the single devices. consisting of power converters. the gear box. Here. Figure 6: Model of the drive train in veDYNA with sub model of hybrid power train. the axles and wheels as well as the chassis with the suspension (not shown here) was modeled in veDYNA. The internal combustion engine. The figure below shows that the thermal model of the inverter is simplified in such a way that all the thermal losses are fed to the coolant with a single heat source. In the future. The torque division between ICE and EM is controlled by a hybrid drive train controller which is also modeled in Simulink. The heat losses are calculated from an efficiency map and routed to the thermal model via the COM-interface. A supplementary Matlab / Simulink model was developed to simulate the hybrid power train and the electrical system. the simulation software veDYNA  was used. clipping the requested torque depending on the actual engine speed. Figure 8. Thus. From the electrical water pump the coolant is fed to the inverter because the power electronics needs to be at the lowest possible temperature level. which is an input for the electrical power system. The other output parameters of the model are the actual torque and the consumed electrical power.
the heat transfer factors between the single components and the coolant had to be adjusted by means of measured data.FLUIDFLAP Thermal Inertia 2. The results for a transient load cycle where the electrical machine was in generator mode with an electrical power up to 20kW are shown in Figure 11. The physical parameters of the components like mass and heat capacity were set according to supplier’s information. Therefore. Electrical Machine 2 heat flow EM1 [untransformed] Heat from EM2 Electrical Machine 1 heat flow EM2 [untransformed] Heat from EM1 1.FLUIDFLAP In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out Figure 9: Simulation model of the electrics / electronics cooling circuit (simplified) Measured Stator Temperature Simulated Stator Temperature Power Eelctrical Machine 1 coolant flow 140 Temperature (°C) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 300 600 900 Time (s) 1200 1500 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 1800 Electrical Power (kW) Figure 10: Detailed thermal model of the electrical drive (EM1) Figure 11: Simulated vs. measured stator temperature during transient load cycle . The required agreement between measured and simulated temperature of the stator could be achieved and the maximum stator temperature were predicted well within the range of 110 – 120°C.Water circuit Thermal Inertia In 1.FLUIDFLAP In Out 3.FLUIDFLAP Out Out Out In In DC/DC Converter Out 1 In 3 1 Out 1 In Out In Out In Out In Out In Out In 3 1 Out 2 Out 1 In 3 1 Out 2 2 2 Out 2 In 2 2 1 In 2 3 2 In Out In 1 Heat Losses DCDC DCAC ELKO 8.TUB In In 1 Out Out In Out 7.FLUIDFLAP CF Out Out In Out In Out In Out In External Heat Supply External Heat Supply In Out Radiator for Cooling Circuit 2 Out In Radiator [I] In Out Electrical Water Pump In Heat Losses Oilcooler Out Q Out 1.FLUIDFLAP 2 1 3 Out Q Quantity of heat In 1 Out 2 1 In 2 3 In Out 8.PU In Heat from Converter heat flow EM2 [untransformed] Out In 5.The main focus of the thermal model of the electrical machines was to simulate the coolant and structure temperatures even under transient conditions.
and the electric system were performed (so far the battery cooling circuit and the refrigeration circuit were not included in the vehicle model). The mean heat rejection of the electrical system (engine and converter) over the first 60 seconds is approximately 3. the coolant is heated up to 42°C at inverter outlet. a flat intersection. The electrical power is switched off after 60 seconds when the battery reaches the discharge limit of 65% state of charge (SOC). the heat losses of the electrical motors increase due to the decreasing engine efficiency. Starting from 35°C. More severe test cycles need to be investigated where the temperature of the inverter or of the electrical machine is the limiting parameter. During the uphill phase. the following results were obtained: • • • Maximum temperatures of power electronics. With these results. The cycle consists of an uphill grade. which is the continuous power limit of the motor. The test cycle is driven repeatedly 6 times. As the electrical power is relatively low during this test run. First simulation results for the US06-Cycle are shown in Figure 15. The supplied power of the ICE and the electrical motor are also shown in the figure. electrical drives Required coolant flow through engine. From these simulations. the coolant circuit can be re-designed so that all temperatures stay within the given limits for the driving cycles investigated. With the beginning of the descent the ICE is shut off and the electrical machines are switched to generator mode and the battery is recharged. The results of a simple test run of the hybrid power train are shown in Figure 12. simulations with a comprehensive simulation model consisting of the two coolant circuits. Nevertheless.5 kW under these driving conditions. the structure temperature of the electrical machine stays beneath 38°C. In Figure 15. It reaches a maximum temperature of 53°C which clearly indicates that under these driving conditions the thermal load of the electrical system is not the limiting factor for the electrical part of the power train. leading to slightly decreased temperatures of coolant and motor. The reaction of the thermal model to the heat flow is shown in Figure 14. followed by a downhill grade (compare z-profile in Figure 12). This will be investigated in the future. it was discovered that especially at low engine speeds.SYSTEM LAYOUT BY MEANS OF COUPLED SIMULATION For the layout of the thermal management system. the mechanical drive train. The structure of the electrical machine warms up much slower and thus the temperature increases until t=60 seconds when the machine is switched off. The heat losses of the inverter and electrical machines during the first part of the cycle are shown in Figure 13. Time [s] Figure 12: Simulation of hill drive with resulting power and state of charge . The coolant temperature increases relatively quick due to the small thermal inertia of the converter. when the vehicle was also accelerated. electrical machines Layout of radiators (component sizing) The peak at 10 seconds was found to be partially caused by oscillations of the drive controller where both traction motors and brake were activated at the same time. Pump B features 20% increased volumetric flow rate. the ICE was supported by the electrical motor EM1 with 25 kW. It can be seen that the peak temperature of the electrical machine increases over the first three cycles and seems to stay stable thereafter. the influence of two different water pumps on the temperatures is shown.
Ni-MH and Li-Ion batteries which are widely used today need a refrigeration system as heat sink to secure maximum operating temperature even at high ambient temperatures. as there is a strong interaction between the individual systems. the simulation results will be compared to measurement data from different driving cycles as: • NEDC • US06 • Different real world cycles (hot-land. water pump A Temperature EM1. the electrical. two or three cooling circuits working on various temperature levels are required to ensure safe operation of all components. and the thermal system is required. whereas the battery can both be cooled by air and liquid. electrical machines. pump A Temperature EM1. the electrical traction motors and the power electronics have relatively high heat losses and are commonly cooled by liquid (water / glycol). water pump B Coolant temperature.and structure temperatures over time (with different water pumps) CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK It has been shown that the cooling system of hybrid electric vehicles has to fulfill enhanced demands compared to the ones of conventional cars: The individual systems like combustion engine. For the system design. In particular. With such a model. Thus. electronics and battery work on different temperature levels. hill climb with trailer) . The internal combustion engine.Coolant Temperature Temperature of EM1 55 50 Temperature (°C) 45 40 35 30 0 20 40 60 Time (s) 80 100 120 Figure 13: Heat losses of inverter and electrical machines Figure 14: Temperatures of the coolant at the inverter outlet and structural temperature of the electrical machine EM1 Coolant temperature. In the future. cold-land. the temperatures of the individual components such as inverter or electrical machines can be investigated under different loads and ambient conditions. a comprehensive simulation model consisting of the mechanical. pump B Coolant Temperature [°C] Structure Time [s] Figure 15: Simulated water.
This function can be based on a cost function consisting of fuel consumption and battery charge .Furthermore. REFERENCES  M. March 20–21. Chicago. Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference 6. Hartmann. März.de  KULI: Software Tool for Vehicle Thermal Management Optimization (Version 5). Eckardt. Müller. Haus der Technik. Gessier.g. Starzinger. Conference New Electrical Drive Concepts for Hybrid Vehicles. Schmidhofer. Green Car Congress 2006  C. Revéreault.thesis. Rosenkranz. and Technology (BMVIT). Teuschl.S. J. . 2005 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the Kplus KompetenzzentrenProgramm of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport. Schletz: Mechatronische Integration von Hochleistungslektronik in Komponenten des Antriebsstrangs von Hybridfahrzeugen. UK. 2003  J-S.T. 2006  A. Illinois. C. Erjawetz. M. USA. Chen: Learning energy management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Germany. Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft mbH (FFG). Innovation. Austria (www. Brighton. the following questions need to be answered: • Influence of coolant temperature on engine efficiency. Hsu. Munich. B. 2005 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion (VPP) Conference Illinois Institute of Technology. Engineering Center Steyr. Therefore. G. an optimization strategy shall be implemented in the simulation model. F. Teuschl: Hybridisation of a Vehicle.g. especially at low engine loads  • Influence of the power consumption of auxiliary systems (e. J-L Liska: Battery Systems for the Growing and Diversified Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market. Köhler. 5th International CTI-Symposium. 2007  veDYNA: Comprehensive software for the simulation of vehicle dynamics. and die steirische Wirtschaftsförderung (SFG) for their financial support. D. the entire system will be optimized with respect to fuel consumption. Zöhrer. Lowe: Fundamentals of a Floating Refrigerant Loop Concept Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High Heat Flux Electronics. Germany. V. parameters influencing battery durability.W. www. 2007  J. Munich. B. March 20-21. March 20-21. Haus der Technik. Germany.at)  P. Ayers. Prix: Powertrain Hybridisation of a Full-Size SUV: Development and Validation of a Multi-Functional E-4WD Traction Module.kuli. A/C compressor) on overall system efficiency Based on these investigations. Tagung Neue elektrische Antriebskonzepte für Hybridfahrzeuge. Munich. Tagung Neue elektrische Antriebskonzepte für Hybridfahrzeuge. K. Chanfreau: Intelligent vehicle system thermal management in a mild hybrid – diesel vehicle. extended by further functions considering e. September 7-9. K. A. December 4-7. G. Additionally we like to thank the supporting companies and project partners MAGNA STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & CO KG and Graz University of Technology. Das Land Steiermark. U. Berlin. A. C599/059/2003. water pump. Germany. May 18-21. 2007  H.
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