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Jian (Andrew) Zhang Networked Systems, CRL National ICT Australia (NICTA) Andrew.Zhang@nicta.com.au

Preface

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gave its approval, in the form of a spectral mask in the range 3.1-10.6 GHz, for commercial applications of Ultra Wideband (UWB) systems in US in 2002. UWB system is defined with respect to the bandwidth of the radiated signal. With its extremely large bandwidth, UWB opens up many new applications, including very high data rate communications and low data rate communications and accurate locations, both with low complexity, power consumption and cost. UWB is becoming the core technique for short range communications. However, to realize these attractive features, UWB research and development has to cope with a number of formidable challenges. In this chapter, based on the tutorial given in AusWireless06, we will address the fundamentals of UWB communication systems, their driving applications, open research problems, and practical system development. The review basically focuses on high level summation, with technical and mathematical details omitted. Some references are provided for interested readers for further study. The slides of the tutorial are available from http://users.rsise.anu.edu.au/~jian/UWB_tutor2.pdf.

1. UWB Basics

In the last few years, there has been a rapidly growing interest in UWB systems [Bar00, Foe01, GTG+05, YG04]. These systems make use of ultra-short duration pulses which yield ultra-wide bandwidth signals characterized by extremely low power spectral densities. UWB systems are particularly promising for short-range wireless communications as they combine high speed with low complexity, low power

consumption, low probability of intercept, immunity to multipath fading, ability of penetrating walls, and multiuser capabilities. UWB was conceived in the radar application domain and it is a recent innovation for commercial applications. The academic research on UWB communications was initiated by Scholtz in 1993 [Sch93]. However, not until recently has great attention been paid due to the drive from industry. Research into UWB was further promoted when the FCC (US) released the “First Report and Order”. A “short” history of UWB is shown in Table 1. 1895 1963 1973 1974 1989 1992 1993 2002 G. Marconi invents UWB radio Time-domain electromagnetics (Ross’63) Fundamental patent on UWB comms. (Ross’73) Commercial ground-penetrating UWB radar (Morey’74) DoD introduces the term ‘Ultra Wideband’ UWB point-to-point radios (Withington’92] UWB multiple access with time-hopping (Scholtz’93) FCC partly approves the commercial application of UWB

Table 1 “short” history of UWB So what is UWB? According to FCC, UWB is officially defined as a system which has radiated signal with -10dB bandwidth larger than 500MHz or fractional bandwidth larger than 20%. Practical UWB systems could be classified as carrier-less and carrier systems. The former uses extremely short pulses instead of continuous waves to convey information, and generally does not require mixers to up-converting and down-converting signals; the latter uses mixer, similar to conventional systems. Figure 1 shows some UWB waveforms, which are the n-order differentiated versions

2 of the basic Gaussian waveform exp(−2π (t / t p ) ) .

3 -51. 5. The interaction of UWB emissions with the . 14 and tp1=0. Scattering and Loss Phenomenology).3 -53. Table 2 details the FCC mask for indoor UWB communications on frequency band and the corresponding power. As UWB could cause potential interference to existing users. the allowed radiation power is strictly constrained. The motivation for UWB is driven by Channel Physics of wave interaction (i. secure transmission (Essentially undetectable) and penetration ability. UWB is a way of spectrum reuse by limiting the transmitted power to be very low.e. right: some typical UWB waveforms (Gaussian waveforms) in time and frequency domain. fading robustness.75ns. Frequency (MHz) 960-1610 1610-1990 1990-3100 3100-10600 Above 10600 EIRP (dBm/MHz) -75.3 -51.Figure 1.3 -41. Frequency band and power limitation Main features of UWB include huge capacity potential.5ns. where n=2. left: UWB and narrow band signals in time and frequency domain. tp2=0. and designing of UWB systems is all about Bandwidth. low power and low cost transceiver.3 Table 2. precise localization capability.

UWB is immune to multipath fading because UWB receiver correlation window is short in time (narrow time window).environment enables utility that cannot be obtained with narrowband. First. Spatial diversity of reflected UWB signals allows propagation around obstacles and it is hard to break a true-UWB link . UWB could even have a path loss factor smaller than 2 (free space propagation factor) due to its high temporal resolution ability. As shown in Figure 2. the other gets through.if one path is blocked. Measured UWB Figure 2 Received power as a function of node separation (feet) Motivated by its huge bandwidth. This is supported by the following three factors. It resolves reflections (paths are separable and distinct). Third. It is known that narrowband measurements can confuse multipath fading for attenuation. low power low data-rate communications and locations. Second. UWB finds many applications in short-range high speed communications. and can use separate multipath components to improve performance with Rake. fading and scintillation are optimally minimized as objects big enough to interact with the EM wave are resolvable. Narrowband radio has deep fades because narrowband receiver correlation window is long (wide time window) and it sees the addition of multiple paths. UWB resolves and takes advantage of multipath. UWB has the capability to penetrate at high data rates as the lowest freq spectrum maximizes “skin-depth” for a given resolution. . reflection is minimized from clutter as objects smaller than a quarter of wavelength (Rayleigh region) disappear from the viewpoint of the transmitter. ambiguous multipath.

• UWB signals have excellent temporal and spatial resolution ability. and PC based applications including wireless USB. and the bandwidth trades off the power limit imposed by regulations. high data rate benefits directly from the huge bandwidth. and wall penetrating ability (in some spectrum). • UWB provides a potential carrier-less solution. For low data rate communication and localization. single hop or multi-hop. UWB is very promising for sensor network and portable radar. mesh network may be a good solution for building a large network. Open Research Problems . For high speed communications. due to its short link range at high data rate. for example. As a summation. such as QAM. This could open many new applications with locating function. where data rate is generally boosted by advanced techniques with higher complexity. we have the following comments here. 2. 1394 and so on. in UWB. • UWB is only defined with respect to the bandwidth of the radiated signal. Due to its short length in time domain. and thus is very promising for high speed WLAN. which are less applied in conventional systems. UWB can provide up to several Gbps data rate at relatively low power consumption. were of particular interest for UWB and were the focus in the early study of UWB systems [WS00]. • Different to other broadband wireless communications. there is no limitation on applicable signaling and modulation techniques. time-hopping. PAM and PSK can be used. However. WPAN. Conventional modulations. and ad-hoc or coordinated. UWB networking can adopt various topologies. direct sequence and OFDM signaling are generally considered.imaging and vehicular radar. To realize multi-user access. point to point or multiaccess. As UWB systems are defined according to the bandwidth of the signal. pulse position modulation and time-hopping techniques. Pulse is the unique label of UWB systems.

while potential high temporal diversity and reduced accuracy requirement in fixed-point implementations.1 Portable Antenna Design Several typical requirements for antennas may change in the UWB case: 1) Antenna efficiency could vary significantly across the spectrum and should be considered globally instead of locally. large bandwidth. are hard to be satisfied by general characterization methods. It not only leads to particular propagation properties. . including waveform distortion due to frequency dependent propagation. • Stringent timing requirement demands algorithms with fast processing speed. low complexity and timing error robustness. such as low duty cycle. 3. and omni-directional impulse. A good solution has to balance the influence of the bandwidth. but also has impact on the capacity. • Large bandwidth implies the necessities of high sampling rate and advanced narrowband interference suppression algorithms. pulse is the unique label of UWB systems. • Many advanced features of UWB signals. increased complexity and cost. 2) Not only the transmitted power but also the shape of radiated spectrum has to be controlled. multipath immunity and inherent full digital solution. especially in RF parts. peak pulse amplitude (efficiency). UWB properties that challenge conventional design can be summarized as follows: • Complex propagation properties. such as phase dispersion. dense multipath signals with low energy. make system design difficult. Huge bandwidth is the core factor of UWB system design.As we have emphasized before. can be exploited. and 3) Some critical performance factors of antenna. pulse width (data rate). interference and receiver performance [ZKA05r]. It results in challenges.

what is the ``bandwidth'' property of the measurement apparatus? The shape of the pulse used to probe the channels and the antenna characteristics are of special importance. Second. e. Considering the required energy of resolvable multipath signals in the presence of noise. is widely used to model UWB channels. 3.2 Wave Shaping and Modulations As well as satisfying the limits of power spectrum density in the regulation.g. switching speeds. power. in particular. Two critical problems in the measurement campaign determine the accuracy of the obtained model. One interesting problem is whether there is an optimal bandwidth range in terms of propagation.Earlier design of UWB antennas was constrained to physically large-scale ones in the Radar applications.4 Coexistence and Interference Suppression .. transmitted power usually cannot be maximized in wave shaping design when regulation mask is to be followed.3 Propagation Property and Channel Characterization Significant effort has been dedicated to UWB channel characterization [CSW02. and reliable control of the shape of pulse itself. this optimal bandwidth should exist somewhere. practical implementation concerns. for single-band UWB systems. Portable UWB antenna design is a completely fresh ground to be explored. UWB signals exhibit lognormal fading or Nakagami fading instead of the widely used Rayleigh fading because there are far less multipath signals arriving at a single resolution period. Today. PCWD03]. wave shaping can be meaningful for the whole system [LYG03. 3. 3. sync acquisition and other aspects in the whole system. Cluster and ray structures. CWM02]. the Saleh-Valenzuela model. It is believed that in the small-scale. It is possible and preferable to design an optimal wave shaper jointly considering the interference resistance. First. Both of them should be UWBaware so that a practical result can be anticipated. generally considered factors on the selection and design of the pulse shape comprise: the control of spectrum envelop and the ratio of peak-to-average emitted power. In particular. the signal capturing and post data processing techniques should also be UWB-aware.

while frequency domain approaches are based on subspace algorithms. it might be hard to get accurate estimates for both timing and channel estimation. 3.2 Auto-correlation based Algorithms . Time domain approaches include crosscorrelation and auto-correlation based algorithms.5 Synchronization and Channel Estimation Synchronization and channel estimation are key problems in UWB system.5. 3.The possibility of permitting the operation of UWB radio systems over unlicensed spectrum largely depends on the degree of interference to the victims.1 Cross-correlation based Algorithms These are conventional algorithms where a local template is applied to the received signal and timing is achieved by locating the peak in the correlation output. As each multipath signal has low energy. The interference of UWB to existing systems is always there. and the emitter location with respect to specific narrowband equipment characteristics. On the other hand. the interference on UWB systems from conventional systems is less concerned. Interference suppression schemes concentrate on the design of spectrally flat UWB signals with very few discrete spectrum lines by combining the shaping function and spread spectrum codes. low sampling rate and low computational complexity in very dense multipath channels with very low energy of multipath signals. The algorithms are liable to narrowband interference. as the large bandwidth of UWB signals implies simplicity and flexibility to remove strong narrowband interference. Efficient searching strategies [HS02] are required when training sequence with large period is used. Algorithms in the literature can be classified into two types: time domain and frequency domain approaches. Whether interference is tolerable depends on the acceptable operating distance. interference is mainly evaluated via the spectral characteristics of UWB signal transmission and the characteristics of an aggregate of UWB signals. The timing resolution ability depends on the sampling rate. The interference depends on the shape and power of UWB signals.5. 3. Theoretically. The task subjects to the requirements of high resolution ability.

Therefore an effective algorithm should be robust to the errors in the channel and template signal estimation. TG05. 3. Thus algorithms which are less sensitive to the timing jitter are preferable. some of these algorithms may have low efficiency. correlation receivers and RAKE receivers [CS02. Complex and advanced signal processing algorithms can be incorporated into these basic receivers.. The advantages of the scheme are its high resolution ability and reduced sampling rate requirement. thus the accuracy requirement on channel estimation can be largely relaxed. In these systems. These algorithms can achieve synchronization faster and more effectively than cross-correlation based methods. and channel estimation is not needed for detection. each with low energy. and reduced energy collection. received signal is correlated with its delayed version. inter-symbol interference is assumed to be absent in the systems. Generally. due to the extremely narrow pulse width.7 Multi-user Access . WCS00]. at the cost of reduced data rate. the UWB channel introduces waveform distortion and numerous multipath signals. On the other hand. and peaky output can be observed when timing point is aligned.Auto-correlation based algorithms apply to the so-called transmitted reference systems [RO06] and systems using “dirty template” [YGS07]. 3. e. Pia04. the disadvantages are its high complexity associated with singular value decomposition of large matrix. The scheme uses bandpass filter to achieve sampling rate reduction and estimates timing and channel based on subspace approaches.3 Subspace Method with Reduced Sampling Rate In [MKV03]. CWVM03. In practice. shift invariant techniques.g. timing errors usually imply marked degradation of performance. In [ZKA03]. it is found that equal gain combining can achieve similar performance to maximal ratio combining in a UWB Rake receiver.6 Receiver Design Basic UWB receivers include threshold detectors. a subspace method based on spectrum estimation technique is proposed for synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems.5. 3. concealed in the noise. In addition.

DS-UWB and Multiband OFDM UWB were chosen as two candidate systems for the WPAN standard by IEEE802. incurring high cost. However. In Multiband . aimed at low cost.3a. 3. including time-hopping [WS00.There are typically three types of schemes which can be applied in UWB to realize multiple-user access. It is better to avoid MUI in a system level than to mitigate it in the receiver considering the low cost property of UWB systems. These single-band systems are inflexible in removing narrowband interference (NBI) and they are power-inefficient use of FCC mask. MG02]. and (indoor) UWB channels exhibit such properties. sufficient multipath and delay spread is present. UWB systems armed with MIMO techniques need achieve a good tradeoff between performance and complexity. Multi-user interference (MUI) can be mitigated similar to those in conventional systems [LR02. time-hopping. In this sense. Both systems are proven. 3. advanced signal processing techniques inevitably require high sampling rate for UWB signals. low power consumption applications.9 Signaling Scheme As mentioned earlier in the multi-user access schemes. MRR01]. beamforming may be a better option which could achieve good balance between performance improvement and cost increasing. and 2) the distance between antennas could be smaller in order to form independent spatial channels due to the shorter wavelength of UWB signals. and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). because 1) spatial multiplexing gain is obtained only if the scattering environment is rich enough or.8 Spatial Multiplexing and Time-Space Coding (or MIMO) The use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver opens up multiple parallel spatial data pipes within the same bandwidth and allows linear capacity increase provided rich scattering is present.15. DS and OFDM can all been applied in UWB systems. multiple-finger RAKE receivers and equalizers should be used which increase the system complexity significantly. In DS-CDMA UWB systems. The application of MIMO techniques in UWB systems seems particularly interesting. however. they both have disadvantages and cannot make full advantage of UWB properties. equivalently. However. direct-sequence (DS) code division.

novel system architectures are under investigations by considering the following issues – Bandwidth efficiency is not so important. If analog (sliding) correlator is used.OFDM UWB systems. – – – Very limited number of users in a network.15.3a shortlisted two candidate systems. and analog correlator. Short-range High-speed UWB Communications The ex. Resistive-terminated LNA has noise figure. UWB systems face several challenging problems in RF design [HHS04]. Power amplifier with good linearity. high dynamic range ADC. The IEEE standardization process had to be terminated after long-time stuck as the two parties supporting the two systems could not reach agreement. Shunt-FB and CG LNAs need gm = 40mA/V which makes sub-mW power consumption unfeasible. The system must be able to deal with dense multipath signals efficiently. Thus. Tradeoff between the sampling rate and quantization accuracy. complexity and cost are the first things to consider.10 Challenges in RF Development Because of its large bandwidth. and the problems of carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) sensitivity and large Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAR) are associated. The MBOA . Tradeoffs between LNA gain and Noise Figure for UWB signals High-speed. 3. Multiband OFDM UWB systems and DS-UWB systems. including the development of • • • • • • • • • • • Small portable antenna. Parallel ADC may be required and there is choice between TimeInterleaved and Frequency Channelized ADC. Performance. Large dynamic range required in the presence of narrowband interferers. expensive A/D converters with high sampling rate and long quantization digits are required. the design of delay line is difficult. 3.high-speed WPAN standardization group IEEE802. New UWB LNA.

MB-OFDM only uses low order modulations. Next.association continues its standardization based on Multiband OFDM UWB. 4. hopping is applied to each group. Only Band group #1 is used currently. such as QPSK. The basic idea of Multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM) is: The whole spectrum is divided into 14 bands each with 528MHz.1 Multiband OFDM UWB Systems There are several advantages when applying OFDM modulation to UWB systems: • OFDM is spectrally efficient (Not that important for UWB though) • OFDM has an inherent robustness against narrowband interference (important) • OFDM is capable of dealing with dense Multipath Channels (important) • Ability to comply with worldwide regulations (important). Freq. Table 3 shows the key parameters of MBOFDM systems. Band Group #1 Band #1 Band #2 Band #3 Band Group #2 Band #4 Band #5 Band #6 Band Group #3 Band #7 Band #8 Band #9 Band Group #4 Band #10 Band #11 Band #12 Band Group #5 Band #13 Band #14 3432 MHz 3960 MHz 4488 MHz 5016 MHz 5544 MHz 6072 MHz 6600 MHz 7128 MHz 7656 MHz 8184 MHz 8712 MHz 9240 MHz 9768 MHz 10296 MHz f Figure 3. OFDM modulation is applied to each band. and these bands are grouped. To simplify the ADC design and achieve good performance at low SNR. we examine the two systems. MB-OFDM uses frequency hopping and zero prefix to reduce its power spectrum density. Band plan of MB-OFDM systems To increase link distance. from the pure technical point of view. Convolution code is used as channel coding. Figure 3 shows the band plan. . Various approaches are introduced to improve frequency diversity.

frequency hopping causes slow packet synchronization as a receiver generally has to wait at a fixed carrier frequency to see effective output. frequency hopping is introduced in MB-OFDM. However. it causes very stringent requirement on the switching time and stability of frequency synthesizer. Time-frequency hopping mode .Table 3. Waiting period is up to 5 OFDM symbols after RF adaptation. RF switching time is roughly 2ns which is 10. symbols available for other functions including frequency offset estimation are reduced.11. Frequency hopping also enables multi-user access without decreasing single user’s data rate significantly. Table 4 shows the frequency hopping mode. Secondly. Since the length of preamble is fixed.000 times faster than that in 802. Key parameters of MB-OFDM systems Time-Frequency Hopping To extend the range of communications and mitigate interference. TFC Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BAND_ID 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 Table 4. Firstly. the use of frequency hopping also introduces some design problems.

and small on-chip Filters. Thus the complexity reduction of RF should be the first thing to consider.Diversity Improvement In OFDM systems. time domain spreading and dual carrier modulation (DCM). Data bits are interleaved and scattered across 6 consecutive OFDM symbols. It is known that some RF distortion caused by inferior RF components could be compensated by digital processing. domain spreading is achieved by using conjugate symmetric inputs over two largely spaced subcarriers. In general. For MB-OFDM design. the degree is limited. Time domain spreading is achieved by repeating the same information over two OFDM symbols. however. MB-OFDM also applies a three-stage interleaver to further exploit frequency diversity. each subcarrier sees Rayleigh fading and performance could be significantly degraded without exploiting frequency diversity. Freq. nonlinear distortion and out-of-band radiation generated by power amplifier due to the high peak-to-average power ratio of the signal. The resulting two 16-point symbols are then put onto two different subcarriers separated by 50 subcarriers. equivalent to the constraint length of the code. Frequency diversity is achieved by exploiting independent fading of subcarriers. I/Q imbalance. Digital Compensation of RF Distortion The large bandwidth of UWB signal imposes many challenges on RF design: ADC with high sampling rate and quantization accuracy. LNA with low noise figure. According to Moore’s law. DCM maps 4 interleaved bits onto two 16-point symbols using two fixed but different mappings. frequency diversity can be achieved by channel coding. Complexity and cost of these components increase quickly with the performance requirement increasing. power amplifier with good linearity. To improve frequency diversity. The maximum degree of diversity equals to the number of multipath signals given independent distributed multipath signals. This yields a 16-QAM-like constellation. the cost of digital circuits can be reduced much faster than that of analog circuits. the impairment of RF distortion on system performance can be roughly ranked in descending order as follows: Intercarrier interference caused by carrier frequency offset. phase noise . MB-OFDM systems introduce frequency domain spreading.

while the high band is roughly from 6 to 10 GHz. and make a low-cost RF solution possible. So the data rate of DS-UWB can match that in MB-OFDM although time spreading is used in DS-UWB.and DC offset. Modulation could be the one between BPSK and MBOK. Convolution codes with constraint length 6 and 4 can be used optionally for different data rates. Here. The symbols are drawn from a set of K ortho-normal vectors. The link range deceases with the data rate increasing. MBOK reduces to BPSK. DS-UWB can realize data rate from 28Mbps to 1320Mbps by changing the coding rate. 0. each symbol consists of K=M/2 chips and represents log2M bits. When M=2. 4. as mentioned before. providing short wavelet. -1). However. The lower band is roughly from 3 to 5 GHz.3 Comparison Both MB-OFDM and DS-UWB have advantages and disadvantages as briefly discussed before. DS-UWB provides low and scalable receiver complexity: ADC can range from 3 bits to 1 bit for super-low power implementation. in dense multipath channels which are typical for UWB in the non-line-of sight case. Each symbol is made with an Nchip code sequence. we make some systematic comparison and try to get some insight on the system design for UWB systems. In MBOK.2 DS-UWB Systems In the original DS-UWB proposal. consisting of ternary codes (+1. . and the length of code sequence (N). DS-UWB becomes inefficient in equalization and signal energy collection. provides long wavelet. 4. Common choices for the vectors include the Hadamard matrix and the identity matrix. • Signal bandwidth and data rate The signal bandwidth of DS-UWB is about three times of that in MB-OFDM. Digital compensation can significantly improve the performance degradation due to RF distortion. the whole band is divided into two subbands. Rake pipeline and equalizer can be optimized to trade off power and cost in multipath. and are modulated antipodally to give M possible symbols.

while MB-OFDM requires 5-6 bits. Low data-rate UWB Communications and Localizations Due to its excellent temporal resolution ability.• Frequency Selectivity and Fading DS-UWB (single carrier) results in frequency-selective fading with relatively low power fluctuation (variance). residual ISI introduced by carrier frequency offset and other system imperfections is hard to remove. • Equalization and Energy collection DS-UWB uses Rake structure to capture multipath energy. thus the two systems have similar complexity. MB-OFDM requires better power amplifier with larger dynamic range. Equalization in dense multipath to remove inter-symbol interference (ISI) is also one major disadvantage of DS-UWB. At the same time. which is simple and effective. IEEE802. Compared to DS-UWB. and the ADC cost is similar. However. In terms of digital baseband complexity.15.4a has defined an alternative low data rate WPAN and sensor network standard based on UWB. the degree of frequency diversity is limited by targeted data rate. more complex frequency synthesizer and sharper band filter to reject adjacent channel interference. whose complexity increases linearly with the increasing of Rake taps. However. Thus MB-OFDM has higher RF cost than DS-UWB. while MB-OFDM (multi-carrier) creates a bank of parallel channels that experience flat fading with a Rayleigh distribution (deep fades). 4. UWB trades power with bandwidth. Thus UWB is perfectly suitable for systems requiring low power robust communications and precise localization. UWB provides communication systems with precise localization capability. MB-OFDM can use frequency diversity for energy capturing. thus the product of sampling rate and number of quantization bits is approximately equivalent for the two systems. . • Hardware cost DS-UWB only requires 2 bits or so for quantization. DS-UWB requires Rake structure and MB-OFDM needs FFT module. Frequency domain equalization is simple.

15. There are four channels defined in the low band. . referring the process of measuring the distance between the transmitter and receiver.4a defines optional physical layer techniques (PHY) consisting of a UWB Impulse Radio (operating in unlicensed UWB spectrum) and a Chirp Spread Spectrum (operating in unlicensed 2. combined BPPM and BPSK for modulation. including Ternary codes for ranging. Repeated symbols with length 64. signal strength (SS) and angle of arrival (AOA).4GHz spectrum). and channel 2 (3952 – 4446MHz) is mandatory.811Mbps mandatory. The UWB PHY operates in the frequency range from 3211 – 4693 MHz and optionally from 5931. and time hopping mechanism for multiuser access and interference mitigation.1 to 26. There are quite a few novel techniques adopted in the standard.9-10304.03Mbps. TOA and TDOA are the two most suitable parameters to measure for UWB due to the signal’s super temporal resolution capability. Data rates vary from 0. each with 3dB bandwidth 494MHz. Ranging is the basis for localization. Each symbol consists of Ternary codes with length 31 or 127.25 MHz. time difference of arrival (TDOA). synchronization and channel estimation. 256 or 1024 in the preamble is used for ranging. Ranging can be realized by measuring parameters including time of arrival (TOA).IEEE802. These ternary codes have perfect periodic auto-correlation and great cross-correlation. with 0.

Figure 4 shows a typical UWB transceiver suitable for low data rate applications. provides suppression of multiuser interference and the scrambling sequence. each symbol is represented by a sequence/burst of short time duration pluses. LNA is not necessary at the receiver as transmit power can be increased to allow higher noise figure.…. The FEC used by the UWB PHY is a concatenated code consisting of an outer ReedSolomon (RS) systematic block code and an inner systematic convolutional code. differentially-coherent and non-coherent receivers. The receiver circuits run at symbol rate (kHz or MHz) instead of at RF rate. The hopping sequence h(k).Nburst-1}. and thus power consumption and complexity can be significantly reduced.1. provides additional interference suppression among coherent receivers as well as spectral smoothing of the transmitted waveform. p(t) is the transmitted pulse shape at the input to the antenna. modulated by Ternary (BPPM+BPSK) modulation. where g0 and g1 are the modulation symbols obtained from a mapping of the coded bits. sj. The power consumption of such a transceiver can be below 10mW in the active mode and below 100uW in the sleeping mode. sj {j = 0. As shown in the structure. where each symbol carries two bits with one bit determining the position of a burst of pulses while another bit modulating the polarity of the same burst.In the payload. This particular modulation scheme admits multiple classes of receivers: coherent. Oscillator at the receiver can also be omitted by using envelop detector. is the scrambling sequence and takes the possible values {-1 or 1}. TPPM is the duration of the binary pulse position modulation time slot. A mathematical form of the kth UWB PHY symbol can be written as x ( k ) (t ) = N burst j =1 ∑g (k ) 1 sj ( p t − g 0k ) T PPM − jTc − h ( k ) Tburst ( ). .

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A research overview

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