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Learning objects

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1. Numeral track 2. Butterfly ten frame 3. Dominoes 4. Arrays 5. Chinese abacus 6. Arrow card game 7. Eggs in a carton 8. Plasticine snakes 9. Penguin pins 10. Washing line 11. Remainders count 12. Darts game 13. Addition wheel 14. Hundreds chart windows 15. Calendar game 16. Four turns to 100

* No support material provided

Lesson focus

Before and after numbers Combinations of 10 Subitising, addition Multiplication Addition and whole numbers Place value Subtraction Length Subtraction Counting to 24 Multiplication and division Subtraction Addition Counting to 100

Stage

ES1 and S1 ES1 and S1 ES1 and S1 S1 and S2 S2 S2 ES1 and S1 ES1 and S1 ES1 and S1 ES1 S2 and S3 S1 and S2 S1 and S2 S1 and S2

Page

4 5 9 10 * * 11 * 12 14 15 19 22 30

Addition Addition

S2 S2

31 35

Numeral track

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Identifying the number before and after a given number ES1 and S1 Number, Whole numbers, NES1.1, NS1.1 (two-digit numbers) Forward number word sequence: level 2, 3 Backward number word sequence: level 2, 3 Before and after, page 87 DENS 1

Number sets 1-10 4-13 15-24 26-35 30-39 37-46 43-52 51-60 58-67 72-81 89-98

Prepare before and after charts for each pair of students as shown in the diagram below. Numerals are written down the centre column of the chart. These numerals should be within an appropriate range for the students. Students are given numeral cards to sort and place on the chart in either the number-before or number-after spaces to form number sequences.

65 59 71 89 95 84 77 90 80 72

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Combinations to 10 ES1 and S1 Number, Addition and subtraction, NES1.2, NS1.2 Perceptual counting, spatial patterns, combining and partitioning procedures, base 10. Ten frames, Perceptual page 112, Figurative page 184

The game consists of nine games, sets of combinations to ten: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2 butterflies flew away, 8 left 5 butterflies flew away, 5 left 4 butterflies flew away, 6 left 7 butterflies flew away, 3 left 3 butterflies flew away, 7 left 6. 7. 8. 9. 8 butterflies flew away, 2 left 1 butterfly flew away, 9 left 6 butterflies flew away, 4 left 9 butterflies flew away, 1 left

Model the use of ten frames on the overhead projector by filling an empty ten frame with two different-coloured transparent counters. Encourage students to discuss the number combinations they see on the ten frame. Provide students with a set of ten frame cards from 0 to 10 including two fives. Students play a memory game for the combinations to 10.

BLM

BLM

BLM

Dominoes

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Subitising, addition ES1 and S1 Number, Addition and subtraction, NES1.2, NS1.2 Perceptual counting, spatial patterns, subtising, partitioning and combining, counting on Dot patterns, Perceptual page 115 Dot flash, Perceptual page 109 Flash cards, Perceptual page 114 Add two dice, Figurative page 163, Two-dice toss, Figurative page 171

Computer task: Dominoes There are six domino combinations: 5 + __ = 9 5 + __ = 10 5 + __ = 8 5 + __ = 6 5 + __ = 11 5 + __ = 7 Off computer tasks:

Domino additions

Provide students with two sets of cards representing the die patterns 1 to 6, and one set of numeral cards 1 to 12. Encourage students to find all the domino combinations for a given number. For example: six and two is eight five and three is eight four and four is eight

Dot flash

With the overhead projector light turned off, place counters on the projector in a standard dot pattern. Vary the number of counters from two to ten. Instruct the students to look at the screen carefully while you switch the light on for a brief period of time. Have the students use their own counters to make the pattern shown on the overhead or draw the pattern they saw. Ask the students to make statements about the patterns they saw as well as combinations of parts for the pattern. For example, for a pattern of five dots the child may seethe combination two and three or four and one or two and two and one.

Flash cards

Give flash dot-pattern cards for numbers up to ten to the students. (See BLM DENS 1 page 141) Provide students with a collection of counters to construct the same pattern as on the dot-pattern card.

Arrays

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Multiplication S1 and S2 Number, Multiplication and division, NS1.3, NS2.3 Building multiplication and division through equal grouping: level 2 and 3 Arrays, Figurative page 188 Guess my square, Figurative page 190 DENS 2 reference: Create an array, Counting by ones, page 98

There are ten arrays included in the learning object: 1. 4 x 3 2. 5 x 3 3. 4 x 4 4. 5 x 4 5. 3 x 3 6. 6 x 3 7. 7 x 5 8. 6 x 4 9. 5 x 5 10. 8 x 3

Guess my square

Organise students into pairs so that they are sitting opposite each other. Provide each student with an equal number of multi-link cubes or pattern tiles and a sheet of cardboard which will be used as a screen. Ask students to take turns to construct a simple array pattern using the material provided. Students should screen the array from their partner until the pattern is completed. The student then briefly shows the array to the partner before screening the array again. The other student constructs the same array pattern from memory. Instruct students to uncover and compare both array patterns. The students then calculate the total number of items in each array.

Create an array

Explain the term array to the students and provide them with a 10 x 10 array and two sheets of paper. Use an overhead projector or large chart to demonstrate how the 10 x 10 array can be covered with two pieces of paper to form other arrays. For example, cover the top three rows with paper and the first five columns with another piece of paper to form a 7 x 5 array (7 rows with 5 in each row). Ask the students to use their arrays sheets and paper to make nominated arrays. Have the students use skip counting of the rows to determine the answer.

(Cardboard)

(cardboard)

10

Egg carton

Lesson focus: Subtraction Stage: ES1 and S1 Syllabus reference: Number, Addition and subtraction, NES1.2, NS1.2 CMIT reference: Figurative counting DENS 1 reference: Blocks on a Bowl, page 159

Place a container, such as an empty ice-cream container, between a pair of students. Turn the container upside down and place five Unifix blocks on top. Instruct students to look away while their partner takes away some, or all, of the blocks from the top of the container and hides them under the container. The first student turns back to see how many blocks are left on top of the container. Using this information, the student determines how many blocks were placed under the container. The student may then lift the container to confirm the answer. Adaptions: Emergent: Perceptual: Figurative: Counting On: Use 5 plastic teddies or cubes Use 5-10 plastic teddies or cubes Use 10 or more cubes Use 15-20 cubes

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Penguin pins

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Subtraction ES1 and S1 Number, Addition and subtraction, NES1.2, NS1.2 Partitioning Orange Tree, page 267 DENS 1, BLM pages 286-287

Provide each pair of students with an outline of an orange tree and 20 counters. Instruct the students to place the counters onto the tree. The students then pick the oranges from the tree by moving nominated numbers of counters away. (Students can roll either a 1-6, 1-10 or 1-20 die to indicate the number of oranges to take off the tree) Ask the students to determine how many oranges are left on the tree and to record the number combinations. Adaptions: Use an apple tree with 10 counters.

12

BLM

13

Washing line

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 1 reference: Counting to 24 ES1 Number, Whole numbers, NES1.1 Numeral identification Hang it on the line, emergent page 37

The game includes three washing lines: 1. 2. 3. 1 10 7 16 15 24

Hang it on the line (whole class activity)

Hang a washing line (nylon rope or similar) across the chalkboard or between two chairs. Ask the students to peg numeral cards in the correct sequence on to the washing line. Vary this activity by having students peg the cards in a backwards sequence or by displaying some numeral cards on the line and asking students to replace the missing cards correctly. Variations: Use the numeral cards 1 30. Flip over the odd numbers displaying the even numbers only. Children whisper count by twos. Display only the multiples of three, children count by threes etc Use A4 card, cut in half vertically, and write the numbers on the lower half and fold the card in half. Placing the card over the line is more effective than using pegs, as it is easier to turn the cards around to hide the numbers.

67

68

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Remainders count

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 2 reference: Multiplication and division S2 and S3 Number, Multiplication and division, NS2.3, NS3.3 Building multiplication and division through equal grouping: level 5 Remainders count, page 278

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Provide each pair of students with three numeral dice and paper on which to record. In turns, students roll the dice and using the three numbers shown make a division number sentence. For example if a 6, 4 and 5 were rolled, then a student could make 46 5. The student determines the answer and keeps a tally of any remainders; in this case the remainder would be one. However, if the student makes the sentence 45 6, the remainder would be three. The remainders are added and become the students score. The winner is the first to reach a score of 20.

Variations

Once the dice have been rolled, the students partner determines the division question. Students try to give each other questions that will result in the lowest possible remainder. Use dice numbered 4 9, remainders are added to reach a score of 30. Play the game with the whole class divided into two teams. Teams record their remainders on a chart. (see above)

15

BLM

Remainder

Curriculum K12 Directorate NSW Department of Education and Training

Remainders count

16

BLM

Remainders count

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Curriculum K12 Directorate NSW Department of Education and Training

17

BLM

Remainders count

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Curriculum K12 Directorate NSW Department of Education and Training

18

Darts game

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: Subtraction S1 and S2 Number, Addition and subtraction, NS1.2, NS2.2 Building place value through grouping: level 1

Students can use an empty number line and hundreds chart to assist with the calculation.

Countdown

The gameboard, enlarged to A3 is placed on the desk or floor. The object of the game is to reduce the countdown to zero, starting at 101 with the least number of throws. This is done by throwing counters at the dartboard and deducting the amount from the total. Students can double or triple their score by hitting the red bands on the board. The first student to reach zero exactly wins. Use an empty number line to record the score and number of throws.

First to zero

Students start at 101, roll a die (either 1-6, 1-10 or 1-12 etc) in turn and subtract the number from the total. The first student to reach zero exactly wins.

19

BLM

Countdown

Equipment

Gameboard enlarged to A3 size Counters Hundreds chart to assist with calculations

How to play

The object of the game is to reduce the countdown to zero, starting at 101 with the least number of throws. This is done by throwing counters at the dartboard and deducting the amount from the total. Students can double their score by hitting the outer red ring, and triple their score by hitting the inner red ring on the board. The first student to reach zero exactly wins. Use an empty number line to record the score and number of throws.

20

BLM

Countdown

10 5 1

7 3

Double your score if you hit the outer red ring triple your score if you hit the inner red ring.

Curriculum K12 Directorate t NSW Department of Education and Training

21

Addition wheel

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: Addition S1 and S2 Number, Addition and subtraction, NS1.2, NS2.2 Building addition and subtraction through grouping (Facile strategies)

Begin by placing the centre number first, then drag a different number into each circle so that each line of three adds up to a total of 15. The second challenge requires each line of three to total 18 and the third challenge a total of 12.

Addition wheel 1 Addition wheel 2 Magic totals Interlocking magic circles Magic diamond Addition square Consecutive numbers

22

BLM

Addition wheel 1

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 1 to 9

How to play

Place the given 9 numbers in the circles so that each of the four rows add up to:

1. 15 2. 18 3. 12

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BLM

Addition wheel 2

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 5 to 13

How to play

Place the 9 counters in the circles so that each of the four rows adds up to: 1. 27 2. 24 3. 30

24

BLM

Magic totals

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 5, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9, 9, 9.

How to play

Place the counters on the board so that when you add along any of the lines the total of the three circles is always 21. How many solutions can you find?

25

BLM

Interlocking magic circles

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 1 to 6

How to play

Place the 6 counters into the circles so that the numbers around each large circle add up to 14.

26

BLM

Magic diamond

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 1 to 9

How to play

Place 8 of the counters onto the gameboard so that if you add the numbers: around the big diamond around the small diamond along the straight line across the chart along the straight line down the chart the total will be 20 each time.

27

BLM

Addition square

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 1 to 8

How to play

Place the counters 1 to 8 on the circles so that the numbers on each side of the square: 1. Add up to 12 2. Add up to 13 3. Add up to 14 4. Add up to 15

28

BLM

Consecutive numbers

Equipment

Gameboard Counters numbered 1 to 8

How to play

Place the numbers 1 to 8 in the circles so that no two consecutive numbers in the circles are joined by a line. (Consecutive numbers are two numbers which follow each other in succession, e.g. 2, 3; 5, 6)

29

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 2 reference: Identifying the number before and after a given two-digit number and counting forwards and backwards by tens, on and off the decade. S1 and S2 Number, Whole numbers, NS1.1 Number, Addition and subtraction, NS1.2 Building place value through grouping: level 1 Numeral identification: level 3 Hundred chart windows, page 76

Provide the students with a blank hundred chart grid. Have the students place the window card on top of the grid and using the grid to assist them, determine which numbers on the hundred chart should be recorded in each square of the window. Have the students rotate the window card 90 to reveal new boxes on the hundred chart grid. Students need to rotate the card three times and repeat the process of recording the missing numbers. Cut out black areas on cards. Using all three cards will reveal all numbers on the hundred chart.

30

Calendar game

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: Addition S1 and S2 Number, Addition and subtraction, NS1.2, NS2.2 Building addition and subtraction through grouping: facile counting strategies Building place value through grouping: level 1 DENS 2 reference: Using a calendar, page 245

Materials

Distribute numeral cards 1-31 and cards displaying the days of the week to the students. Pose a problem whereby the students have to place the cards in the correct row and column to complete a calendar. For example: The only information I have is that the 13th is a Saturday. Now complete the calendar. Ask the students with the Saturday card and the numeral card showing 13 to place their cards down on the floor first. Ask questions which will then allow each student to place his or her card down. For example, Which number comes before 13? Which number comes after 13? Which number will be directly under 13 on the calendar? Where will number 1 go? If a student makes an error, let the class discover the mistake and state how it should be corrected. Students then record the calendar month and write about all the patterns they saw. (see worksheet) Reference: Talking about Patterns and Algebra, Calendar patterns, pages 81 & 82

31

BLM

Calendar Game __________________

32

BLM

33

BLM

34

Lesson focus: Stage: Syllabus reference: CMIT reference: DENS 2 reference: Addition S1 and S2 Number, Addition and subtraction, NS1.2, NS2.2 Building place value through grouping: level 1 Four turns to 100, page 80

Whilst playing 4 Turns to 100 on the computer, students use an empty number line to record their total.

Organise the students into pairs or groups of four. Provide each group of students with a pack of cards in the range 1 to 9. Each player draws a card from the deck and decides if the number they have drawn will represent ones or tens. For example, if a five is drawn it can represent five or fifty. The players take a second draw from the pack, again nominating if the number represents tens or ones and add the number to their first card. Have the students record their total on an empty number line. Continue the activity until each student has drawn four cards. The player with the highest total not exceeding 100 wins.

35

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