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Chapter Two Water Hyacinths Spread, Emerging Problems, Control Measures and Indicators of Weed Abundance: Experiences from

Lake Victoria

This chapter gives a general overview of the characteristics of the water hyacinth, the spreading mechanism on lake Victoria, problems and control mechanisms that have been used in combating the rapid growth rates of the weed. Further two indicators of the level of annual water hyacinth abundance are presented and discussed.

Introduction This chapter gives a general overview of the characteristics of water hyacinth, its spread on lake Victoria, the encountered problems and control mechanisms that have been used in combating the rapid growth rates of the weed. At the time of writing this thesis there were no comprehensive annual data on both sectional and lake wide levels of water hyacinth infestation of lake Victoria1. However there exist a number of studies in which the size of weed mat cover in various places or bays at different points of time have been estimated. In discussing periodical infestations below we make use of the statistics in these studies to estimate annual infestations over the period. The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating aquatic plant that has proven to be a significant economic and ecological burden to many sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world. In its natural environment in South America, there exist forces that check its growth beyond intolerable levels. This helps to keep the weed in a viable ecological balance, and here the water hyacinth is a cherished water plant [Mitsh 1975, Gopal 1987]. Its ornamental beauty is an attraction that has facilitated its spread across regions, and particularly in many aquatic bodies worldwide. It has been estimated that the water hyacinth grows on water bodies in more than 50 countries in warmer climates. In tropical Africa, the water hyacinth first appeared in Egypt in the Nile in the 1890s. In 1908 it appeared in Natal province, South Africa and in the 1930s in several lakes in Zimbabwe. It colonized river Congo and the White Nile in the Sudan in the 1950s. In the recent past, the Pangani River and Lake Tanganyika in Tanzania, fresh water lagoons of Benin, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda have been infested with the water hyacinth. The weed is also found in several countries in Asia. Reports of infested water bodies have been recorded in countries like China, India, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Indonesia, Surinam, Latin America and in the USA. While rapid growth rates are checked by climatic changes in the northern hemisphere, in the tropical regions the water hyacinth blossoms all year around. It is in these warmer environments that vast ranges of the weed problems occur.

Clean Lakes Inc is still carrying out a conclusive survey on weed abundance. Their report is yet to be out. 2

A number of the African great lakes and the Nile river system have battled with the water hyacinth and several ways of freeing water bodies from the weed have been employed in many of these countries [Ogutu-Ohwayo et al. 1996]. These have ranged from simple manual removal to sophisticated use of bio-agents that prey on the weed. The success of these methods has varied across regions. The tendency for the water hyacinth seeds to remain dormant for periods as long as 15 30 years has implied that continual monitoring of water bodies is a necessary exercise if total eradication of the weed is to be achieved. No method of weed control has been found to be most appropriate in the removal of the weed across regions. The effectiveness of weed removal methods has varied across region. In Uganda, for instance, biological control has been found to be the cost effective way of freeing lake Victoria. In addition various ways of utilizing the water hyacinth have been identified. The weed harvests have been found to be beneficial as sources of animal feed, fertilizers and energy. They provide raw material for paper, board and handcrafts production and because of the high nutrient uptake help in the purification of wastewaters. In some regions the various ways of utilizing the plant have been experimented [Gopal 1987], particularly in Asia. In other countries, and particularly in Uganda the noxious attributes of the water hyacinth are deemed to far outweigh its benefits. Ogutu-Ohwayo et al (1996) identified some of the ways in which the water hyacinth may have contributed positively to lake Victorias ecosystem, but conclude by noting that despite the probable positive effects of the weed, the available information suggest that the water hyacinth is, on the whole, a serious environmental hazard. The paper is organized as follows; in the next section we give a brief account of the water hyacinth habitats and the plant characteristics, section 3 presents a discussion on the spread of the weed on lake Victoria. In section 4, we present some of the problems that emerged from the water hyacinths infestation of Lake Victoria, the control efforts are discussed in section 5, prospects for plant utilization in section 6. In section 7 we discuss how the indicators of annual water hyacinth abundance in the 3 sections of the lake, and lake wide were construct. The conclusion of the chapter is presented in section 8.

2.0 Water Hyacinth Habitats and characteristics Habitats for the water hyacinth have ranged from shallow temporary ponds, marshes and sluggish flowing waters to large lakes, rivers and reservoirs. A broad spectrum of physico-chemical environments characterizes these habitats. In temporary water bodies, the plants often have to survive on moist mud for prolonged periods, or perennate in the form of seeds Gopal (1987). In permanent lakes and reservoirs the plants are subjected to large water level fluctuation and wave action. In riverine habitats, seasonal variations in the flow velocities are crucial in explaining changes in the mass of water hyacinth for given points of time. During high floods weed masses are either swept down stream or are left stranded in shallow depressions in the flood plains as the flood recedes. Water hyacinth plants can stand temperatures as low as 10 C during winter in the northern latitudes to over 400 C hot temperatures in the tropics. In colder climates, winter conditions act to check on the rapid growth and formation of floating islands. In the tropics, because warmer conditions are guaranteed all year around, and due its proliferation potential, water hyacinth growth and multiplication continue with minimal disturbance. The nutrient bases provided by the various habitats differ widely. They range from clean waters that are poor in major nutrients such as rivers and reservoirs to highly polluted waters with large amounts of nutrients and organic matter, as is the case in sewage lagoons. In addition such waters may receive a variety of organic and inorganic industrial effluents containing heavy metals. The water hyacinth plants can stand both highly acidic and highly alkalinic conditions, but more vibrant growth is supported by neutral water bodies (Gopal, 1987). According to Gopal, water hyacinth plants do not survive in water media with pH equal to or less than 4.0. A pH level of 4.0 was found to be highly toxic to the plant. Maximum growth was found to occur at a pH of 7.0. It has been noted that deficiencies in either nitrogen or phosphorous do not impinge on the growth of the plant. But the deficiencies of calcium in a medium adversely affect growth. Desougi (1984) shows that no new plants are produced in calcium deficient medium or in distilled water,

and that death may occur for the existing sprouts if calcium levels are drastically reduced. Calcium was found to be necessary for seed formation.

It is also noted that while in water bodies with low nutrient levels the probability of the water hyacinth growth being out competed by other aquatic species exists, in nutrient rich water bodies, the water hyacinth always takes the lead [Mitsch 1975]. The water hyacinth reproduces mostly by clonal propagation, but seeds also play a role in its survival and colonization. Seed capsules contain up to 300 small long-lived seeds that sink on release. Multiplication rates have differed among regions. Penfound and Earle (1948) reported that the edge of the water hyacinth mat extended by 60cm every month in the northern parts of the state of Louisiana. In the middle parts of the state, one plant was found to multiply to 65,000 daughter plants in a normal spring season. In the warmer parts of the south, growth rate were higher. In another study, Poling and Barr (1965) revealed that 2 plants could multiply to 1200 offsprings in a period of 120 days. Gopal (1987) reports that in the Egyptian Nile a plant with 450cm2 basal area was observed to grow into a coverage equal to 1.0827m2 after 50 days. The rate of growth in the Egyptian Nile implied that in 200 days a basal area of 450cm2 grows into 14928m2 basal coverage. This was estimated to hold 3,418,800 plants. Growth rate in the tropical nutrient rich waters are likely to exceed this range. Harley (1990) notes that because of its proliferation potential, a single plant can produce 140 million daughter plants every year. This is enough to cover 140 hectares with a fresh weight of 28,000 tons. Wilson et al. (2001) assumed a logistic growth model in their analysis of water hyacinth population dynamics in temperate and tropical zones. Their results revealed that growth rates in temperate regions vary with seasons. In tropical zones the intrinsic rate of growth for the weed was estimated to be in the range 0.04 to 0.08 per day.

Plant characteristics however are a function of the nutrient base (Gopal, 1987). In waters with high nutrient contents, the plants have shorter roots, which are extensive laterally, longer shoots and relatively bigger leaves. In nutrient poor waters, the plants have longer

roots, set deeper in search for food, relatively shorter shoots and smaller leaves. High multiplicative rates may seem to suggest that such an unhealthy competition will impose negative externalities for the community members and retard growth. But studies in this area have shown that not even the competition for food and space can restrict plant growth. The great morphological plasticity of the water hyacinth, coupled with wide ecological amplitude allows high growth rates over long period with competition. As the density increases, the plants start vertical growth. Leaf length and diversity become greatest with competition. In crowded environmental settings, plants tend to have short, spreading petioles with pronounced swelling, while in a dense stand they are taller, more erect and with little or no swelling of the petioles [Balirwa, 1999].

In terms of population taxonomy, three types have been identified Little (1967). These are the super-hyacinths that absorb a larger amount of nutrients compared to others. These in addition have been found to be resistant to insect or weevil attack. The second class is that of small or stunted hyacinth and third class is that of normal hyacinth. Cooley et al. (1979) notes that this classification is not an ecotype, rather different phenotypes temporarily adjusted to particular conditions such as the climate and so forth.

3.0 Water Hyacinth Spread on Lake Victoria In this section we give an account of the mechanism of the spread of the infestation of lake Victoria by the water hyacinth. Water hyacinth was first reported in Uganda in May 19882, when small mats of the weed were cited along parts of the eastern swampy shores of the main arm of lake Kyoga and in two spots close to where River Nile joins the lake [Twongo, 1991]. Later in December 1989, scattered mats of the weed were reported along the western shores of the Ugandan section of lake Victoria [Freilink 1991]. While
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But according to Clean Lakes Uganda Inc., water hyacinth plants were first identified in lake in 1976. 6

the source of the weed that first appeared lake Kyoga still remains a myth, River Kagera (whose sources are in Burundi and Rwanda) was confirmed to be the root source or conduit through which water hyacinth penetrated lake Victoria [Taylor 1993]. Within a period of approximately two years, and due to its proliferation potential coupled with the fact that the lake was heavily eutrophied at the time of the weed invasion, the water hyacinth rapidly became well established in sheltered bays along the lake as early as 1993. Further the rapid spread of the weed in lake Victoria was facilitated by the prevailing southeasterly winds that pushed the weed propagules from River Kagera into the numerous sheltered bays and inlets along the lakeshore [Twongo and Odongo-Kara 1998]. In January of 1995, it was estimated that over a period of eight hours, and taking into account the influence of the diurnal reversal in the local wind pattern, one hectare of water hyacinth flew into Lake Victoria from the Kagera source [Twongo and Balirwa 1995]. Another estimate (April 1994), by Agro-consulting International, S.A conducted under the Lake Victoria Fisheries Project No.7 UG 41 gave a weekly influx of 2 ha. The biomass weight of the weed that flows from Kagera source was estimated at 34 Kg per square metre. Balirwa (1999) explains that the low weight of hyacinths at this point as compared to that from lakeshore is attributed to loss of mud and debris as well as to the general dehydration of the weed as it tumbles down the river. According to Twongo and Balirwa (1995) the variations among estimates of weekly inflows could be attributed to differences in wind speed and direction, and to the flow rate of the Kagera current. Thus as the wind changed direction, some of the Kagera weed input was driven southeastwards in the Tanzanian section of the lake. Freilink (1991) shows that by the end of 1990 numerous mats of the weed were already present along about one half of lake Victoria; and by 1992, the weed had established itself in almost all suitable littoral environments [Twongo 1993, Twongo et al 1995]. The convoluted formation of lake Victorias shores, particularly on its northern, western and southern borders enabled the weed to easily establish itself in both the littoral and sub-littoral zones. Willoughby et al. (1993) established that the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda were the most severely infested with the water hyacinth due to the large numbers of shallow, sheltered, and mostly papyrus-fringed bays and inlets. These provided shelters for growth with minimal interruption from winds.

Distribution of the weed on the lake was guided by various factors like the variations in nutrient loads in the different zones of the lake, the physical features of the various bays and location vis avis wind activity (south easterly and north easterly), the local diurnal land and lake breezes among others. Due to its position with regard to the incidence of the Trade winds and the Nile current, the Ugandan section of Victoria faced the biggest burden from the weed [Twongo et al. 1994]. Most of the water hyacinth on the lake existed as thin fringes along the shore in bays and inlets, ranging from 5 to 30m, and on average about 15m [FIRRI, August1994]. The identified hot spots containing large expanses of the weed were found at sheltered mouths of rivers and streams flowing into the lake, and sheltered bays especially Murchison, Entebbe and Macdonald bays. These bays also served as major recipients of industrial and municipal effluents [Twongo and Balirwa 1995]. In the Kenyan section of the lake, explosive proliferation of the weed occurred when infestation reached the nutrient rich bays of Kisumu, Kendu, Nyakach and Homa bay giving rise to a huge component of mobile weed in 1998. Infestation of the Tanzanian shores bears its origin from river Kagera. The rapid spread was facilitated by the local wind phenomena. Extensive distribution and proliferation occurred mainly in the sheltered zones of Emin pasha, Mwanza gulf, and the Speke gulf to the east in 1997. But the shorelines in the Musoma region were also heavily infringed. By distribution classes, the weeds were of two groups; resident and mobile mats (not an ecotype taxonomy). Resident water hyacinth occurred in sheltered shallow bays and inlets with muddy bottoms where it formed shoreline strips of 5 to 15m in width, extending to 30m or more in specially sheltered inlets of the various wetland ecotones. Mobile water hyacinths existed in a variety of mat sizes, from solitary plants to huge concentrations tossed about the waves by diurnal and seasonal winds [FIRRI, August 1994]. These mats could be lodged or dismantled any where along the shoreline by wind. Mobile hyacinths were the most extensive proportion consisting 85% of the total biomass coverage in July 1995 [Twongo 1996]. In the Ugandan section of the lake, the highly nutrient enriched Murchison Bay near Kampala was the single most important original source of mobile water hyacinth. The reasons being that (1) the local winds were not usually strong enough to force the huge biomass of hyacinths estimated at more than

2,000 ha. out of the long bay, but were simply only able to sway them to and fro; (2) the bay, particularly the inner portion is well sheltered by a hilly shoreline and several Islands; and (3) rapid propagation was ensured by the steady flow of nutrients into the bay via the Nakivubo channel [Balirwa 1999]. Vast quantities of the weed accumulated in the well-sheltered inner portion of Murchison bay prior to being evicted periodically by violent storms, and trans-located through distances southwestward across the lake, often past Ssese Islands to the shores of the Tanzanian Victoria [Twongo and Odongkara 1998]. Between August and September of 1994 (as reported by Twongo, unpublished), extensive mats of the weed were ejected from Murchison bay and Gobero sub-bay by extraordinarily violent storms, and damped around Entebbe Penisular. During this period, about 250 hectares of water hyacinth biomass were dumped on the Entebbe Penisular within 2 days. This event gave a moment of relief to the opening of Murchison Bay. For the first time massive ejections out of the bay were realized, but an estimated 620 hectares remained in the inner section of the bay [FIRRI 1994 unpublished]. In terms of shoreline coverage, over 70% of the Ugandan Victoria shoreline was already infringed by the water hyacinth in 1995. The shoreline of Ugandas Victoria is approximately 1000 Km. FIRRI (August 1994) estimated the shoreline weed biomass to be 2000 hectares by mid 1994. The coverage of mobile water hyacinth in the Ugandan portion of lake Victoria is shown in Table 1. In addition to the water hyacinth flowing via the Nile current into the Nalubaale/Kiira Dams (former Owen falls dam), Thruston and Hannington Bays were major sources of the water hyacinth that flocked the dam. The resulting inconveniences from the infestation of the dams intake area ranged from periodical increases costs of production, to losses of output. A summary of water hyacinth induced generation outages over the period 1990 2000 is presented in table 1.

4.0 Adverse Effects from the Water Hyacinth Many of the problems caused by the water hyacinth arise due to its high growth rates that lead to huge amounts of biomass spreading over the water surface. Such rapid reduction in accessibility to water resources has a variety of implications for the flora and fauna, as well as for the human population that rely on the resources for several uses. Problems created by the water hyacinth differ among regions, and depend on the kind of activities carried out on the resource. In general, problems caused by the water hyacinth are innumerable. Gopal (1987) shows that in India, the water hyacinth interfered with the use of water by causing direct obstruction to navigation, by checking water flow in irrigation canals and by degrading water quality for domestic use. Elsewhere the weed has been responsible for drastic changes in the plant and animal communities of the freshwater environment, particularly killing fish. The shading out of water surfaces by weed mats blocks the diffusion of oxygen into water through the water-atmosphere interface. Second it prevents light from penetrating below. This eliminates photosynthetic processes and interrupts the food web. A reduction in the oxygen level weakens the water bodys life support capability for fish and other aquatic animals. Limited penetration of light beneath the water surface implies extinction for the phyto-plankton and submerged plants. Achmad (1971) notes that in shallow water bodies, water hyacinth makes spawning areas unusable. In addition drifting mats of the weed tear up beds of submerged plants and overwhelm marginal food plants that support water organisms such as the waterfowl. In areas that are prone to frequent flooding and especially in riverine places, drifting mats serve as agents of breaking up communities and sometimes dispersal of animals that cause havoc to farmers. Notable experiences are reported in countries like Bangladesh where the drifting of mats close to farmland introduced rats and other pests leading to severe reductions in crop yield. A report the by Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project shows that in Uganda the water hyacinth mats caused the following problems; (i) reduction in fish in lakes through de-oxygenation of water and reduction of nutrients in sheltered bays which are the breeding and nursery grounds for several species of fish; (ii) physical interference

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with commercial transportation services for people and goods on lakes; (iii) physical interference with access to water supply from the Lake for both urban and rural communities, together with additions to the cost of purifying water with higher concentrations of suspended, decaying organic matter; (iv) threats to intakes at the Kiira falls hydro-electric power station resulting into interruptions in generation; (v) provision of a preferred habitat for dangerous organisms like snails that cause bilharzias and other diseases, and home for mosquitoes and snakes; and (vi) physical interference with fishing operations, especially in the bays where fish are brought ashore to piers or landing beaches. In open access fisheries measures that reduce fishing capacity are vital in restoring resource exploitation to optimal levels. The last problem stated in (vi) thus may

Figure 1: Water Hyacinth Induced Fishing Effort Reduction

TR, TC X1

TC1

X0

TC0

0 EFFORT

E1

E0

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have had adverse effects on fishing costs, but also possible positive stock effects could have emerged. Increases in fishing costs are expected to induce reductions in the amount of effort engaged in the fisheries. This may have resulted in a movement of the fisheries from a sub-optimal equilibrium to another during the water hyacinth era. This effect is illustrated in the diagram above as the total costs of fishing schedule moves up from TC0 to TC1 inducing a reduction in effort from E0 to E1 along the sustainable yield curve. The fisheries equilibrium moves from X0 to X1. Both X0 to X1 are sub-optimal equilibriums, but the change is an improvement in welfare in that X1 is closer to the optimal level of exploitation than X0 is.

There are studies that have tried to quantify the costs of some of the adverse effects of the weed on socio-economic activities. Twongo (1997) shows that (1) screen cleaning at the intakes emanating from weed debris at the Owen Falls Power station in Jinja was estimated at a cost of US$1 million per annum between 1995 and 1998; (2) the cost of maintaining a clear passage for ships to dock at Port Bell was approximately US$3-5 million per annum, (3) the losses to local fisheries from the accumulation of water hyacinth at fishing beaches and landing sites around the lake included the loss of fishing gears that were trans-located, post harvest losses of catch, in addition to making it difficult for fishing boats to be launched or recovered amongst others. These inconveniences were estimated to cost US$ 0.2 million per annum but with a serious local impact. The losses to those whom the lake is the major source of water supplies for domestic (particularly in rural areas), livestock and agricultural purposes and beaches, was put at US $ 0.35m per annum. A study by FIRRI conducted to identify the impact of the weed on the social life and economic activities of lakeside communities (comprising of a total of 767 respondents), revealed that 58% of the respondents were concerned with the effect the weed imparted on water supply and quality (i.e weed debris, mud and pest). 21% of the respondents were concerned with the fact that the weed harboured snakes. 7% were concerned with the presence of mosquitoes; 10% thought the weed was associated with bilhazia and 24%

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were bothered by the likelihood of contracting other infections including skin rash and itching after bathing in the water; and cough after drinking the water. On the environmental/ecological impacts Twongo (1998) has divided the effects of the weed into two. Those due to the stationary weed mats and those due to the mobile water hyacinths, and below we present the effects on water quality, on macro-invertebrates, and on fish, biodiversity and on nutrient levels in the lake. On water quality, the identified effects of stationary water hyacinths were; (1) the progressive depletion of dissolved oxygen beneath; (2) the accumulation of poisonous gases notably ammonia and hydrogen sulphide in anoxic water environments under the stationary fringes, and (3) the stripping of the waters a vast load of nutrients including heavy metals. On macro-invertebrates, stationary weed mats were found to (1) promote diversity of macro-invertebrates, but altered the relative abundance of some of the previous dominant species, (2) enhance abundance of macro-invertebrates, mainly at the open water interface, while the number of these species declined into the stationary fringe [Willoughby et al. 1993], and (3) enhance abundance of bilhazia vectors. On fish, stationary mats were found to (1) lock up breeding, nursery, feeding and fishing grounds for various inshore fish species like tilapia and young Nile perch due to poor oxygenation, release of poisonous gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, and due to poor access; (2) promote fish diversity particularly of smaller species and the young; (3) enhance the abundance of lungfish and the Haplochromines; and to depress the abundance of young Nile perch, adult tilapias and Synodontis. However the overall effect on fish stocks and catches is not well known. Mailu (2001) revealed that information from the Kenya Fisheries Department indicate that there was a 28% increase in total annual catches in the period 1991 1997. But declines in catches of Oreochromis, Clarias and Mormyrus were realized during the same period. Because water hyacinth mats are associated with a diverse aquatic fauna including micro and macro invertebrates and fishes, the translocation of mobile mats by wind/wave activity created a dispersion mechanism for the lakes bio-diversity. Thus changing the

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distribution of bio-diversity in the lake. Mobile mats have also led to the reduction of nutrient levels in nutrient over loaded bays like the Murchison bay, leading to savings in the expenses of removing the excess algae and its by products by water treatment plants. National Water and Sewerage Corporation acknowledged this development [Twongo, 1998]. In addition, the weed was found to accelerate the rate of water loss due to evapotranspiration, an equivalent of 3.5 times of the open water surface [Balirwa 1999]. Our analysis of the adverse effects of water hyacinth on the economic livelihood of the riparian communities focuses on estimating the costs of electricity outages to consumers in the domestic class, and on the implications of the weed on fisheries production. As has been noted above, estimates of the water hyacinth costs to the electricity generating company have been conducted in Twongo (1996). The costs of inconveniences caused by the increased outages that resulted during heavy infestation of the lake have hitherto not been quantified. It is in the main interest of this work to give estimates of outage costs faced by domestic consumers during different periods in which outages occurred. Further, the impacts of water hyacinths on fish harvests and on the productivity of fishing effort are explored by incorporating indices of the water hyacinth abundance in the catch effort.

5.0 Water hyacinth Control Programs for lake Victoria Uganda Maximum coverage of lake Victoria by the water hyacinth occurred between 1995 and 1998 [in a report on the studies on the Control and Management of Water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin, Nov 1999]. In Ugandas section of lake Victoria, the maximum quantity of stationary mats along shorelines reached 2,200 ha., while that of mobile mats was 1800 ha.[Twongo et. al. 1995]. Hence the maximum cover estimate for the water hyacinth in the Uganda portion of lake Victoria was 4,000 ha. In the Kenyan section of the lake the weed oscillated during these years amongst the bays of Kisumu, Kendu, Nyakach, Homa bay and Asembo bays. The maximum weed coverage here was 6000 ha. Infestations in the Tanzanian section were located in Mara bay, Bauman Gulf, Speke Gulf, Mwanza Gulf, Emin Pasha Gulf and Rubafu bay. The maximum coverage in the

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Tanzanian portion of the lake was 2000 ha. This gave an overall lake coverage of approximately 12000 ha3. The rapid infestation of the lake is partially blamed on the lack of co-ordination in weed control programs by the lake basin governments. In Uganda, weed control efforts began in early 1993, with manual harvesting of the weed being the main approach to freeing landing sites, the Owen falls dam and water works areas, and the steamers harbor at Portbell. Manual extraction of the water hyacinth from the lake was first attempted in Ugandas section of the lake [in a report on the studies on the Control and Management of Water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin, Nov 1999]. Twongo and Odongkara (1998) show that in early stages of weed infestation, it was not easy to convince the parliamentarians of the immediate perils of the water hyacinth. They thus were quite reluctant to set aside funds for more effective control programs. The riparian communities, particularly the fishermen having faced the adverse effects of the weed first, and in their hope for an immediate relief volunteered to engage in weed harvests [Twongo et. al. 1995]. The government assisted by providing them with hand tools such as forked hoes, machetes, shovels, and wheelbarrows. While manual harvests of the weed were relatively successful in small landing sites, manual extraction of the weed proved to be ineffective and unsustainable in big landing points frequently obstructed large quantities of the weed [Twongo 1996}. Further, the high incidences of snakebites that occurred during the period deterred volunteer hyacinth harvesters from the activity. In a bid to enhance weed control through clearance, the Government made provision of protective gears to district local authorities; hand gloves, hip boots and so forth. This was an incentive to harvesters, however because of the heavy nature of the load of water hyacinth harvests, and the ever increasing masses of the weed along bays, harvesting participants felt overwhelmed by weed. They in turn ceased to be volunteers, and demanded for wages instead, wages high enough to compensate them for the risks they were subjected to during harvests. Besides, the harvested weed could not be transported distances long enough to ensure that seedlings from the decaying debris could not be

However comprehensive figures of water hyacinth coverage of the lake through a geological survey reveal that more quantities of the weed was available during this peak period. 15

driven back into the waters by wind or rain [Balirwa 1999]. These factors, coupled with the fact that by 1995 the main piers on the lake in Jinja and Portbell had been completely closed off, water treatment plants and the Owen falls power station were complaining of the high incidence of debris in the water base, and thus serious interruptions in activities, motivated the Water hyacinth Management Authority (under the Min of Agriculture, fisheries and Animal Husbandry), to take up new and aggressive water hyacinth control measures. Mechanical control was adopted in freeing the main ports and the dam in Jinja in late1995 [Twongo et al. 1995]. The report on the Control and Management the water hyacinth in the lake Victoria basin (ECA-EA/SRDC November 1999) shows that Uganda procured floating harvesters, including land based cranes for loading weed lots on to dumpers. Twongo and Odongkara (1998) show that mechanical harvesting was the only viable option to extract the huge biomass of water hyacinth, which had got trapped at the Owen-falls bridge, and upstream of the hydropower generation facility. This is because it was not possible to flush the weed down the Nile River as the sluice gates are located at the bottom, and also due to the fact that use of bio-agents or herbicides meant incidences of increased debris at the dams screens. Another harvester was procured for providing relief to the harbor at Port Bell. Unfortunately, the harvester at Port Bell broke down before accomplishing the task it was meant for. The high costs for repair of the machinery led to the lay off of this equipment. The remaining two control alternatives were then critically reviewed [Twongo and Balirwa 1997]. The report on the Control and Management the water hyacinth in the lake Victoria basin (ECA-EA/SRDC November 1999) shows that in Uganda a comprehensive study of the proposed herbicides (particularly Glyphosate, Diquat and 2, 4-D anime) that were to be used on controlling the weed was carried by out by the National Task Force on Water hyacinth control. There were specific emphases to establish (is) their effectiveness to kill the weed, (ii) their environmental friendliness, and (iii) the implications to human beings. For the scrutiny of the attributes of these herbicides, experiments were conducted in established ponds in Kajjansi and Kituza, and in the Wazi shoreline area of lake

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Victoria. In the Wazi shoreline, the main objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of the herbicides on the rather established stationary mats as against the mobile mats, to assess the side effects of herbicides on the lakes water quality, to assess the effects of spraying on aquatic micro and macro biota (algae, phyto, zoo and macrofauna) and fish, and to analyze the persistence of herbicide residues on water and bottom sediments, in-land soils and water and fish. Twongo and Balirwa (1997) show that the chemical control approach was abandoned because experiments were deemed inconclusive. Besides the costs of this control approach in terms of loss of revenue from fish export were high. The National Task Force on Water Hyacinth (NTFWH) control took on the option of biological control in late 1992 and bio-agents Neochetina Bruchi and Neochetina Eichhornia (weevils) were imported from Benin in 1993/94 [Twongo and Balirwa 1997]. Twongo (1996) shows that prior to release of these weevils to water bodies in Uganda, a series of thorough investigations and screening tests were conducted at Namulonge Research Station. Having been satisfied with the environmental consequences of the weevils, the NTFWH sanctioned their release first on lake Kyoga in 1994. Apparently, pending consent for release of these agents on lake Victoria from other member countries, it was not possible for NTFWH to release the weevils on the lake in 1994. Kenya demanded that before dispatching the bio-agents on the Ugandan section of the lake they be granted time for thorough investigations on the effects of these agents [Mr. Nyeko, the Min of Agriculture, fisheries and Animal Husbandry Water Hyacinth Control Project, pers. Comm. 1998]. Seemingly the costs of waiting, for Uganda were quite high. And as result she went ahead to release the weevils on lake Victoria in 1995. On the other hand, experiments from Kenyas research on these weevils showed that the two weevils attacked non-targeted plants. As result there was delayed release of bioagents on the weed in the Kenyan portion of the lake [in a report on the studies on the Control and Management of Water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin, Nov 1999]. In Uganda, weevils were released at different points along the lake. Wind currents helped in the distribution of the weevils deeper in the lake on mobile mats. As a result there was remarkable relief on the lake by 1998 [Twongo and Odongkara 1998]. Several

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hypotheses behind the relatively rapid disappearance of the Water hyacinth on the Ugandan section of the lake have been advanced. Twongo and Odongkara (1998) argue that the conditions on the lake by the time of the release were quite conducive for rapid multiplications of the weevils. Twongo and Balirwa (1997) show that with time the weed mats provided an environment conducive for the promotion of the rapid growth of other emergent macrophytes, specifically the Hippo grass Vossia Cuspidata. The water hyacinth growth was adversely affected by these macrophytes. This is because as the hippo grass cherished, it formed canopies over the water hyacinth, denying it light and eventually suffocating it. This is the ecological succession hypothesis of the water hyacinths rapid disappearance. It is shown in Twongo and Odongkara (1998) that by 1997, over 50% of the stationary mats along the shorelines had been encroached upon by the Hippo grass. Others suggest that in the early days of infestation, there were plenty of nutrients in the lake. As weed coverage increased over years, the level of nutrients was drastically reduced, thus the weevils preyed on the weed that was in a more or less nutrient deficient environment [Mr. Etiang, Water Hyacinth Control Project, pers. Comm. May 2000]. The dead weed sunk down the lake. The implication of this effect is yet to be analyzed. In a report by FIRRI (2002) preliminary tests in sampled bays revealed that the immediate impact of the sunken weed was a reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations in bottom waters. Phosphorous levels were observed to have increased with the sinking of the dead water hyacinth.

6.0

Water hyacinth Utilization

Water hyacinth harvests have been put into valuable uses in several countries. Methods of converting the plant material into valuable products have emerged (Sharma, 1971). Apart from its ornamental value, the plant has been found useful as a source of animal feed [Boyd 1968, Gopal 1987,Hill et. al. 1999], as a source of fertilizers for use in agriculture [Researchers at the Bose Institute of Calcutta University, India, Oyakawa et al, 1970, Majid 1986], a source of bio-mass energy, a source of raw materials for building, handcraft making, paper and boards. In addition the plant has been found to be useful as a

18

filter worth of solving man created problems of pollution in water bodies. The Report on the studies on the Control and Management of Water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin, November 1999 notes that in Uganda the positive attributes are well acknowledged. However all the potential uses of the water hyacinth do not promote utilization of the weed to the level that qualifies it as a viable control option [Ogutu-Ohwayo et al 1996]. Secondly, the above report shows that most of the uses are neither feasible nor sustainable. One in which the weed was utilized was its use as a source of raw materials for making furniture and handcrafts, but when the weevils attacked the leaves, this enterprise collapsed. The negative aspects of the weed thus seem to outweigh its positive attributes.

7.0 Estimation of the Extent of Water Hyacinth infestation of Lake Victoria In chapter 5 we will explore the effect of water hyacinth infestation on fishing. In this section we present our discussion on of how we construct indicators of weed abundance to be used in chapter 5. Two indicators of estimating the magnitude of weed infestation are pursued. Periodical measurement of water hyacinth biomass on the lake is not available. What exist in terms of measurement of water hyacinth abundance are estimates of the acreage of the lakes surface area under water hyacinth cover. An analysis of the impact of water hyacinth on fish would require study of how water hyacinth and fish population dynamics relate overtime. Thus a more accurate measurement of water hyacinth would be in terms of biomass or population. Unfortunately no data to this effect was found. This then raises the issue of identifying an eligible or appropriate indicator of water hyacinth biomass, one that effectively captures the weed dynamics.

19

A number of desirable properties of an ecological indicator are stressed in the literature4. Among the desired qualities a good ecological indicator should possess Dale and Beyeler (2001) include; be sound and have acceptable conceptual basis, be easily measurable, sensitive to stresses on the subject, respond to stress in a predictable manner, have a known response to disturbances and changes overtime, scale independent such that it is applicable at the national, regional or whatever level of the natural resource that is being considered, and more importantly have a low variability in response to ensure consistent predictions. The challenge is to derive indicators that meet these criteria. One plausible indicator for weed population would be area of mat coverage, given that each plant that propagates makes a contribution to the mat covers. Further the infestation of the lake by the weed created a number of problems to the riparian community. We would expect the intensity of such interruptions to increase with the water hyacinth biomass, and any quantification of these costs over the period would be a possible candidate of the changes in biomass. However, with time people improvise means of working within an infested environment. For example mechanisms to harvest the weed were instituted in some of the ports, water supply and electricity generation points. Fishermen whose fishing grounds and landing beaches were sealed off could have relocated to water hyacinth free zones. Thus while in the earlier stages of infestation the effects of the weed invasion were more of a shock, adjustments to the new environment were made by the affected parties or firms. This is a kind of learning effect that may render water hyacinth related problems, and the emerging costs inadequate indicators of the changes in weed biomass. Since with the institution of measures to cope with the water hyacinth, the magnitude of weed effects were determined by both weed biomass changes and the protection or abatement efforts. Consequently, the intensity of the water hyacinth induced effects may bear little correlation to its biomass fluctuations. Nevertheless, given data constraints we opt to explore water hyacinth area coverage and water hyacinth induced generation outages as indicators of water hyacinth biomass
For example, Bennet (2000) a good ecological indicator should; (1) be sound and have acceptable conceptual basis, (2) be reliable overtime, (3) have manageable data requirements, (4) require skills that confer and convey accuracy of the data, (5) be achieved properly, (6) be robust to resist interference, (7) have international compatibility, and be cost effective. 20
4

changes. Another possible indicator would have been the trend in the inconveniences in shipping as revealed by the number of days the steamers could not dock or set sail. However according to the shipping company in Uganda water hyacinth inconveniences occurred only in the first half of 19955. Manual and mechanical harvesting effort employed during the period were able to free ports by the middle of 1995. Since then routine harvests were maintained to crop out any new weed mat inflows. This ensured smooth shipping operations even in the period of maximum abundance. Consequently shipping inconveniences in Uganda cannot pass for an appropriate indicator of weed biomass changes. Water hyacinth induced outages however continued through out the water hyacinth infestation era because by location the electricity-generating firm is on the major outflow out of the lake. The Nile current brought down with it masses of the weed down to the dam. While weed-harvesting efforts in this case freed the dam from water hyacinth mass, the debris that it brought down with it continued to flow down into the screens protecting the turbines and the cooling system. This was the major cause of generation outages, and these persisted through the period 1990-2000. The flaw in using outage data as indicator of hyacinth biomass arises of course due to weed harvesting and other abatement measures the firm instituted. Our attempt to use it as a weed indicator was mainly motivated by (1) the readily available data on water hyacinth attributed outages, and (2) the sensitivity of outages to water hyacinth abundance and the need to have a comparable measure to the weed coverage data. The data and their correlations are discussed below.

We have estimates on weed abundance in different periods of years and for various bays and other sections of the lake. A detailed account of these estimates was compiled from a number of reports by Clean Lakes Inc. and is presented in the appendix. By use of this information we construct annual average infestations by section, and lake wide

We have no information on the duration of interruptions in shipping from ports in Kenyan and Tanzanian sections. 21

Table 1: Summary of Water hyacinth attributed outages 1990-2000 Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Duration of Hyacinths Attributed outages (in hours) 54:25 67:56 75:53 63:01 226.07 293:23 367:18 335:59 563:08 147:53 2:52

Source: Uganda Electricity Generation Company Ltd.

Table 2: Estimated Abundance of Water Hyacinth Biomass ( in hectares)


Section Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 21 25 22 18 75 2000 4000 6000 7650 4000 400 287 361 404 335 1200 2000 1500 2000 2000 1200 600 744 936 1047 868 3112 4150 3950 4250 5000 5000 400 1052 1322 1473 1221 4387 8150 9450 12250 14650 10200 1400 2390 3009 3840 3363 10000 12000 5834 69900 70000 30000 12000 Kenya Tanzania Uganda Lake Wide 1 Lake Wide 2

configurations. This data is presented in table 2. Two measures of lake wide estimates are presented in the table. Lake wide 1 is constructed by summing the sectional averages, while Lake wide 2 is derived directly from published studies. One striking feature of the

22

data on weed abundance on lake Victoria is that while multiplication rates of the water hyacinth have been reported to be alarmingly high in several aquatic systems, the rate of water hyacinth infestation on the lake as revealed by the periodic reports seems not to reflect high propagation rates. Perhaps this could be explained by weed control procedures that were in place over the period, and the translocation and eventual destruction of the weed mats by the wind and wave action on the lake. Besides, while annual averages are reported in the above table, periodical fluctuations of hyacinth coverage varied widely in different places. Table 3: Data Descriptive Statistics Maximum Variable Kenya W. Hyc.(ha.) Tanzania W. Hyc.(ha.) Uganda W. Hyc.(ha.) Lake wide 1 W. Hyc.(ha.) Lake wide 2 W. Hyc. (ha.) Outages (hours) Mean 2201 1081 2678 5960 20212 199 Std.Dev. 2782 716 1874 5114 25797 173 Minimum 18 287 400 1052 2390 3 7650 2000 5000 14650 70000 563

Table 4: Pearsons Correlation Matrix For Hyacinth Abundance and Outages Kenya Kenya Tanzania Uganda 1.0000 0.81763 0.83397 1.0000 0.90354 0.91610 0.71388 0.88596 1.0000 0.94683 0.66593 0.83153 1.0000 0.82825 0.89679 1.0000 0.70770 1.0000 Tanzania Uganda Lake wide1 Lake wide2 Outages

Lake wide1 0.96427 Lake wide2 0.88991 Outages 0.86001

23

Figure 2 shows water hyacinth abundance in several production bays in the northern section of the lake. Peak levels of the weed were realized in 1994 in Murchison bay, in 1997 in Thruston, and in 1998 in Waiya and Hannington Bays.

A second alternative pursued in establishing annual variations of the weed is the use of water hyacinth attributed electricity outages as recorded by Electricity generating firm in Jinja. These outage durations varied with the amount of hyacinth that flew down with the Nile waters. Turbines had to be turned of as screens got blocked. Further run down was necessary to allow for cooling. While we accept that this would be a rather crude index of water hyacinth abundance since outage durations would be a function of both the level of weed that flows down the Nile and the level of abatement that took place. We however found no estimates of water hyacinth abundance on the lake for years before 1994, despite the fact that its existence in the Uganda section of the lake is acknowledged as early as 1988, 1989 in the Tanzanian section and 1990 in the Kenyan section6. Its the absence of water hyacinth data for these years that motivated us to explore water hyacinth attributed outages as alternate index weed abundance. Table 1 shows the duration of outages attributed to water hyacinth effects from Kiira power station. The correlation coefficients between water hyacinth abundance and induced outage duration are reported in table 3. Correlation of water hyacinth abundance in the Tanzanian and Ugandan sections is high. While the correlations between Kenyan and Ugandan, and Tanzanian hyacinth abundance, respectively are so low. Given the nature of wind protection secured in the Winam gulf, these results may be expected. The effects of the changes in direction of the trade winds in the north and southern section of lake Victoria could be an explanation for the high correlation between of weed abundance in the Tanzania and Uganda sections. The correlation coefficient for Kenyas weed abundance and hyacinth induced generation outages is lower than the figures for the other two sections. This may seem to suggest that some degree of independence of water hyacinth growth in the Kenyan section.

The figures of water hyacinth abundance for 1990-1993 were generated by interpolation. 24

Figure 2: Abundance (ha) of mobile Water Hyacinth in production and storage bays in northern Lake Victoria Uganda 1994-2002
1000 900

water hyacinth(ha.)

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1994 1997 1998may 1998oct 1999 2001 2002

year
Murchison Waiya Thruston Hannington

8.0 Conclusions The infestation of lake Victoria by water hyacinth signaled the need for riparian countries to coordinate programs for utilizing the lake, in the control of invasive aquatic weeds besides other issues. Because Uganda engaged in biological control of the weed earlier than Kenya and Tanzania, it was able to free its section of the lake of the water hyacinth by mid 1998. The current state of the weed dispersion across the lake is kept under control by the weevils, though threatening inflows of the weed into the Lake continue to come from the Kagera system. The most worrying issue however is sunken debris and its effect on the benthic communities, on fish, on the micro and macro fauna, on the water quality, particularly the increased nutrient load in the lake that is eminent from the decomposed mats and the Biological oxygen demand (BOD) that may have resulted from the process. Twongo (FIRRI pers. comment) explains that the adverse effect of the
25

sunken weed on water quality was minimal. However what is yet to be studied is the effect the increase in BOD had on the communities beneath the water. Second researchers agree that there is a lot to be studied on water hyacinth dynamics in the lake. Possibilities of large-scale re-infestation of the lake by the water hyacinth are not ruled out, and indeed, experiences from other regions (the Sudan, Nigeria, the DRC for example) show that total eradication of weed may be impossible if not implausible. What remains therefore is how to determine the best mix of control programs, effective monitoring programs, and in depth analyses of weed dynamics vis avis the dynamics of other aquatic organisms. Finally while no estimates of weed abundance on the lake were found for period before 1994, the correlation between the recorded water hyacinth annual statistics and the incidence of water hyacinth induced outages is a high. Thus the two measures of water hyacinth infestation of the lake will be explored in the analyses of water hyacinth effects on fish production.

26

APPENDIX
Table A: Lake Wide Water Hyacinth Estimates (Clean Lakes Inc.)

Day/Month None None/12

Year 1988 1989

Hectares Present Present

Location L.V: Uganda Entebbe

None/12 None None/06 None None None/12 None Late 1999 None 16/11

1990 1996 1995 1995 1996 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998

Present 2,500 14,000 12,000 5,834 69,900 70,000 12,000 68,000 40,000

Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide

Source World Bank/Global Environmental Facility, Project Document. 1996. Kenya Tanzania, Uganda Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project Report No: 15541-AFR. Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Taylor, A.R.D., Dept of Env. IUCN-UK. Floating Water Weed in East Africa with a case study in Northern Lake Victoria pp 113. Baarveld, W.G., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Odongkara O.K. 1995 Emergency Control of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria, Uganda. FAO Mission Report. Technical Cooperation Programme, TCP/RAP/2371 pp2. State of the Environment Report, 1996. National Environment Management Authority, Uganda. Citing Goodland, 1995 that estimated 1.25million metric tones. Assuming 500T/ha provides estimate of 2500 ha pp119. Julien Mic, and Nokham, S. 2000. A Poster: Biological Control of water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. McKinley, J. 1996. In Lake Victoria, Amazonian Weed Wreaks Havoc. New York Times News Service. UN Dept of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) for Central and Eastern Africa. December 1997. Briefing on Water Hyacinth Based on Surveillance Satellites. Lindsey, K., Hirt, H-M. January 2000. Use Water Hyacinth pp9 Collins Brad. 2001. Weevils in Lake Rescue. In Msafiri, Kenya Airways In Flight Magazine, Issue 34. ICRAF, et al. 1999 Improved Land Management in the lake Victoria Basin Final Technical Report Financed by the Swedish International Development Agency. pp 5. Amuyunzu, C. L. Navarro, L. 1998. Exchange of Information for Action on Water hyacinth Network. (EIAWHN): A Proposal for Establishing and Supporting the Network. Proceedings of the First IOBC Global Working Group Meeting for the

Table A: Continued
16/11 None None None/12 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 None/03 1999 5,000 70,000 15,000 12,000 14,000 12,000 20,000 Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Lake wide Biological Control and Integrated Control of water Hyacinth, pp 83 Ochiel, G.R.S., Mailu, A.M., Gitonga W. & Njoka, S.W. 1998. Biological Control of water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. Kenya Proceedings of the first IOBC Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of water Hyacinth. Satellite Images and Agro forestry join forces to Save Lake Victoria. ICRAF 1998 1999 Magazine, Paths to Prosperity, pp 31 Chamuya, Nur. 2000. Move to combat illegal Fishing . Tanzania Wildlife: Quarterly Magazine No. 19. Twongo, T. and Odongkara, O.K. 2000. Invasive Water Weeds in Lake Victoria: Proliferation, impacts and Control. Book of abstracts. Lake Victoria 2000. LVFO pp 52. Lake Victoria Bulletin, issue No. 1 February 1999. Kenya LVEMP. Opening Statements in the Report of the Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC Arusha, Tanzania. Report ( Ref No: EAC/SR/12/99) Technical Team Report. March 1999. Regional Strategy for the Control of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds in East Africa . In Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC Arusha, Tanzania. Report ( Ref No: EAC/SR/12/99) Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Collins, Brad. 2001 Weevils in Lake Rescue. In Msafiri, Kenya airways In-Flight Magazine, issue 34.

None None

1999 2001

40,000 12,000

Lake wide Lake wide

Note: Lake Victorias surface is 68,880 square Kilometers (an equivalent of 6,880, 000 in hectares), thus maximum infestation was 1% of the entire lake.

28

Table B: Kenya: Water Hyacinth Estimates (Clean Lakes Inc.)

Day/Month None

Year 1957

Hectares 0

Location Nairobi

None

1990

Present

Winam Gulf

None None

1992 1994

Present 75

L. Vic. Waters Winam Gulf

None/06 None None 04/03 29/05 26/07

1995 1995 1997 1998 1998 1998

2,000 6,000 2,000 9,371 5,600 10,627

Kenyan Waters Kenyan Waters Winam Gulf Winam Gulf Winam Gulf Winam Gulf

Source Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Taylor, A.R.D., Dept of Env. IUCN-UK. Floating Water Weed in East Africa with a case study in Northern Lake Victoria pp 59. Mailu, A.M., Ochiel, G.R.S, Gitonga, W. & Njoka, S.W: 1998. Water Hyacinth: An Environmental Disaster in the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria and its Control. Proceedings of the First IOBC Global Working Group Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of the Water Hyacinth. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical Presentation Twongo, pp 17. Mailu, A.M., Ochiel, G.R.S, Gitonga, W. & Njoka, S.W: 1998. Water Hyacinth: An Environmental Disaster in the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria and its Control. Proceedings of the First IOBC Global Working Group Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of the Water Hyacinth. Julien Mic, and Nokham, S. 2000. A Poster: Biological Control of water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. Collins Brad. 2001. Weevils in Lake Rescue. In Msafiri, Kenya Airways In Flight Magazine, Issue 34. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 31 Clean lakes, Inc. & US Geological Survey, 2000. Systems for Monitoring Water Hyacinth in The Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa. 29th May 1998 Radarsat Image. incomplete Image, pp 35. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 31

29

Table B: Continued

Before Nov.

1998

5,000

Before Nov. 16/11 None None None None None/04

1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998

2,100 17,000 1,000 3,200 600 1,200 6,000

None None/10 01/02

1998 1999 1999

4,000 6,000 4,000

Mailu, A.M., Ochiel, G.R.S, Gitonga, W. & Njoka, S.W: 1998. Water Hyacinth: An Environmental Disaster in the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria and its Control. Proceedings of the First IOBC Global Working Group Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of the Water Hyacinth. Kenyan Waters Ochiel, G.R.S., Mailu, A.M., Gitonga W. & Njoka, S.W. 1998. Biological Control of water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. Kenya Proceedings of the first IOBC Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of water Hyacinth. Winam Gulf Clean lakes, Inc. & US Geological Survey, 2000. Systems for Monitoring Water Hyacinth in The Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa. 06 November 1998 Radarsat Image. Complete Image, pp 35. Kisumu Bay Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Nyakach Bay Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Sondu Miriu Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Delta Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Osodo Bay Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Kenyan Waters Technical Team Report. March 1999. Regional Strategy for the Control of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds in East Africa . In Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC Arusha, Tanzania. Report ( Ref No: EAC/SR/12/99) Kenyan Waters Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Winam Gulf Otieno Orwa, Erastus, 1999. ECOVIC News, Issue No. 2 October 1999 pp 4 Kenyan Waters Lake Victoria Bulletin, Issue No. 1 February 1999. Kenya LVEMP

Kenyan Waters

30

Table B: Continued

29/12 12/02

1999 2000

2,200 400

Winam Gulf Winam Gulf

Clean lakes, Inc. & US Geological Survey, 2000. Systems for Monitoring Water Hyacinth in The Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa. 29th December 1999 Landsat 7 Image. Complete Image, pp 36. Clean lakes, Inc. & US Geological Survey, 2000. Systems for Monitoring Water Hyacinth in The Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa. 12th February 2000 Radarsat Image. Incomplete Image. 800 Ha. More accurate pp 36.

31

Table C: Tanzania - Water Hyacinth Estimates (Clean Lakes Inc.)

Day/Month None

Year 1955

Hectares 0

Location Sigi R, Tanga

None None/02 None None

1989 1990 1990 1995

Present Present Present 700

Tz waters Tz waters Mwanza Gulf Tz Waters

None None/06 None

1995 1995 1997

2,000 2,000 1,000

Tz Waters Tz waters Tz. waters

19/11 4 or 11/03

1998 1998

2,000 386

Tz. waters Mwanza Gulf

Source Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Taylor, A.R.D., Dept of Env. IUCN-UK. Floating Water Weed in East Africa with a case study in Northern Lake Victoria pp 59. Bwathondi, P.O.J., Mahika, G.C. 1994. A report on the Infestation of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)., Along the shores of the Tanzanian side of lake Victoria. National Environment Management Council. Bwathondi, P.O.J., Lyaruu, A.E. 1995. A Report on the Emergency Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Control Programme in Lake Victoria (Tanzania sector). National Environment Management Council. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical Presentation Twongo, pp 17. Nduguru, J. , Mjema, P., Aloyce, R.C. and Katagira, F. 2000. Impact of Water Hyacinth Weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and N. Bruchi) on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in L. Victoria in Tanzania . A paper presented to a Brazilian Weed conference. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Julien Mic, and Nokham, S. 2000. A Poster: Biological Control of water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. Nyirabu, C. Regional Executive, Lake Victoria Environment Management Program. 8/2001. The African (News Paper) as reprinted and distributed by the Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) of the UN office for the coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Mallya, G.A. 1998 Water Hyacinth Control in Tanzania. Proceedings of the first IOBC Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological Control and Integrated Control of water Hyacinth. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. March 1998 pp 30

32

Table C: Continued

26/07 4 or 11/03 26/07 Early 1998

1998 1998 1998 1998

0 244 0 2,000

Mwanza Gulf Bauman Gulf Bauman Gulf Tz. Waters

None None

1999 2000

1,200 600

Tz. Waters Tz. Waters

07/02

2001

200

Tz. Waters

21/05

2001

440

Tz. Waters

Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. July 1998 pp 30 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. March 1998 pp 30 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. July 1998 pp 30 Technical Team Report. March 1999. Regional Strategy for the Control of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds in East Africa. In Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC Arusha, Tanzania. Report (Ref No: EAC/SR/12/99) pp 3. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report Nduguru, J. , Mjema, P., Aloyce, R.C. and Katagira, F. 2000. Impact of Water Hyacinth Weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and N. Bruchi) on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in L. Victoria in Tanzania . A paper presented to a Brazilian Weed conference. Nyirabu, C. Regional Executive, Lake Victoria Environment Management Program. 8/2001. The African (News Paper) as reprinted and distributed by the Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) of the UN office for the coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Nduguru J., Plant Protection Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Mwanza October 12, 2001 E- mail communication recent survey (May 2001) estimate.

33

Table D: Uganda Water Hyacinth Estimates(Clean Lakes Inc.)

Day/Month None

Year 1976

Hectares Present

Location Not identified

None/12

1989

Present

Entebbe

None/12 None/06

1989 1990

Present Present

Entebbe L.V. Uganda

None 1994 None None None None None None None

1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994

2,000 877 877 3 108 96 13 15

Shorelines Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Thurston Bay Hannington Bay MacDonald Bay Pringle Others

Source Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Taylor, A.R.D. Dept of Env., IUCN-UK. Floating water - weeds in East Africa, with a Cases study in Northern Lake Victoria citing Robson, 1976. precise location not cited pp113. Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Taylor, A.R.D. Dept of Env., IUCN-UK. Floating water - weeds in East Africa, with a Cases study in Northern Lake Victoria citing Robson, 1976. precise location not cited pp113. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. pp16 Greathead, A. and de Groot, P. (Eds) 1993. Control of Floating Water Weeds. Proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, June 1991. As presented by Twongo, T. ( Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization ). Status of the water Hyacinth in Uganda. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. pp19 Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and

34

Day/Month None
none 14/04

Year 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

Hectares 3,112 1,112 661 853 858 755 851 1,300 800 4,000 2,200 2,200

Location L.V Waters Mobile mats Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Ugandan Waters Murchison Bay Shorelines Shorelines Shorelines

15/04 15/04 05/10 06/10 11 & 14/03 None /11 None None None

Source Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. pp 8 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 14 April pp 31 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 15 April pp 31 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 16 April pp 31 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 5 October pp 31 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 6 October pp 31 Baarveld, W.G., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Odongkara O.K. 1995 Emergency Control of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria, Uganda. FAO Mission Report. Technical Cooperation Programme, TCP/RAP/2371 Ehlin Consulting, 1997. Lake Victoria Basin; National Resources Under Environmental Stress Publication on Water Resources: No: 11:2 & 3 Department of Natural Resources and Environment. SIDA Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Mailu Report. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: issues for

35

Day/Month None None None

Year 1995 1995 1995

Hectares 2,200 3,000 2,200

Location Shorelines Shorelines Shorelines

None None None None None None None None Early 1996 End /02

1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996

2,300 2,000 60 250 800 10,000 4,000 650 3,000 5,000

Ugandan waters Ugandan waters O.F. Dam Entebbe area Murchison Bay Ugandan waters Ugandan waters Murchison Bay Ugandan waters Ugandan waters

Source Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 State of the Environment Report, 1996. National Environment Management Authority , Uganda section states 2000 4000 ha, therefore an average of 3000 ha. is used Technical Team Report. March 1999 Regional strategy for the Control of water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds in East Africa. In Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC, Arusha, Tanzania. Report Ref:. No: EAC/SR/12/99. Report on Verification Study on Chemical Control of water hyacinth NTFCMWH: 1996. Final Draft. Emergency Action Plan for Control of Water Hyacinth, 1995, Uganda Agriculture Policy Committee. Emergency Action Plan for Control of Water Hyacinth, 1995, Uganda Agriculture Policy Comm. Emergency Action Plan for Control of Water Hyacinth, 1995, Uganda Agriculture Policy Committee. Emergency Action Plan for Control of Water Hyacinth, 1995, Uganda Agriculture Policy Committee. Julien, Mic, and Nokham, S., 2000. A Poster: Biological Control of Water hyacinth on L. Victoria State of the Environment Report, 1996. National Environment Management Authority , Uganda. Woomer, P.L. 1997. Managing Water Hyacinth Invasion Through Integrated Control and Utilization: Perspectives for Lake Victoria. Africa Crop Science Journal. USAID IEE, in Final Environmental Impact Statement Water Hyacinth Control Program 1998. Aquatics Unlimited and The Uganda Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries. Limnological Study of Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf, Uganda w/ ref. To Water Supply and Waste Water disposal at Kampala and Jinja. 1996 Norwegian Institute of Water Research.

36

Day/Month None None None None None None None None None None none/06 none/05 04/03 26/07

Year 96/97 96/97 96/97 96/97 96/97 96/97 96/97 96/97 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998

Hectares 2,200 490 80 790 304 4 5 3,873 1,673 1,800 4,250 100 694 731

Location Shorelines Murchison Bay Thurston Bay Hannington Bay MacDonald Bay Pringle Others Ugandan waters Mobile Mats Ugandan waters Ugandan waters Murchison Bay Murchison Bay Murchison Bay

Source Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Twongo, T. and Ochieng, H. May 1997. Water Hyacinth in Uganda, Distribution and Coverage. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 6 October pp 8 Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Aquatics Unlimited estimate IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28

37

Day/Month None/05 04/03 26/07 None/05 04/03 11/03 26/07 None/05 04/03 26/07 None/05

Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998

Hectares 140 888 551 800 1,055 948 912 750 985 796 <2

Location Waiya Bay Waiya Bay Waiya Bay Thurston Bay Thurston Bay Thurston Bay Thurston Bay Hannington Bay Hannington Bay Hannington Bay MacDonald Bay

Source IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 est. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28 IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 est. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 11th March pp 28 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28 IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 est. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28 IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May

38

Day/Month None/05 None/05 26/07 None None/03 11/03 26/07 None 04/03 26/07 None

Year 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998

Hectares <1 1,793 412 320 556 254 301 1,793 491 0 1,100

Location Pringle L.V. waters Gobero Bay Gobero Bay Napoleon Gulf Napoleon Gulf Napoleon Gulf Mobile mats Sese islands Sese islands Shorelines

Source 1998 est. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 est. IUCN Proceedings, 1998 Water Hyacinth, Nile Perch and Pollution: Issues for Ecosystem Management in Lake Victoria Technical presentation by Twongo. May 1998 est. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 4th March pp 28. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 11th March pp 28. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. 26th July pp 28. Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. pp 8 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. March pp 30 Schouten, L.S.M, et al. 1999 Water Hyacinth Detection in Lake Victoria by means of satellite SAR SYNOPTICS Integrated Remote Sensing & GIS Applications BV. July 1998 pp 30 State of the Environment Report, 1998. National Environment Management Authority , Uganda

39

Day/Month None/03

Year 1998

Hectares 4,000

Location Ugandan waters

None None/07

1999 1999

800 5,000

Shorelines Ugandan waters

None/01

2000

Murchison Bay

Source Technical Team Report. March 1999 Regional strategy for the Control of water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds in East Africa. In Second East African Cooperation Ministerial Meeting on Water Hyacinth. August 19th, 1999. AICC, Arusha, Tanzania. Report Ref:. No: EAC/SR/12/99. Economic Commission for Africa. 1999 Studies of the Control and Management of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin: The Need for Coordinated Strategies, Policies and Programmes. ECA/EA/SRDC/R/1 Orata, D. 1999. The removal of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria. Advertisers Announcement in The Daily Nation (Kenyas Newspaper) citing a Report by Mic Julien on Water Hyacinth, Lake Victoria July 1999. This report also states that the Uganda Infestation was reduced from an estimated high of between 6,000 and 10,000 Ha. Report on Resurgence of Water Hyacinth in Uganda. February 2001. This figure is for Inner Murchison Bay, probably from Port Bell south to Gaba 1 Municipal Water works.

40

REFERENCES 1. Andreasen J.K., R.V. ONeil, R. Noss & N.C Slosser, 2000, Considerations for the development of a Terrestrial Index of Ecological Integrity. Ecological Indicators, Vol 1(1) 2001. 2. Bennet J.P, 2000, Ecological Indicators for the Nation Committee to Evaluate Indicators for Monitoring Aquatic and Terrestrial environments. National Research Council, National Academy Press Washington DC, 2000. ISBN 0309-06845-2 3. Blanchard, J. 1968, Winter Parks Lake Weed Management Program. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 187. 4. Boyd, C. E., 1968, Evaluation of some aquatic weeds as possible feed stuffs. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 187. 5. Byrant, C.B.,1970, You need weeds. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 187. 6. Byrant, C.B., 1973, Control of Aquatic weeds by mechanical harvesting. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 187. 7 Dale V.h: & S.C. Beyeler, 2001, Challenges in the Development and Use of ecological indicators. Ecological Indicators, Vol 1(1) 2001. 6. Fisheries Resources Research Institute (FIRRI) 2002, Experiences with managing Water Hyacinth Infestation in Uganda. National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO). 7. Freilink, A. B. 1991, Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria: a report on an aerial survey on 12-13 June 1990. In Thompson, K., ed., The Water hyacinth in Uganda: Ecological, Distribution, Problems, and strategy for control. Proceedings of a workshop held 22-23 October 1991. Rome FAO TCP/UGA/9153/A. 7. Gopal, B., 1987, Aquatic Plant Studies 1 : Water hyacinth. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Netherlands and

8. Harley, K.L.S., Julien, M.H., Wright, P., !997 A Tropical World wide Problem Methods for its Control. Unpublished

9.Little, E.C.S., 1967, The invasion of man-made lakes by plants. In Ecology of Water Weeds in the Neotropics. UNESCO Technical Papers in Hydrology No.12. 10. Mailu, A. M., 2001, Preliminary Assessment of the Social, Economic and Enviromental Impacts of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin and the Status of Control. Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. ACIAR Proceedings No. 102

11. Majid, F. Z., 1986, Aquatic Weeds: Utility and Development. 1st Ed India Botanical Publishers.

Agro

12. Ogutu-Ohwayo R, R.E Hecky, A.S Cohen and L. Kaufman 1996 Human Impacts on the African Great Lakes. In Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 117-131,1997. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 13. Oyakawa, N., Orlandi, W. & Valente, E.O.L., The use of Eichhornia Crassipes in the production of yeast, feeds and forage. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 187. 14. Payne, A.I., 1986, The Ecology of Tropical Lakes and Rivers. Great Britain, Typesetting. Bath

15.Penfound,W.T. & Earle,T.T., 1948, The biology of the Water hyacinth. In Ecology of Water Weeds in the Neotropics. UNESCO Technical Papers in Hydrology No.12. 16. Poling, J., and Barr, J., 1965, The Worlds most Threatening Weed. In (1987 ) Gopal

17. Twongo, T 1993 Status of the Water Hyacinth in Uganda. In Greathead A & P de Groot (ed) Control of Africas Water Weeds. Series Number CSC (93) AGR-18 Proceedings 295. 18. Twongo, T. and Balirwa, J. 1995, The Water Hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland lake region of the upper Nile basin Ugandas experience. Unpublished paper presented at the Nile 2002 Conference. Comprehensive Water Resources Development of the Nile Basin, held 13-17 February 1995. 19. Twongo,T. , F.W.B. Bugenyi and F. Wanda 1995. The Potential for further Proliferation of Water Hyacinth in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Kwania, some aspects for research. In The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 20. Twongo, T and J. Balirwa 1995. The water hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland lake region of the Upper Nile Basin- Ugandas experience. Unpublished paper presented at; The Nile 2002 conference. 21. Twongo, T. 1996 Growing Impact of Water Hyacinth on near shore Environments of lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa). In Johnson T.C and E. Odada (Eds). Proceedings of Symposium: The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of East African Lakes. 18-22 February 1993, Jinja Uganda 22. Twongo, T. and J.S. Balirwa 1997. Influence of Water Hyacinth on the Ecological Character of Shoreline Wetlands of Lake Victoria (East Africa). In technical sessions B

42

and D, presented at the 6th meeting of the Conference of the contracting parties, Brisbane Australia 19- 27 March 1997. 23. Twongo, T. 1996. Water Hyacinth Menace in Uganda. Unpublished 24.Twongo, T. and C,O. Odongkara 1998. Update on the water hyacinth problem in Uganda. Unpublished 25. Twongo, 1998 T. Evolution of the Water hyacinth Problem in Uganda. A report prepared for the Task Force on Water Hyacinth Control Presidential Economic council. May 1998. 26. Wanda, F.M., 1997, The Impact of Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Pontederiaceae) on the abundance and diversity of aquatic macro-invertebrates in northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. MSc Thesis, Delft The Netherlands, International Institute of Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering. 27. Willoughby, N.G, I.G Watson, S.Lauer and I.F Grant. The effects of water hyacinth in the biodiversity and abundance of fish and invertebrates in Lake Victoria, Uganda. Final Technical Report. NRI Project No. 10066 and A038, Natural Resources Institute, Overseas Development Administration. United Kingdom. 28. Wilson, J. R., M. Rees, N. Holst, M.B. Thomas and G. Hill, 2001 Water Hyacinth Population Dynamics. Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. ACIAR Proceedings No. 102.

43