THE CONCEPT OF GOD

ISLAM,
CHRISTIANITY
&
JUDAISM

From an Islamic perspective

An Unedited Copy

The Concept of God 1 Khaled Mohamed Askar
Introduction

Swept off by the wave of spirituality and religious enlightenment, I have set
sail on a breath-taking journey of quest to find God and discover the sublime
purpose of our existence. I have reached the highest peak of the Himalaya
Mountains to catch a refreshing glimpse of the mysticism of ancient
practices calling upon humanity to return to simplicity, connect with one’s
essence and be one with the universe. I took a long ascending hike to Mount
Sinai where God spoke to Moses and the Ten Commandments were scripted,
then down the hills and across the Red Sea to the Holy City of Jerusalem,
the land of redemption, to explore the firm belief of Judaism. I was
fascinating by the Biblical historical accounts of previous prophets that go
back in time to the creation of Adam and Eve. Intrigued by his miraculous
birth and the miracles performed in the name of God by his hands, I headed
south to Bethlehem where the prophet Jesus was born and continued to
preach and fulfill the message of the prophets preceding him. I traced his
teachings through the Christian faith where I was exposed to and deepened
by the complex philosophical attempts of the church to unveil the mystery of
God. I had the chance to examine the historical events that shaped the
development of Christianity’s new and modified faith and essential doctrines
after the death of Christ. At last, I found myself passing through the Arabian
Peninsula exploring the rugged humid valleys of the Holy city of Makkah,
where it all began, to purify my heart, enrich my soul and enlighten my mind
with the authenticity of Islam. There, I have witness the birth of the final
messenger and seal of prophets; Mohammed (PBUH), who was sent with
God’s final revelation to mankind to also confirm the teachings of his

The Concept of God 2 Khaled Mohamed Askar
preceding fellow prophets who share the same ancestry and faith. I couldn’t
help but notice prophet Abraham’s and his son Ishmael’s footsteps imprinted
on the monumental stone right next to the (Ka’ba) the holy house of God,
preserved for thousands of years, as living evidence for their contribution to
the building of the house of God. Astonished by the call for prayers that
shook every corner of the holy city, I have never been as captivated by any
sound like I have hearing the Azan (Call for Prayer) in Makkah. It gently
trembles your heart, entrances your mind, spiritualizes your soul, and ratifies
the divine message of Islam within you. Witnessing people of different
cultural background, race and color congregate in prayer in such an unusual
harmony and peace of mind clears any doubt and skepticism regarding
Islam’s legitimacy and ability to conquer hearts. Indeed, only a divine faith
predestined to prevail by our beloved God could unify humanity in such a
way.

I have had the chance throughout my research in the field of Comparative
Religion and Ancient Beliefs to examine the origin of mankind’s faith. I
initiated my journey by going back to the Creation of Adam, the father of
humanity and the first prophet to receive the divine revelation. I traced the
message through the rest of the messengers who followed him across the
generations, and examined the survival of the faith until it evolved into the
three Abrahamic Religions that aspired and influenced millions of followers.

I have investigated the emergence of Paganism, and witnessed the ancient
battle between monotheism and polytheism during dark ages characterized
by the absence of divine guidance. I have seen Paganism try to manifest
itself recurrently through some of the most radical and nonsensical
philosophies and theoretical arguments created by man, as an attempt to
define complex concepts such as; God, religion and belief.

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Riveted by man’s influence on religion, and his noted attempts of altering
and corrupting God’s message throughout history, I have studied in depth
some of the historical events that led to the emerge of controversial dogmas
and doctrines resulting in today’s immense difference between the three
Abrahamic religions. Man’s intrusion on the Abrahamic faith has led astray
generations of believers, lost at sea with no divine guidance to battle the
vicious waves of falsified invasive creeds that contradicted the original faith
of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and the final messenger Mohamed peace be upon
them all.

Speaking in the name of God has always been a powerful tool that
influences humanity and controls the mass, and history shows that the
institutionalization of religion is just another human attempt to gain
authority and power over one another. This book will shed light on how the
church as an institution has contributed to the alteration of the faith that
Jesus preached, and the Jews before the church in corrupting the teachings of
Moses. The main focus of this book is to examine each Abrahamic
Religion’s philosophy concerning the nature of the God we worship, analyze
it, link it to scripture to assess its divine nature for authenticity, or trace it
back to its origin to confirm its intrusion on the faith. Although some
philosophical arguments will be presented as an attempt to refute some
unorthodox beliefs falsified by man throughout time, the book adopts a
purely theological approach, linking issues of belief to scriptural evidence
and prophetic teachings.

According to Islam, there is only one true faith and one divine religion
chosen by God and preached by all his prophets and messengers, from the
day that God created the human race till He almighty inherits the earth.

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For someone who was raised in the Islamic faith, such belief is beyond
doubts. However, one who was brought up in a different faith might find
difficulties conforming to such a belief without contestation, even when
scriptural evidence from all three Abrahamic Religions and common sense
lead to it, assuming that true intentions of finding the true path to God exist.

For centuries now, religion has been the major cause of division and enmity
among nations and people. Wars have been waged in the name of religion,
hate has been spread in the name of religion, and discrimination has been
practiced in the name of religion. We have witnessed the lunacy of fanatics
from every denomination speak in the name of God and in the name of
religion proclaiming an alleged God given right to inherit the earth, which
led to a multitude of people who want nothing to do with religion. With such
vicious discord, people have lost faith in religion, and perhaps, have lost
their path and desire to finding God.

This book, in no means, intends to disrespect non-Muslims or take away
anyone’s God given right to choose the faith they wish to follow. It only
aims to build bridges, break down the walls of isolation constructed by hate
in the name of religion, restore faith in God, and call upon humanity to
practice tolerance towards discussing issues of belief. It intends to explore
and refute some myths and misconceptions about the nature of God and his
divine qualities, falsified by man across the Judaic and Christian faiths. Most
important, it will attempt to shed light on the original faith of Abraham, and
the true religion chosen by God for humanity to follow, before man’s
attempt to alter God’s divine message.

The Concept of God 5 Khaled Mohamed Askar
Chapter One

Do We Believe in the Same God?

Such is a common question that tends to come in mind when we engage into
a religious conversation with someone, followed by a disputed “yes” or an
alleged “No” as a notion. As aforementioned, for someone who was brought
up in the Islamic faith, the answer is yes; we believe in the same Divine
Being. Muslims believe in the existence of One God; one Divine Being
worthy of worship, who created the heavens and the earth, created mankind,
and sent all the prophets and messengers to guide mankind to the proper path
of knowing and worshiping the Creator. However, and in the absence of
divine guidance throughout different eras in history between the death of a
prophet and the advent of another, man has lost knowledge of God. Any
attempt to define the nature of God or create an image of the Creator that
man is expected to worship was influenced by a twist of the imagination and
a set of pagan philosophies and mythical theories created and circulated by
man. Politics and man’s struggle for power have also played an integral role
in shaping our beliefs of God and religion, as we will examine later on in
this book.

It is fascinating how each person we converse with has a different concept of
God, involving a set of different theories and beliefs. Some of which with
considerable ground for philosophical discussion, and some that are quiet
absurd, far from the grasp of rationality and reasonable sense, and beyond
the boundaries of a divine scripture or preserved tradition that could be
traced back to a prophet of God and examined for authenticity by
documented history. Most of these perspectives are based on personal point
of views of a faith that has been inherited and passed on from one generation
to another, or a cultural influence perhaps, rather than a firm belief attained
through years of study and search to attain proper knowledge-based
understanding. I speak of a faith that is acquired through divine revelation,
authenticated by scriptural evidence, preached by a prophet of God, and is
scholarly interpreted, not one that is contaminated with convoluted
philosophical dogmas that contradict the simplicity of God’s message,
oppose mankind’s intellectuality, or go against one’s pure intuition, ability
to reason and make sense of issues of belief. Only then, we could form a
clear understanding of the God that we are all invited to believe in and
worship.

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There is an overwhelming literature of different concepts and philosophies,
falsely attributed to the Creator, that intend to unveil the mystery of the
nature of God, who He is, or what kind of qualities and attributes does He
possess. With such varied and complex in nature concepts, one is destined to
drown in the deep waters of their incomprehensible doctrines, and with the
absence of divine scriptural guidance, one is unable to affirm authenticity to
the set of beliefs one has inherited and is expected to adopt and follow
blindly as a faith.
Being brought up in a religion that urges one to seek knowledge, question,
think, reason, and make sense of issues of belief, without a doubt, has given
me an advantage over others who were brought up in a faith that condemned
knowledge and knowledge seekers, convicted free thinkers, and persecuted
anyone who thought beyond the boundaries of a faith set forth by the church
or any other religious institution. Being brought up to believe in the absolute
uniqueness of God, I abstain from conforming to a faith that attributes to
God any form of imperfection, yet rather a faith that glorifies God by
attributing to him the most exalted qualities, the most sublime descriptions,
and complete perfection. Last but not least, a faith that would never go
against my inherent instinct and inner voice of logic, or deprive me of my
God given right to comprehend before believing. After all, any philosophical
or theoretical attempt on behalf of any religion to unravel the mystery of
God’s nature will be met with skepticism and rejection if the ideology does
not convey to the common man as much as it relates to an intellect who is
privileged with knowledge, wisdom, and the ability to comprehend complex
ideologies and matters of faith.

Throughout time, history has proven mankind’s ability to alter and corrupt
the pure and simple message of God, a message that was meant to remain
simple for the common man to comprehend and adopt as a belief that
influences and governs every aspect of man’s life. The practice of
interpretation exists in every religion, but when it evolves into a
philosophical predicament rather than an acceptable elucidation of the
revelation, it creates a dilemma. Philosophy should never overtake theology,
especially when it contradicts the scripture. Philosophers might disagree, but
our understanding of God should derive from pure divine revelation and not
man-made theoretical attempts to define God. Only in the absence of divine
revelation should man attempt to practice philosophy, especially when trying
to portray a God that has never been seen.

The Concept of God 7 Khaled Mohamed Askar
In this book, by God’s will, we will explore and examine the concept of God
according to the three largest leading religions; Islam, Christianity and
Judaism, referred to as the Abrahamic Religions. Information presented in
this book will be supported and accompanied by scriptural evidence so there
would be no room for reservations, accusation of biasness, or reasons to
suspect the author’s credibility, even though the idea of a bias free literature
in the field of religion is almost impossible, for every author is influenced to
an extent by the faith they follow.

The sources of the Islamic concept are the Qur’an and the Sunnah1(1- Sunnah: The
teachings of the prophet of Islam, manifested in his words of wisdom, practice and preserved tradition ). The source
of the Christian-Judaic concept is the Bible, for both religions base
their teachings upon it. However, we need to keep in mind that Judaism
acknowledges the Old Testament only to be its holy scripture, whereas
Christianity acknowledges both, the old and the New Testament (the whole
Bible), to be its holy scripture.

Despite the fact that both Judaism and Christianity rely on the same book,
which would only make sense for them to adopt the same concept, the reader
will be surprised to notice that there are major differences between the two
religions concerning the nature of God. The most radical difference would
be the issue of whether there is one God manifested in one being; the Father,
or one God manifested in three beings or persons; the Father, the Son and
the Holy Spirit, as claimed by Christians, which is the same as saying three
Gods, without the manipulation of words. Again, the reader will come to
find that philosophy has played an integral role in shaping the beliefs of
Christianity, whereas, Judaism (Similar to Islam) has kept firmly to
theology. Judaism has kept to the literal meaning of the Words of God,
without Christianity’s philosophical stretch of imagination. Judaism has
always believed in the existence of one Divine Being, and rejected any ideas
that would suggest the existence of any other Divine Being besides God the
Father. As for Christianity, it believes in the existence of three Divine
Beings; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Christianity, or shall we say
the Church, has abandoned the pure teachings of the Bible, neglected all the
clear evidence mentioned in the Bible that teaches pure monotheism, and
managed to come up with concepts and philosophies of its own that led
Christianity to become a polytheistic religion, rather than a monotheistic
one, as we will address later on in this book.

The Concept of God 8 Khaled Mohamed Askar
To abridge, Christianity and Judaism adopt the same concept concerning
God the Father, but they dissent concerning the divinity of the Son and the
Holy Spirit. Therefore, in most cases we will address Christianity and
Judaism as one concept unless there are differences, which in this case, we
will separate the two concepts. After all, Christianity was never considered
to be a separate religion from Judaism, yet a newer version or a completion
to it. Some go far as calling it the fugitive religion. It began as a sect from
Judaism, adopting the same set of beliefs, then evolved into a new religion,
with a whole new creed.

During the life of Jesus, He used to teach at the Jews’ Synagogues as
mentioned in Mark 1/39. Many years after his death, the situation remained
the same. Christians did not have separate churches to attend during its early
years. They used to share the same houses of God with the Jews, and kept
doing so until around 90 CE2 when the Jews excluded the Christians from
synagogue worship. (2- Common Era, referring to the period of time after the birth of Jesus)

Throughout his life, Jesus urged his followers to abide by the Law (Torah)
and not abolish it. He always referred to it and to the teachings of previous
prophets throughout his teachings, which confirms the Islamic faith
concerning the prophets and messengers as propagators of the same faith.

The Bible reported Jesus saying:

“I did not come to abolish the law or the prophets but to fulfill. I tell you the truth,
until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen
will disappear from the law until everything is accomplished anyone who breaks the
least of one of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called
least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands
will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.” (Mathew 5/17-20, also Luke 16/17)

“I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Mathew 15/27)

Now let’s compare these verses with the Qur’anic verses:

45. And Remember when the angels said, "O Mary, indeed Allah gives you good
tidings of a word from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary,
distinguished in this world and the Hereafter and among those brought near [to
Allah].
46. "He will speak to the people in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of
the righteous."
47. She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me." He
said: "So (it will be) for Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed something,
He says to it only: "Be!" and it is.

The Concept of God 9 Khaled Mohamed Askar
48. And He (Allah) will teach him [Jesus] the Book and wisdom, and the Torah and the
Injeel (Arabic word for Gospel).
49. And will make him [Jesus] a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): "I have
come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, as it were,
the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah's Leave; and I
heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead back to life by Allah's
Leave. And I inform you of what you eat, and what you store in your houses. Surely,
therein is a sign for you, if you believe.
50. And I have come confirming that which was before me of the Torah, and to make
lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof
from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me.
51. Truly! Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him (Alone). This is the Straight
Path. (Chapter / Surah 3 (AL-Imran), Verses 42-63)

As we could see, the Qur’anic verses are almost identical to the two biblical
verses, except for the additional details that the Quran reveals to the story.
These verses clearly show that Jesus did not come with a different religion,
nor was he sent to preach to any other people beside the Jews, as reported by
both the bible and the Quran.

Mathew 15/27 also refutes Christianity’s claim of “the universal nature” of
the message of Jesus. It clearly states that Jesus’s message was not universal.
Jesus was not sent to all mankind, yet only the lost sheep of the house of
Israel, to pave the way for the final messenger of God (Muhammad) with
God’s final revelation to mankind.

Likewise, the Prophet of Islam (Muhammad, peace be upon him) did not
come with a new religion, nor did he come to abolish the teachings of the
prophets and messengers before him. However, his message was universal;
to all mankind, since he was the final messenger of God to humanity.

Chapter / Surah 5 (Al-Ma’idah) Verse 44-48:

44. Verily, We did send down the Torah [to Moses], therein was guidance and light, by
which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah's Will, judged the Jews…
46. And in their footsteps, We sent Jesus, son of Mary, confirming the Torah that had
come before him, and We gave him the Injeel (Gospel), in which was guidance and
light and confirmation of the Torah that had come before it, a guidance and an
admonition for the pious
48. And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the Book (Qur'an) in truth,
confirming the Scripture that came before it and superior (trustworthy in highness and
a witness) over it (old Scriptures). So judge between them by what Allah has revealed,
and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from the truth that has come to
you. To each among you (Prophets/nations), We have prescribed a law and a clear

The Concept of God 10 Khaled Mohamed Askar
way. If Allah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you
in what He has given you; so compete to do good. The return of you (all) is to Allah;
then He will inform you about that in which you used to differ.

Chapter / Surah 4 (Al-Nisa), Verses 163-165:

163. Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Noah and
the prophets after him. And we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the
Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the book
[of Psalms].
164. And [We sent] messengers about whom We have related [their stories] to you
before and messengers about whom We have not related to you. And Allah has
spoken to Moses directly.
165. [We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind
will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in
Might and Wise.

Although sent in different times, to different people, and with a different
revelation that suited the era and the people living in that period of time, all
the prophets and messengers of God preached the same message; pure
monotheism. One can’t be considered a Muslim without believing in all the
prophets and messengers of God, and the scriptures they received, yet in
their original forms before the alteration and corruption done by man to
these scriptures due to the lack of preservation.

Chapter / Surah 2 (Al-Baqarah) Verse 136:

“Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that
which was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes,
and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the Prophets received from
their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have
surrendered.”

Chapter / Surah 2 (Al-Baqarah) Verse 285:

“The messenger (Muhammad) believes in that which has been revealed unto him from
his Lord and (so do) the believers. They all believe in Allah and His angels and His
scriptures and His messengers. We make no distinction between any of His
messengers, and they say: We hear, and we obey. (Grant us) Thy forgiveness, our
Lord. Unto Thee is the journeying.”

Similar to the Biblical accounts of previous prophets, the Holy Qur’an
includes a rich literature of stories about prophets and their struggle to
deliver the message of God to their people. It comprises rather precise and
detailed historical accounts of their lives. In some cases, confirming and
The Concept of God 11 Khaled Mohamed Askar
enriching facts mentioned in the Bible, and in other cases, refuting distorted
stories and corrupted facts altered by man intentionally, or unintentionally
due to the absence of divine guidance and the inability to trace the teachings
back to original scripture.
Compared to other Divine Scriptures preceding it, the Holy Qur’an acts as
the final revelation to mankind, a final authenticated version of the teachings
of the religion that God desires mankind to follow. It has been preserved in
its original form from the day it was revealed to prophet Muhammad,
through the Arc Angel Gabriel, until modern days. Not only has it been
preserved through scripting, and memorization by millions of Muslims
through generations of followers, God Himself has assigned the role of
preserving it to Himself as mentioned in the following Quranic verse:

Chapter / Surah 15 (Al-Hijr) Verse 9
“Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and We will preserve it.”

In the above mentioned verse, God confirms the preservation of His final
revelation from any corruption or alteration till He inherits the earth. Such
does not apply to any previous scriptures, for their preservation has been
assigned to the disciples of the prophets, rabbis, and Scholars after them, and
they have not kept it preserved and safe from alteration as stated in both the
Bible and the Quran in the following verses:

Deuteronomy 31/21-29:
“Moses commanded the Levites who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord: Take
this Book of the Law and put it by the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your
God, that it may be there for a witness against you. For I know how rebellious and
stubborn you are….. For I know that after my death you will surely act corruptly and
turn aside from the way that I have commanded you…..”

Now compare the Biblical verse to the Qur’anic verse:

Chapter / Surah 5 (Al-Ma’idah) Verse 44:
“Verily, We did send down the Torah [to Moses], therein was guidance and light, by
which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah's will, judged the Jews. And
the rabbis and the priests [too judged by it] for to them was entrusted the
preservation of Allah's Book, and they were witnesses thereto. Therefore, fear not
men but fear Me (O Jews) and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And
whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the disbelievers.

Not only did they predict the corruption and alteration of the words of God
by man, the Bible and the Qur’an, confirm it in the following verses:

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Jeremiah 8/8: (Biblical verse)
“How can you say, ‘We are wise, and the law of the Lord is with us’? But behold, the
lying pen of the scribes has made it into a lie”

Chapter / Surah 5 (Al-Ma’idah) Verses 13-14 (Qur’anic verses)
“So for their breaking of the covenant (The Jews), We cursed them and made their
hearts hard. They distort words from their [proper] usages and have forgotten a
portion of that of which they were reminded. And you will still observe deceit among
them, except a few of them”
“And from among those who say, "We are Christians" We took their covenant; but
they forgot a portion of that of which they were reminded. So We caused among them
animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. And Allah is going to inform them
about what they used to do.”

Chapter / Surah 2 (Al-Baqarah) Verse 79
“So woe to those who write the "scripture" with their own hands, then say, "This is
from God," in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands
have written and woe to them for what they earn.”

The Concept of God 13 Khaled Mohamed Askar
Chapter Two

1- IS GOD ONE OR TRIUNE?
CHRISTIANITY
The Doctrine of the trinity is considered to be one of the most important
foundation doctrines of Christianity. It is the backbone of the Christian faith.
According to many Christian theologians, believing in the trinity is an
essential element for salvation.
This doctrine simply attributes deity to three persons; the father, the son, and
the holy spirit. So according to this doctrine, the father is not the only deity,
yet Jesus and the holy spirit are deities too, which brings to existence three
Gods to be worshipped. Although fundamental to the Christian creed, the
doctrine is considered to be the most controversial among doctrines. The
idea of bringing three Gods to existence is faced with furious rejection, not
only by the Jews and Muslims, yet by Christians themselves. Following the
footsteps of Judaism, early followers, Christian fathers and theologians have
always believed in the monotheistic nature of Christianity. They have had
problems accepting this polytheistic pagan philosophy. As a result, the
supporters of this doctrine have made constant attempts to come up with an
acceptable definition for the trinity to try to ease down the rejections that
faced this doctrine. One term that is commonly used by the supporters of the
trinity is “three persons in one Godhead”. They say that the father, the son,
and the holy spirit are equal to one God and not three. So according to
Christianity, 1+1+1= 1, but according to mathematics, logic and everything
we have learned, 1+1+1= 3. So unless the father is a 1/3 god, the son is a 1/3
god and the holy spirit is a 1/3 god, which makes the three combined a one
complete God, no one who thinks properly and according to logic can accept
this Trinitarian formula. Christians believe that each person in the claimed
Godhead acts as a complete God. They believe that each of the three persons
has a different and a separate identity, each possesses different
characteristics, each is reported to perform different duties, and not all three
are equal in greatness, knowledge, power or capability, as clearly shown in
the bible in many verses.

Ever since the Trinity doctrine was formulated during the 4th Century,
Christians have been trying to solve the incomprehensible, unsolvable
equation, or shall we say: the mystery, which they themselves have created.
The Christian church, along with hundreds of Christian fathers, theologians,
and scholars have issued hundreds of definitions to try to explain the concept
of the Trinity but failed miserably. Today, all they could say about the
Trinity is: it is a mystery that Christians should blindly believe in without
The Concept of God 14 Khaled Mohamed Askar
trying to explain it, understand it or make sense of it.
The most shocking of all is that the word “trinity” is not found anywhere in
the bible. There is not one verse in the bible that states that there are three
Gods or that there are three persons in one Godhead, as claimed by this
doctrine. So the doctrine of the trinity basically does not have any
manuscript proofs that could support it. It is simply one of the inventions of
the early church. This doctrine never existed during the life time of Jesus,
nor was it practiced by Christianity after his death up until the 4th century. So
for 400 years, Christianity knew nothing about this doctrine until it was
formulated by the church in the year 381 in the council of Constantinople.

The Trinity was not formulated at one assembly; it took the church three
councils to formulate it. At the Council of Nicaea AD 325, they claimed
that Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father, therefore declaring
him divine. After 56 years, at the Council of Constantinople I AD 381,
they confirmed the teachings of the council of Nicaea and expanded the
formula by declaring the holy spirit as fully divine also; thus the Trinity has
one divine "nature", but three distinct "persons".
It wasn't until AD 451, at the Council of Chalcedon, that the trinity was
declared authoritative. Debates on the matter were no longer tolerated. To
speak out against the Trinity was now considered blasphemy. But it seems
that such declaration by the church was not enough to stop the followers of
the truth (the monotheistic Christians) from rejecting this doctrine and
debating it with all their powers. Many early church fathers considered such
a teaching “The Trinity” to be a heresy and never accepted it as being a part
of the Christian orthodox. One of those fathers were the Famous Arius, the
bishop from the great Alexandrian church, to whom Arianism is attributed
and later on Unitarianism. Arius, among other followers from all around the
Christian world stood for what they believed in against the Emperor
Constantine, who contributed greatly to the development and spread of such
doctrine. Constantine was originally a pagan trying to paganize Christianity
in order to attract new pagans to the religion and unite his Roman Pagan
Empire once again. After quite a struggle, and heroic yet unsuccessful
attempts to save the Christian faith from the pagan influence, Arius was
exiled with a number of his followers, and many of his supporters were put
to death immediately. Any Christian who disbelieved in the trinity was
burned alive. Any books that spoke of Jesus as a mere man and a prophet,
and not divine were destroyed.
Despite all attempts from the church to conceal the truth; the controversy
remained within the Christian world. And today in the 21st century, the
doctrine of the trinity remains one of the most controversial and disputed
issues among the Christian scholars.

The Concept of God 15 Khaled Mohamed Askar
ISLAM

Muslims believe in pure monotheism. They believe that there is only one
divine being worthy of worship, and not three, as claimed by the trinity.
Muslims do not believe in the divinity of Jesus or the holy spirit, and
consider such belief as an act of blasphemy against God.

Here are some of the Qur’anic verses refuting the Trinity:
“Surely, disbelievers are those who said: "Allâh is the third of the three (in a Trinity)."
But there is no ilâh (god) but One Ilâh (God -Allâh). And if they cease not from what they
say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them” (Surah number 5
Al -Maidah verse 73)
“No son (or offspring or children) did Allâh beget, nor is there any ilâh (God) along with
Him; (if there had been many Gods), behold, each God would have taken away
what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allâh
above all that they attribute to Him!” (Surah no.23 Al-Momenon v.91)

“And your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God - Allâh), Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (no God but Him), the
Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.” (Surah no.2 Al-Baqarah verse 163)

“And Allâh said (O mankind!): "Take not ilâhaîn (two Gods in worship, etc.). Verily, He
(Allâh) is One Ilâh (God). Then, fear Me (Allâh) much [and Me (Alone), i.e. be away from
all kinds of sins and evil deeds that Allâh has forbidden and do all that Allâh has
ordained and worship none but Allâh].” (Surah no.16 An-Nahl verse 52)

“And indeed your God is one.” (Surah no. 37 Al-Saffat verse 4)

“Say (O Muhammad): "I am only a human being like you and it has been revealed to me
that your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God - Allâh), therefore take Straight Path to Him (with
true Faith Islâmic Monotheism) and obedience to Him, and seek forgiveness of Him. And
woe to Al-Mushrikûn (the disbelievers, polytheists, idolaters)” (Surah no.37 Fussilat
verse 6)

“O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your
religion, nor say of Allâh aught but the truth. The Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam
(Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allâh and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was)
which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Rûh) created by Him; so believe in
Allâh and His Messengers. Say not: "Three (trinity)!" Cease! (it is) better for you. For
Allâh is only One Ilâh (God), Glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To
Him belong all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allâh is All Sufficient
as a Disposer of affairs.” (Surah no.4 Al-Nisaa v.171)

“Say (O Muhammad): I am only a warner and there is no Ilâh (God) except Allâh
(none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh) the One, the Irresistible”
(Surah no.38 Sad v.65)
The Concept of God 16 Khaled Mohamed Askar
“And that they may know that there is only one God (Allah)” (Surah no.14 Ebrahim v.52)
“Say (O Muhammad): It is revealed to me that your Ilâh (God) is only one Ilâh (God -
Allâh). Will you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop worshipping others
besides Allâh)?" (Surah no.21 Al-Anbiaa v.108)

“So know (O Muhammad) that there is no God but Allâh” (Surah no.47 Muhamad v.19)

“Say (O Muhammad to these polytheists, pagans, etc.): If there had been other âliha
(gods) along with Him as they assert, then they would certainly have sought out a way
to the Lord of the Throne (seeking His Pleasures and to be near to Him)” (Surah no.17
Al-Israa v.42)

Surprisingly, the Bible also refutes this paganistic Trinitarian Doctrine.
There are many verses in the Bible; (Old Testament and New Testament)
that clearly state that there is only one God, so believing in the trinity would
contradict all these clear undoubted verses. Some of these verses are:

Old Testament

In Deuteronomy 6/4 it says: “Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord...”
"That you might know that the LORD is God; there is no other besides him."
(Deuteronomy 4:35)
"The LORD is God in heaven above and on the earth beneath; there is no other"
(Deuteronomy 4:39)
"See now that I, even I, am He, and there is no God beside me" (Deuteronomy 32:39)
"The LORD is God; there is no other" (1 Kings 8:60)
"Thou art the LORD, thou alone" (Nehemiah 9:6)
"Let them know that thou alone, whose name is the LORD, art the Most High over all the
earth" (Psalm 83:18)
".... Thou alone art God" (Psalm 86:10)
"Before me no god was formed, nor shall there be any after me" (Isaiah 43:10)
"I am the Lord, and besides me there is no savior" (Isaiah 43:11)
"Therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God." (Isaiah 43:12)
"I am the first, and I am the last: besides me there is no God" (Isaiah 44:6)
"Is there a God besides me? There is no Rock; I know not any" (Isaiah 44:8)
"I am the LORD, and there is no other, besides me there is no God" (Isaiah 45:5)
"I am the Lord, and there is no other" (Isaiah 45:6, see also verse 14)
"I am the Lord, and there is no other" (Isaiah 45:18)
"there is no other god besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none
besides me" (Isaiah 45:21)
"For I am God, and there is no other" (Isaiah 45:22)
"For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me"
(Isaiah 46:9)
"... you know no God but me, and besides me there is no Savior" (Hosea 13:4)

The Concept of God 17 Khaled Mohamed Askar
“O Sovereign Lord! There is no one like you, and there is no God but you.”
(2 Samuel 7/22)
“Have we not one Father? Did not one God created us?” (In Malachi 2/10)

New Testament

In John 17/3: “And this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and
Jesus Christ whom thou has sent.” (A messenger just like all the other messengers that
God has sent)
In Mark 12/28-32 one of the scribes asked Jesus saying: “which is the first
commandment of all? And Jesus said: the first of all the commandment is; hear O Israel,
the Lord thee God is one Lord.” so the scribe said to Jesus: well master, thou has said
the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but Him”
In Matthew 4/9-10 when the devil said to Jesus: “ Bow down and worship me”
Jesus said: “away from me Satan, for it is written: worship the Lord your God and serve
him only” (The question that baffles any intellectual person is; Has the devil lost his
mind to Go to God (Assuming that Jesus is a God as claimed by Christians) and ask him
to bow down to him?)
In 1 Corinthians 8/6 it says: “yet for us there is but one God, the Father from whom are
all things.”
In James 2/19 it says: “you believe that there is one God. Good”
In Ephesians 4/6 it says: “one God and Father of all, who is over all...”
"To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever and
ever. Amen" (1 Timothy 1:17).
"For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ
Jesus" (1 Timothy 2:5).
"... the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has
immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has ever seen or can
see" (1 Timothy 6:15-16).
"To the only God, our Savior through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion
and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen" (Jude 25).
"... O King of the ages! Who shall not fear and glorify thy name, O Lord? For thou alone
are holy" (Revelation 15:4).
"... we know ... that there is no God but one" (I Corinthians 8:4).
“They who have my commandments and keep them are those who love me; and those
who love me will be loved by my Father, and I will love them and reveal myself to
them.” (John 14:21)

So if you love Jesus; follow his commandment, which is: “And Jesus said: the first of all
the commandment is; hear O Israel, the Lord thee God is one Lord.” (Mark 12/28-30)

With all these verses in the Bible that teaches pure monotheism, one would
think that the dispute is settled, yet Trinitarians are still fixed on their belief.
They claim that there are verses in the bible that support the doctrine of the
trinity.

The Concept of God 18 Khaled Mohamed Askar
The famous verse that they always refer to is 1John 5/7-8. Christians have
used this verse to try to persuade people to believe in the trinity, and the
truth that many people don’t know is that this verse in an insertion. It is not
part of the scripture. The church has altered verses 5/7-8 of the first Epistle
of John completely by adding these words to the beginning of it:
“For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and
the Holy Ghost: and these three are one” So it would match the teaching of
the doctrine of the trinity.

The original text of the bible reads:
John 5/7: “for there are three that testify” (NIV, RSV)
John 5/8: “the spirit, the water and the blood and the three are in agreement” (NIV,
RSV)
But the corrupted text after their insertion reads:
John 5/7: “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the
Holy Ghost: and these three are one.”
John 5/8: “And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and
the blood: and these three agree in one.”

This insertion is not found in any respectable Bible. Most Bibles that we
read today do not include it. It was only included in the (King James
Version) until the newer and more reliable version of the bible appeared and
was named the Revised Standard Version (RSV), which was considered by
Christendom to be the best bible version ever to be published.
The 32 Christian scholars who revised the (KJV) and produced the (RSV)
have expunged 1John 5/7 because they discovered that it did not have any
manuscript authority. The verse was not found in any of the original
manuscripts that they relied on, knowing that they have relied on the most
ancient original manuscripts.

Even the Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus, the editor of the first edition of
the Greek New Testament ever to be published, has also omitted the
Trinitarian formula (1John 5/7) from his edition, and when he was asked for
the reason, he said:
“I have not found the verse in any Greek manuscripts.”

The Scofield Bible reference, Dr. C.I. Scofield, supported by eight other
doctors, said about 1John 5/7:

“It is generally agreed that this verse has no manuscript authority and has
been inserted.”

The Concept of God 19 Khaled Mohamed Askar
D.A. Carson, professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity
school, who holds a Ph.D. degree from Cambridge University and a graduate
of McGill University and Central Baptist Seminary (Toronto) says on page
59 of his book (The King James Version debate, A plea for realism):

“Some defenders of the king James now admit that the Comma Johanneum
(the Trinitarian formula) 1John 5/7 forms no part of the original text.”

And on page 61:

“The Comma Johanneum did not become established in the old Latin until
the fifth century.”

He also said:

“It does not appear in Jerome’s Vulgate” and: “the Jerome’s Vulgate
underwent a whole series of revisions and the Comma Johanneum did not
appear in the Vulgate until the beginning of the ninth century.”

“In the eastern church, where Greek was still used, not one Greek
manuscript included the Comma Johanneum.”

“They are certainly not an integral part of the Byzantine textual tradition.”

What we have mentioned was only few of the many declarations and
confessions made by Christian scholars concerning the trinity.

JUDAISM

Judaism, similar to Islam, simply rejects the Christian concept (the trinity)
and denies the existence of any other gods beside God the Father. It teaches
pure monotheism as shown from the verses that we have mentioned
previously from the Old Testament.

The Concept of God 20 Khaled Mohamed Askar