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Genus Species

Infective stage Pathogenic stage Definitive host Intermediate host MOT

Vector Disease Signs and Symptoms

Trypanosoma Gambiense/Brucei Rhodiense Cruzi  Trypomastigote- motile (flagellated) extracellular  Trypomastigote- motile (flagellated) form extracellular form  Trypomastigote and epimastigote present in tsetse  Amastigote- intracellular & fly nonmotile, present in macrophages, lymph nodes and organs (brain, heart)  trypomastigote & epimastigotekissing bug Trypomastigote Trypomastigote Trypomastigote Trypomastigote Tsetse fly Kissing bug/Ruduviid bug Humans Humans bite; contaminated blood, transfusion Tunneling of the trypomastigotes into the skin (ie. bug defecates after feeding, trypanosomes present in feces); contaminated blood, transfusion Tsetse fly Tsetse fly( ie.Glossina Kissing bug/Ruduviid bug
pallipedes, Morcidas spp.?)

West African Sleeping Sickness: Slowly progressing fever, wasting, late neurologic symptoms

East African Sleeping Sickness More severe with rapid cycling of fevers, leading to neurologic symptoms and death in weeks to months

Chagas’ Disease
1. Chagoma- hardened area at the site of parasite entry 2. Acute- Chagas’ disease: fever, malaise, swollen lymph nodes  Meningoencephalitis  Acute myocarditis with tachycardia and EKG changes 3. Intermediate- low levels of parasite in blood, (+) Abs against T. cruzi, (-) signs and symptoms, most people remain in this phase for life 4. Chronic-some progress to this stage  Cardiomyopathy: heart dilation, heart failure, arrhythmia  Megadisease: large dilated, poorly functioning hollow organs, lead to: -Megacolon: constipation, abd. pain -Megaesophagus: dysphagia, vomitting

African Sleeping Sickness: 1. Hard, painful skin ulcer at the site of tsetse fly bite, heals
in 2 weeks( chancre- 1 sign), chagoma 2. fever, headache, lymph node swelling 3. fevers subside then relapses can occur (lasts for months) 4. CNS symptoms: daytime drowsiness, behavioral changes, difficulty waking, slurred speech, coma, death

Pathognomonic sign Cause of death Diagnosis

Wintterbottom sign: posterior cervical lymph nodes are enlarged, non-tender, and are like ripe plums renal/cardiac complications; results in coma death usually
after coinfection with malaria and agents causing pneumonia 1. Visualize trypamostigote in blood, spinal, fluid, lymph nodes 2. Serology: high IgM titers 1. Visualize trypomastigote in blood, spinal, fluid, lymph nodes 2. Xenodiagnosis: 40 lab bugs are allowed to feed on pt., after 1 mo bugs are examined


1. Suramin- does not penetrate CNS 2. Melarsoprol- with CNS involvement 3. Alternatives: Pentamidine, Eflomithine

1. Nitrofurtimox- acute 2. Benznidazole 3. No antibiotic for chronic


common in young.arsenical compound . weight loss. Zoonotic (carried by: rodents.negative in patients with low cell mediated immunity -diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis -active visceral leishmaniasis Treatment Stibogluconate. lasts 20-40 years 4. abd. foxes) Sandfly Leishmaniasis: Cutaneous-tropica Mucocutaneous-Brazilienses Diffuse/Visceral-Donovani 1. Demonstration of protozoa -blood smear -biopsy of skin lesions. inside the cells of RES Infective stage Pathogenic stage Definitive host Intermediate host MOT Vector Disease Humans Sandlfy bite. Mucocutaneous. lips. Contaminated blood.(Kala-azar). Diffuse-nodules at the bite site (ie. Donovani  Promastigotes. Braziliensis. leishmanin skin test. treatment lasts 20 years 3. near the nose. soft palate. transfusion.flagellated (inside the sandlfy)  Amastigote: intracellular & nonflagellated. malnourished: fever.ulcers appear on mucus membranes at bite site heals. swelling (hepatosplenomegaly). does not ulcerate) and over the body (esp. Visceral. Cutaneous-single ulcer at the site of bite( Oriental bite).Genus Species Leishmania Tropica. ulcers erode the nasal septum. anorexia. leaves a depigmented scar 2. often fatal Signs and Symptoms Pathognomonic sign Cause of death Diagnosis 1. heals in 1 yr. spleen or liver 2.

fatal in 1 week Pathognomonic sign Cause of death Diagnosis Treatment CSF exam . fatal in 1 year 2. Corneal infection -Lives in freshwater lakes. Cyst stage in the brain Naegleria fowleri Amoeba Infective stage Pathogenic stage Definitive host Intermediate host MOT -Lives in freshwater lakes -eye infections from infected contact lens. ganulomatous brain infection. Chronic.Genus Species Acanthamoeba 1. Amoeba stage 2. warm Vector Disease Signs and Symptoms Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) Acute meningitis. solution Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GEA) 1.