Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 3 ASSIGNMENT
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - MB0050
Question 1: What do you mean by research? Explain its significance in social and business sciences. Answer 1: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The search for facts may be made through either: Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It’s a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. E.g. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat; a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse. It is subjective; the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is vague and inaccurate. Or Scientific Method: this is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. It is objective, precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences. Therefore, search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. Young defines Research as “a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques, aims to: a) Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts, b) Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations, c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. d) Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows: Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization. for both the government and business. Therefore. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to
. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy. Research helps to formulate alternative policies. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. market research. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases. involves various research problems. production and sales. for example. besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. although in itself it is not a part of research. and the availability of revenues.e.Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences According to a famous Hudson Maxim. mathematical. in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives.. Doubt is often better than overconfidence. Thus. or the optimization problems. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. All these researches are very useful for business and industry. Operational research relates to the application of logical. depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people. large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. “All progress is born of inquiry. research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. Thus. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers. and The prognosis. i. operations research. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task. More specifically. for it leads to inquiry. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking. increased amounts of which makes progress possible. which requires research. which are responsible for business decision making. it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behaviour. In the process. the prediction of future developments Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways. It brings out the significance of research. and inquiry leads to invention”. Government budget formulation.
If the experts are satisfied with the scale. In this case. statistical procedures or both. the researcher may conclude that the scale has face validity. Validity may be classified into different types. research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake. is also based on the judgment and subjective evaluation of both the researcher and outside experts. if attitude is the characteristic being measured. 1. Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types . Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. The determination of the content universe and the selection of the relevant items that are to be included in the measuring scale are both done based on the knowledge and skill of the investigator and other judges. a weighing machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighed. Sampling validity. rather than through a statistical method. For example.3.
Question 2: What is meant by validity How does it differ from reliability and what are its types? Answer :-Validity . as described below. To give a simple example. sampling validity will be determined by comparing the items in the measuring instrument with the items in the content universe.do something better or in a more efficient manner. the measuring instrument's content must be representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured. based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome. In other words.2 Reliability This refers to the ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results. Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables2.
Question3a :--. Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is. Why is a Literature Review Important?
. the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions. its content universe may comprise statements and questions indicating which aspects of attitude need to be measured.This means that a measurement scale should measure what it is supposed to measure. Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale.a) Face validity and b) Sampling validity. However. and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems. For example. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic. This. Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can be predicted based on another.2. like face validity. a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts.4.
. Provide the intellectual context for your work and situate it within the field. Choose research problems that can be supported by the resources available to your students.
In addition to expanding your knowledge about a research area. What are the Criteria of a good research problem?
Answer: -A good research problem must support multiple perspectives. A good research problem must be researchable. To help focus and refine your research question by articulating the knowledge gap. Ensure you will not be replicating existing knowledge or reproducing technical errors. The problem most be phrased in a way that avoids dichotomies and instead supports the generation and exploration of multiple perspectives. For assistance contact your supervisor or the Research Services Librarian
Question 3b:--.Answer: -To build knowledge and identify research methodologies and seminal works in your field. as it hones your ability to locate and peruse the relevant literature efficiently and effectively. undertaking a literature review is useful for: Information seeking. but more than one instructor has found herself or himself in the midst of a complex collaborative research project and realized that students don't have much to draw on for research. as it enhances your ability to apply analytical principles in identifying unbiased and valid research in your area. Critical analysis. Identify the distinctive contribution your research will make and to produce a rationale and justification for your study. A general rule of thumb is that a good problem is one that would generate a variety of viewpoints from a composite audience made up of reasonable people. Identify other researchers in your field (a researcher network is a valuable resource). It seems a bit obvious. Learn how research findings are discussed and presented in your discipline area. nor opportunities to conduct sufficient primary research.
In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below:
1) Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state.. In such a situation the hypothesis may be state as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =80 Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ ≠ 80
. To evaluate a state’s education system. If you are using an umbrella topic for a large class of students who will be working on related. considering the nature of the research problem. For instance. the average score of 100 of the state’s students selected on the random basis was 75. make sure that there is sufficient complexity in the research problems that the umbrella topic includes. more manageable problems in their learning teams. These research topics must relate strongly to one another in such a way that there will be a strong sense of coherence in the overall class effort. The state wants to know if there is a significance difference between the local scores and the national scores. in that case he can state his hypothesis as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ >10 tons Take another example. rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. The average score in an aptitude test administered at the national level is 80. Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis
Answer: -Procedure for Testing Hypothesis To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid.
Question 4:--.Umbrella topics must be sufficiently complex. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons. Mr.
we use alone tailed test. In other words.
5) Calculation of the Probability One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations.
. Generally. say.
3) Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance. If Ha is of the type greater than. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test. Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between. in practice. means). draw a sample to furnish empirical data. The variability of measurements within samples. the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry. In brief.
4) Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. but when Ha is of the type “whether greater or smaller” then we use a two-tailed test. The factors that affect the level of significance are: The magnitude of the difference between sample . if the null hypothesis were in fact true. The size of the sample. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose.
2) Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified.The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution.
The following are the factors that may jeopardize the internal validity. Here. the independent variable precedes dependent variable. then we run some risk of committing error type II. a researcher might compare the frequency of cancer cases among smokers and non-smokers or alternatively might compare the number of cancer cases in a population of smokers before and after they started smoking. Such factors could invalidate the inference that the variables are causally related.e. This issue is termed as ‘internal validity’. e. the major evidence is required to determine the time sequence of events i. the significance level. If a researcher wants to demonstrate a correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. In order to establish the internal validity. a researcher must answer the question of whether changes in the independent variable did infact. If a researcher is attempting to prove that the participation in an alcohol treatment group decreases denial of drinking problems. he or she must demonstrate that a decrease in denial took place after participation in the treatment group.g. Manipulation: Manipulation helps a researcher in establishing the time order of events. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I.g. Extrinsic factors Intrinsic factors (1) History (2) Maturation (3) Experimental mortality
Answer: -Components of a Research Design: The classic research design consists of four components: Comparison: It is an operation required to demonstrate that two variables are correlated. Control requires that the researcher rule out other factors as rival explanations of the observed association between the variables under investigation. The researcher needs to establish some form of control over the assignment to the treatment group so that he can measure the level of denial drinking problems before and after participation in the group Control: Control enables the researcher to determine that the observed co variation is non-spurious. but if we accept H0. cause the dependent variable to change. Explain the components of a research design.6) Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for α. e.
Question No 5:--. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than α value in case of one tailed test (and α/2 in case of two-tailed test). then reject the null hypothesis (i. accept the alternative hypothesis). but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis.e.
The design allows for pretest.Only control group design
Question No 5b:--. Randomization: Even if it were possible to avoid the effects of all the factors. another case with identical characteristics is selected for the control group. for each case in an experimental group. This concern is termed as external validity of research design. posttest and control group-experimental group comparisons. It permits the manipulation of the independent variable and thus determination of the time sequence. Two variations of the classical experiment design are stronger in this respect. They are: The Solomon four-group design The posttest.(4) Instrumentation (5) Testing (6) Regression artifact (7) Interactions with selections Methods to counteract the effect of Existing factors: Matching: It is the of equating the experimental group and control group on existing factors that are known to be related to the research hypotheses. It controls the most sources of internal validity by including randomized group. 4. Other factors of which the investigator is unaware may lead to erroneous causal interpretations. Generalization : Most research is concerned not only with the effect of one variable on another in the particular setting studied but also with its effect in other natural settings and on larger populations. another process whereby cases are assigned to the experimental group and control group. The external validity of this design is weak and it does not allow researchers to make generalization. Briefly explain the different types of research designs
. Two methods can be used for matching: Precision Matching: In this method. The two main issues of external validity are: Representativeness of the Sample Reactive Arrangements Conclusion: The classical experimental design is one of the strongest logical models for inferring causal relations. the experimental groups and control groups are made similar for each of the relevant variables separately rather than in combination. Frequency Distribution: In this method. Researchers avoid this problem by using Randomization. investigator can never be sure that all of them have been isolated.
however. the decision -making time frame. a causal research experiment to determine which of three prices results in the greatest profits). but there is more than one way to "get there from here. Some might think that the research design
.Answer: -TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS A research design is like a roadmap —you can see where you currently are.s u b t l e f a c t o r s . and can determine the best (most efficient and effective) route to take to get to your destination. the nature of the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . a cautionary note is in order. Choice of design type is not determined by the nature of the strategic decision faced by the manager such that we would use research design A whenever we need to evaluate the e x t e n t o f a n e w p r o d u c t o p p o r t u n i t y . What do customers mean by "good value"?). choice of research design is influenced by a number of variables such as the decision maker's attitude toward risk. determine the relationship between age and consumption rate). a n d o t h e r s u b t l e a n d n o t ." Choice of research design is not like solving a problem in algebra where there is only one correct answer and an infinite number of wrong ones. O u r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e a n d o b j e c t i v e s suggest which route (design) might be best to get us where we want to go.. and achieve a better "f eel" for the subject under investigation (e.s o . the size of the research budget. will depend upon the fundamental objective implied by the research question• T o c o n d u c t a g e n e r a l exploration o f t h e i s s u e .. the types of decisions being faced.g.. or phenomenon in a precise manner where we can attach numbers to represent the extent to which something occurs or determine the degree t w o o r m o r e variables cover (e. Choice of research design is more like selecting a cheesecake recipe—some a r e b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s b u t t h e r e i s n o o n e w h i c h i s u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d a s " b e s " Successfully completing a research project consists of making those choices that will fulfill the research purpose and obtain answers to the research questions in an efficient and effective manner. Some might think that the research design decision suggests a choice among the design types.g. The overall research design is intended to indicate exactly how the different design types will be utilized to get answers to the research questions or test the hypothesis.. This classification is frequently used and is quite popular. To attribute cause and effect relationships among two or more variables so that we can better understand and predict the outcome of one variable (e.. where you want to be at the completion of your journey. advertising). g a i n s o m e b r o a d i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e phenomenon. Before we discuss each of these design types.This classification is frequently used and is quite popular.g. Although there are research situations in which all the research questions might be answered by doing only one of these types (e. a cautionary note is in order. but by keeping our ultimate objective constantly in min d and u s i n g o u r m a p w e c a n a r r i v e a t o u r d e s t i n a t i o n . M u c h o f t h e c h o i c e . o r d e s i g n B w h e n d e c i d i n g o n w h i c h o f t w o advertising programs to run. Before we discuss each of these design types. We may have to take unforeseen detours along the way. it is more often the case that the research design might involve more than one of these types performed in some sequence. event.• To describe a population. Rather.g.g. sales) when varying another (e.
It is the simplest type of research.
Question No 6a:--. 6 Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. a causal research experiment to determine which of three prices results in the greatest profits). It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.
Question No 6b:--. research may be classified as: 1 Pure Research It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice 2 Applied Research It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. Although there are research situations in which all the research questions might be answered by doing only one of these types (e. 4 Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. According to the intent. it is more often the case that the research design might involve more than one of these types performed in some sequence. 5 Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. The overall research design is intended to indicate exactly how the different design types will be utilized to get answers to the research questions or test the hypothesis.g. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method?
Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods..decision suggests a choice among the d esign types. Explain the Sampling process?
. 3 Exploratory Research It is also known as formulative research.
“N” represents the size of the population. The term “unit” is used. The national population census is an example of census survey. samples are not necessarily people all the time. Although it is a subset. or technique of selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining the characteristics of the whole population.Answer: --
Sample and Sampling: A Sampling is a part of the total population. contrary to its general notion as a nation’s entire population has a much broader meaning in sampling. from which the sample is drawn. Census: A complete study of all the elements present in the population is known as a census. and time. the process of selecting a sample from a population using special sampling techniques called sampling. as in a business research process. those from bias will not. Specifying the sampling frame. Less precision is reflected by a larger standard error. process. seldom a popular with researchers. The general notion that a census generates more accurate data than sampling is not always true. Errors from chance will cancel each other out in the long run. therefore. the population may refer to the units. it is representative of the population and suitable for research in terms of cost. Precision is a measure of similarity. It can be an individual element or a group of elements selected from the population. the error. Limitations include failure in generating a complete and accurate list of all the members of the population and refusal of the elements to provide information. In sampling. Specifying the sampling unit.
. to the true value of a parameter. The size of the sample is represented by “n”. Bias can take different forms. Sampling is the act. It is a time consuming and costly process and is. convenience. This is one of the first things the analyst needs to define properly while conducting a business research. Selection of the sampling method. Bias: Bias is the term refers to how far the average statistic lies from the parameter it is estimating. population. Steps in Sampling Process: An operational sampling process can be divided into seven steps as given below: Defining the target population. Population OR Universe: The entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn is known as a population. It should be ensured in the sampling process itself that the sample selected is representative of the population. which arises when estimating a quantity. Precision: Precision is a measure of how close an estimate is expected to be. Therefore. Precision is usually expressed in terms of imprecision and related to the standard error of the estimate. A sample usually consists of various units of the population. Population or populations of interest are interchangeable terms. that is. A population of interest may be the universe of nations or cities. The sample group can be selected based on a probability or a non-probability approach. In other words.
Determination of sample size. Selecting the sample.
. Specifying the sampling plan.