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Stated simply, a number system is a set of objects (often numbers), operations, and the rules governing those operations. One example is our familiar real number system, which uses base ten numbers and such operations as addition and multiplication. Another example is the binary number system, which uses binary addition and multiplication. 3. Give the different number systems? a. Decimal numeral system- It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations. often refers to a base-10 positional notation such as the HinduArabic numeral system; however, it can also be used more generally to refer to non-positional systems such as Roman or Chinese numerals which are also based on powers of ten. b. Binary numeral system- represents numeric values using two symbols: 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices such as mobile phones. c. Octadecimal- is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010, which can be grouped into (00)1 001 010 so the octal representation is 112. d. Hexadecimal- also base 16, or hex is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A,B,C,D,E,F (or alternatively af) to represent values ten to fifteen. 4. What are the conversion rules of the following? a. Binary to decimal- To convert binary to decimal, we start from the right to the left of the binary chain and at each bit, we associate the value 2^(character number), the first bit being bit number 0. b. Decimal to hexadecimal- Divide the decimal number by 16. Treat the division as an integer division. Write down the remainder (in hexadecimal, ie. if the remainder is 12, write down "B"). Divide the result again by 16. Treat the division as an integer division. Repeat step 2 and 3 until result is less than 1. The hexadecimal value is the digit sequence of the remainders from the last to first. (So if you had 001, it's 100.)

Any system to any system - Step 1: Consider the given octadecimal number. Step 2: Let the number of digits in the number be n Step 3: Multiply the digits with 8n-1where n is position of digit from the right end of the number.If the number has decimal part the multiply digits after decimal by Step 4: Add the terms after multiplication where m is position of the number from the decimal

Step 5: The obtained number is equivalent decimal number to the given octal Step 6: Consider the decimal number,divide it by 16 Step 7: Note the remainder. Step 8: Continue the process till the quotient in zero Step 9: Write the remainder in the reverse order Step 10: The obtained number is equivalent hexadecimal number to the given octadecimal number.

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