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The growing intensity of international competition, coupled with the complexity of multinational marketing, demands that the international advertisers function at the highest level. A successful advertisement in one country cannot be simply transferred or translated into another country’s market without understanding the peculiarities of that country. Legal Considerations Different countries have different advertising laws that need to be accepted and followed. Therefore while creating advertisements it is very important to know the laws that are imposed in that particular country. In Germany it is illegal to use any comparative terminology a competitor can sue you if you do so. Belgium and France explicitly ban comparative advertising, where as it is clearly authorized in the U.K, Ireland, Spain and Portugal. Banning explicit comparisons will rule out an effective advertising approach heavily used by US companies. Therefore it is very important for the advertiser to identify this and act accordingly. Language Limitations Language is one of the major barriers to effective communication through advertising. The problem involves different languages of different countries or dialects within one country. Everyday words have different meaning in different cultures. Even pronunciations cause problems. Cultural Diversity The problem associated with communicating to people in diverse cultures presents one of the greatest challenges in advertising. Communication is more difficult because cultural factors largely determine the way various phenomena are perceived. If the perceptual framework is different, perception of the message it differs. Existing perceptions based on tradition and heritage is often hard to overcome. Media Limitations A marketer’s creativity is certainly challenged when a television commercial is limited 10 showings a year with no exposures closer than 10 days as is the case in Italy. Creative advertisers in some countries have even developed their own media for
overcoming media limitations. In some African countries, advertisers run boats up and down rivers playing popular music and broadcasting commercial into the bush as they travel. WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL MARKETING? International marketing is simply the application of marketing principles to more than one country. However, there is a crossover between what is commonly expressed as international marketing and global marketing, which is a similar term. For the purposes of this lesson on international marketing and those that follow it, international marketing and global marketing are interchangeable. At its simplest level, international marketing involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decisions across national boundaries. At its most complex level, it involves the firm in establishing manufacturing facilities overseas and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe. DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING International advertising entails dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. Target audiences differ from country to country in terms of how they perceive or interpret symbols or stimuli, respond to humor or emotional appeals, as well as in levels of literacy and languages spoken. How the advertising function is organized also varies. In some cases, multinational firms centralize advertising decisions and budgets and use the same or a limited number of agencies worldwide. In other cases, budgets are decentralized and placed in the hands of local subsidiaries, resulting in greater use of local advertising agencies. International advertising can, therefore, be viewed as a communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that differ in terms of values, communication styles, and consumption patterns. International advertising is also a business activity involving advertisers and the advertising agencies that create ads and buy media in different countries. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values, and propagates certain values worldwide. International Advertising offers advertising agency services of all aspects with 15 years of experience in the Hospitality/Travel Industry, Chemical/Pharmaceuticals, Products/Manufactures/Distributors/Brands, Fashion and Food industry. It is safe to say that we can guarantee excellent creativity and quality which allow us to deliver superior marketing tools within predetermined budgets and deadlines. International Advertising, Inc. consists of personnel with expertise in marketing, graphic design and photography as well as the required technical, logistical and administrative support geared towards achieving your greatest goals and objectives through advertising and promotion. Through a mutual accord, upon a granted interview, we will know how to interpret your necessities in order to significantly influence your potential clientele through ideas and images that will spark a favorable response. We will create the interest needed to stimulate your bottom line. In the international marketing literature the issue of advertising standardization has ignited a lively and heated debate among academics and managers alike. However, the decision whether
The bicardi company wanted to sell the drink “pavane” in germany. Internet messages can be automatically translated). Develops a comprehensive framework to capture the relevant factors that determine the selection of the appropriate international advertising strategies and tactics. as well as media availability and government regulation are major barriers to use of a standardized campaign. A company Marketing tomato paste in the middle east found that in arabic the phrase tomato paste translates as tomato glue. modifying the appeal and providing information tailored to the local market. We believe hyperspace is one more place where you should have the freedom to know what's out there and the right to choose. There are those who want to direct the traffic and set up the roadblocks. discusses the ways and the degree to which international advertising strategies can be adapted to different situations. differences in customer perceptions and response patterns across countries and cultures. Even though technological developments allow adaptation of advertising appeals to different languages (for example. and the subtler problems of linguistic nuance and vernacular. Then proposes that the standardization and adaptation of international advertising strategies represent the polar ends of a continuum of transitional stages. NEED OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING It's early days on the Internet. The objective of the umbrella campaign is to provide an integrating force. Finally. TV can have audio channels in two languages. Which is why advertising is dedicated to help develop the tools and the technologies that will let you do just that? While use of uniform advertising appeals offers a number of advantages. different languages or dialects within one country. “firm” and “intrinsic”) which influence international advertising decisions. Product-specific or country advertising builds on this image. but “pavane” is perilously close to “Pavian” which means “babbon”. perhaps the most important communications conduit we've seen so far. development of visual and verbal copy that works effectively in multiple countries poses major creative challenges. often relying on consistent visual images and the corporate logo. . and propagates certain values worldwide. More specifically. while local campaigns provide greater relevance to specific local customers and markets. The global umbrella campaign develops a uniform image for the company or brand worldwide. history is repeating itself.to standardize or not cannot be considered a dichotomous one. Yet even now. Language barrier Language is one of the major barriers to effective communication through advertising. Faced with this dilemma. The problem involves different languages of different countries. firms may use a global umbrella campaign combined with local country or product-specific advertising. first identifies three broad sets of factors (“local”. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values.
terse writing. Low literacy in many countries seriously impedes communications and calls for greater creativity and use of verbal media. the most effective tool of the advertisers. In some African countries advertisers run boats up and down the rivers playing popular music and broadcasting commercial into the bush as they travel. This is especially apparent in advertising materials. Everyday words have different meanings in different cultures. Media Limitation Media may diminish the role of advertising in the promotional program and may force the marketers to emphasis the other elements of promotional mix. Language translation encounters innumerable barriers that impede effective. pose problem for the translators. Knowledge of cultural diversity must encompass the total advertising project. If the perceptual framework is different. Cultural Diversity Communication is more difficult because cultural factors largely determine the way various phenomena are perceived. A marketer’s creativity is certainly challenged when a television commercial is limited to to 10 showing a year with no two exposure closer than 10 days. idiomtic translation and thereby hamper communication. This often is not satisfactory because both the language and the translator change. Multiple languages within a country or advertising area pose another problem for the advertiser. and world economy. Abstraction. investors . INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING HELPS IN: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Remind customers and prospects about the benefits of your product or service Establish and maintain your distinct identity Enhance your reputation Encourage existing customers to buy more of what you sell Attract new customers and replace lost ones Slowly build sales to boost your bottom line Promote business to customers. Some companies have tried to solve the translation problem by hiring foreign translators. but transported to Miami’s Cuban community.Tropicana brand orange juice was advertised as jugo de china in Puerto Rico. Communication is impeded by the great diversity of cultural heritage and education which exists within countries and which causes varying interpretations of even single sentences and simple concept. it failed. perception of the message itself differs.
be viewed as a communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that differ in terms of values. Pepsi Co has used four basic commercials to communicate its advertising themes. English and Spanish for use in the international markets. the firm will use the services of an advertising agency to determine the appropriate message.INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING CONCEPT It entails dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. and propagates certain values worldwide. South America.. Benetton recently encountered a problem with its “United Colors of Benetton” campaign. The music in these commercials has also been adapted to suite regional tastes. At each stage in the process. and consumption patterns. The international advertiser must make sure that visual executions are not inappropriately extended into markets. In either case. Revlon. the message is encoded so that it will be clearly understood in different cultural contexts. The Communication Process The process of communication in international markets involves a number of steps. cultural barriers may hamper effective transmission of the message and result in miscommunication. These commercials. Revlon obtains effective television commercials at a much lower price than it would have to pay for similar –length commercials produced in US. . ranging from rock and role in North America to Bossa nova in Latin America to Africa. the advertiser determines the appropriate message for the target audience. its corporate image. and Asia. communicate the universal appeals and specific advantages of Revlon products. The campaign appeared in 77 countries. respond to humor or emotional appeals.e. Some forms of visual presentation are universally understood. therefore. Africa. advertising copy and make the media placement. as well as in levels of literacy and languages spoken. primarily in print and on billboards. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values. communication styles. Next. Europe. By producing its ads In France. In some cases the advertising message relates to the firm and its activities. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. The basic setting of young people having fun at a party or on a beach has been adapted to reflect the general physical environment and racial characteristics of North America. has used a French producer to develop television commercials. for example. International advertising is also a business activity involving advertisers and the advertising agencies that create ads and buy media in different countries.the body language of print and broadcast advertising. International advertising can. the message relates to a specific product or service marketed by the firm. In other cases. Target audiences differ from country to country in terms of how they perceive or interpret symbols or stimuli. How the advertising function is organized also varies. which are filmed in Parisian settings. Art Direction Art direction is concerned with visual presentation. The message is then sent through media channels to the audience who then decodes and reacts to the message. i. First. International Advertising as a Business Practice International advertising can also be viewed as a business activity through which a firm attempts to inform target audiences in multiple countries about itself and its product or service offerings.
the message relates to a specific product or service marketed by the firm. and a receiver. especially the symbolism associated with cultural traits. Local country managers will be able to share important information. that particular creative execution was not in the U. depicting a black woman nursing a white baby. Advertising Communication System Advertising communication always involves a perception process and four of the elements shown in the model: the source. the firm will use the services of an advertising agency to determine the appropriate message. In addition. Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic. intimate scenes between men and women are considered to be in bad taste. and it involves social interactions between two or more people and the important ideas of group influence and the diffusion of information. It can Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Create awareness Communicate information about attributes and benefits Develop or change an image or personality Associate a brand with feelings and emotions Create group norms Precipitate behavior Efficacy . This type of communication is termed word-of-mouth communication. for example another version of campaign. In some cases the advertising message relates to the firm and its activities. potentially competing. business . there are four.The art direction focused on striking. international. In either case. In Japan. white in Asia is associated with death.Effectiveness of Advertising on International Markets International Advertising as a Business Practice International advertising can also be viewed as a business activity through which a firm attempts to inform target audiences in multiple countries about itself and its product or service offerings. and global. a message. is essential when creating advertising. the receiver will sometimes become a source of information by talking to friends or associates.a white hand a black hand handcuffed together. they are outlawed in Saudi Arabia. its corporate image. In other cases. i. provocative interracial juxtapositions. However. For example.e. advertising copy and make the media placement. Use of colors and manwomen relationships can often be stumbling blocks. because the image evoked the history of slavery in America. An advertising message can have a variety of effects upon the receiver. won adverting awards in France and Italy.S market Cultural Considerations Knowledge of cultural diversity. such as when to use cautions in advertising creativity. export. For global advertisers. multi-national. a communication channel.
elements of the ad. SI. however. Be aware. developing economies of scale in the creative process. Ask customers to clip the ad and bring it in for a discount or free sample. MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Just as important as creating a strong marketing plan is following through on the results. Offer a product at slightly different prices in different magazines. maximising local effectiveness of ads. 2. Advertise an item in one ad only. This has the added benefit of showing whether consumers will buy your product at a higher price. It is vital that the advertising plan be developed so as to mesh with and support the various . and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. Stop running an ad that you regularly run. Check sales results whenever you place an ad for the first time. and importing ideas that travel. Or. Once one knows what works in an ad. Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. Don’t have any signs or otherwise promote the item in your store or business. sales or special requests for that item. Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual. facilitating agency. 4. and global factors that will affect decision making and the development of the plan. 6. If you get calls. that you can’t expect immediate results from an ad. 3. Checks like these will give you some idea how your advertising and marketing program is working. producing local executions. METHODOLOGY The manager needs to engage in situation analysis with respect to the market conditions that are operating at the time and to assess the consumer/market. How will you know which ads are working if you don’t analyze the results? Check the effectiveness of your advertising programs regularly by using one or more of the following tests: 1. not verbal. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximised. you’ll know the ad is working. that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. See if dropping the ad affects sales. Run the same ad in two different publications with a different identifying mark on each. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions. 5. such as Flow of Attention.objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice. Then count the calls. and social legal. if you’re running an ad that asks customers to order by mail. competitive. Market research measures.” By looking at the marks on the clipped ads or the addresses on the mail-in orders. put a code in your company address such as “Dept. Especially with small ads—the type most entrepreneurs are likely to be running—you need to give the reader a “getting to know you” period during which he gets to feel comfortable with your business. you’ll be able to tell which ad pulled better.
trends in these shares. The advertising manager also needs to know the major areas of his or her planning and decision-making responsibilities. Once the content of the campaign has been decided. First. Message Strategy and Tactics The actual development of an advertising campaign involves several distinct steps. The planner also has to be aware of the relative strengths and weaknesses financial. what share of a market is possible for the brand. Consumer and Market Analysis A situation analysis often begins by looking at the aggregate market for the product. There are three areas of major importance: Ø Ø Ø Objective And Target Selection. The marketing plan includes planning. the soundest rules involve beginning with a detailed specification of what a . The marketing objectives should identify the segments to be served by the organization and how it is going to serve them. and promotion. The needs and wants of consumers on which the firm will concentrate. or cause being advertised: the size of the market. the possible existence of different segments. and promotion. geographical distribution. are identified and analyzed in a marketing plan. seasonality. and from which competitors an increase in share will come. feeling. attempts to locate the relative perceptual positions of competitive brands. The Marketing Plan Advertising planning and decision making take place in the context of an overall marketing plan. Media Strategy Although there are many rules of thumb often used to decide how much money to spend on advertising. and the history of competitive moves and objectives in the product category. production. pricing. or action content. and control functions for the total corporation or a particular decision-making unit or product line. place. and trends in all of these aggregate market characteristics.components of the marketing and communications mix such as personal selling. Most people are familiar with the “4 Ps” the marketing mix which includes product. reasons for these trends. Situation analysis should usually include an analysis of what current share the brand now has. Message Strategy and Tactics. There are several marketing tools that can be used to help an organization achieve its marketing objectives. implementation. the advertising manager must decide what the advertising is meant to communicate by way of benefits. A marketing plan formulates the strategy and tactics for each of these. The marketing plan will include a statement of marketing objectives and will spell out particular strategies and tactics to reach those objectives. Competitive Analysis Advertising planning and decision-making are heavily affected by competition and the competitive situation the advertiser faces. for example. such as the needs of working men and women for easily prepared meals. A type of market structure analysis that involves the development of perceptual maps of a market. brand personality. price. public relation. decisions must be made on the best and most effective ways to communicate that content. and marketing of the different competing companies. service. Media Strategy and Tactics. what shares its competitors have. its growth rate. Competition is such a pervasive factor that it will occur as a consideration in all phases of the advertising planning and decision-making process.
China and India are a case in point for a dramatic change in the place of advertising in the overall business and consumer scene. for instance in countries such as Malaysia which prohibits the use of foreign models in advertising. either advertisers or agencies. customized advertising should be favored. especially due to strong globalization over the last 20 years. the cross-national advertising literature leans towards adaptation rather than standardization of advertising worldwide. It is only when the job to be done is well specified that the amount and nature of the effort the amount of money to be invested in advertising can be really determined. an analysis of U. Reviews of cross-national advertising studies. In a similar way. Advertising execution has to take into account the education. Standardized advertising is hindered if the use of certain media or execution elements is restricted.S. social. The competitive environments as well as the actual life cycle stage of a product are further factors in favor of adaptation. Differing needs. either regional or global generally conclude in favour of adaptation. For instance.corporation is attempting to accomplish with advertising. advertising was more resistant to standardization than product or brand policies . However. Furthermore. On average. : Advertising standardization is increasing over time due the globalization trend. legal. satellite TV) influence global advertising: media overlaps push companies to more standardized advertising approach. environmental variables across markets are heterogeneous. have consistently argued in favour of ad standardization and the possibility of putting up a global message with localized communication . religion etc. and income levels of target groups. A number of developing countries have been accessing the status of advertising intensive countries. rapidly changing communication technologies (Internet ads. make the use of an identical advertising approach across markets difficult. If. The cultural environment is seen as the highest barrier against standardized advertising. and the resources necessary. Change over time Many studies point to the persistent need of ad adaptation . there are many arguments in favour of a trend towards advertising standardization. Within a homogeneous environment advertising standardization is recommendable. Authors coming from the corporate world. literacy. companies operating in Europe showed that. Adaptation to local contexts still needed . between 1963 and 1983. on the contrary. consumption habits. a heterogeneous economic environment across countries makes advertising standardization more difficult. STANDARDISATION VIS A VIS LOCALISATION Adaptation as a general tendency of the cross-national advertising literature The feasibility of ad standardization depends on variables related to the economic. and cultural environment. traditions. technological.
“i’m lovin’ it” and it is part of a new and broader marketing approach that McDonald’s calls Rolling Energy. When Nike launched its campaign. proposition (campaign themes). Nike. Degree of adaptation should increase over a continuum of four levels: mission (long term. “The value shared by the youths in different countries makes it possible today more than ever to create global campaigns with a same message”. “in some countries they had to change the fundamental image of the advertising because of cultural questions. the strategy of unifying a campaign behind the same message for the brand is nothing new. Although there is obviously some overlap between both categories. and enjoyed very good results. “it contains the risk of not being able to adjust to the peculiarities of each individual market” . To create a campaign of this sort.Religion act as filters of advertising messages.” Despite the benefits that this campaign offers.” . presumes a terrific cost savings that could have an impact on [McDonald’s] accounting results. identity and vision of the communicator). : Advertising strategy is more standardization prone than ad execution. unify its messages and integrate all its marketing moves. tobacco. While mission and proposition can rather easily be globalized. motor insurance. Influence of product category on the degree of standardization Of international advertising Product type may have an influence on advertising standardization. In fact. Products satisfying fairly universal needs whose ad messages mostly carry rather context-free information cues are easier to standardize. execution will need much local tailoring. : The level of advertising standardization is contingent on product category i’m lovin’ it”: An International Motto For example. “McDonald’s realized that it can save money. which is not individualized for each country and each market and which is going to use the same slogan. The company says this approach will revitalize the brand in the entire world. banks. advertising strategy comprises 'what is said' and execution concerns more 'how it is said'. creative concepts (how themes are translated in the language and cultures of the target groups) and execution. with its “Just Do It” slogan had already done that. McDonald’s launched a new – and for the first time. : Culture and local customs are positively related to adaptation recommendation Advertising strategy versus advertising execution Advertising content consists of two major elements: strategy and execution. The campaign focuses around the motto. global – marketing strategy in Germany at the beginning of September.).) rather than multidomestic industries (food. transforming factual information into culturally interpreted meaning. That’s the most that can happen to McDonald’s in its global campaign. Ads for certain product categories may be easier to standardize because they correspond to global (airlines.
Many advertising decisions involve choices among facilitating agency alternatives. it acts as an important force fashioning the cognitions and attitudes that underlie behavior not only in the market place. although WPP.The Indian government has taken strong objection to the AXE chocolate deodorant ad . Facilitating Agencies Another external factor involves the agencies that facilitate advertising and provide the means to advertise. Ø The largest agency group. What advertising agency should be chosen? What media should be used? What copy-testing supplier will be best for our particular situation? Concerning the question for agency selection. language and values. places over $37 billion of advertising for its clients around the world and derives half its revenue from outside the US. on the other hand. for example. Fact file Ø The majority of large advertising agencies are headquartered in the US. interpersonal compatibility. the advertiser basically needs to know what kind of facilitating agencies exist and the nature of the services they can provide. advertising has an important social influence .vulgar and repulsive. and one each in the UK. but also in all aspects of life. France and Japan. Advertising exerts a formative influence whose character is both persuasive and pervasive.Axe Chocolate-man Ad Banned Axe ad is a classic example of standardization vs localization debate. It clearly reflects the importance of understanding cultural sensitivity in advertising. most other agency networks generate the majority of their revenues outside their home country. From a situation analysis viewpoint. is done without the services of an advertising agency or a research supplier. Through the selective reinforcement of certain social roles. the British agency holding company. Keeping in line with its crackdown on suggestive advertisements being televised. the Japanese agency. each serving one or more brands in a product line made up of several products. A national advertiser. seven are headquartered in the US. is made up of two large USbased agencies. In an international setting. much local advertising. Cagley and Roberts found that the people factor” tends to dominate in agency selection. Ø With the exception of Dentsu. and synergism were very important. Ø US-based advertising agencies and their subsidiaries are responsible for most of the advertising throughout the world. Characteristics such as the quality of personnel. mutual understanding. integrity.Ministry of information and broadcasting has regarded the ad as indecent . Omnicom. there are often profound secondary consequences. may have under contract many different agencies and research suppliers. reputation. From a planning viewpoint. China is the next largest advertising market and is also growing rapidly INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AS A SOCIAL FORCE In the view of the advertiser the primary objective of advertising is to sell products or services. In achieving this primary goal. Of the ten largest advertising agency groups. for example.
stimulating for example the adoption of fast food. and establishes new models of consumption. a criticism frequently leveled at international advertising is that it promulgates Western values and mores. while. in some countries such as France. Often this results in radical change in life-styles. as. for example. in other countries. there is a strong negative reaction to the imposition of US culture. casual attire or hygiene and beauty products. Equally. The impact of such campaigns is further reinforced by the growth of global media such as Star TV. It disseminates messages using universal symbols and slogans. Promotion of tobacco products by US and UK companies in countries where there is no legislation regulating or banning cigarette advertising has also been criticized. international advertising can be viewed as a colonizing force propagating Western values and mores throughout the world. on the one hand. values and use of English in advertising. such as the upwardly mobile urban middle class. . International advertising also encourages desire for products from other countries. Even where adapted to local scenarios and role models. it is also an important force integrating societies and establishing common bonds. behavior patterns of a society. life-styles and role models. Advertising is thus a potent force for change. This is viewed particularly negatively in societies with strong religious or moral values. Often the symbols. ideals and mores that international advertising portrays and promotes are those of Western society and culture. for example. At the same time. the Colors of Benneton campaign or the British Airways "Peoples of the World" campaign. much international advertising is designed to promote and introduce new products from one society into another. it is likely to be considered a subversive force undermining established cultural mores and values. Consequently. Marlboro and McDonalds are known by and have become objects of desire for teens and young adults throughout the world. Islamic societies in the Middle East. which run counter to those of the West as. international advertising also acts as an integrating force across national boundaries. Through the reach of advertising. When Western advertising depicts sexually explicit situations or shows women in situations considered as inappropriate or immoral. images and scenes depicted in much international advertising are either Western in origin or reflect Western consumption behavior and values. brands such as Levi's. those shown often come from sectors of society. At the same time. Consequently. MTV or print media that target global audiences worldwide. notably from the US. multicultural values are reinforced by advertisers. which embrace or are receptive to Western values and mores. Nike. and establishes a common mode of communication among target audiences in different parts of the world. it creates expectations about "the good life". who adopt images incorporating peoples of different nations and diverse cultural backgrounds. Similarly. CNN. universal symbols and models of communication among peoples in different parts of the globe. while selectively reinforcing certain values. First.in a number of ways.
(Think of Chris Anderson and her command at Wired and MSNBC). get the consumer involved in it and make it an integral part of their corporate DNA. Weber Shandwick's Global Strategic Media Group comprises corporate communication strategists and best-in-class former journalists from Weber Shandwick hubs in North America. Compiled by the team. In this new age landscape. via its proprietary VOICEBOXX™ tool. reaching key audiences directly. and targeted with precision to receptive media. The increasing demand for customized and always-fresh online content is placing added stress on news creators’ limited resources. Europe and Asia. the team has sharpened its approach to media relations." helping organizations to understand that they can no longer only consider innovation as a strategic imperative. rather. Delivering Content As the media market changes.Global Strategic Media Media as we know it is changing. marrying customized content with precise targets. the report considers consumer. As the media ranks continue to shrink. No longer is corporate communications relegated to individual pitches or stories. Executive positioning at customized roundtable events and existing top-tier speaking forums. fewer valued voices will remain. In this new content-starved environment. These media uber-advocates can take a single story and compound its impact by delivering it across multiple channels. What this means for media players—companies and journalists alike—is a mounting standard for quality content worthy of attention and a diminishing opportunity to be heard. where media uber-brands reign. it is a reliable and regarded source for cohesive and branded content. They must also actively seek new ways to embrace it. The team’s method is based on a quad of elements: • • Trend-based insights fueled by a quarterly trend report. Surgical media relations bolstered by intimate knowledge and relationships with global media. so too does the PR industry. particularly the band of Uber Advocates who cross multiple media platforms. corporate and media trends dictating attention and discusses those likely to follow. Most notably. Today's increasingly complex and rapidly changing global news environment challenges every company to convey its corporate identity and communicate its messages effectively. Consolidation and newsroom cutbacks are bringing more titles under fewer ownership umbrellas and putting the task of news delivery into the hands of even fewer journalists. they have been at the forefront of the rise of the "Reinvention Economy. Company leaders become mouthpieces for the corporate story. In this evolving arena. Team members work directly with the corporate communications departments of organizations to involve the C-suite in the development of thought leadership campaigns tied to emerging business issues and trends. a handful of cult media personalities are reporting across brands and bringing with them engaged and connected audiences. the line between journalist and PR professional is blurred and an opportunity emerges where brands move from mere disseminators of information to purveyors of content. Pitches and discussions are custom-built. using trend report insights to draw out the relevance of client news. while the insatiable need for quality content will become more palpable. The team actively works to help clients drive increased emphasis on the corporate brand and all that it stands for by leveraging the financial media as a prism on a globalized basis. Click here for details about VOICEBOXX™. • .
training and compensation procedures for the sales force appropriate for the host country is necessary to successfully operate in different regions of the world. an open approach to multi-cultural differences and the ability to implement both the basic and advanced levels of sales management functions is necessary for the sales manager to succeed. The chances of diversifying the market base. first-mover advantage and faster growth rate of the economy in comparison to the home market. direct or indirect exporting. many companies have started looking at international opportunities. Variations in economic. are some of attractions that woo companies to enter these markets. turnkey contracts. greenfield investments. changing customer needs and stagnation of demand in domestic markets. Companies can adopt different structures while operating in foreign markets. With increasing competition. business approach and personal philosophy. joint-ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries. International Sales Management : Overview Globalization has opened up markets and provided hitherto untapped opportunities to companies across the world. attaining low costs of labor and manufacturing. particularly as growth into emerging regions intensifies. piggybacking with local distributors. The decision to enter and operate in international markets is a strategic one. using intermediaries or operating independently by establishing a direct sales force. impactful channels in target markets. Finally. licensing agreements. strides beyond the usual consumer online touch. strategic alliances. economies of scale. socio-cultural and political conditions in different countries makes selling in international markets a challenging task. A thorough understanding of the overall operations of the organization in the global context. who are increasingly migrating online. selection. . most organizations employ local people to sell their products. An awareness of the pitfalls that accompany entry into foreign markets is also necessary to fully reap the benefits. An awareness of various strategic issues is necessary to ensure success in foreign markets. gone digital. socio-cultural and legal factors. franchising. Effective media relations and storytelling is about the story itself – told through multiple. The modes of entry include long-distance selling. These pitfalls may be in the form of economic. It requires a great deal of sensitivity to local customer needs.• Digitization of corporate brands through the creation and dissemination of branded multimedia content. An awareness of the recruitment. The international sales manager plays the crucial role of planning and organizing this effort and ensuring that the desired results are obtained. International sales management plays an important role in implementing the marketing policies and selling programs of the company in the foreign market at the ground level. sources of information and mode of entry into the foreign market. due to differences in culture and traditions and associated problems. the corporate brand. Companies enter foreign markets in search of opportunities. The timing. scale and mode of entry are also crucial to the success of a company. expectations. These include use of longdistance selling. The commonality of the three prongs of GSMG’s approach is superior content. Targeted at business-minded leaders and executives. The strategic issues to be considered pertain to the marketing mix.
the decision sequence in international marketing (see Exhibit 1) is much larger than that of domestic markets. The challenge. As such. of international marketing is to ensure that any international strategy has the discipline of thorough research.Role of the Sales Manager in the International Market Basic-level functions Advanced Level Functions International Sales and Marketing Opportunities Challenges in International Sales Management Economic Environment Legal Environment Cultural Environment Strategic Issues for International Sales and Marketing Marketing mix-Adapt or Standardize ? Obtaining International Information Entering Overseas Markets International Sales Techniques Preliminary Selling Advanced Selling Time and Territory Management Structures for International Sales Organizations Long-Distance Selling Manufacturer's Representatives Piggybacking Intermediaries Establishing Direct Sales Force Abroad International Sales Management Practices Recruitment of Sales Personnel Selection of Sales Personnel Training and Development of Sales Personnel Sales Incentives and Compensation The international marketing plan It should be apparent by now that companies and organizations planning to compete effectively in world markets need a clear and well-focused international marketing plan that is based on a thorough understanding of the markets in which the company is introducing its products. and an understanding and accurate evaluation of what is required to achieve the competitive advantage. it is also more complicated. then. See below. As noted in the next Integrated Marketing box. .
and evaluate their power. . Decisions here will be dependent on matching the results of that analysis with the company's objectives. because the stakeholders provide the broad guidelines within which the firm operates. it is particularly important to address the concerns of the stakeholders in the host company. where firms decide whether to become involved in international markets and determine the resources they are willing to commit. understand their expectations. These objectives. Thus. In the case of international marketing. The business level Business-level considerations begin with the assessment of the stakeholders involved in the business. It is important to clearly identify the different stakeholder groups. The level of resources that the company is willing to commit should be determined by the strategy that is needed to achieve the objectives that have been set. will be determined by the many motivating factors we have discussed in the earlier sections. in turn.Exhibit 1: The decision sequence in international marketing The corporate level We begin at the corporate level. this stage is primarily concerned with the analysis of international markets.
These last two factors are interrelated in that a company's level of commitment to international markets will directly influence whether they employ exporting. level of commitment and method of entry are influenced by the evaluation of environmental factors as well as resources and capabilities. for example.The situation analysis concerns a thorough examination of the factors that influence the businesses' ability to successfully market a product or service. by volume and profitability • distribution. the national managers need to have an achievable and detailed plan for each country. Undoubtedly. too. and proactive. which are often taken for granted. carried out a detailed situation analysis. or some other method of entry. The latter audits not only the weaknesses of the company. and how their performance will be measured. as well as possible methods of entry. it also includes a determination of the level of commitment exhibited by the business. In turn. and products may be at the end of their life in the domestic market but may be ideal for less sophisticated markets. the nature of the market and the abilities and motivation of managers in different markets. as only too frequently corporate plans are determined more by the desire for short-term credibility with shareholders than with the likelihood that they will be achieved. It is important to stress that there is a need for realism in this. adaptable. number of outlets • brand awareness and value • new product introductions and diffusion • company image. including return on investment and profitability • market penetration. customer brand loyalty may be much stronger in certain markets than others. including quality and added value (or service) . including sales (by volume and value). to evaluate the capacity of the firm to be flexible. The process adopted for determining long-term and short-term objectives is important and varies significantly. Conducting a situation analysis in an international setting is a bit more extensive. It not only includes the normal assessment of external environmental factors and resources/capabilities. for success in a highly competitive and rapidly changing world. but also the strengths of the company. At an operational level. including strength in supply chain. the overall marketing goals can be set. It is important. depending on the size of the business. explain what is expected of them. environmental factors have received the most attention from marketers considering international markets. which will take account of the local situation. market share by product category • customer growth. Examples of objectives might be: • financial performance. and made an evaluation of the capabilities of the company. The results lead to a realistic set of objectives. a joint venture. This is particularly important in international markets. as these are the attributes necessary. Marketing objectives Having identified stakeholder expectations.
human resources. The international marketing strategy is doomed to failure if human resources can not find and train the appropriate employees. the firm is adopting a totally differentiated approach.The functional level Having set the objectives for the company. finance. promotion adaptation: While the product stays the same this strategy allows for the adaptation of the promotional effort either to target new customer segments or to appeal to the particular tastes of individual countries. Heinz was looking to expand its 9 Lives cat food brand and Morris the Cat logo into Moscow. each of the functional elements (e. One product. 2. Another discovery: While Americans tend to treat their kitties with tuna. Product/promotion Keegan(Reference) has highlighted the key aspect of marketing strategy as a combination of standardization or adaptation of product and promotion elements of the mix and offers five alternative and more specific approaches to product policy: 1. both at the corporate level and the business level. The age of the global brand is at hand. Ultimately. . that are supplying products to less welldeveloped countries adopt product invention. Product invention: Firms. Anthony O'Reilly. in practice only a handful of products might claim to have achieved this already. promotion extension: This strategy is used if a promotional campaign has achieved international appeal. 4. Another critical element that is closely aligned with the product and promotion is the brand. Although it is a stable and successful brand in the US. For example. or research can not modify the product so that it is acceptable to consumers in another country. a local marketing manager in Moscow. usually from advanced nations. Russian cat-lovers prefer to serve beef-flavored food. one message. this coordination between business functions is contingent on the market entry strategy employed as well as the degree of standardization or customization deemed. testing and research done by Dimitri Epimov. Chairman of H. Product extension. but the product needs to be adapted because of local needs.g. 3. we next consider integration of the marketing mix elements. 5. Heinz. Product adaptation. research) must be considered jointly. believes that the communications revolution and the convergence of cultures have now set the stage for truly global marketing. Following the integrated approach employed throughout this text. a fatter-looking Morris was created for packaging.J. Namely. Having integrated at the function level. led Heinz executives to make a marketing change to ensure the product's success in Russia. the company can now develop a detailed program of functional activities to achieve the objectives. worldwide: While a number of writers have argued that this will be the strategy adopted for many products in the future. Dual adaptation: By adapting both products and promotion for each market.
and a variety of environmental constraints 2. Pricing strategies are also strongly influenced by the nature and intensity of the competition in the various markets. Price sensitivity reduces: The more distinctive the product is: • the greater the perceived quality • the less aware consumers are of substitutes in the market • if it is difficult to make comparisons . governmental intervention. 5. in less-developed countries they are perceived as places for special-occasion eating. the customer segments that are likely to be able to purchase the product and the occasions on which it is bought may be significantly different. and the lower price helps to build market share. In confirming the positioning of a product or service in a specific market or region. confirming the impact the corporate strategies should have on pricing policy evaluating the various strategic pricing options and selecting the most appropriate approach implementing the strategy through the use of a variety of tactics and procedures to set prices managing prices and financing international transactions Perhaps the most critical factor to be considered when developing a pricing strategy in international markets. in countries at different stages of economic development. However. therefore. 3. however. and all have implications for the international marketer.As discussed earlier. and shipping requirements. analyzing the factors that influence international pricing. A common strategy involves a marketer setting a lower price for their products in foreign markets. the market structure. such as the cost structures. must vary in some dimensions. it is important to recognize at the outset that the development and implementation of pricing strategies in international markets should follow the following stages: 1. is how the customers and competitors will respond. For example. This strategy is consistent with the low income levels of many foreign countries. product positioning is a key success factor and reflects the customer's perceptions of the product or service. it is therefore necessary to establish in the consumer perception exactly what the product stands for and how it differs from existing and potential competition by designing an identity that confirms the value of the product. while KFC and McDonald's restaurants aim at everyday eating for the mass market in the developed countries. Nagle(Reference) has suggested nine factors that influence the sensitivity of customers to prices. Pricing Pricing products in foreign nations is complicated by exchange rate fluctuations. the value of the product. The product positioning. tariffs. 4. and are beyond the reach of the poorest segments of the population. For these reasons. competitor pricing levels.
is a situation where products are sold through unauthorized channels of distribution. Often companies find it difficult to coordinate and control prices across their activities in order to enable them to achieve effective financial performance and their desired price positioning. implementing. also called parallel importing. the third link is the channel structure (logistics) within countries. A gray market comes about when individuals buy products in a lowerpriced country from a manufacturer's authorized retailer. too. A gray market. Distribution strategies within overseas markets are affected by various uncontrollable factors. they engage in a gray market strategy. So. does the quality of . Simply. ship them to higher-priced countries. and control of physical flows of materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use to meet customer needs at a profit. Finally. Logistics. is concerned with the planning. Another reason is that the products being sold may be surplus or cannot be sold domestically and are therefore already a burden to the company. Channels between countries represent the second link. and acts as part of the channel itself. which distributes the products from their point of entry to the final consumer. They are responsible for getting products to overseas markets and payment in return. wholesaling and retailing structure differs widely from one nation to the next. or physical distribution management. When companies price their products very high in some countries but competitively in others. and then sell them below the manufacturer's suggested price through unauthorized retailers. The first link is the seller's headquarters organization. how can prices be coordinated by the company across the various markets and still make the necessary profit? Difficulty answering this question has led to two serious problems. obtaining payment promptly and in a suitable currency from less developed countries can cause expense and additional difficulties. there are several inherent problems associated with pricing in international markets. Dumping (when a firm sells a product in a foreign country below its domestic price or below its actual costs) is often done to build a company's share of the market by pricing at a competitive level. How should a company deal with selling to countries where there is a risk of nonpayment? How should a company approach selling to countries that have a shortage of hard currency? Distribution and logistics Distribution channels are the means by which goods are distributed from the manufacturer to the end user. Considerable problems arise in foreign transactions because of the need to buy and sell products in different currencies. Questions to consider are: What currency should a company price its products? How should a company deal with fluctuating exchange rates? Finally. First. Essentially there are three channel links between the seller and buyer.• if the price of a product represents a small proportion of total expenditure of the customer • as the perceived benefit increases • if the product is used in association with a product bought previously • if costs are shared with other parties • if the product cannot be stored Finally. which is responsible for supervising the channel.
The marketing budget represents a plan to allocate expenditures to each of the components of the marketing mix. This step is often skipped or avoided. Therefore. and too few warehouses. to the extent that discrepancies exist between actual and planned performance. budgets are required for personal selling. e. Knowing what others in the same industry spend can be important to an organization whose performance lags behind the competition or to an organization that suspects that its expenditures are higher than they need to be. such as their sales force or their advertising program. the organization must establish a marketing budget based on the required marketing effort to influence consumers. and product development. Usually. One decision is what function to monitor.g. A sales promotion budget should also be determined. Surprises occur. knowing what others spend leads to an unproductive "keepingup-with-the-Joneses" attitude. How much should be spent? Consider the following example. In an effort to ensure that performance goes according to plans. too few vehicles. "Are we spending enough (or too much) to promote the sale of our products?" A reasonable answer would revolve around another consideration: "What do we want to accomplish? What are our goals?" The discussion should next turn to the methods for achievement of goals and the removal of obstacles to these goals. many small retailers dominate most of these countries. while others choose to monitor only a part of it. A third set of decisions concerns how to collect information for making comparisons between actual performance and standards. adjustments in the marketing program or the strategic plan must be made. The budget Marketing mix components must be evaluated as part of an overall marketing strategy. Physical distribution to overseas markets often requires special marketing planning. limited highways. product samples. . as well as the costs of shipping in small quantities. magazines. Finally. Managing product inventories requires consideration of the availability of suitable warehousing. or sales. in terms of what others spend. A common question that marketers frequently ask is. But generally. Marketing control involves a number of decisions. allocating money for coupons. profitability. Similarly. distribution. Many countries have inadequate docking facilities. marketing managers establish controls that allow marketers to evaluate results and identify needs for modifications in marketing strategies and programs. Retailers more closely reflect the economic conditions and culture of that country. A second set of decisions concerns the establishment of standards for performance. but marketing managers who have established sound control procedures can react to surprises quickly and effectively. newspapers. various railroad track gauges. For example.service provided. Some organizations monitor their entire marketing program. when the question is asked. It also assumes that the others know what they are doing. and trade promotions. Evaluating results No marketing program is planned and implemented perfectly. Marketing managers will tell you that they experience many surprises during the course of their activities. the firm must establish an advertising budget as part of the marketing budget and allocate expenditures to various types of advertising media—television. "Are we spending enough?" an automatic answer is given. Differences in the size and nature of retailers are even more pronounced. market share.
Credit 5. The various types of risks that an international marketer may face can be divided into the following categories: 1. So also they prefer to go to English-speaking countries. In international marketing assumption of risks is often. Every businessman prefers to export to safer countries rather than to unsafe ones. Two points may be noted in this connection: (1) Competition is the keenest in markets consider safe and is virtually nonexistent in so called unsafe markets. Cargo 4. voluntary. though not always. Experienced businessmen are aware of the risks involved in business and. the number and variety of risks are increasing. risks laws risk risk of foreign . Indian exporters usually begin with exporting to nearby countries or to countries having a substantial number of Indian settlers there. as also of international business is the ability to evaluate carefully the risks involved and then try to cover them if possible. What is needed for the success of business.Once a plan is put into action. and reactions of competitors must be collected and analyzed so that a marketing manager can identify new problems and opportunities. instinct. Political arising out 3. reactions of consumers. Information on sales. Countries once considered safe may become absolutely unsafe. a marketing manager must still gather information related to the effectiveness with which the plan was implemented. profits. Management of Risks in International markets by Risk is a fact of business life. they try to minimize their risks. In this respect developed countries are considered to be less risky than the developing countries. In the initial stages a policy of risks avoidance is followed but it is not always possible to do so and a firm must be prepared to accept progressively greater risks. For example. more so of international business. Commercial 2. What is more due to increasing complexities of business. Exchange fluctuations risk We shall discuss each of these risks separately. (2) Nobody can foresee which countries are to be risky.
Commercial Risks Among commercial risks be included the risks arising from suitability of the product for the market or otherwise. . wars between two countries or among many countries capture of cargo by enemy etc. However. Changes in exchange rates. Commercial risks due to (1) lack of knowledge. Political risks could be avoided /reduced to some extent by judicious selection of countries. either of the country’s currency or for foreign currencies might seriously affect the country’s competitive capacity. Insurance companies may agree to provide cover for some of these risks on payment of additional premium. The exporter is unlikely to know as much about the foreign market as he does about his own. rebellions. and (4) greater transit time involved. civil wars. In case goods are not sold. (2) inability to adapt to the environment. he might have to bring the goods back (involving additional freight costs) or be prepared to sell them at lower prices. it may be said that the export trade is more risky than the domestic trade. Political Risk: Political risk may arise as a result of changes in party to power in the countries concerned coups. change general. Some of the risks are also covered by the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. He does not have adequate about the foreign market as he does about his own. For most of the commercial risks there is no possibility of shifting the risk to professional risks bearers and the exporting firms would have to bear these risks themselves. What is needed is to be prepared for any adverse changes and take corrective action as soon as possible when the situation so warrants. He does not have adequate information about the market or does he have the same feel about the foreign market as the domestic market. (3) different kinds off situations to be dealt with. these risks can be reduced by the application of forecasting techniques as also by keeping a watch on the changing business conditions in the countries concerned as also of the international economy as a whole. Distances involved are usually greater and hence the transit time is longer.
which has gained much fame in recent years with the dire situation of the automobile industry. as it attempts to cater to a wide audience from Ford Flex driving soccer Moms to those looking to relive their youth with the Mustang. Ford has already started to address this issue by focusing on fuel efficient cars that affect each individual’s bottom line. Ford faces many challenges in today’s market both with the downturn of the economy and competitiveness of its industry. But even then the risks remain and have to be assessed as part of the total risks situation. Branding is key for Ford as Chrysler chooses to push an “imported from Detroit” luxury vibe and GM expands into multiple muscle car models. Marketing Strategy . Ford was the only one of the big three that did accept the bailout money and this is one way that Ford has distinguished itself from the pack. Michigan. Competitor and issues analysis Ford has numerous competitors that include domestic and international automakers.Legal Risks: Commercial laws may be different in the two countries. Marketing Plan Outline Current situation: Ford Motor Company’s headquarters is located in Detroit. The overarching issue that affects Ford is the state of the economy. conducting legal proceedings in a foreign country is complicated and expensive. The major risks can be taken care of by stipulating in the contract itself which law will apply and who will be the arbitrator in case of disputes. Marketing Objectives The main portion of Ford’s overall business objective is to attract the most customers to its product line in order to make a substantial profit. Moreover. Ford’s target market is broad. General Motors (GM) and Chrysler are two examples of direct competitors headquartered in the same area. Ford has pressed the fuel economy of its vehicles.
influence and nostalgia. Because Ford seeks to reach as many customers as possible. Ford is also involved in on profit organizations. the Ford Mustang is promoted in such a way that represents power. practical and attractive vehicles for every member of the family. Marketing Segmentation and Target Ford has many different vehicle models and the company works hard to segment these groups particular ads and promotions. Promotion: Ford has multiple levels of promotion from magazine to the back of buses. Place: Ford maintains a strong market share in the United States. For example. This variety allows customers a wide selection when trying to find the perfect vehicle. It’s important that Ford does not price itself out of the market or go so low as to loss profits. Ford’s financial future is brighter than many of its competitors Measurements . but is also especially strong in Europe. a wide promotional area is important.Price: Ford offers many different models of cars at many different price points. Ford took on the task of lessening its debt by over $30 billion where its competitors asked for bailout money from the Government. which demonstrates its belief in corporate responsibility while still targeting its market. perfect for young people looking to make a splash or baby boomers looking to relive the good old days. Action Programs Ford runs regular ads on television and in magazines. Product: Ford strives to make reliable. Segmenting the market is necessary otherwise all of Ford’s cars are considered the same. Ford profited $6.6 billion dollars. Budget In 2010. Due to Ford taking on the task of eliminating much of its debt. safe.
creators and businesses. copyrights or geographical indications are becoming increasingly important for European inventors. So intellectual property rights ("IP rights" or "IPR") such as patents.With the state of the economy making lofty goals of increased sales and productivity are not in the best interest of the company. counterfeit products often place our citizens' safety or health at risk. trade marks. In particular. Intellectual property Protection and enforcement of intellectual property are crucial for the EU's ability to compete in the global economy. EU growth and jobs are hampered when our ideas. Keeping the company’s focus on improved sales will maintain a positive outlook within the sales force. Because European competitiveness builds on the innovation and value added to products by high levels of creativity. brands and products are pirated and counterfeited. the movie and music industries continue to search for technical and regulatory solutions to combat digital piracy. A reasonable goal may be to have an increase in overall profit by 5 percent. especially in Europe. have led to increased concerns about distribution of unauthorized copies of copyrighted media. Moreover. These rights enable them to . Global Marketing Mix Ford is highly successful in its global markets. As a well varied and established global marketing mix has proved profitable and successful in the past for Ford. The proliferation of technologies that enable mass-market digital copying and analog/digital conversion. there is no doubt this will continue as part of the marketing going forward. Many global markets need compact type cars and this is an area in which Ford focuses. Intellectual Property Rights Defining the Issue The age of digital media has dramatically changed intellectual property rights (IPR). the protection and enforcement of intellectual property go to the heart of the EU's ability to compete in the global economy. designs. combined with file-sharing software and peer-topeer networks that are easily accessible via high-speed Internet connections.
many of them still emerging . ranging from the Internet to health care to nearly all aspects of science and technology and literature and the arts. the EU conducts "political dialogues" on IP issues (usually involving European industry). . WIPO regularly produces various explanatory publications on current issues of interest. Emerging Issues in Intellectual Property Intellectual property plays an important role in an increasingly broad range of areas. In an effort to promote informed discussion of the intellectual property issues involved in these fields. WIPO also occasionally commissions studies by various organizations or individuals on similar issues relating to intellectual property. and does not propose IPR provisions which would restrict this possibility. One of the EU's objectives is to see such standards respected by third countries. and to strike the right balance between the IP rights of pharmaceutical companies and the need to ensure that medicines are available for populations in need in the developing world.often requires significant new research and study. also available below. are those of the authors. A selection of the texts of these publications is available below. in particular when it concernsbiodiversity. the European Union is committed to the Doha Declaration on TRIPs and Public Health and has consistently led efforts to facilitate access to medicines in developing countries. the EU fully acknowledges the right and capacity of this country to manufacture and export medicines to other developing countries facing public health problems. Relationships between IPR and development policies are currently being explored in the framework of the "Policy Coherence for Development " initiative. and/or runs technical co-operation programmes intended to help enhance IPR system. and do not necessarily represent the views of WIPO. for instance. technology transfer or food security . Understanding the role of intellectual property in these areas . The EU negotiates IPR provisions in its bilateral trade agreements and works closely at a technical level with its trading partners on IPR issues (protection of IPR in Free Trade Agreements ).prevent unauthorised exploitation of their creations and distinctive signs. In this context. The views expressed in these studies. This objective is being pursued in different ways: The EU works in the WTO to improve the protection and enforcement of IP rights and was a key supporter of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). With the authorities of certain third countries. The EU was also involved in the development of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). or to allow such exploitation in return for compensation (other benefits of IP rights ). IPR policy can also be a tool to promote development. Access to medicines is an issue for which IPR aspects are particularly relevant. With regard to the free trade agreement (FTA) under negotiation with India.
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