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Coastal Engineering, 12 (1988) 175-189 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

, Amsterdam - - Printed in The Netherlands

175

Spectral Characteristics of Random Wave Run-Up


H. MASE

Department of Civil Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 (Japan) (Received July 14, 1987; accepted December 14, 1987 )

A SR C BT A T

Mase, H., 1988. Spectral characteristics of random wave run-up. Coastal Eng., 12: 175-189. The time series of shoreline variations (run-up variations) due to random waves have been measured on uniform sloping beaches with slopes ranging from 1/5 to 1/30 and the energy spectra of the variations (run-up spectra) have been examined. The main characteristics of run-up spectra obtained from the experimental results are as follows: (1) a phenomenon of energy saturation is seen in a high frequency region; and (2) the spectral energy densities are independent of offshore incident wave energy. In the saturation region, the run-up spectra show [ - 4 dependence and tan40 dependence (/: frequency, tan& beach slope). Only in a low frequency region, the energy densities increase with increasing incident wave energy. In addition to the experimental study, it is shown by numerical simulations that if run-up variations are formed by parabolas induced by bores running up and down on the beach surface, the spectra of the variations show f - 4 dependence, and the low frequency run-up energy densities increase with increasing running-up velocities of bores.

INTRODUCTION W a v e r u n - u p on c o a s t a l s t r u c t u r e s , s u c h as seawalls, dykes, surge b a r r i e r s a n d so on, is a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r in t h e design of h e i g h t s of t h e s t r u c t u r e s ; t h e r e f o r e , m a n y s t u d i e s o n w a v e r u n - u p for r e l a t i v e l y s t e e p slopes h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d out. Besides, r u n - u p v a r i a t i o n s ( u p - r u s h a n d b a c k - r u s h ) on n a t u r a l b e a c h e s are r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e c h a n g e of b e a c h profile n e a r t h e shoreline. T h e r e are m a i n l y t w o m e t h o d s to a n a l y z e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r u n - u p v a r i a t i o n s of r a n d o m waves: o n e is t h e i n d i v i d u a l r u n - u p w a v e a n a l y s i s ; t h e o t h e r is t h e s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s . F r o m t h e e n g i n e e r i n g v i e w p o i n t ( s u c h as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e h e i g h t s of c o a s t a l s t r u c t u r e s ), t h e i n d i v i d u a l r u n - u p w a v e a n a l y s i s is p r e f erable, b e c a u s e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s or e x t r e m e s t a t i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l r u n u p h e i g h t s ( r u n - u p c r e s t s ) are r e q u i r e d (Saville, 1962; B a t t j e s , 1971; K a m p huis a n d M o h a m e d , 1978; A h r e n s , 1978, 1983; M a s e a n d I w a g a k i , 1984; H o l m a n , 1986). T h e s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s is e m p l o y e d to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d y n a m i c response between incident waves and run-up variations and the spectral char-

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1988Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

176 acteristics of run-up variations themselves (Huntley et al., 1977: Guza and Thornton, 1982; Carlson, 1984). Huntley et al. (1977) analyzed the run-up variation data obtained at [bur natural beaches with slopes ranging from 0.065 to 0.13, and they showed that the run-up spectra in the high frequency region (higher than the peak [requency of offshore incident waves) take the form, S(f)= [~ g fl'~/(2~f)"] ~, where g is the gravity acceleration, fl the beach slope in radians and [ the frequency. Parameter ~ (~f) ~ takes the value of about 1.0, where ~[ is the bandwidth over which incident waves are large enough to break, or the bandwidth with the f -4 spectral form. This result was discussed in relation to the experimental evidence of monochromatic waves that there is a limiting amplitude for a standing wave at the shoreline. Low frequency run-up components were explained to be attributed to long waves such as standing waves or edge waves. Guza and T h o r n t o n ( 1982 ) measured the run-up variations on a gently sloping beach under a variety of conditions for incident waves and examined the run-up spectra. T h e y found that the run-up spectra in the high frequency region show -3 dependence and the energy densities are independent of incident wave energy (the so-called energy saturation), and the energy densities in the low frequency region increase and are saturated from the higher frequency side with an increase in the incident wave energy. Several problems remain: (1) It is not clear whether a phenomenon of energy saturation can be seen or not in run-up spectra (Guza and Thornton ( 1982 ) showed the energy saturation; however, according to the results of Huntley et al. (1977), the energy densities depend on the parameter ~ ). (2) What spectral form can be seen in the high frequency region? The result of Huntley et al. (1977) and Sutherland et al. (1976) is [-4, while the result of Guza and T h o r n t o n ( 1982 ) and Carlson ( 1984 ) is[ -"~. (3) Although Guza and T h o r n t o n (1982) considered that the difference of beach slopes is one of causes of the difference between f - 4 and [-:~, is the beach slope really one cause of the difference? (4) The relation between energy densities and beach slopes is not examined in the existing studies. (5) Are low frequency run-up components attributed only to long waves? The present paper examines the spectral characteristics of run-up variations under various conditions of offshore incident waves and beach slopes in a laboratory wave flume, keeping in mind the problems mentioned above. According to the theories of a bore by Shen and Meyer (1963) and Freeman and M~haut~ (1964), the time series of the leading water edge is described by a parabola. Even in random run-up variations, each individual run-up wave profile will be roughly approximated by a parabolic shape. In this paper, in addition to the experimental study, the spectral characteristics of numericallysimulated run-up variations by the superposition of parabolas are examined, and it is shown that the spectral characteristics of the numerical run-up variations are similar to those obtained from the experiments.

177

EXPERIMENTS

The data from which run-up spectra were analyzed are the same as those used by the author in a previous paper (Mase and Iwagaki, 1984). Here the experimental apparatus and procedures are briefly described. A series of tests was carried out in a 50 cm wide, 27 m long and 75 cm deep wave flume. A random wave generator of servo-controlled electro-hydraulic system was installed at one end. Artificial beaches with four different beach slopes of 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/30 were installed at the other end. The range of the slopes includes the beach slopes reported in Sutherland et al. { 1976), Huntley et al. (1977), Guza and Thornton (1982), and Carlson (1984). The water depth, h, in a uniform section of the flume was kept at 45 cm, but at 43

10m

-]

Wave G a u g e s ~

Run-upMeter

T
75cm

145cm | or 43cm ~. ~
~

, ~ ~'~ -~blope '~e tane:I/5,1/I0,I/20,I/30

27m

Fig. 1 (a). Outline of experimental apparatus.

Fig. 1 (b). Run-up meter.

178 cm in the case of 1/30 beach slope. The outline of the experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. l ( a ) . A wave gauge of capacitance type was used as a run-up meter, which was installed in a groove (3 cm wide and 1 cm deep) along a centerline of the beach to coincide with the height of the capacitance wire (2.2 mm diameter and 2 m long) and with the beach surface, see Fig. 1 (b). The run-up meter was calibrated by moving energy 10 cm along the beach surface; the calibration curve was almost approximated by a straight line. Additional calibration of the run-up meter was done by comparing run-up heights measured by the run-up meter and by a visual observation with a scale; the correlation coefficient between both run-up heights is about 0.99, see Mase and Iwagaki (1984). Random waves used here were simulated to have Pierson-Moskowitz type spectra with six kinds of peak frequencies at 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 Hz, and with two kinds of groupiness factors of 0.74 (Case 1) and 0.53 (Case 2), based on the study of Funke and Mansard ( 1979 ), see Mase and Iwagaki ( 1983 ). Significant wave heights were changed by three for random waves with peak frequencies from 0.4 to 0.8 Hz and by two for random waves with a 1.0 Hz peak frequency (in Cases 1 and 2) and a 1.2 Hz peak frequency (in Case 1 ). Water surface variations were measured by wave gauges of the capacitance type at water depths of 45 cm (40 cm in the case of 1/30 beach slope), 20 cm, 15 cm, 10 cm and 5 cm. Both water surface variations and run-up variations were recorded simultaneously by an analog data recorder. The records were digitized by an A - D converter at the sampling interval of 0.04 sec. The number of offshore individual waves, defined by the zero-upcrossing method, measured by the wave gauge installed at 45 cm or 40 cm water depth in each record, are from 650 to 900. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Profiles of run-up variations


S i n c e there was little effect of wave grouping of incident waves on the runup, spectra, only the data of Case 1 were used. Figure 2 shows examples of water surface variations at 5 cm water depth and vertical run-up variations from the still water level, where Fig. 2 (a) is for the 1/5 beach slope and Fig. 2 ( b ) for the 1/10 beach slope. In the case of a relatively steep beach, the correspondence between individual running-up bores and individual run-up waves is clear; the same number is attached to the corresponding bore and run-up wave in Fig. 2 (a). Each run-up wave profile will be approximated by a parabola. W h e n the beach slope becomes gentle, a period of one cycle of up-rush and back-rush of a bore becomes large; it occurs that a bore cannot run-up if the back-rush of a preceding bore is large and that before

179
~ 6 I 7 ^ 10 15

~ ~-I~ ~ . ~ .~ ~ |
~I

~ ~i-ll ~ l~ ~ ~~
"~m

o.oo

'

~.oo

o.oo 6

~.oo lO

~.~o 12

~o.oo 14 ~=
I~

Slope = I/5
~ I

0.00

g,O0

8.00

12.0Q

16.00

20.00

t (sec)

E ~

~I

o.oo

~.oo

8.00

~z.oo

~6.oo

~o.oo

Slope = I/lO

%.oo

..oo

8.00

i~.oo

16.oo

~o.oo

t (sec) Fig. 2. Water sur~ce variations at 5 cm water depth (upper side) and ve~ical ran-up variations (lower side): (a) 1/5; (b) I/I0 beach slope.
1.0-------------

~0.8 0.6

~
-

0.4

0.2
0.I

,~
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.81.0 2.0 3.0 tane/Hov/~O

Fig.3.Ratioofthenumberofindividualrun-upwavesto thatofoffshoreincidentwaves.

180

III0

Incident WaveI~ ~
i
-~ m~ ~d

-~

llr, II ktt

I~1 ~_ I~,1t

I~1

~ f-4

<i ~ ~~

o-'

'

' g~5~

~o"

'

f (~z)
Fig. 4. Incident wave energy spectra a n d corresponding run-up energy spectra.

a bore reaches a maximum run-up level the bore is overtaken and captured by the subsequent bore. Therefore, the number of individual run-up waves diminishes compared to that of individual runing-up bores, and the correspondence between bores and run-up waves cannot be seen, as shown in Fig. 2 (b). The ratio a of the number of run-up waves to that of offshore incident waves is shown in Fig. 3. The experimental data can be well arranged by the surf similarity parameter ~ (=tanO/Hx/-H-~o/Lo).The method to obtain frequency distributions of run-ups of random waves by summing up the run-up value of a periodic wave of which wave height and period are equal to those of each individual wave is not valid for the random waves with smaller value of ~.

Run-up spectra
In the calculation of spectra, the fast Fourier transformation technique was employed. The number of data points is 8192, the Nyquist frequency is 12.5

o"

~, , ,S,ST,e?#O"

S(f) (cm2sec) ,~ .,s.,~?,~,9#o ~ ~, .~ .~.~?,e~,#O'


~, ~,~. ,ss, 7,e~,#O ~

'

S(f) (cm2sec) ~ 3 S78g

~ 3 ~ 56789LC~

If
~ ~

,~
,

~ : :

~
~

~"

S(f) (cm2sec)
~ ~587

S(f) (cm2sec)
LO'
"

"~" .~,~ ~
\.l

M5 6 ? 8 9

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~o-' ,\, ,~,,~,,~o-' ,~,,,~,,~ ;


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182
2

100 __ 8

f=l.48Hz

i0 -I 8 ~

g
N

6
4

~"

10 -2

8 6

10 -3 8 2 4 6 8i 0 - I 2 3 tan (~

Fig. 6. Relationship between beach slope and run-up energy density in saturation frequency region.

Hz, the number of degrees of freedom is 42, and the bandwidth of spectral resolution is 0.064 Hz. Figure 4 shows the run-up spectra as well as the energy spectra of offshore incident waves with the peak frequency of 0.6 Hz in a log-log scale, where the same number is attached to the corresponding run-up spectrum and wave energy spectrum. It is seen from the figure that the energy densities in the high frequency region are independent of incident wave energy (the energy is saturated) and the slope of the spectra is - 4, and that the energy densities in the low frequency region increase with increasing incident wave energy.

183 Run-up spectra due to six kinds of random waves with the peak frequency from 0.4 to 1.2 Hz and with the largest energy level for each peak frequency are plotted in Fig. 5 for each beach slope. These figures show that in the saturation region, the run-up energy spectrum S([) is described by cf-4 (c is constant) except one case in the 1/30 beach, regardless of offshore incident wave conditions and beach slopes. We can also see that the run-up energy densities for the same value of frequency become smaller with a decrease in the beach slope. Figure 6 shows the relationship between the beach slope and the run-up energy density in the saturation region in a log-log scale, where the energy densities at frequencies of 0.51, 1.03, 1.48 and 1.99 Hz are plotted by using the mean value and the standard deviation. The slope of straight lines in the figure is 4; that is, the energy density is proportional to tan40. CONSIDERATION ON RUN-UP SPECTRA

Existing consideration
Huntley et al. (1977) and Guza and Thornton (1982) discussed the characteristics of run-up spectra in the high frequency region as follows, based on the results of monochromatic swash amplitude as (a maximum vertical amplitude of shoreline variation). The parameter expressed by

~ =a~0)e/g~ ~

(1)

becomes constant independently of offshore incident wave heights when incident waves are large enough to break. The constant value is different according to the researchers; es ~ 1.25 by Battjes {1974 ), 3 +_1 by Guza and Bowen ( 1976 ), 2 _+0.3 by Van Dorn {1978). By using eqn. (1), the spectral energy density of the swash is expressed by S ( w ) d w ~ e~ g2]~4 0)-4 (2)

which shows the energy density is proportional to 0) - 4 and f14. It is considered for random waves that spectral component waves would behave as monochromatic waves as governed by eqn. (2); however, Guza and T h o r n t o n found f -3 dependence in the run-up spectra. Low frequency run-up components in the nonsaturated region are explained to be attributed to long waves such as edge waves and standing waves. When the incident wave energies increase, the run-up energy densities which are not saturated increase till the saturation levels; as a result, the saturation region extends to the lower frequency region.

184 ~'~
i~

t[ I

~ ;c2 \

":-t3"

V t4 ~ tn / "tn+l Time

"..! ~:n+2

: tn+3

'

Fig. 7. Outline of simulation method of run-up variations.


~|
~ ~

Slope = I/I0

Simulated

variation

~o~ o ~ t (sec)

.oo

a0

t (sec)

o0

Fig. 8. Example of numericallysimul~ed ran-up variations.

New explanation by numerical simulation


It is doubtful t h a t the linear components of a wave spectrum behave as individual monochromatic waves, particularly in a very strong wave field associated with wave breaking. Since run-up spectra are calculated from the Fourier coefficients of the time series of run-up variations, it is thought t h a t the characteristics of run-up spectra are attributable to the run-up profile itself. According to the study of Shen and Meyer (1963), the time history of the leading water edge on a frictionless dry bed due to a bore, R (t), is described by a parabola as follows:

R(t) =Uo tan0 t - g tan20 t 2

(3)

The R (t) is converted into the vertical displacement from the horizontal one by Shen et al. The time t h a t the bore begins to run up is taken as an origin of time axis, and Uo is the velocity of the bore at the undisturbed shoreline. Freeman and Mdhaut~ (1964) showed t h a t the time history of the leading water

o
N

I
f / /

/ i

~ i~ I ~I
-~n
~ ~

J J / ,,., r ,.,~ ~
N ~ ~-

~--~T

,~

IP
I/1
..~ :~

i7
I~ ll Ii Z iO l
~I~Lgs 11 K ~ ~.~

@ ze~.~ ~ ~,

,oCg~-~

~ @~g~g~

~ ,.o~gg'

' ,.o~

( ~ Z ~uo) (t)S

(~asZ~) (~)S

>

o~

|
@] 6~t. gS

.~,171 t.,~,
~ ,~ iCl~6e#-9

h ~

t~

'
(~asz~) (~)S

,.0

U.~ ~

(~asZm~) (~)S

186 edge is also a parabola if there are no characteristic curves which overtake the leading characteristic curve, even if the effect of friction exists. The R (t) of eqn. (3) can be expressed as the following infinite Fourier series:

R(t)

1 2 ~ 2gtan20 2n~t = - ~ T g t a n 2 0 - n=l (2nz~/T)2 C S - ~ -' ~

O<_t<_T

(4)

where T is the duration of one cycle of up-rush and back-rush described by

T = 2uo /gtanO

(5)

From eqn. (4), the spectral energy density of a Fourier component wave is expressed as

S ( f ) d [ ~ 4 g ~ tan40/-4,

[=niT

(6)

which shows that the energy density is proportional to [ -4 and tan40. Here, numerical simulations of run-up variations by the superposition of parabolas described by eqn. (3) with different run-up velocities Uon (n = 1,N) at different times tn (n= 1,N), as sketched in Fig. 7, are carried out. The sampling interval is 0.04 sec, and the number of data points is 8192. Beach slopes are selected as 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/30. The time tn is determined by uniform random numbers. The number N is taken as 1500 for the 1/5 beach slope, 500 for the 1/10 beach slope, 300 for the 1/20 beach slope and 200 for the 1/30 beach slope. Normal random numbers with the mean value of 100 cm/sec and the standard deviation of 40 cm/sec are used as the run-up velocities Uo.. A set of Uon multiplied by 0.8 and 0.9 has also been used in order to examine the change of run-up spectra with the change of incident run-up velocities. Such selection of N, tn and uoo is not based on a physical consideration. The object is to demonstrate that the run-up variations being formed by parabolas show f -4 dependence and the increase of incident run-up velocities increase low frequency energy densities of run-up variations. Figure 8 shows the numerically simulated run-up variations on the 1/10 beach for three sets of Uo.. Figure 9 shows the energy spectra of the numerical run-up variations for each beach slope in a log-log scale. The slope of the run-up spectra in the high frequency region is - 4 , except for the region higher than 0.5 Hz of the 1/30 beach slope in Fig. 9 (d). The energy densities in the lower region increase with an increase in the run-up velocities. DISCUSSION Energy saturation can be seen in the experimental and numerical run-up spectra, see Figs. 4, 5 and 9. In the numerical simulations, however, since the energy densities change according to the choice of the run-up velocities Uoj~and the number N, the energy saturation cannot be reproduced completely by the

187

present method. The important thing is that the energy spectra of the numerical run-up variations being formed by parabolas have the form of f - 4 in the high frequency region similar to the experimental results. There is no effect of beach slopes on the spectral slopes ( - 4 or - 3 ) in the saturation region, in the range from 1/5 to 1/30 beach slope, see Fig. 5; therefore, we must seek other causes about the difference between f -4 and [ -3. It is verified from the experimental results that the run-up energy densities in the saturation region are proportional to tan40, which can be estimated from eqns. (2) and (6). In the simulations, although there are no incident long wave components, low frequency run-up components are generated by the interaction of parabolic shapes and their energy densities increase with an increase in the run-up velocities as shown in Fig. 9. In Fig. 8, a small parabola is included in a large parabola when the run-up velocities increase; which results in an increase of low frequency run-up components. Similar consideration can be seen in Carlson (1984). He measured the run-up variations at two different natural beaches under the condition that there were few long waves. It was shown that in spite of no long waves, low frequency run-up components are generated on the beach surface by the interaction between up-rush and back-rush. Thus, the interaction of bores on the beach surface is one cause of generating low frequency runup components.
CONCLUSIONS

Run-up spectra obtained from the experiments show the energy saturation (that is, the spectral energy densities are independent of incident wave energy), and the f - 4 dependence and the tan40 dependence (/: frequency, tan0: beach slope) in the saturation region. Experimental results also show that only in the low frequency region, the energy densities increase with an increase in the incident wave energy. Furthermore, it was found that the beach slope is not a reason of the difference between f - 4 and f - 3 spectral form. These characteristics are considered to be attributed to the run-up profile itself, and it was found that if run-up variations are formed by parabolas induced by bores with different run-up velocities at different times, the spectra of the variation show the f -4 dependence and low frequency run-up components are generated by the interaction of parabolic shapes, and their energy densities increase with an increase in the run-up velocities of bores similar to the experimental results.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author would like to thank Prof. Y. Iwagaki of Meijo University (Emer-

188 itus P r o f e s s o r of K y o t o U n i v e r s i t y ) for his advice a n d suggestions. T h i s s t u d y is p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d b y a G r a n t - i n - A i d for E n c o u r a g e m e n t of Y o u n g S c i e n t i s t o f T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e a n d Culture. NOTATION


a s

f
g Lo N

R(t) S(/), S(~o)


T t t,~
tanO
~to ~On

= vertical swash amplitude - frequency = a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y = deep water significant wave height = deep water significant wave length = n u m b e r o f b o r e s in n u m e r i c a l s i m u l a t i o n = t i m e h i s t o r y of l e a d i n g w a t e r edge = spectral energy density = d u r a t i o n of one cycle of u p - r u s h a n d b a c k - r u s h = time = t i m e s w h e n b o r e s s t a r t to r u n u p in n u m e r i c a l s i m u l a t i o n (n= 1 , N ) = b e a c h slope = v e l o c i t y of b o r e a t u n d i s t u r b e d s h o r e l i n e = velocities of b o r e s in n u m e r i c a l s i m u l a t i o n (n= 1,N) = r a t i o o f t h e n u m b e r o f r u n - u p w a v e s to t h a t of o f f s h o r e i n c i d e n t waves = b e a c h slope in r a d i a n s = b a n d w i d t h w i t h t h e f -4 r u n - u p s p e c t r a l f o r m = nondimensional vertical swash amplitude = c o e f f i c i e n t o f r u n - u p s p e c t r u m in s a t u r a t i o n region = surf similarity parameter = angular frequency

(~

~s

REFERENCES Ahrens, J.P., 1979. Irregular wave runup. Coastal Structures '79, ASCE, pp. 998-1019. Ahrens, J.P., 1983. Wave runup on idealized structures. Proc. Coastal Structures '83, ASCE, pp. 925-938. Battjes, J.A., 1971. Run-up distributions of waves breaking on slopes. J. Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Eng. Div., ASCE, 97 {WWl): 91-114. Battjes, J.A., 1974. Surf similarity. Proc. 14th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 466-480. Carlson, C.T., 1984. Field studies of run-up on dissipative beaches. Proc. 19th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 399-414. Freeman, J.C. and M~hautd, B.L., 1964. Wave breakers on a beach and surges on a dry bed. J. Hydraulics Div., ASCE, 90 (HY2): 187-216. Funke, E.R. and Mansard, E.P.D., 1979. On the synthesis of realistic sea states in a laboratory flume. Nat. Res. Council of Canada, Hydraulics Lab. Rep., LTR-HY-66, 54 pp.

189 Guza, R.T. and Bowen, A.J., 1976. Resonant interactions for waves breaking on a beach. Proc. 15th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 560-579. Guza, R.T. and Thornton, E.B., 1982. Swash oscillation on a natural beach. J. Geophys. Res., 87: 483-491. Holman, R.A., 1986. Extreme value statistics for wave run-up on a natural beach. Coastal Eng., 9: 527-544. Huntley, D.A., Guza, R.T. and Bowen, A.J., 1977. A universal form for shoreline run-up spectra. J. Geophys. Res., 82: 2577-2581. Kamphuis, J.W. and Mohamed, N., 1978. Run-up of irregular waves on plane smooth slope. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Div., ASCE, 104(WW2): 135-146. Mase, H. and Iwagaki, Y., 1983. Random wave simulation considering wave groups. Coastal Eng. in Japan, JSCE, 26: 61-75. Mase, H. and Iwagaki, Y., 1984. Run-up of random waves on gentle slopes. Proc. 19th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 593-609. Saville, T., Jr., 1962. An approximation of the wave run-up frequency distribution. Proc. 8th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 48-59. Shen, M.C. and Meyer, R.E., 1963. Climb of a bore on a beach, Part 3. Run-up. J. Fluid Mech., 16: 113-125. Sutherland, A.J., Sharma, J.N. and Shemdin, O.H., 1976. Wave rumup on a simulated beach. Proc. 15th Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, pp. 752-766. Van Dorn, W.G., 1978. Breaking invariants in shoaling waves. J. Geophys. Res., 83: 2981-2987.