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MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION OR ANGULAR MOMENTUM EQUATION

Torque - moment of a force w.r.t an axis is important in engg problems


Moment of a linear
momentum with each
particle of fluid
Moment of resultant forces acting
on each particle of fluid
=
( )
particle
F V V
Dt
D
o o =
Newtons second law of motion to a particle of fluid
V particle velocity measured in an inertial reference system
- density of the fluid particle
- infinitesimally small particle volume
- resultant external forces acting on the particle
V o
particle
F o
( )
particle
F r V V
Dt
D
r o o =
( ) | |
( )
Dt
V V D
r V V
Dt
Dr
V V r
Dt
D o
o o + =
V
Dt
Dr
=
0 V V =
0 V V
Dt
Dr
= o
( )
( ) | | V V r
Dt
D
Dt
V V D
r o
o
=
( ) | |
particle
F r V V r
Dt
D
o o =
r is the position vector from the origin of the inertial coordinate system
Above equation is valid for every particle of a system. For a system (collection of
fluid particles), we need to use the sum of both side
( ) | | =
sys
sys
F r V V r
Dt
D
o
where
( )

=
sys
particle
F r F r o
( ) ( ) | |
} }
=
sys sys
V V r
Dt
D
V V r
Dt
D
o o
( ) ( )

}
=
sys
sys
F r V V r
Dt
D
o
Time rate of change of moment
of momentum of the system
Sum of the external torques
acting on the system
=
For a control volume that is instantaneously coincident with the system, the torques
acting on the systemand on the control volume contents are identical
( ) ( ) =
cv sys
F r F r
( ) ( ) ( ) +
c
c
=
cs sys cv
dA n

. V V r V d V r
t
V d V r
Dt
D

Time rate of change of
moment of momentum of
the system
Time rate of change of
moment of momentum
of the contents of CV
Net rate of flow of
the moment of
momentum through
the control surface
= +
For a fixed and non-deforming control volume
( ) ( ) ( )

} }
= +
c
c
volume control
the of contents
cs cv
F r dA n

. V V r V d V r
t

APPLICATION OF THE MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION
1. Flows are one-dimensional (uniform distributions of average
velocity at any section)
2. Steady flows or steady-in-the-mean cyclical flows
0 V d V r
t
cv
=
c
c

=
volume control
the of contents
cs
F r dA n

. V V r
r V
u
= r V
u
sin(-90
o
) = - r V
u
r
V
u
-90
o
V
u
r
-90
o
e e
r V
u
= - r V
u
r
V
u
-90
o
V
u
r
-90
o
In both the cases, the right hand rule application makes the thumb point into the
paper plane
( )
}

cs
dA n

. V V r
Flow into the control volume is negative
Flow out of the control volume is positive
dA n

. V
( ) ( )| | ( )| |
in out
cs
2 2
m zero m V r dA n

. V V r

+ + =
}
u

( ) ( )| |
out
cs
m V r dA n

. V V r

+ =
}
2 2 u

Water enters the control volume axially, at this portion


0 = V r
( )
shaft
volume control
the of contents
T F r =

We have taken T
shaft
as a positive quantity. This is equivalent to assuming that T
shaft
is
in the same direction as rotation
shaft 2 2
T m V r =

u
T
shaft
- being a negative quantity means that the shaft torque opposes the rotation
of the sprinkler arms
T
shaft,
- shaft torque opposes rotation in all turbine devices
e e
u
m V r T W
2 2 shaft shaft

= =
m V U W
2 2 shaft

u
=
Negative shaft work is work out of the control volume i.e., work is done by the fluid
on the rotor and thus its shaft
Moment of momentumequation for a more general one dimensional flow through a
rotating machine
( ) ( )
out out out in in in shaft
V r m V r m T
u u
+ =

U and V
u
- same direction; r V
u
is POSITIVE
U and V
u
- opposite direction; r V
u
is NEGATIVE
T
shaft
is positive if T
shaft
is in the same direction as e
( )( ) ( )( )
out out out in in in shaft shaft
V r m V r m T W
u u
e e e + = =

( ) ( )
out out out in in in shaft shaft
V U m V U m T W
u u
e + = =

shaft
W

is positive, power is into the control volume - PUMP


shaft
W

is negative , power is out of the control volume - TURBINE


m m m
out in

= = CONSERVATION OF MASS
r V
u
= r V
u
sin(-90
o
) = - r V
u
r
V
u
-90
o
V
u
r
-90
o
U and V
u
- opposite direction; r V
u
is NEGATIVE
r V
u
= r V
u
sin(-90
o
) = + r V
u
r
V
u
90
o
V
u
r
90
o
U and V
u
- same direction; r V
u
is POSITIVE
Direction of rotation
Direction of rotation
Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at the steady rate of 60 lpm
as sketched in Fig. The exit area of each of the two nozzles is 30 mm
2
,and the flow
leaving each nozzle is in the tangential direction. The radius fromthe axis of rotation
to the centerline of each nozzle is 200 mm.
(a) Determine the frictional torque associated with the sprinkler rotating with a
constant speed of 500 rpm.
(c) Determine the speed of the sprinkler if no frictional torque is applied.
}
- +
}
c
=
cs cv
sys
dA n

bW V bd
t t D
DB

o
} }
- +
c
=
cs cv
sys
dA n

W V d
t t D
DM

o
0 = -
}
cs
dA n

W
0
2
= + = -
}
AW m dA n

W
in
cs


s / m .
A
Q
A
m
W
in in
7 16
10 30 2 60
10 60
6
3
2
=


= =

s / m . W 7 16
2
=
2 2 2
2
U W V V = =
u
5 10 7 16
2
. . V =
u
( )
( ) s / m . . r
N
r U 5 10 2 0
60
500 2
60
2
2 2 2
= = = =
t t
e
s / m . V 2 6
2
=
u
m V r T
shaft

2 2 u
=
1 2 6 2 0 = . . T
shaft
m
s / kg . Q m
in
0 1
60
10
60 1000
3
= = =


m . N . T
shaft
24 1 =
When the sprinkler rotates at the
constant speed, the friction torque at
the sprinkler pivot just balances the
torque generated by the angular
momentumof the two jets
m V r T
shaft

2 2 u
=
2 2 2
U W m r T
shaft
=

The speed of the sprinkler if no frictional torque is applied.
2 2 2
0 U W m r =

2 2
U W =
s / rad .
.
.
. r . 5 83
2 0
7 16
2 0 7 16
2
= = = = e e e
rpm N s / rad .
N
797 35 8
60
2
= = =
t
e
rpm N 797 =
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS THE ENERGY EQN
Time rate of increase of
the total stored energy
of the system
Net time rate of energy
addition by heat transfer
into the system
Net time rate of energy
addition by work
transfer into the system
=
+
+ =
sys
system
in net in net
W Q V d e
Dt
D

e total energy stored per unit mass for each particle in the system
gz
2
V
u e
2
+ + =
u internal energy per unit mass for each particle in the system
V
2
/2 kinetic energy per unit mass
gz potential energy per unit mass
in net
Q

Net rate of heat transfer into the system


in net
W

Net rate of work transfer into the system


Work and heat
+ is into the system
- is coming out
( )
cv
in net in net
cs cv sys
W Q dA n

V e V d e
t
dV e
t D
D

+ = - +
c
c
=
} } }

Time rate of increase
of the total stored
energy of the system
time rate of increase of total
stored energy of the
contents of the control
volume
Net time rate of
energy addition by
work transfer into the
system
=
+

=
out in in net
W W W

e
shaft shaft
T W =

When the control surface cuts through the shaft material, the shaft torque is exerted
by shaft material at the control surface
Normal stress o = - p
Power transferred due to fluid normal stresses
= =
cs cs
ress st
normal
dA n

. V p dA n

. V W o

} } }
+ = - +
c
cs
in net
shaft
in
net
cs cv
dA n

. V p W Q dA n

V e V d e
t


o
gz
2
V
u e
2
+ + =
in net
shaft
in
net
cs
2
cv
W Q dA n

V gz
2
V p
u V d e
t

+ = -
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
c
} }

o
Steady flow

}
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = -
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
in
flow
2
out
flow
2
cs
2
m gz
2
V p
u m gz
2
V p
u dA n

V gz
2
V p
u

If there is only one stream entering and leaving the control volume
in
in
2
out
out
2
cs
2
m gz
2
V p
u m gz
2
V p
u dA n

V gz
2
V p
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = -
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
}

A
Substituting this in eqn A
( )
in
net
in
net in out
2
in
2
out
in out
in out
W Q z z g
2
V V p p
u u m

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

One Dimensional Energy Equation For Steady Flow Applicable for
Compressible And Incompressible Flow

p
u h + =
Enthalpy
( )
in
net
in
net in out
2
in
2
out
in out
W Q z z g
2
V V
h h m

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
Flow is steady throughout, one dimensional, only one fluid stream is involved, then
the shaft work is zero
( )
in
net in out
2
in
2
out
in out
in out
Q z z g
2
V V p p
u u m

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 30 m/s and enthalpy, of 3348 kJ/kg (see
fig). The steam leaves the turbine as a mixture of vapor and liquid having a velocity
of 60 m/s and an enthalpy of 2550 kJ/kg. If the flow through the turbine is adiabatic
and changes in elevation are negligible, determine the work output involved per unit
mass of steamthrough-flow.
( )
in
net
in
net 1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
W Q z z g
2
V V
h h m

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
Adiabatic flow
2
V V
h h
m
W
w
2
1
2
2
1 2
in
net
in net
shaft

+ = =

in net shaft out net shaft


w w

=
2
V V
h h w
2
2
2
1
2 1 out net shaft

+ =

1000 2
60 30
2550 3348 w
2 2
out net shaft


+ =

kg / kJ 35 . 1 kg / kJ 2550 kg / kJ 3348 w
out net shaft
=

kg / kJ 797 w
out net shaft
=

Comparison of the Energy Equation and Bernoulli Equation


( )
in
net in out
2
in
2
out
in out
in out
Q z z g
2
V V p p
u u m

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

One dimensional steady flow energy equation
Heat transfer per unit
mass
Bernoullis equation
0 q u u
in net in out
=

( )
in
net in out
2
in
2
out in out
in out
Q z z g
2
V V p p
u u m

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ +

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
m
Q
q
in
net
in
net

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + +
in
net in out in
2
in in
out
2
out out
q u u gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p


Steady and Incompressible flow is frictionless
0 q u u
in net in out
>

Steady,Incompressible flow with friction
in
2
in in
out
2
out out
gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
+ + = + +

gz
2
V
p
2
+ +

USEFUL OR AVAILABLE ENERGY


Loss q u u
in net in out
=

Loss of useful or available energy that
occurs in an incompressible fluid flow
because of friction
loss gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
in
2
in in
out
2
out out
+ + = + +

ONE DIMENSIONAL, INCOMPRESSIBLE, STEADY FLOW
WITH FRICTION AND SHAFT WORK
( )
in
net
in
net in out
2
in
2
out in out
in out
W Q z z g
2
V V p p
u u m

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ +

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = + +
in
net in out
in net
shaft in
2
in in
out
2
out out
q u u w gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p


loss w gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
in net
shaft in
2
in in
out
2
out out
+ + + = + +

Pump when the shaft work is into the control volume large amount of loss will
result in more shaft work being required for the same rise in available energy
Turbine when the shaft work is out of the control volume larger loss will result in
less shaft work out for the same drop in available energy
PUMP
g m
Loss
g m
W
gz
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p
in net
shaft
in
2
in in
out
2
out out

+ + + = + +

g m
W
in net
shaft

+ +

+ +
in
2
in in
out
2
out out
gz
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p

g m
Loss

g m
W
g m
Loss
g m
W
g m
W
gz
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p
in net
shaft
in net
shaft
in net
shaft
in
2
in in
out
2
out out

+ +

+ +
=

q
TURBINE
g m
Loss
g m
W
gz
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p
in net
shaft
in
2
in in
out
2
out out

+ + + = + +

g m
W
OUT net
shaft

+ +

+ +
out
2
out out
in
2
in in
z
g 2
V
g
p
gz
g 2
V
g
p

g m
Loss

g m
LOSS
g m
W
g m
W
z
g
V
g
p
gz
g
V
g
p
g m
W
OUT net
shaft
OUT net
shaft
OUT net
shaft
out
out out
in
in in

+
=
)
`

+ +
)
`

+ +
=
2 2
2 2

q
A pump delivers water at a steady rate of 1135 lpmas shown in Fig. Just upstreamof
the pump [section (1)] where the pipe diameter is 90 mm, the pressure is 1.24 bar.
Just downstream of the pump [section (2)] where the pipe diameter is 25 mm, the
pressure is 4 bar . The change in water elevation across the pump is zero. The rise in
internal energy of water, associated with a temperature rise across the pump is 280
J/kg. If the pumping process is considered to be adiabatic, determine the power (hp)
required by the pump.
D
1
=
90
mm
P
1
= 1.24 bar
P
2
= 4.0 bar
280 J/kg
D
2
= 25 mm
Q = 1135
lpm
D
1
=
90
mm
P
1
= 1.24 bar
P
2
= 4.0 bar
280 J/kg
D
2
= 25 mm
Q = 1135
lpm
g m
W
g m
Loss
g m
W
g m
W
gz
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p
in net
shaft
in net
shaft
in net
shaft
in
2
in in
out
2
out out

+ +

+ +
=

q
s
m
. lpm Q
3
3
3
10 92 18
60
10 1135
1135

= =

( )
s
m
.
.
D
Q
A
Q
V 974 2
10 90
4
10 92 18
4
2
3
3
2
1
1
1
=

= = =

t t

( )
s
m
.
.
D
Q
A
Q
V 54 38
10 25
4
10 92 18
4
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
=

= = =

t t

g m g m
W
z
.
.
.
.
z
.
.
.
in net
shaft
in out

280
81 9 2
974 2
81 9 1000
10 24 1
81 9 2
54 38
81 9 1000
10 4
2
5
2
5
+ +

= +

g m g m
W
. . . .
in net
shaft

280
451 0 64 12 71 75 78 40 + + = +
g m
W
.
in net
shaft

280
4 103

=
280 4 103 + = g m . W
in net
shaft

280 81 9 91 18 4 103 + = . . . W
in net
shaft

280 25 19181 + = . W
in net
shaft

W . W
in net
shaft
25 19461 =

W . HP 7 745 1 =
HP . W
in net
shaft
1 26 =

An axial-flow ventilating fan driven by a motor that delivers 0.4 kW of power to the
fan blades produces a 0.6-m-diameter axial stream of air having a speed of 12 m/s.
The flow upstream of the fan involves negligible speed. Determine how much of the
work to the air actually produces a useful effect, that is, a rise in available energy
and estimate the fluid mechanical efficiency of this fan.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
2
1 1
2
2
2 2
in net
shaft
gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
loss w

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
2
1 1
2
2
2 2
in net
shaft
gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
loss w

Atmospheric pressure
zero
kg / m . N 72
2
12
2
V
loss w
2 2
2
in net
shaft
= = =
( )
12
4
6 . 0
225 . 1
1000 4 . 0
72
AV
W
loss w
m
W
loss w
w
loss w
2
in net shaft
in net
shaft
in net shaft
in net
shaft
in net
shaft
in net
shaft

=
t

752 . 0
8 . 95
72
= = q
loss w gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
in net
shaft in
2
in in
out
2
out out
+ + + = + +

( ) loss w z g
2
V
p z g
2
V
p
in net
shaft in
2
in
in out
2
out
out

+ + + = + +
g is the specific weight of the fluid. Each term involves the energy per unit volume
L s in
2
in in
out
2
out out
h h z
g 2
V p
z
g 2
V p
+ + + = + +

g m
W
g
w
h
in net
shaft
in net shaft
s

= =
g
Loss
h
L
=
Turbine head; h
T
= - (h
s
+ h
L
)
T
;
Actual head drop across the turbine = work head out of the turbine + head loss in
the turbine
Pump; h
P
= (h
s
- h
L
)
P
;
Actual head rise across the pump = shaft work head into the pump head loss within
the pump
APPLICATION OF ENERGY EQUATION TO NON-UNIFORM FLOWS
loss w gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
in net
shaft in
2
in in
out
2
out out
+ + + = + +

If the velocity profile is not uniform
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
2
V
2
V
m dA n

. V
2
V
2
in in
2
out out
CS
2
o o


dA n

. V
2
V
2
V m
A
2
2
}
=
o
2
V m
dA n

. V
2
V
2
A
2

}
=

o
loss w gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
in net
shaft in
2
in in in
out
2
out out out
+ + + = + +
o

o - KINETIC ENERGY COEFFICIENT