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Nicholas Hawksmoor

Nicholas Hawksmoor
Nicholas Hawksmoor
Born c.1661 Nottinghamshire 25 March 1736 Millbank, London

Died

Nationality English Buildings Easton Neston Mausoleum Castle Howard Christ Church, Spitalfields St. George's, Bloomsbury St Mary Woolnoth St George in the East St Anne's Limehouse St Alfege Church, Greenwich All Souls College, Oxford The Queen's College, Oxford

Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 25 March 1736) was a British architect born in Nottinghamshire, probably in East Drayton or Ragnall.[1]

Life
Hawksmoor was born in Nottinghamshire in 1661, into a yeoman farming family, almost certainly in East Drayton or Ragnall, Nottinghamshire.[1] On his death he was to leave property at nearby Ragnall, Dunham and a house and land at Great Drayton. It is not known where he received his schooling, but it was probably in more than basic literacy. George Vertue, whose family had property in Hawksmoor's part of Nottingham shire, wrote in 1731 that he was taken as a youth to act as clerk by 'Justice Mellust in Yorkshire, where Mr Gouge senior did some fretwork ceilings afterwards Mr. Haukesmore [sic] came to London, became clerk to Sr. Christopher Wren & thence became an Architect'.[1] Wren who hearing of his 'early skill and genius' for architecture, took him as his clerk at about the age of 18. His early drawings in a sketch-book, containing sketches and notes some dated 1680 and 1683, of buildings in Nottingham, Coventry, Warwick, Bath, Bristol, Oxford and Northampton.[2] His somewhat amateur drawings, now in the Royal Institute of British Architects Drawings Collection, shows that he was still learning the techniques of his new profession at the age of 22. His first official post was as Deputy Surveyor to Wren at the Winchester Palace from 1683 until February 1685.[1] Hawksmoor's signature appears on a brickmaker's contract for Winchester Palace in November 1684.[2] Wren was paying him 2 shillings a day in 1685 as assistant in his office in Whitehall.[2] From about 1684 to about 1700, Hawksmoor worked with Christopher Wren on projects including Chelsea Hospital, St. Paul's Cathedral, Hampton Court Palace and Greenwich Hospital. Thanks to Wren's influence as Surveyor-General, Hawksmoor was named Clerk of the Works at Kensington Palace (1689) and Deputy Surveyor of Works at Greenwich (1705). In 1718, when Wren was superseded by the new, amateur Surveyor, William Benson, Hawksmoor was deprived of his double post to provide places for Benson's brother. "Poor Hawksmoor," wrote Vanbrugh in 1721. "What a Barbarous Age have his fine, ingenious Parts fallen into. What wou'd Monsr: Colbert in France have given for such a man?"[3] Only in 1726 after William Benson's successor Hewett died, Hawksmoor was restored to secretaryship, though not the Clerkship of the works - this post was given to Filtcroft. In 1696, Hawksmoor was appointed surveyor to the Commissioners of Sewers for Westminster, but was dismissed in 1700, '

Nicholas Hawksmoor having neglected' to attend the Court several days last past'. He then worked for a time with Sir John Vanbrugh, helping him build Blenheim Palace for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, where he took charge from 1705, after Vanbrugh's final break with the demanding Duchess of Marlborough, and Castle Howard for Charles Howard, later the 3rd Earl of Carlisle. In July 1721 John Vanbrugh made Hawksmoor his deputy as Comptroller of the Works. There is no doubt that Hawksmoor brought to the brilliant amateur the professional grounding he had received from Wren, but it is also arguable that Wren's architectural development was from the persuasion of his formal pupil, Hawksmoor. By 1700, Hawksmoor emerged with a major architectural personality, and in the next 20 years he proved himself to be one of the great masters of the English Baroque. His baroque, but somewhat classical and gothic architectural form was derived from his exploration of Antiquity, the Renaissance, the English Middle Ages and contemporary Italian baroque. Unlike many of his wealthier contemporaries, Hawksmoor never travelled to Italy on a Grand Tour, where he might have been influenced by the style of architecture there. Instead he studied engravings especially monuments of ancient Rome and reconstructions of the Temple of Solomon. In 1702, Hawksmoor designed the baroque country house of Easton Neston in Northamptonshire for Sir William Fermor. This is the only country house for which he was the sole architect, though he extensively remodelled Ockham House, now mostly destroyed, for the Lord Chief Justice King). Easton Neston was not completed as he intended, the symmetrical flanking wings and entrance colonnade, very much in the style of John Vanbrugh, remaining unexecuted. As he neared the age of 50, his creativeness was received by two universities, Oxford and Cambridge. In 1713, Hawksmoor was commissioned to complete King's College, Cambridge:[4] the scheme consisted of a Fellows' Building along King's Parade, and opposite the Chapel a monumental range of buildings containing the Great Hall, kitchens and to the south of that the library and Provost's Lodge. Wooden models and plans of the scheme survive, but it proved too expensive and Hawksmoor produced a second scaled down design. But the college that had invested heavily in the South Sea Company lost their money when the 'bubble' burst in 1720. The result was that Hawksmoor's scheme would never be executed, the college was finished later in the 18th century by James Gibbs and early in the 19th century by William Wilkins. In 1690s, Hawksmoor gave proposals for the library of the Queen's College, Oxford. However like many of his proposals for both universities, such as All Souls College, The Radcliffe Library, Brasenose College, Magdalen College Oxford, was not executed. After the death of Wren in 1723, Hawksmoor was appointed Surveyor to Westminster Abbey. This post received 100 pounds voted by Parliament for the repair and completion of the Abbey in 1698. The west towers of the Abbey were designed by Hawksmoor but was not completed until after his death.

Nicholas Hawksmoor

Hawksmoor conceived grand rebuilding schemes for central Oxford, most of which were not realised. The idea was for a round library for the Radcliffe Camera but that commission went to James Gibbs. He did design the Clarendon Building at Oxford; the Codrington Library and new buildings at All Souls College, Oxford; parts of Worcester College, Oxford with Sir George Clarke; the High Street screen at The Queen's College, Oxford and six new churches in London.

Hawksmoor's six London churches


In 1711, parliament passed an Act for the building of Fifty New Churches in the Cities of London and Westminster or the Suburbs thereof,[5] which established a commission which included Christopher Wren, John Vanburgh, Thomas Archer and a number of churchmen. It appointed Hawksmoor and William Dickinson as its surveyors. As supervising architects The West Towers, Westminster Abbey they were not necessarily expected to design all the churches themselves. Dickinson left his post in 1713 and was replaced by James Gibbs. Gibbs was removed from his post in 1716 and replaced by John James. James and Hawksmoor remained in office until the commission was wound up in 1733. The declining enthusiasm of the Commission, and the expense of the buildings, meant that only twelve churches were completed, six designed by Hawksmoor, and two by James in collaboration with Hawksmoor.[6] The two collaborations were St Luke Old Street (172733) and St John Horsleydown (172733), to which Hawksmoor's contribution seems to have been largely confined to the towers with their extraordinary steeples. The six churches wholly designed by Hawksmoor are his best-known independent works of architecture. They compare in their complexity of interpenetrating internal spaces with contemporaneous work in Italy by Francesco Borromini. Their spires, are essentially Gothic outlines executed in innovative and imaginative Classical detail. Although Hawksmoor and John James terminated the commission by 1733, they were still being paid "for carrying on and finishing the works under their care" until James's death. St Alfege's Church, Greenwich St George's Church, Bloomsbury Christ Church, Spitalfields St George in the East, Wapping St Mary Woolnoth St Anne's Limehouse

Nicholas Hawksmoor

Gallery of churches

St Alphege's Greenwich (171218), from the north-east

St Alphege's Greenwich (171218), the east front

St Alphege's Greenwich (171218), the west front, the upper part of the tower is by John James (1730)

St Alphege's Greenwich (171218), interior looking east

Christ Church Spitalfields (171429), west front

Christ Church Spitalfields (171429), east front

Christ Church Spitalfields (171429), interior looking east

Christ Church Spitalfields (171429), interior looking east

Christ Church Spitalfields (171429), interior looking west

St. Anne's Limehouse (171430), west front

St. Anne's Limehouse (171430), from the north-west

St. Anne's Limehouse (171430), interior looking east

St. Anne's Limehouse (171430), interior looking west

St. George in the East (171429), the west front

St. George in the East (171429), from the south-west

St. George in the East (171429), from the north-east

Nicholas Hawksmoor

St. George in the East (171429), detail of south wall

St. George in the East (171429), the interior looking east, as rebuilt after being bombed in 1941 in the London Blitz

St. George's Bloomsbury (1716-1731), the tower

St. George's Bloomsbury (1716-1731), the interior looking east

St. Mary Woolnoth (171623), the west front

St. Mary Woolnoth (171623), interior looking east

St. Luke's Old Street (172733), joint work with John James, tower by Hawksmoor

St. John's Horsleydown (172733), joint work with John James, tower by Hawksmoor, bombed in London Blitz then demolished

Westminster Abbey (173445), towers by Hawksmoor completed by John James

Nicholas Hawksmoor

Garden buildings and monuments


Hawksmoor also designed a number of structures for the gardens at Castle Howard these are: The Pyramid (1728) The Mausoleum (172940) built on the same scale as his London churches, it is almost certainly the first free-standing mausoleum built in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman empire.[7] The Carrmire Gate, (c.1730) The Temple of Venus (1731-5) demolished At Blenheim Palace he designed the Woodstock Gate[8] (1723) in the form of a Triumphal arch. He also designed the obelisk in Ripon market place, erected in 1702, at 80 feet in height it was the first large scale obelisk to be erected in Britain.[9]

Death and obituary


Hawksmoor died on 25 March 1736 in his house at Millbank[10] from 'Gout of the stomach'. He had suffered poor health for the last twenty years of his life and was often confined to bed hardly able to sign his name. His will instructed that he be buried at the church at Shenley, Hertfordshire. This has been deconsecrated and his tomb stone there is now in a private garden. It has this inscription:[11] PMS L Hic J[acet] NICHOLAUS HAWKSMOOR Armr ARCHITECTUS obijt vicesimo quin[t]o die [Martii] Anno Domini 1736 Aetatis 75 Hawksmoor's only child was a daughter, Elizabeth, whose second husband, Nathanial Blackerby, who wrote the obituary of his father-in-law. His obituary appeared in Read's Weekly Journal, no. 603. 27 March 1736. : Thursday morning died, at this house on Mill-Bank, Westminster, in a very advanced age, the learned and ingenious Nicholas Hawksmoor, Esq, one of the greatest Architects this or the preceeding (sic) Century has produc'd. His early skill in, and Genius for this noble science recommended him, when about 18 years of age, to the favour and esteem of his great master and predecessor, Sir Christopher Wren, under whom, during his life, and for himself since his death, he was concerned in the erecting more Publick (sic) Edifices, than any one life, among the moderns at least, can boast of. In King Charles II's reign, he was employ'd under Sir Christopher Wren, in the stately buildings at Winchester; as he was likewise in all the other publick structures, Palaces &c, erected by that great Man, under whom he was assisting, from the Beginning (factually wrong, Hawksmoor was 14 years old then) to the Finishing of that grand and noble Edifice the cathedral of St. Paul's, and of all the churches rebuilt after the Fire of London. At the building of Chelsea-College he was Deputy-Surveyor, and Clerk of Works, under Sir Christopher Wren. At Greenwich-Hospital he was, from the Beginning 'till a short time before his death, Clerk of Works. In the Reigns of King William and Queen Anne, he was Clerk of their Majesties Works at Kensington, and at Whitehall, St. Jame's and Westminster. In the reign of King George I, he was first Surveyor of all the new Churches, and Surveyor of Westminster-Abbey, from the death of Sir Christopher Wren. He was chiefly concern'd in designing and building a great number of magnificent Nobleman's Houses, and particularly (with Sir John Vanbrugh) those of Blenheim and Castle-Howard, at the latter of which he was at his Death, carrying on a Mausoleum in the most elegant and grand Stile

Nicholas Hawksmoor (sic), not to mention many others: But one of the most surprising of his undertakings, was the repairing of Beverley Minster, where the stone wall on the north-side was near three Foot out of the perpendicular, which he mov'd at once to its upright by means of a machine of his own invention. In short his numerous Publick Works at Oxford, perfected in his lifetime, and the design and model of Dr. Ratcliff's Library there, his design of a new Parliament-House, after the thought of Sir Christopher Wren; and, to mention no more, his noble Design for repairing the West-End of Westminster-Abbey, will all stand monuments to his great capacity, inexhaustible fancy, and solid judgement. He was perfectly skill'd in the History of Architecture, and could give exact account of all the famous buildings, both Antient (sic) and Modern, in every part of the world; to which his excellent memory, that never fail'd him to the very last, greatly contributed. Nor was architecture the only science he was master of. He was bred a scholar. and knew as well the learned as the modern tongues. He was a very skilful mathematician, geographer, and geometrician; and in drawing, which he practised to the last, though greatly afflicted with Chiragra, few excelled him. In his private life he was a tender husband, a loving father, a sincere friend, and a most agreeable companion; nor could the most poignant pains of Gout, which he for many years laboured under, ever ruffle or discompose his evenness of temper. And as his memory must always be dear to his Country, so the loss of so great and valuable man in sensibly, and in a more particular manner felt by those who had the pleasure of his personal acquaintance, and enjoy'd the happiness of his conversation. Upon his death he left a widow, to whom he bequested all his property in Westminster, Highgate, Shenley, and East Drayton,who later married William Theaker; gradchild of this second marriage ultimately inherited Hawksmoor's properties near Drayton after the death of the architect's widow. Hawksmoor's only child was a daughter, Elizabeth,

Gallery of architectural work

Easton Neston House (c.1695-1710), Northamptonshire, only the central block minus the dome was actually built

Easton Neston House (c.1695-1710)

King William Block (1699-1702), Greenwich Hospital, looking south-east

King William Block (1699-1702), Greenwich Hospital, west facade

The Obelisk (1702), Ripon, Yorkshire

Kensington Palace Orangery (170405), from the south west

Kensington Palace Orangery (170405), interior looking east

Clarendon Building (171213), Oxford, south front

Nicholas Hawksmoor

Clarendon Building (171213), Oxford, from the north-east

All Souls College (171634), Oxford, from the south-west

All Souls College (171634), Oxford , from the entrance gate looking east

Tower (171824), St. Michael, Cornhill, London

The Long Library (172225), Blenheim Palace

The Mausoleum (172942), Castle Howard

The Carrmire gate (c.1730), Castle Howard

Queen's College Oxford (173336), entrance gate & screen

Recovering Hawksmoor's Reputation


Modern scholarship has sought to distinguish Hawksmoor's work from that of Christopher Wren and the other designers in the Office of Works such as Robert Hooke. Many buildings were previously attributed without distinguishing their designers by name and Hawksmoor's reputation as an individual designer has been obscured by this fact. Modern re-apraisal began with a study in 1924 by Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel. The major breakthrough in Hawksmoor scholarship came with Kerry Downes's 1979 monograph the examined the numerous documents of Hawksmooor's work, a happy result of much of his work being for the Office of the King's Works, who kept their records. Hawksmoor's influence by Old Testament descriptions of the Temple of Solomon and lost wonders of the ancient world is explored in Pierre De La Ruffiniere's du Prey's 2000 study of Hawksmoor. In 2002 Hawksmoor was the subject of an award-winning monograph by the architectural historian Vaughan Hart, which appraised Hawksmoor in the light of archival discoveries since the work of Kerry Downes.

Hawksmoor in modern literature


Hawksmoor's architecture has influenced several poets and authors of the twentieth century. His church St Mary Woolnoth is mentioned in T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land (1922). Algernon Stitch lived in a "superb creation by Nicholas Hawksmoor" in London in the novel Scoop by Evelyn Waugh (1938). Hawksmoor is the subject of a poem by Iain Sinclair called 'Nicholas Hawksmoor: His Churches' which appeared in Sinclair's collection of poems Lud Heat (1975). Sinclair promoted the poetic interpretation of the architect's singular style of architectural composition that Hawksmoor's churches formed a pattern consistent with the forms of Theistic Satanism though there is no documentary or historic evidence for this. This idea was, however, embellished by Peter Ackroyd in his novel Hawksmoor (1985) the historical Hawksmoor is refigured as the fictional Devil-worshiper

Nicholas Hawksmoor Nicholas Dyer, while the eponymous Hawksmoor is a twentieth-century detective charged with investigating a series of murders perpertrated on Dyer's (Hawksmoor's) churches. Both Sinclair and Ackroyd's ideas in turn were further developed by Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell in their graphic novel, From Hell, which speculated that Jack the Ripper used Hawksmoor's buildings as part of ritual magic, with his victims as human sacrifice. In the appendix, Moore revealed that he had met and spoke with Sinclair on numerous occasions while developing the core ideas of the book. The argument includes the idea that the locations of the churches form a pentagram with ritual significance. Hawksmoor is mentioned in "The History Boys" by Alan Bennett, p82, where Akthar is questioned by Mrs Lintott about his interest in architecture.

Memorials
There is a school in Towcester, Northamptonshire named Nicholas Hawksmoor Primary School for the architect.

References
[1] Downes 1979, p.1 [2] [3] [4] [5] Downes 1979, p.2 Downes 1979, p.98 Doig 1979, pp.23 to 27 "St Anne, Limehouse" (http:/ / www. aim25. ac. uk/ cgi-bin/ vcdf/ detail?coll_id=15258& inst_id=118& nv1=search& nv2=). AIM25. . Retrieved 8 February 2012. [6] Downes 1970, p.103 [7] Curl 1980, p.179 [8] Hart 2002, p.122 [9] Barnes 2004, p.18 [10] Downes 1979, p.6 [11] Downes 1979, p.7

Sources
Barnes, Richard (2004). The Obelisk: A Monumental Feature in Britain. Frontier Publishing. Colvin, Howard. Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 16001840 (3rd ed.). Curl, James Stevens (1980). A Celebration of Death: An Introduction to some of the Buildings, Monuments and Settings of Funeray Architecture in the Western European tradition. Constable. Doig, Allan (1979). The Architectural Drawings Collection of King's College, Cambridge. Avebury Publishing. Downes, Kerry (1970). Hawksmoor. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN0-500-20096-3. Downes, Kerry (1979). Hawksmoor. A. Zwemmer Ltd. ISBN0-302-02783-1. De la Ruffiniere du Prey, Pierre (2000). Hawksmoor's London Churches: Architecture and Theology. London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Goodhart-Rendel, H.S. (1924). Nicholas Hawksmoor. London: Benn. Masters of Architecture series Hart, Vaughan (2002). Nicholas Hawksmoor: Rebuilding Ancient Wonders. Yale University Press. Exhibition catalogues Downes, Kerry (1977). Hawksmoor. An exhibition selected by Kerry Downes. London: Whitechapel Art Gallery. The Hawksmoor Committee (1962). Hawksmoor. London: Arts Council of Great Britain. Journals "Hawksmoor's Christ Church Spitalfields". Architectural Design 49 (7). 1979. A.D. Profile 22

Nicholas Hawksmoor

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External links
A Timeline of Hawksmoor's life (http://christchurchspitalfields.org/v2/hawksmoor/timeline/timeline.shtml) Hawksmoor's Bloomsbury church (http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1880284,00.html) Google map showing where Hawksmoor's London churches are (http://maps.google.co.uk/maps/ ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&msid=115784177921406587387.000467888d024b2f85482&ll=51.511948,-0. 069351&spn=0.104056,0.219727&z=12) Christ Church Spitalfields (http://www.ccspitalfields.org) Archival material relating to Nicholas Hawksmoor (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/searches/ subjectView.asp?ID=P13368) listed at the UK National Archives Portraits of Nicholas Hawksmoor (http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/person.php?LinkID=mp06292) at the National Portrait Gallery, London Images relating to Nicholas Hawksmoor (http://www.countrylifeimages.co.uk/Search.aspx?s=Nicholas Hawksmoor) at the Country Life Picture Library (http://www.countrylifeimages.co.uk/) Images relating to Nicholas Hawksmoor (http://viewfinder.english-heritage.org.uk/search/results. aspx?index=0&mainQuery=Nicholas Hawksmoor&searchType=all&form=basic&theme=&county=& district=&placeName=) at the National Monuments Record, English Heritage

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors


Nicholas Hawksmoor Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=536100475 Contributors: 777sms, Absvh, Airunp, Aka, AlexKazakhov, Architon, Artiquities, Barnabypage, Beardo, Biruitorul, Boyune01, Brycchan, Calsicol, Capzfan, Carbonix, Chris the speller, Conte Giacomo, D6, DH85868993, DWaterson, Daemonic Kangaroo, Dagonet, Dialectric, Dinasbran, Dominus, Eleassar, Erianna, Geh, George Burgess, Giano, Giano II, Goldenlane, Griffitts, Gruffi, Harry Potter, Hede2000, Isis, Jack1956, James Russiello, Jaraalbe, Jdforrester, Jevansen, Joedkins, Joopercoopers, Jps3, Kbthompson, Keith D, Kurpfalzbilder.de, Ladislav the Posthumous, LarRan, Look2See1, LoopZilla, ML, Magioladitis, Mattis, McGeddon, Mokwepa, Mordicai, Morwen, N12345n, Neddyseagoon, Nevilley, Nuttyskin, Omegastar, OwenBlacker, Paul A, Paul W, Prari, Ronkonkaman, Ruskinmonkey, SchreiberBike, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Smb1001, Someone in the Earth, Stevouk, Tassedethe, The Rationalist, Walgamanus, Wetman, Wholetone, Wiki alf, WilliamF1, Willsmith, WojPob, 45 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Western Towers, Westminster Abbey.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Western_Towers,_Westminster_Abbey.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jps3 (talk) File:Greenwich Church.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Greenwich_Church.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: user:SpaceMonkey File:St Alfege Greenwich 03.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Alfege_Greenwich_03.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St Alfege Greenwich 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Alfege_Greenwich_02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:StAlfeges-Interior1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StAlfeges-Interior1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Christ Church Spitalfields 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Church_Spitalfields_02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Christ Church Spitalfields 03.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Church_Spitalfields_03.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Christ Church 037.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Church_037.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bluedog423 File:Christ Church Spitalfields 04.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Church_Spitalfields_04.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Christ Church 041.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Church_041.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bluedog423 File:Limehouse st annes 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Limehouse_st_annes_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Kurpfalzbilder.de, Smalljim, Tarquin Binary File:St Anne Limehouse.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Anne_Limehouse.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman. Original uploader was Sue Wallace at en.wikipedia File:St Anne Limehouse2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Anne_Limehouse2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St Anne Limehouse3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Anne_Limehouse3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St George in the East Church, East London - geograph.org.uk - 185691.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_George_in_the_East_Church,_East_London_-_geograph.org.uk_-_185691.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Contributors: Jonathan Cardy File:StGeorgeInTheEast.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StGeorgeInTheEast.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Martin Klussmann. Original uploader was Klusiwurm at en.wikipedia File:St George in the East 03.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_George_in_the_East_03.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St George in the East 04.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_George_in_the_East_04.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St George in the East 05.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_George_in_the_East_05.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:StGeorgeBloomsbury tower.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StGeorgeBloomsbury_tower.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Martin Klussmann. Original uploader was Klusiwurm at en.wikipedia File:St George Bloomsbury 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_George_Bloomsbury_02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St mary woolnoth exterior.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_mary_woolnoth_exterior.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: ChrisO. Original uploader was ChrisO at en.wikipedia File:St Mary Woolnoth Interior.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Mary_Woolnoth_Interior.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:St Lukes Islington.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Lukes_Islington.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Horsleydown.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Horsleydown.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: John Buckler (1770-1851). Original uploader was Neddyseagoon at en.wikipedia File:Westminster Abbey west facade.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Westminster_Abbey_west_facade.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:EastonNestonfromVitruviusBritannicus edited.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EastonNestonfromVitruviusBritannicus_edited.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bhoeble, Look2See1, Welbeck File:Easton Neston east side 21 July 1985.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Easton_Neston_east_side_21_July_1985.jpg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: Kafuffle File:King William's Block1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:King_William's_Block1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:King William's Block.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:King_William's_Block.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:The Square Ripon ; The obelisk.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Square_Ripon_;_The_obelisk.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Contributors: Chris Wilson File:Kensington Palace Orangery.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kensington_Palace_Orangery.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:Kensington Palace Orangery1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kensington_Palace_Orangery1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K.

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File:Clarendon Building, Oxford, England - May 2010.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Clarendon_Building,_Oxford,_England_-_May_2010.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Diliff File:ClarendonBuilding20060411 KaihsuTai.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ClarendonBuilding20060411_KaihsuTai.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Kaihsu File:All souls college from above and to the west.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:All_souls_college_from_above_and_to_the_west.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Ozeye File:Oxford University Colleges-All Souls1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oxford_University_Colleges-All_Souls1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve Cadman from London, U.K. File:P1213StMC.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:P1213StMC.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Bashereyre at en.wikipedia File:Blenheim Palace 6-2008 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blenheim_Palace_6-2008_3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jvhertum File:Potato field and Mausoleum - geograph.org.uk - 175984.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Potato_field_and_Mausoleum_-_geograph.org.uk_-_175984.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Contributors: Anna reg File:The Carrmire gate - Castle Howard - geograph.org.uk - 175976.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Carrmire_gate_-_Castle_Howard_-_geograph.org.uk_-_175976.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Contributors: Anna reg File:High Street Oxford Queens College.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:High_Street_Oxford_Queens_College.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Man vyi, Tillman

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