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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
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STEAM TURBINES .
t<mt'tit\»t>t\t<t'mfttt»K .t\»:ttti»t\t\tii\titit. .PublisKed by the ra^V' [ev^ "Voirk.ti»t\mt\t\tyt<t<t^t.Successor* to tKe Book Departments of tKe McGraw Publishing Company Publishers Hill Publishing^ Company of Boolts for Electric£j World TKe En^neering and Mining JouTHal Power and TKe Engineer American Machinist Engineering Record Electric Railway Journal MeiaEurgical and CKemical Engineering mt<txt<tti\mt\tit:tii\t\t\»it\timtti\tit\t\t\mtit\t>t\tit<t\ttt.
STEAM TURBINES
A SHORT TREATISE ON THEORY DESIGN, AND FIELD OF OPERATION
BY
JOSEPH WIC KHAM ROE,
M.
E.
MEM. AM. SOC. MECH. ENGRS., MEM. AM. INST. MINING ENGRS. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, TALE UNIVERSITY.
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY
239
WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK
6
BOUVERIE STREET, LONDON,
E. C.
1911
Copyright, 1911
BY THE
McGrawHill, Book Company
Printed and Electrotyped by The Maple Press York, Pa.
Engineering
Library
I
J
PREFACE.
The purpose of this book is twofold, to provide, first, a textbook suited to a short course on steam turbines in engineering schools and, second, a book for the engineer on the principles and general design of turbines without going into refined treatment of the more difficult problems entering into their design. At the end of each article is given a short list of references where those Avishing to pursue the subject will find it treated most thoroughly. Other references are given among the problems to sources available to most students and it is suggested
that these be
made
subjects for short reports, thus extending the
reading of the student beyond the limits of the present text.
The waiter wishes to thank Mr. Geo. A. Orrok of the New York Edison Company, the engineers of the prominent turbine
manufacturers, for data and illustrations used, and especially Mr. C. C. Perry of the Sheffield Scientific School for his help in the preparation of the material.
Joseph W. Roe.
Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University,
April,
1,
1911.
713873
.
of 13 Chapter Art. 126 131 of Index vii 137 . Chapter Art.116 .. . 3. " II. 27. 15.—The Trajectory III.—— — — TABLE OF CONTENTS. 54 66 Chapter IV.— Multicellular Turbines " 21. 14. . — Centrifugal Strains — Bearings — Governing 73 78 82 Chapter V. — Low Pressure Turbines and Regenerators .— Vertical Turbines " 19. 1 " " " 5. 16 22 26 29 : 10. 4 7 of 9 .— Effect of Superheat " 24. 25. Art. " 12. . . " " " —Expanding Nozzles —Design an Expanding Nozzle — Blade Forms and Blade Velocities — Conditions of Maximum Efficiency of Utilization of Kinetic Energy in Steam. 11. 94 98 101 Chapter VI. . 7. " " 13. High Vacuums in Engines and Turbines 108 — 110 Chapter VII. 6. of the Steam . 35 Chapter Calculations of Turbine Blading. — General Comparison of Engines and Turbines. Art. 1. " 16. Conditions of Operation. Art. 18. 23. — Singlestage Impulse Turbines — Multistage Impulse Turbines — Single Flow Impulsereaction Turbines —Double Flow Impulsereaction Turbines Mechanical Problems. of page. 8. Special Forms of Impulsereaction Turbines " 88 91 — 22. — Relative Fields Engines and Turbines . Art. " " —Relative Economy of Engines and Turbines 26. " 17.—Tangential Flow Turbines " 20.— Comparison of Types. 40 44 Art. The Position and Field of the Steam Turbine.. 9.— The Velocity a Jet — Weight Steam DeHvered and Impulsive Force 2. —The Energy a Jet —The Temperatureentropy Diagram —The Heatentropy Diagram 4. " I. Expansion of Steam.
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.STEAM TURBINES.
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steam turbine is derived from one The power available depends on the. Art. —The Energy of a in a Jet. THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. CHAPTER I. (3) g A = area at of the jet and ic— the weight per cubic foot is of the steam the given pressure and dryness or superheat. the weight delivered per second W — wA V . Substituting. Eq. the steam available under the given conditions The total kinetic energy in a moving mass of weight W and velocity V is i^= . kinetic energy of of operation. (3) becomes fJ"^""'. STEAM TURBINES. g (4) . I. Where the velocity is reduced from V to V^ the kinetic energy available in the change is K= ^ '\ 2sr (2) Or. from the standpoint of the force of the jet we have Ft~mV Taking the time as unity the impulsive force acting for one second is F=mV = If WV .. (1) where the body is brought to rest. The power developed or more jets of steam.
Or. but capable of doing it if released." . and is analogous to the energy of the weight if it had fallen freely from its point of suspension to the center of the earth. a definite relation between K and V by which the velocity V may be calculated when the energy available per pound of steam is known. heat and kinetic energy. allowed to do so medium at lower pressure.U = 777. doing influence of its heat tension or pressure until all the heat had been expended. having been allowed to expand under the due to heat. Practically. Both the impulsive force and the kinetic energy. and the total energy of the steam is the sum of its heat energy and the kinetic energy. the two being interchangeable at the ratio of 1 B. In this condition the gas of its particles. however.5 footpounds. since the value of 2g a known constant. This condition. there is a third or intermediate condition where the energy exists in both forms. confined and under pressure from the energy into a it would expand work. The energy of a gas such as steam may exist in two forms.^ From the Law of Conservation of Energy the total energy in a pound Expressing of steam during expansion remains a constant. but can part with it only to a point corresponding to the temperature of the medium into which it expands. K.T. In the British system of units heat is measured in British Thermal Units and energy in footpounds. is unattainable. WV 777. so steam in expanding can not give up all its heat. theoretically. the energy would be wholly kinetic. An important part of the theory of turbines has for its object the determination of this as unity V for any given set of conditions. but since it is confined and at rest.57/i( 2 ' WV. this capacity for work is potential only and analogous to that of a weight suspended and doing no work. For any given pressure and dryness w is known. Taking the weight of steam in is Ec^. As the weight can fall only to the surface of the ground. available become determinate as soon as V is known. this in the form of an equation.5H^ + ~ ' 1 The heat values throughout this book are those given in Marks and Davis' "Steam Tables and Diagrams.2 STEAM TURBINES. is It may If consist wholly of heat. = 777. (1) we have. therefore.
when the velocities before and after expansion are 2500 and 1500 ft. of . P. and H^ and H^ the total heat content in B. per sec? 4. per sec. are available in a heat drop of 42 B. What is the theoretical H. is What . per after expansion. of steam moving at 1330 ft. T. of steam will be available for a decrease in velocity from 3090 ft. per sec? 8. (5) becomes 2 =777. Remembering that is W unity 777. lbs. to 1210 ft.H. sec? 9. P. per sec? 7. U. U.) or (6) in which V is the theoretical velocity attained. T. of work per sec. What must be the initial velocity of steam which delivers in one jet 40 H.)=^^ 7 2_ 1/ \ V ^ 2 (5) 2 In the expansion of steam from a vessel may be neglected. also at 3680 ft. per sec? 1. per lb. What energy per lb. to 2150? 5. when five nozzles are each discharging steam at a velocity of 3450 ft. therefore Eq. How many H. of a jet delivering 1.3 lbs. What heat drop is required to generate a theoretical velocity of 3380 ft. to give 60. per sec? 6. the final velocity being 1600 ft. for 3 where //. per sec. What is the impulsive force in 092 lb. of work per sec? 3.000 ft. lbs. per. What energy per lb. of steam per sec.5{H. P. per sec? 2. per sec.5 (H.~H.000 ft. will steam give up when slowed down from 2150 ft. What velocity must a pound of steam have to deliver 87. at 3500 ft. What weight of steam must be deUvered per sec. pound of steam before and Problems. per sec? ID. . of steam delivered.96 the impulsive force lb.Fi and //jFj are the heat energies and steam velocity any two stages of the expansion.THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM.
In the temperatureentropy diagram for steam. of steam of a jet where the heat drop is 235 B. E C D" D Fig.'s are the equivalent of a H. As engine and turbine . 2. per sec. from the entropy diagrams published with steam tables or the works on turbine engineering. —Temperatureentropy diagram. hr. ically from steam tables. U. depends on the heat drop in the This heat drop may be calculated analytstage considered. which are to govern the design. T. per lb.? References. How many Thomas: "Steam Turbines. U. P. 1." " The Theory of the Steam Turbine.4 11. of the theoretical steam velocities The determination. —The Temperature entropy Diagram. 13. What is the H. P. of the work done when steam is reduced in velocity from 3400 ft. per sec? B.? 12. or determined more conveniently." JuDE : Standard works on thermodynamics. T. and the total heat per pound by the projected area underneath the curve. The corresponding abscissa represents a quantity known as the entropy. per lb. What is the heat equivalent in B. and with sufficient accuracy. to 1300 ft. T. then. the absolute temperature of the water or steam is shown by the ordinate of a point in a curve. STEAM TURBINES. U. Art.
(8) Equations (7) and (7a) represent the curve OB. latent heat varies for different temperatures the correlines. the temperature remains constant and Eq.~^. is i. as from . as during vaporization. (7) becomes dQ = dE „ Q constant. When heat is added as latent heat and goes wholly into changing the condition. dQ^SdT. the entropy line represented and the heat vary directly and the curve by a horizontal straight Q T As the curve. sponding horizontal such as BC. If is >S' (7) be the mean specific heat during a change the heat added Q=S{7\T. (7a) Integrating. The addition of a small amount of heat. we have dE = s'^. further addition of heat raises its temperature and the equation of the curve resumes the form (8).1 to B. Substituting. . the projected area beneath this line showing the heat contents of water.e. with S as the Cr. Fig. or TdE = dQ.. dQ. that portion only of the diagram above the melting point of ice need be drawn. 5 problems are concerned with certain changes in heat which never involve the total contents. 1. at some temperature T would be represented by the shaded slice. will vary in length and a their ends will be the locus of the saturation points.THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. the change of entropy for a rise in temperature from Tj to Tj^. drawn through variable specific heat of superheated steam. is E=S ^=Slog.X or for differentials. After the water has been wholly converted into steam.
in there is as heat. tically to give the conditions of adiabatic expansion.) 1. tion of a portion. gauge pressure to 28 inches of vacuum? 5. let the steam be at the condition indicated at C. when will it be lowered? What will be the final quality of steam expanded adiabatically from the dry. Expansion through an orifice or short nozzle is so rapid as prac which no exchange of heat between the steam and the walls surrounding it. adiabatic expansion will reduce the amount of /'.0514. when will it 4. as position of F. is 1. which is done at the expense of the internal energy of the steam. ^ i lbs. and just dry and If allowed to expand adiabatically to a lower temsaturated. For instance. have quality raised. as shown by the If the steam were originally superheated. (Use standard steam tables. saturated point. gauge pressure and 98 1/2% quality. saturated steam at 320° Fahr.6. to the heat energy represented for The external work done. 140 lbs. under what conditions its will steam expanding adiabatically from Tj to T.6 STEAM TURBINES. at the temperature T^. What is the latent heat of evaporation for that point? 3. is the increase in entropy from water at 65° Fahr. or if continued bring it to saturation as at further continued condense part of the steam as indi cated by the position of J. at what pressure will its quality. indicated at H. remain about the same. since any other line as CD' or CD" would have an area under it indicating heat added to or subtracted from the steam. 1. Refei'ring to Fig. what is . perature T2 the vertical line CD" would indicate adiabatic expansion.? The entropy of evaporation at 360° Fahr. during the expansion.. equal by the area ABCD is accounted condensa by the lowering of the quality of the steam.) lbs. such as Marks and Davis'. that is. then the quality at the lower pressure will have some other value. as at E. superheat as at or if still /. or the If the quality of the steam was originally below the saturation point. Problems.be 90%? (Take the specific Given steam at 170 6. to dry. C. What 2. Given steam at 160 heat of superheated steam at 0. absolute and superheated 100° J'ahr. at what pressure will it be dry and saturated when expanded adiabatically. Such heat as is given up goes into external work only.
and 30th St. for both British and Continental units. Thomas: "Steam Turbines. Total Heatentropy Diagram and II. . drop per lb. 4th Ave. The points left of equal pressures being connected. by connecting heat vertical of the constant of dryness and constant super we have curves line final from an constant quality and superheat. gauge pressure and 80° Fahr.. Horizontal lines indicate changes at constant heat or changes of condition. Tota Heatpressure Diagram." Neilson: "The Steam Turbine. total heat? of Given water at 70° Fahr.THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. New York City. instead of an area as in the temperatureentropy diagram. running upward from points of Similarly." Jude: "The Theory of the Steam Turbine. An excellent one is published with Marks and Davis' Steam Tables. for adiabatic expansion from 150 lbs." Art. Any condition of the steam may be expressed by tion of pressure the position of a point in this plane.40 net. a part of which. superheat to a pressure corresponding to 28 1/2 inches of vacuum?.. Mollier has developed a heat diagram based upon the temperatureentropy diagram.* In this chart the heat content of the steam at any given condiand dryness or superheat. there pressures results the series of curves of eciual to right. appears as the ordinate in a rightangled coordinate system. and therefore give the change in quality for moist 1 The Marks and Davis Diagrams I. 7 the quality or superheat at atmospheric jjressure which corresponds same 1 lb.. U. on a reduced scale. and the heat change may be read off directly on the scale of the chart.? What is the B. IZH \J References.'s have been added and its absolute pre.ssure is 27 lbs. T. Longmans. 1148 B. to the 7. Green. and the entropy appears as the abscissa. may be purchased at $0. is reproduced here." French: "Steam Turbines. A initial condition to the pressure line condition shows the heat drop due to adiabatic expansion where there is no change in entropy. U. Copies of this chart.. are published with a number of the standard works on steam turbines. what will be its condition when 8. and Co. Prof." Mover: "Steam Turbines. from the publLshers. T. but more convenient to work with. 3 —The Heatentropy Diagram.
absolute.xpanded adiabatically from gauge to 1 lb.\RKS AND Davis: "Steam Tables and Diagrams. and also from atmospheric pressure to 1 lb. what is the quality at 1 lb. expanded adiabatically to the same pressure?/ What is the cause per lb. gauge pressure and expanding to 1 lb. absolute and 95% is What L50 lbs. f<5/ Let steam be expanded from 140 ft.?. of steam at atmospheric pressure which has the same total heat as steam at 50 lbs. an additional be plotted from which the velocity corresponding to the heat change may be read off at once. gauge and 120° superheat to 1. 9. absolute? Let dry saturated steam be expanded adiabatically from 100 lbs. As the scale steam.'s are available with an atmospheric exhaust? 10. \\Tiat is its pressure when dry and saturated? ^ "5'' 4. per lb. What would be the quality if it had absolute and 89% quality. in the adiabatic expansion of dry steam from 150 lbs. gauge pressure what would be its final cpadition if the velocity obtained is 3600 ft. of A steam at 130 lbs." . gauge to atmospheric pressure. of a lb. absolute to 1 lb. final condition of dry steam e. If At what pressure will it have a quality of 88%? i dry stfam is expanded adiabatically from 100 lbs..5 times the B. 5. U. 2. lbs.8 STEAM TURBINES. ^ /^ Let steam be expanded adiabatically from 170 lbs. or in temperature or superheat for superheated steam. absolute? '7/7 What will be the quality. U. M. quality? 3. in which the values are 777. lbs. P. How many B. gauge and 100° superheat and attain a velocity of 3500 per sec. A third scale of the footpounds available per pound of steam is also added. absolute? Wliat is the change in entropy? How many ft. With dry steam at 140 lbs. How many ft. may Problems. lb. of energy are available per lb. 1. drops. would be lost for a discharge at the saturation point over a discharge under pure adiabatic expansion? References. 6). \i>^ nfper sec. T. T. absolute and 220° superheat.5 lbs. gauge pressure generates 350 H. of work 6. theoretical velocity developed in a nozzle is a function of certain constants and the heat drop only (Eq. absolute. how many ft. steam are being carried away as lost heat in the exhaust? Steam expands from 160 lbs. of of the increase in quality? 7. '^ 8. 5 lbs. lbs.
Art. H^ will is known. 2: V = 22?. in order to get the velocity. Assuming first an adiabatic drop in pressure. — Temperatureentropy diagram. as only one of the conditions. where of the liquid at the initial q^ and ^2 = total and final pressures. .THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. x being the quality. 7^3 initial and = the absolute temperatures 2.— The Velocity of a Jet.^.q. of the is directly given. 9 4. (9) and (9a) for superheated steam. H^.T. referring to the entropy diagram. of the superheat. P^ and P. H^ usually found directly from the initial conditions. we have the following equations. Lj=latent heat of vaporization for Pj Tj and 7^2 = the absolute temperatures at final pressures..SE'\xE^E") for moist or dry saturated steam. In calculating the heat drop. >S = the specific heat of superheated steam. The dryness or equality steam at the lower pressure must be determined before Fig. is usually the pressure. is not known immediately.^\/q^j^xL. as indicated in Fig. Fig. 2. however.
As the temperature of the steam resistances are offered to the flow. frictional must give up some of its heat energy in overcoming them.G Variations in the specific heat are taken into account in As the heat drop in the temperatureentropy diagram. and consequently from Eq.) and (9a) to (10) V =lb^y\{E .T. from . Fig. there is of course no heat drop during the expansion. E^ is the entropy AF or AD according as initial steam is moist or dry. (10a) E^ in the case of initially moist steam is the entropy BE = xE^. A working value.) +2S iT. to .)TJog^ Ty . is still open to discussion.){T. (6) falls . this heat reevaporates part of the water of previous condensation and raises the quality of the steam. The area then would the heatentropy chart. however. The error introduced by using this trapezoidal approximation is only about 1%. Ej becomes E^. For dry saturated steam. deliver steam at the full velocity represented by the heat drop between the inlet and outlet ^ conditions. The heat thus used raises the temperature of the surrounding walls and of the particles of the steam itself.T.. the figure may be assumed to be a trapezoid. and the steam during further expansion. is represented by the area ABEF and as the side AB approximates a straight line. in use by is and engineers engaged in handling superheated steam. This last value has been the subject of extensive experiment.T. 2. 10 STEAM TURBINES. where x is the cjuality of the steam and E^ the entropy of evaporation. T. Whatever the contour of the nozzle. If the frictional work be sufficient to maintain its heat constant during the fall of temperature. + E.^E^){T . be {T.)[^ (BE + AF ^— (9) With this assumption reduces to y = ^^W{E. x being 1.65. A nozzle will not. It may be scaled directly from the entropy diagrams or found from steam tables by adding to E^ the difference between the entropy of the liquids at T and 7\.
An expansion at constant heat would occur along a line EF'. Under adiabatic conditions the area under AF subtracted from the total area under ABE. (Hi—H^) (l — y) will be the heat energy converted into kinetic . gives the area corresponding to the available heat energy. —Temperatureentropy diagram. Fig. In dealing with the relative areas it should be borne in mind that the AK scale of the ordinates If and the abscissas are widely different. 3. which might have been applied to increasing the velocity of the steam. The heat drop profinal ducing kinetic energy is represented by the difference of total heat areas beneath ABE and AK. then. y be the percentage of the heat drop H^ — H^ which is so lost. Actual expansion in turbine nozzles occurs along some such curve as EK. to that below temperature the total heat area beneath AF^ being equal ABE. the heat tracted. 11 Such is the case where the work of friction is all spent in raising the internal energy of the steam as in a throttling calorimeter. where the final velocity is practically zero. no velocity. At the Fig.THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. but is lost energy due to the frictional resistances. such that the total heat. With steam at condition E adiabatic expansion would be shown by the vertical drop EF. no heat drop would be shown and there would consequently be no velocity. shown by the area beneath Amn would at all times be equal to that beneath ABE. Adiabatic and constant heat expansion are shown by the entropy diagram. 3. must be subUnder the actual conditions the area under The excess area under FK represents. the heat drop causing increase of velocity being represented by the area ABEFA. between the adiabatic and this constant heat line.
steam 3 3. chart.H.8^(H.^}]ily) (12a) where E^ and E^ are the entropy changes as before. 5? . 1. and X^ is the percentage of FK to AG. What velocity is obtainable for an adiabatic expansion from absolute and 120° superheat to 80 lbs.}E. and this expression (6).= ^^^^f^. of steam represented by the conditions of Prob. absolute. and also from dry lbs. absolute. energy.? What velocity obtainable with an expansion of from 150 4. and (10a) giving V^22S. this and 145 lbs. 6. absolute to is 1 lb. with an energy What is the condition of the exhaust? loss of 20%? Let dry steam be expanded from 140 lbs. or increase in the quality of The lost heat. absolute with 15% energy loss? What is H. where Lj is the latent heat of evaporation or is the area under AG.){ly) (H) V==158^j[{E.)T. gauge to 2 lbs. Let steam at 98 ally to (9)? 1 . which corresponds to a velocity of about velocity. An average of the results of many investigations gives about 10% as the value of y.)+2s{(T. 95% of the theoretical Problems. What will be the quality of the steam when the energy. 1/2% quality 5 lbs. per lb. 5.loss during expansion is 14%? What is the velocity of steam expanded from 155 lbs. Check by the heatentropy 2. P.T. FK.){T. Therefore X.5 lbs. may be substituted in equations (10). 180 lbs. gauge and 50° superheat to 1 . gauge and 60° superheat to atmospheric pressure.12 STEAM TURBINES. '2 (13) In. gauge expand adiabaticwhat is the velocity obtainable by Eq. of reevaporation. for adiabatic expansion The percentage the steam. turbine design y is usually determined by experiment for the type of nozzle to be used. lbs. is readily obtained. y{Hi — H2).T. absolute.log. equal to XgLj.
Construct a condition curve for the expansion of steam from 155 lbs. with a reheatWhat is the condition of the steam at 100 lbs." French: "Steam Turbines. 9. Gas Critical Pressure Dry air .58 . far the final pressure be lowered the c^uantity not materially increased." Moyer: "Steam Turbines.. Thefinal velocity and weight discharged will depend upon the final pressure only when that pressure is higher than the "critical pressure" (about . and that however delivered is There exists this critical pressure. —Weight of Steam Delivered and Impulsive Force. U. .. and atmospheric pressure? is the energy loss when the velocity References. ing loss of 15%. fur a given Both experiment and theory show that upper pres sure Pi there exists a certain lower pressure j)^ called the critical pressure. as shown below." Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. lb. 5. but the quantity While the final velocity attained delivered will not be increased. provided the final pressure is less in an expansion nozzle for final pressures than the critical pressure..? 8. What must of be the initial absolute and 90% conditions when steam expanded to 1 quaUty generates 370 theoretical H. depends on the final conditions. This pressure varies somewhat with different gases." Thomas: "Steam Turbines. a zone near the inner lower than end where the velocity and weight of flow are the same whatever the lower pressure." Art. 13 lb. the quantity discharged depends solely on the critical pressure. P. for which the quantity discharged becomes a maximum. T. Superheated steam Dry saturated steam Moist steam The value for steam is usually taken at .THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. loss is 6%? Stodola: "The Steam Turbine.58pi). 7. absolute and S0° superheat to 1 5 lbs. per loss of steam with an energy 80 B. absolute. What 50 lbs. with a marked increase of velocity. . . 526 546 577 582 Pi Pj Pj p^ Pj . Beyond this point further expansion to the final pressure may take place.
remembering the Eg and T^ Eq.). the area of the orifice. P. (14) where A— . together with v. developed by Mr.){T. and that for that and all lower final pressures the theoretical velocity in the throat is critical velocity of about 1450 feet per second. (10) apply to the final pressure. the weight of flow. etc. or. while in Eq.. to the critical pressure. (14a) they apply. for determining the reaction of orifices flowing into atmospheric pressure. friction. hour of equal to 33000x60. can also be shown that whatever the initial pressure. and pressure the volume in cubic feet per pound at the critical 58 Pi. A simple formula. STEAM TURBINES. and (14a). critical pressure. F.7 pounds per square inch of orifice.58 p^ is about the same. only to non. may be determined by (10) substituting the values of V and W found in Eq. George Wilson.T. The reaction = 1 23 Pi14.. and not the The pounds available energy per of pound is of steam multiplied by the Thereor the steam per H. theoretical 2545 steam rate per H. V (14a) \ E^ and T^ being taken for the final pressure. hour = . The weight delivered is W = ^^ 144 1. to obtain the commercial rating. To determine. (3) the impulsive force. such as windage. of the throat. fore the pounds steam per H._ 33000X60 ^ 777 . in the expanding nozzles.o{H ^ — H^) —r. of course. agrees very closely with in experimental results. in scjuare inches.^E. From Eq. or least cross section.Substituting for V the value given in Eq. P. then. the the steam in the throat created by the drop in pressure to . can be considered. condensing turbines.. This applies. 14 It . . (10) we v= have W=^^^^{E. P. hour=__ — ^ ^ (15) This must be increased by the percentage of mechanical losses. only the critical velocity and the area of the orifice. while largely empirical.
8. "Steam Turbines." Thom. 5 lbs. 5% at the throat. 1 cu.^cf References. absolute with a total energy loss of 10%? ^. U. inch in area discharging lbs. of steam." Mover: "Steam Turbines.? loss of 7. ft. of when the specific volume is is 5. gauge. T. when expanding from dry steam / atmospheric pressure? 6. is 4. per lb. what area is required to discharge 1 lb. turbine having eight nozzles has a heat drop of 250 B. A lbs.\ gauge pressure into the atmosphere? is throat diameter required in a nozzle to give a reaction of at 120 lbs. 15 What is the theoretical steam rate of a turbine having a heat drop of 235 B. P. absolute to Jj 12 lbs.THE FREE EXPANSION OF STEAM. . Steam at 150 lbs. P. Wh^ area steam per of throat is required in a nozzle to discharge sec. hour? 200 H. per lb. What is is the impulsive force of the jet if the expansion of Prob. steam? What 18 heat drop must steam have to give a theoretical steam rate of 3.\s: . T. per sec? What is the impulsive force of the jet in the throat for conditions of Prob. 7? 9. What What the reaction of an orifice . ." French: "Steam Turbines. U. when the initial pressure =150 lbs. absolute expanded with an energy . 1. of 2. 12 lbs.35 sq. What must be the throat area of nozzle to pass the required weight per sec. per H. . from 100 5. 7 continued down to 1 . Problems.
4. the pressure in the throat. Rateau. Art. general results. converle . UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. The function of the divergent nozzle can not be is less than used in turbine design in a is to direct the jet issuing from the throat energy generated may be made available. there 58 P^. but unless the flow is concentrated in one direction the energy will be dissipated. When expanding a. Stodola. 6. For short nozzles. properly proportioned the nozzle allows the steam to expand from the critical pressure to the final pressure with a minimum of vibration. nothing to preclude further expansion down to the This further expansion pressure of the surrounding medium. and Gutermuth. and renders the kinetic energy for of the jet available along some definite line of action. increases the velocity of the steam. nozzles are used. but if definite direction so that the kinetic Fig. whether rounded at the entrance. —Expanding nozzle. and for any useful purposes lost. There is no more energy in the flow from an expanding nozzle than from a simple orifice. —Expanding . and the material brought out in these investigations is so great that little more can be done here than to point out some of the The proper proportions subject of extensive experiments. Nozzles. but having passed this point.CHAPTER II. expanding nozzles have been the The most notable results are those of Rosenhain.
oscillations will be set up in the exhaust space. 7. to a pressure below that of the discharge chamber. page 134. If the final pressure. beyond the nozzle. But for manufacturing reasons they are usually made conical. as the increase in efficiency ' is only slight. E. These are shown clearly from the experiments of Dr. 5. where it is seen that there are practically no oscillations of pressure within the nozzle after the one created at the throat has died out. E. and some turbines have adopted this form. S. Parenty has deduced mathematically that the most efficient curve is that of an ellipse with the focus in the throat. 17 gent. Lucke.. Vol.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. these It is the function of a well designed divergent nozzle to reduce oscillations to a minimum. The steam returns to the pressure of the exhaust series of oscillations medium in a roughly propor tionate creasing. as and de damped vibration. is either above or below that corresponding to the expansion within the nozzle. there is a sudden drop of pressure just beyond the throat or entrance. 2 XXVI. A. or straight. Fig. perhaps 1 or 11/2 times the a length of the nozzle the pressure has settled down to that of the lower medium. the divergent portion is conical. Experiments seem also to indicate that the best form for the divergent part is to have it slightly concave. until at to the depression. . 6 shows the effect of the divergent nozzle. In this nozzle nozzle. Fig. taken from Stodola's experiments. These vibrations are clearly shown in Fig..^ which were made with a De Laval the best known for giving complete expansion. C. M.
The form recommended by Rosenhain had the inner corner but slightly rounded. With a well proportioned nozzle a velocity efficiency 1 .18 STEAM TURBINES. and a straight divergent taper beyond. A greater efficiency appears to be obtainable with a nozzle which underexpands rather than one which overexpands. as the loss of energy increases rapidly with overexpansion. of about 1 in 10 or 1 in 12.
60. 30. as a basis.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. 19 velocity for steam at initial pressures of 20. various tapers were . and 120 Taking the 1 in 10 tube. pounds. 90. No. 2.
Mr. No. No. gave the best results. 8). and which were characteristic of all the straight tapered forms. . It is interesting to note 5.20 STEAM TURBINES. that while Rosenhain and others advocate an only slightlyrounded inlet (see also Fig. Kneass obtained better results This form.
Borsody and Cairncross. there was but 1." A. The energy loss from the above." Borsody: and Cairxcross: "Pressures and Temperatures Expansion. E. E. 2. S. sequently only a small pressure drop in any one set of nozzles. 114. E. M." Trans. in Free M.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. This test would indicate that an expanding nozzle should be designed for a pressure under. of nozzle similar to A form Fig. A. — Nozzle on Kerr turbine." Thomas: "Steam Turbines. 5 has been adopted in the Kerr In this turbine there is multi. is 21 within 0. Problems. 10 shows a longitudinal section of this nozzle. References. S. varies from 3% to 13% with an average of about 10% as previously stated.. vol. 30 pounds. Report on the tests of S." Moyer: "Steam Turbines. the average to be encountered. xxxi. rather than over. M. 10. Report on vol. Sibley and Kemble: xxxi." Rateau: "Flow of Steam through Nozzles. Fig. p. "Efficiency Tests of Nozzles. xxvi. p. being proportional to the square of the velocity..stage expansion and conturbine. xxv\. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine. except at the lowest pressure. Trans. vol. No." Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. tests and conclusions of Sibley and Kemble in paper " Efficiency Tests of Steamturbine " Nozzles.. 617.5% loss. M. ..5% and at the pressure for which the nozzle was designed. The velocity loss. S. 1. Reported in Transactions of A. A. E. vol.
From the point A.22 Art. the volume of steam to be delivered per second may be calculated. Let it be given that the divergent portion of the nozzle is to be 4 inches long. dryness of steam. absolute = 15% Loss of energy during expansion. 45. = 1 pound . and 1 pound absolute per square inch. 11. 3. will be used also to illustrate the use of the heatentropy diagram. 15. may . The letters in the second column refer Lines 8 to 12 are the operations to determine the to Fig. 96 pounds. the adiabatic heat drop. and therefore the " critical pressure " in the throat. The first seven lines in the following table give the detailed operations in finding first of . The pressure curve be cut at 15 pounds and the velocity curve at 2710 feet per second. is these pressures. giving the initial condition of the steam. quality of the steam at the various pressures. y Weight of steam discharged per second = 092 pound Let it be required to find the diameter of a conical nozzle and the condition of the steam at the points where the pressures are The 96. From this the areas and corresponding diameters required may easily be obtained. 1 to 12. 165 The operations from care. 60. requiring considerable time and be arrived at in a few moments by the use of the heatentropy diagram. For instance for the section. Let the conditions be as follows: Initial Initial steam pressure. =165 pounds =98 1/2 % absolute Final steam pressure. —Design of an Expanding Nozzle. From the results tabulated the nozzle may be drawn and the curves of pressures and velocities plotted as shown in Fig. project will downward cutting the two curves. 30. aa. With this known. The pressure and velocity for any point in the nozzle may be readily found from the curves. 7. STEAM TURBINES. is 58 of the initial pressure. Values for 5 pounds and 2 1/2 pounds absolute are interpolated to assist in drawing the curves. The following example in the design of an expanding nozzle. worked out first by the use of the steam tables and entropy diagram. 12 reproduces part of it for clearness. Fig. as referred to their respective scales. 75.
23 .UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM.
Draw a tangent to the are b'c through A. The distance AB. zontally over to the points d" e" on their respective pressure final dryness. line 6 of the table. 985 dryness. Laying off Bb' = 15 of AB. corresponding with the calculated value in But 15% of the heat drop is lost in friction. . where AB cuts the pressure lines in question. line as at b". we have. with 5 as a center and Bb' as a radius. drop a perpendicular to B on 1 pound.. we have Ah' as the actual heat drop. U. To ascertain the condition at any intermediate pressures. 11. draw the arc b'c. Projecting b' horizontally until it crosses the 1 pound pressure ^?S5$$JJS$^^$$§$4$S^^ 1" 2" 3" 4" Fig. .24 STEAM TURBINES.813 as the which agrees with the calculated value line 12. T. — Curves for expanding nozzle. etc. .. reading from the quality . e. the heat drop for adiabatic expansion. . . laid off on the heat scale gives 319 B. . horito Ac. pounds pressure and the line of the given final pressure. From the points d. lines. . draw arcs tangent Project the points d' e' where the arcs cut AB.
. It may be noted here that this qual may ity curve may be laid off almost as readily for a varying friction Fig. A "quality curve.11 lb. energy . 12. 25 These points referred to the quality dryness. — Condition curve for expanding nozzle. e". superheat =40° Fahr. loss as for a constant one.. d". etc. discharge pressure. I. of steam delivered = .UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. The qualities thus found will agree with the values as calculated within limits of error justified by the nature of the problem. atmospheric . weight nozzle =3 ins. per sec. Design an expanding nozzle for the following conditions: Initial steam pressure = 120 lbs." Ah". may lines give the be drawn through from which the dryness for any intermediate pressure be read off at once. loss. Problems. gauge. lines. This is of value in calculations for multistage machines where the friction losses increase as the steam expands. length of 16%.
discharging it backward with a velocity Wi. . found. and Calculate the H. u. These indicate that Wi varies from 8 to 95 of W. 2. available at throat and exit of nozzle in Prob. P. The angle .5 lbs. equal to W. Prob. 2 is 4 inches long.—BLADE FORMS AND BLADE VELOCITIES. available in jet at throat of nozzle. . which enter into the problem of turbine design The are: velocities The absolute velocity of the jet as it enters the blades. ing fluid '^ that the driv enter without shock and leave without velocity. P. =4 Calculate the H. but may be assumed from results of experiments and experience in turbine design. The angle ^ determines the direction of the back of the blade on the entering side. Stodola: Thomas: Moyer: Art. The curved surface of the blade deflects the jet." "Steam Turbines. This friction can not be determined theoretically. is W. less a certain loss due to friction. the expanding portion of the nozzle in Prob. and u the blade velocity. Design a nozzle for same conditions as Prob. The velocity of the moving blades." Let V. be the absolute velocity of the entering steam. from the veand W. The absolute velocity jet as it leaves of the the blades. — Velocity and diagram. both in magnitude direction." " Steam Turbines. absolute and length except that disins. according to conditions. The relative velocity of the jet and the blades. the relative velocity. Fig. whether steam or is water driven. charge pressure is 1 . also after expansion to atmospheric discharge pressure. above. "The Steam Turbine.26 ' STEAM TURBINES. 1. all The ideal condition in turbines. ." 8. 13. locity triangle V. 92 being a fair average value for the single stage turbine. what are the pressure and velocity at points 1/2 inch and 2 1/2 If inches from the throat? > References. 1.
.. the final absolute velocity Fj with the bucket velocity u. (16) shows a convenient method of determining the form where entrance and exit angles are equal. /?' 27 is ordinarily made equal to /5 for convenience in in and to reduce end thrust. Draw ab parallel to u and lay on the exit side. PitchFiG. circle about the intersection. Take c and e equidistant from ah and /3 the width of the blade apart. rule is to make the radius equal to twice the pitch times sine ^. "for turbines of less than 100 H. /. Draw V to the same scale. and magnitude.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. bining it Having W^ is tion. or r =2p . horizontally. The best width ce and pitch cc' are empirical and determined by experience. the bucket velocity. manufacture magnitude and direcreadily obtained by com From equation (2) the energy 72_y per pound of steam developed in Inickets retical efficiency is is 2 —' and the theo 2^ E= Fig. In the De Laval wheel this angle is 20°. making the angle a. 14.„ ' 2 .^ The back of the blade is formed by two lines parallel to he and he connected by an arc with /as the off /?' W in direction = center. as no formulae for them have been developed. the width of the 1 A well known German sine /?. of the perpendiculars cf arc of a and ef and the center line ah. P. 14 72_7 . —Determination of blade sections. Closing the triangle we have the relative velocity of the bucket. Moyer says. Lay off cc' and ee' equal to the The face of the bucket may be drawn as the pitch of the blades. Lay off u.
the efficiency for conditions of Prob. final velocity of exit Fi? Determine the energy absorbed by the wheel per lb. p. In the spacing of the blades there must be enough free area to provide for the unobstructed passage of the steam at the large volume corresponding to the exhaust side of the blade.8 inch exit diameter? How many r. increasing to about 1. too. P. and a =22 1/2° and ^ =27°. 6. of steam available for the conditions of Probs. per sec. Draw a cross section of the blading for conditions of Prob. per sec. 3. With a blade velocity u =400 ft. at an angle a =20° and the blade velocity u =1200 ft.5" in tur"The most efficient blade pitch appears to be between the limits of 1/2" and 1"." . steam for a symmetrical blade? Report on article on "Principles Power. If it strikes the face the energy of deflection goes into useful work in the wheel. What 7. steam issues from a nozzle with a velocity of 3400 ft. wheel run for a nozzle ft. opening of a round inclined nozzle is an ellipse. 1 and 2? What is the efficiency? Given 7=3400 ft. 4." made about I". per sec. a =20°.28 blades is STEAM TURBINES. what is the If W 5. 3/4. what will be the absolute angle of exit of the velocity of 2300 9. of steam and 4. 8. Problems. a nozzle velocity of 1720 ft. m. and the greater part of the steam is discharged through these openings near the middle of the nozzle. 391 of Steam Turbine Buckets. that the ditions will permit. 1908. per sec. retarding the wheel and causing It is parallel to the entering loss. what is the final absolute exit velocity neglecting steam friction in the blading? What is the energy per lb. Between these two values the efficiency of blades made according to conventional designs The usual blade pitches are 5/8. for steam striking the backs is deflected outward. ^=1200 ft. per sec. should a 42inch diam. 1. 2. per sec. p. what and blade angle ^? are the relative velocity Assume blade angles /? and /3i as equal. 7/8 inch. March 17. often bines of 1000 H. and an energy loss of 20% in passage through the blading. and it should be as near uniform in section as conIt must be borne in mind." more important that the backs of the vanes should be steam than the faces. and is practically constant. and a =42°. 4. length of blade could be used with a nozzle .
UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. ^^ and V are fixed.cm. Since the above quantities are fixed it is clear from Eq. — Velocity diagram. hydraulic problems the ideal condition reversal where cos is given by complete and cos /3i are each positive and unity." Moyer: "Steam Turbines. /? First Case. F2. Where /?. From trigonometry V^ = W'"^u^ 7^2 = TF2 + 2uW cos + w22m W cos ^." Stodola: Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine." Thomas: "Steam Turbines.cm. for the As in of the second term in Eq. Eq. V^ being constant. References." Neilson: "The Steam Turbine. 72 . (17) The efficiency of the bucket. 9. 16.— Conditions of Maximum Efficiency. (17). (^. Fig. W Fig. maximum value Vi^ will be least. (16). 72 _ 7^2 /? (^ subtracting. 16 the area of — the triangle abc = hc." Art. where the relative velocity remain constant. therefore sin /? . sin ^=\ah.Fi2= +2w W (cos ^hcos y^2^y2_2u W (cos + cos ^^). 15 be the velocity diagram for the entrance and is supposed to exit velocities. will be highest when Fj^ jg least. 29 "The Steam Turbine. — Velocity diagram. (17) that 7i is least where uW is greatest. Let Fig. In Fig.\ac ab. 15.
(17). in addition.bc STEAM TURBINES. F2F. therefore. when u = W. therefore the locus of the possible positions of the intersection c with reference to ab or is an arc acb and cm have then is maximum when u= ac = cb.W{cosB + cosB. and are also equal 4w E: ^ 11^ cos /? • 72 \ .u. V^^ is least when cm is maximum. But ab = V. The length ab and the angle acb are fixed. We ^^ 2 cos V (18) and Taking the relative velocities (19) W and W ^ as equal.) /?i ^^. the efficiency. comparing with Eq.2 becomes /? 2u.30 ac. ^ E^ If. and sin [3 are constant. — W.
If these be considered. u. (17). losses in the relative velocity W. — When W and = 0. due to tion. a. Cos ^i. or (21) w= and tan V cos a j3 = tan p^ = — = ~ —2 — — 2 dc ad ad bd ad hd tan a. V u + 2uW cos i3 as before. 18.cd is maximum for u — cd. ]\\ but F^^ — W^\becomes Vi^—Wi'\u'^ — 2uWi where =yW. y2_y The V^ efficiency •^ yz ~ becomes then = V^—V~ y2 sin^a = (22) {1 — sin^ 1— a) or simply =cosa Fig. Third Case. fric have been neglected. cos . is maxiniuiii. hd. least for /5i In the foregoing. since Tr = ]Fj. is V. Therefore =F sin a. — Velocity diagram.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM. then. is the only variable on the right hand side of Eci.cd a. Also. the sum of u and cd constant and = V cos Therefore. ec = ac and shown cf=ad to be similar or Fj and equal to the triangle 2 the triangle cef can easily be acd./5i. l\ is 31 is least when u. and Vi is fixed. . The triangle a6c u are therefore determinate. and ^ are fixed.
delivering steam at 3680 feet per second at an a = 20°. This would give a value for the relative velocity ^V = \/36802 + 173022 angle. II. 1730 = 2130 feet. Take as an example. (W + Wi) It frequently happens that the best value of u must be sacrioffsetting ficed for safety or for be gains in cheapness of construction. De Laval nozzle. The energy developed 72 _ 7^2 ^w^is W^ + 2m (T7 cos /? + TTi cos ^^ (23) The general expression for the efficiency ^^) _V^V. or there may mechanical efficiency by adopting a Fig.^_W'Wi^ + 2u {W cos ^ + W^cos ^ 72 ~ 72 For Case II where f^ = pi it becomes cos /? W'W. ^^ ^^^^.^ + 2u.32 STEAM TURBINES. Then u = V cosa = 3680 — — . ^ 94 = 1730 feet per sec ond. 19. a coming under Case angle. — Velocity diagram. Experience has shown that the blade velocity should not exceed 1400 feet per second. If the actual speed be 1250 feet per second the value for the relative velocity is and a blade = tan' 2 tan 20° = tan"! . 723 = 36°. slower speed. /? cos 20° 3680 .
1250 = 2540 . 2540 .UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM.3680 . the blade angle = 3680 sin 20° sin = 30°. si7i [i = V sin a . 33 W = \/36802 + 125022 and since . cos 20° . .
This velocity." ^ The theoretical efficiencv as before 72 3) 2u W (1+cos (25) . = V^2u {Vu) (1+cos /3i). 22. or analytically by the equation u Fj2 = ]]n + j^2 _ 2 \Y u cos i3.) 3 cos^a+1 is The third of the principal forms of buckets used in single expansion turbines the Pelton type. equal to — W. 22.34 cb or ef. would give a theoretical efficiency of 100%. as Neilson shows that \\ minimum for u= 2. The complete reversal of the jet gives a relative exit W.— Pelton type of blade. Since W = V = (V—u)^ju^ — 2ii (V—u) cos j3i. V^. cos a 3 cos^a + z : r. It necessary. to give the steam some exit velocity to clear the wheel.V. and an absolute exit velocity shown.. v^v. can be determined graph ically as in Fig. For this l value V{^ = F(l —cos^a. of course. A . of the steam and a value is of u= V . with steam as jet w'ell as water. complete reversal . STEAM TURBINES. which lends itself to use Fig. is velocity of of Vi.
1. v. per velocity does this call for? lb. Given a steam velocity 2250 ft. Show that for maximum V and u are at right angles. 63. With symmetrical blading what nozzle angle should be used when is 2700 ft. is ft. 7 if Prob. 1909. neglecting steam friction? What 4.? angles a and to give 88 1/2% What blade should be used for a DeLaval nozzle and blade efficiency with an entrance velocity of 3550 ft. and the blade velocity 1430 to get an efficiency of . Ing." "The Steam Turbine. per sec. of 6. Problems." Zeitschrift Deut." Mover: "Steam Turbines. 10. as water. p. 5? 7. what is the best value for the blade velocity and for the nozzle angle? 2." Rateau: "Method of Calculating Steam Turbines. a =20°. 10. Steam Turbines. ." Thomas: "Steam Turbines. d. Find the power developed in a DeLaval blade with T'=3550 as 5. addition there blades." London EngiStodola: Neilson: neering. S04.9.." Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. the efficiency of the blading? the steam velocity ft.. 8. u limited to 1240 ft. =40°. and a direction tangent 'See French. 35 Given steam F=2420 friction. =45° and . is a less efficient way of reducing speeds than by lowering the A'elocity. "The Steam Turbine.. this would have a magnitude TF. is in in a velocity loss of 10% in passage through the what is the blade efficiency under these conditions? efficiency. per sec. per sec. Find the power developed under the conditions of Prob. . 3. The absolute direction of the steam at any point may be determined by combining the velocity u of the vane with that of the steam as it moves relatively to the vane. per sec.UTILIZATION OF KINETIC PLNERGY IN 8TKAM. Neglect What 22°. p. and a nozzle angle of what is is the best blade velocity. 9. 12. of 1. Neglecting frictional losses.3. What is the power developed per steam for the conditions of Prob.' References. What sec.3 87%? 5. Prove that "dilution of the jet" or lowering the velocity of the steam by having mixed with a heavier fluid. the blade efficiency for the conditions of Prob. Brilixg: "Energy Losses in Turbine Buckets. 1910. Dec. Feb.. 10 —The Trajectory Of The Steam. Art.
and assuming this loss as uniform the AC velocity at C —W — time required to move ^. however. method is not altered and the distance CC^ for any point C is laid . and a better way is Let be the relative velocity at entrance. AC ^'i> "'. the Fig. only a portion of a —Trajectory of the steam.rel. difficult to Just at what rate the retardation occurs would be determine. If the inner vane surface be semi circular the time required to move from A to B r will be If The distance forward will covered in the time be n Lay ing this off along the path of the end of the trajectory.4 ^ ^^^^ from A to C= AC ave. If W and W^ be the relative velocities at entrance and exit the loss from to B=W —W^. By taking a suc cession of points the absolute directions chould be found and the envelope of these would give an approximate trajectory. vel. The error in this method is cumulative. the is the vane surface semicircle. and so on for any number of points needed to determine the curve. termediate point. but it may be assumed to be uniform. and u the as follows: W vane velocity as heretofore. distance on along its path equal to _— AC W u.) . the relative velocity TT" be reduced by friction to TFj during the passage through the vane it will lengthen out the trajectory.(^^"^^^"1) ^^^ AB . as is usual.'~'» The path shape of velocities depend on the size and vane and the relative u and W. nvc will /I B we have For any inthe time required C^ be W by C will and the distance forward will covered be cc. If. as C. 23. however. vane surface at the point in question. If.36 to the STEAM TURBINES.
UTIIJZATIOX OF KTXETir EXKRGY TX STEAM. .0. 24. trajectories for a blade of the . will determine the complete trajectory.5.along the fronts and backs of the blades. backs of the blades differ in form from the faces.08. which means eddies and inevitable loss of energy. 25 shows a difference in the paths of particles movino. and a Fig. and . which is to be . for values of tional loss of .45. . as before.35. there maybe the a marked difference in the trajectories of steam particles.55. De Laval fric „=. Below are given the form. Fig. —Trajectory curves. The point corresponding on its 37 lie to C on the trajectory would then path a distance forward AC AC •2Air ' ^• A succession of points. The cross section of the passage between the vanes should be as Where the steam fills the passage and nearly uniform as possible.4. .
a and a width of 1 in. per and semicircular blade as how far will the blade travel during the passage of the steam. how far has the and how far at blade exit? moved when the steam crosses the center . —Trajectory at front and back of blade. made by assuming regular manner. lined above of course apply to the Pelton type of bucket as well as to the side entrance type. guarded against as far as possible in designing turbine blades. Fig. Problems. Given nozzle and blade velocities of 3300 5/8 ft. nozzles. The determination of the trajectory under these Approximations have been conditions becomes very involved.. nozzle angle of 20°. and 1200 ft. assuming no friction loss? 2. but as they are at best guess work and of necessity differ throughout the entire The methods outlength of the rotor they are of little value. but in reaction turbines the Trajectory for Trajectory for face adc. In impulse turbines the expansion occurs in the nozzles or fixed vanes and there is no drop in pressure as the steam goes through the buckets. of 800 ft. back abc. line. easy. that the relative velocity increases in some Having made some such assumptions trajectories may be plotted by the method outlined.38 STEAM TURBINES. per sec. 23. This renders the determination of the trajectory moving passages are themselves and the steam velocity increases sharply in passing through them. With sec. a blade pitch of in. 25. 1. a steam velocity of 2200 and a blade velocity in Fig.
and w =1220 ft. . per sec.3.UTILTZATIOX OF KINETIC ENERGY IN STEAM." . Given F=3400 ft. 2." Stodola: "The Steam Turbine.. W References.4. plot the trajectory for u = . and . 25). 30 Assuming the and blade face of Prob. « =20° and a pitch of 3/4 in. Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine.5 of W. draw a section of the blading and plot the trajectories of the steam moving along the face and back of the blade (see Fig.
It called for engineering ability of a high and greatest care in the details of design and manufacfor not only was a built up rotor required capable of running from 10. An efficient and practical machine has been developed. The boiler pressure drops in a single expansion to the exhaust pressure before the steam enters the vanes. ture. and high efficiency.000 to 1. nozzles. As the steam velocity varies with the heat drop and the vane velocity with that of the incoming steam. develop a centrifugal force of 3/4 of a ton. weighing only 1/28 of a pound each. however. The velocity is T"^ of the steam is maximum as it enters the vanes and nearly all absorbed in the passage through 40 . or about half the velocity of a modern high powered rifle bullet.000 to 30. Some idea of the problems involved may be had from the fact that in the 300horsepower turbines the blades.400 feet per second. of successful turbine the singlestage In this the expansion occurs in one set of where the heat energy available js converted into kinetic energy and directed against a single row of moving vanes.. no vibration. De Laval frankly accepted these speeds and developed a machine capable of withstanding the strains produced.M. the speed of the rotating vanes in the case of single expansion is very high.000 R.P. but running with a velocity of 1380 feet per second on a 15inch radius. 26. Art. The wheel therefore has equal pressure on both sides. — Singlestage all Impulse Turbines. is The simplest form impulse turbine. order.CHAPTER III. but the velocities developed had to be reduced through gearing to ones which could be used. II. which runs with gear velocities of 100 feet per second with but little wear. according to the size. CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. from 1. The relation between the pressures and velocities during the passage of the steam through an impulse turbine of the De Laval type is shown schematically in Fig.
velocity 41 The steam v. 26. namely. them. based on experience. Stodola gives the following values for the various losses. this As an example of calculation for the blading of a turbine of type let the ^team conditions be the same as for the example steam pressure. proportions for a given case assumptions must be made for these. = 110 H. As already pointed out in Art. enters the exhaust ('ham])er with the low sufficient only to clear the wheel.^ ' steam Turbines.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. P. 2nd ed. Initial Initial 98 1 1/2% pound absolute Final steam pressure FiQ. is materially affected by the In determining the frictional losses in the nozzles and blades. 8 the design of the blading.. . dryness 150 pounds gauge on page 22. p. and in fact of the whole turbine. In addition let the Output Revolutions per minute of wheel = 13000 Blade velocity be limited to = 1250 feet per second Number Angle Angle of nozzles of nozzles of entrance = = 6 20° and exit of blades to be equal. 224. — Scheme of single stage impulse turbine.
For mechanical reasons u will be limited to 1250 feet per second as given in the initial conditions. feet per second. T. the relative velocity at exit will be less. 27 = 1280 feet per second.. T. (21) u = . 27. Hence feet per second. 3680X. only 319X. kinetic be transformed into energy. U. 8y/271 = per 3680 J. The Fig..7% . Fig. . or such that the kinetic energy is 24 7 .42 STEAM TURBINES. (6) But assuming a nozzle loss will of 15%. 27. Comparison with ..94 = 1/30 second for maximum efficiency. % 2540 „ TF 2 X. 2g = \/25402x .85 If 2540 feet per second be the relative velocity at entrance. From Eq.6% of the available energy = 40. (See problem in Art.753=2200 The diagram shows that the blade angles velocity 7^ are 30° and the final of Fig. as shown by the velocity diagram.753= 29 TFi '. 7. Losses in the nozzle Losses in the blades Losses at exit Total loss = 15% of the available energy = 21% of the available energy = 4.21 of . — Velocity diagram. that delivered to the blades by the nozzles.. 85 = 271 B. we have 7 = 223. 21% of the total. or energy loss in the blades is — = 24..6% of the available energy From the given conditions of steam and exhaust the theoretical is heat drop available 319 B. U.) leet rrom Eq.
AV. 11/8 inches high. P. say. What changes of design are involved ? Assume a steam rate of 26 lbs.. . except exhaust pressure =1. therefore = 5. 18 pounds per B. From Art. Steam pressure 15 lbs.. Take steam rate at 42 lbs. . M. = 40° F. hr.. P. 3. 2. =20°. of steam must be second by the six nozzles or 092 pounds for each The proportions of a nozzle for these conditions have already been worked out in Art. which gives us 110 blades. absolute. per K. hr. have been assumed for the rotor shaft. CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADIXCl. 1. feet per second for «. Exhaust at atmospheric pressure Output R. ^i.55 pounds * . per =8. ilelivered per Ihen 18X110 3600 = . Since the exit diameter of the nozzle. H. make the blades. Figs. gauge. =1200 ft.99 inches we may Given the steam conditions of Prob. W. per sec. Design nozzles and blading for a single stage impulse turbine. P. 11. W. = 12000. Report on the construction and efficiency of the reduction gearing of the DeLaval steam turbine. Problems. hr. 13000 R. blade velocity = 1200 ft. absolute exhaust pressure 1 lb. the nozzle areas. 19 43 and 20 shows how friction and mechanical limitations modify the theoretical conditions. Comparing reported tests of similar turbines. per K. 7. conditions as in Prob. Fig. is . Number of nozzles Angle of nozzles Blades symmetrical. which corresponds to a pitch diameter of 22 inches. 8 the pitch may be assumed as approximately 5/8 inch. 7 and are shown in Fig. M. Design nozzles and blading for a condensing turbine. hour may be assumed for the steam rate on which to base r. Design nozzles and blading for a single stage impulse turbine assuming a steam rate of 50 lbs. sec. Art.75 feet is the cir 13000 cumference of the blade circle. and 1250 1250X60 nozzle. of steam per K. namely: Steam pressure Superheat =120 lbs. of wheel Blade velocity = 100 K.5 lbs. absolute quality of steam at admission = 885c. 11. 1. 4. W.
reduced to a point where the turbine can be directly connected to a generator. There are two ways by which the velocity of an impulse turbine may be reduced. direct connection less efficient Such turbines are than the single This is offset. and by having the steam impinge on two or more rows The shaft velocity can thus be of buckets after expansion. A. however. "DeLaval Steam Turbines. 2S. —Multistage Impulse Turbines. Art. by subdividing the heat drop in a series of Fig.44 STEAM TURBINES." Thomas: "Steam Turbines." Lea and Meden: Paper. References. by the advantages of The De Laval type of single . 12. M." Stodola: Neilson: vol.. and lower speed. or centrifugal pump." "The Steam Turbine. XXV. expansions. S. — Scheme of impulse turbine with single pressure stage and several velocity stages. E. "The Steam Turbine. blower. more complex and theoretically stage machine. impulse turbine must As seen in the last article a singlestage run at a very high velocity and be geared down.
CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING.
stage turbine finds
its
45
this
limit at
about 500 H. P.
Beyond
the strains become too great and the problem of speed reduction In the multistage type, however, there seems too troublesome.
to be almost no limitation of the
power which can be developed
by a
single machine.
Curtis turbines of this type are in use
developing 20,000 K. W., and larger units might be used were they commercially desirable. The field of the multistage turbine is much wider than that of
the singlestage, and
into which turbines
it
constitutes the second of the
main
divisions
be separated. Fig. 28 illustrates the action of the original Curtis and the Riedler turbines. Complete expansion occurs as before in a
may
r=rf^
Fig. 29.
—Scheme of Curtis turbine, multipressure, multivelocity stage.
and the steam enters the
first
single set of nozzles,
row
of blades
The steam leaves this at high velocity as in the previous case. row, however, with considerable velocity, is redirected by a set of stationary guide vanes and impinges on the next row, and so on The drops in steam velocity occur in to the exhaust chamber.
the passage through the moving blades. The stationary vanes are merely guides, and the velocity during the passage through
them
The increase of substantially constant, as shown. is length in the successive rows of stationary blades is to allow Theofor the decrease in velocity, not for increase in volume. retically the exhaust pressure with its corresponding volume is
reached at the nozzle, and
all
the rows of blades are driven by
46
STEAM TURBINES.
vacuum with
and
the least possible resist
kinetic energy, revolve in a
ance,
and the wheels are balanced
for pressures.
is still
pressure, multivelocity stage type
This is a singleused on the smaller
up to about 35 K.W. As now built the Curtis turbines have the pressure drop divided into two or more " pressure stages." Steam is partially expanded in a set of nozzles to some lower pressure and passes through a number of rows of moving blades as at a, Fig. 29, constituting one stage where its kinetic energy is absorbed. It is then expanded again and goes through another series of blades, or second stage, h. The number of stages and of rows in each stage varies with the
Curtis turbines
^
CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING.
both velocities
is
47
V andF^
l\,
are high
i.e.,
the broken line in Fig. 30
raised as a whole.
The energy
is
available in a single stage
varies with
F—
and
much
is
greater for a given drop
this
when
both velocities are high.
greatly the
It
hoped by
will
means
to reduce
number
of stages,
but this
be partially offset by
greater steam friction.
See Probs. 3 and
4, p. 3.
In all of these forms there will be noticed the characteristic which defines impulse turbines, that there is no fall of pressure in the moving blades. Expansion occurs only in fixed passages or nozzles, and the moving blades are free from end thrust.
n
A
Fig. 31.
— Velocity diagniin for two stages.
The determination
turbine
is
of the velocities in the multivelocity stage
an extension of the method already outlined. The final velocity, Fj, at exit from the first row, Fig. 31, is deflected and becomes the initial velocity for the second row of blades, and so on for the whole number of rows. When the rows of buckets have the same mean diameter, as is usual, ii has the same value for each row. The diagram may be arranged conveniently and more compactly by extending the line of the vane velocity as in Fig. 32, and lajdng off a succession of lengths, each equal to u, and connecting each with the point a, as shown. With an initial velocity of 2430 feet per second, a blade velocity of 400 feet per second, and a nozzle angle of 22 1/2°, the exit velocity from the second row of moving blades is 1130 feet per second, and the
the length of u should be to increase directly as the diameter. and in each succeeding row Comparison of the blade seca friction loss of 10% is assumed. 33 is applicable for an increasing friction loss as well as for a constant one. V. and gives the reduced the velocity. Proper values can be assigned only from experience. As an illustration of calculations for blading in a multistage 3% or 4% impulse turbine. but increases from to perhaps 10% with increasing presence of water in the steam. equal. let the following conditions be given: . Proper allowance this for friction. 32. The method of finding the velocities in Fig. materially affects the design and should. however. — Velocity diagram for CurtLs turbine. no allowance for steam made In general. 33 shows how may diagram where friction in the entering nozzle has tion as determined ence. account. the friction loss is friction. as before.48 blade angle 42°. to 2320 feet per second. be taken into be done. STEAM TURBINES. If by the two diagrams shows a marked differthe radii of the successive rows on the shaft are not Moving Moving Fig. Fig. not constant through the successive stages.
CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. . = 1 pound absolute = 400 feet per second = 22 1/2° and 10% velocity Assume 10% energy loss in loss in the nozzles Let the turbine be of the Curtis type with three stages and two rows of moving blades in each stage. each row of vanes. Initial Initial 49 steam pressure superheat Final pressure Assume a blade velocity u Assume nozzle angles = 175 pounds absolute = 140° Fahr.
gives 2320 feet per second initial velocity. (3. referred to the velocity scale. 33. Curtis turbine. steam acting in the line due to entrance. allowing for the 10% velocity loss in each row. feet per second. exit is W — F/ force 9 /?'. Remembering that first W here is unity the total acting on the row per pound of steam is . of motion. we may draw the velocity diagram. As u and a AC .) the force per pound of The blade same figure. .50 STEAM TURBINES. the final velocity is found to be G73 sections thus determined are given in the From Eq. 34. This is given in Fig. Deducting CC' = 10% of AC for the assumed heat loss in the expanding nozzle. — Condition curve. where Fig. are given. cos W is V cos a and that due to the . we have which.
T. we find that the steam enters the. the condition of the steam at the beginning of the second stage is found by projecting E horizontally until it meets the 45 pound line as at F. allowing for losses.third or last stage with a quality of . gives From being quality. Laying out the diagram as we have an exit The work for this stage velocity of 710 feet for the second stage. which.U.290 . U. From this last we can obtain the final condition of the steam at . 98% vertical from F to the 8 pound Hne shows an adiabatic heat a drop of 126 B. 9 A similar expression gives the blades. to be 59. Adding the work First stage of the three stages. U.600 footpounds per pound. or the Work done in the first row per second per pound 11 of steam = (2G) (VcosaV..T. a velocity of 2380 feet per second. • • 9 plied by the blade velocity.947%. where it is found to have a dryness of . is still in the steam as heat energy. . 8' V cos a + ViCos — 51 and the work done . and has a total heat corresponding to the ordinate of E. 72. and the velocity. and the corresponding Applying this to the heat chart as actual heat drop. we have 56. allowance for losses. The actual energy per pound of steam which has gone into work during passage through the stage is thus found to be 56540 footpounds or in its heat equivalent. by the previous method. T. 76 7 B. in this case about 40% of AC. • is uthis expression multi..cosi3'). work done in the moving The velocities required may second row of be scaled from the velocity diagrams. before. U.150 59. 76 B. is found.. /. with 10%. and the corresponding heat drop.540 59. before. . U. The energy developed in this stage is 59.CALCULATIONS OF TUIIBLXE BLADING. u. Since the steam is now at a pressure of 45 pounds absolute.986.8 B. . T. instead of Dropping is superheated about 60° Fahr. This is laid off on the heat drop &t AE in Fig. The adiabatic heat drop for the last stage is 129 B. the position of F it is seen that the steam.150 footpounds per pound of steam. 34 and the remainder EC.600 Second stage Third stage Total Avork per pound of steam = 175. is 2400 feet per second. T.
52 STEAM TURBINES. .
CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING." Thomas: "Steam Turbines. Make diagrams and Initial calculations for a Curtiss turbine with 5 pres sure stages. 19 and 64. P. p. H. With this determined. and steam any point during the expansion. XXV. xxxi. Orrok. abs. vac. References. =425 ft. a hour.000 =11. and with the H. P..3 ^ . M. = 1.980. . we have the basis for the calculation of the lengths of the blades. 1910. A. on the basis of a power factor of unity.. p. The nozzle angles to be 25°. ^. 3 and 10. vol. . except that the initial pressure is 15 lbs. ditions being those of Prob. S. absolute and there are two pressure stages. p. 4 per etc. W. 20. 4. P. Make diagrams and calculations for a L.3 pounds 1.5 pounds per K. velocity Assumed blade Nozzle angle =28 in. and Jan. rate of 13 the generator efficiency be taken at 95% we have a steam pounds per E. O j^ t)\J friction. each of 2 velocity stages. . Trans. per. . may be drawn through the points A. F. Superheat Final pressure =75° F. 8% for mechanical windage. vol. Power. As for quality curve /. Velocity loss in each row of blades W. Trans. each with two 3. H. on 2. 53 Ihe theoretical steam rate Allowing 11. in Fig. 10%. velocity stages. Problems. Report on the Small Curtis Turbine. or 17. and the steam rate as found above. turbine. Velocity loss in each nozzle 5%. Curtis turbine.3 pounds. hour. pp. the mechanical and generator friction being taken at the values given Calculate the nozzle area and blading for a 500 K. =22°. hour. E. See also references in the problems. P." Emmet: "The Steam Turbine in Modern Engineering. 12. to be developed. Report on a Comparison of the Rateau or multicellular.. "The Steam Turbine. . the con1. A. . which will give the condition of the "^i. See paper of G. steam pressure = 155 lbs. H. and the Curtis Principles of Design. 2218." Stodola: M. A. Dec. 263. E. sec. 117. this If becomes =12. S. 1911.
corresponding to Figs. illustrates their operation. to absorb the kinetic energy discharged from the fixed nozzles. the steam Fig. both singleflow. STEAM TURBINES. in which it is seen that the curve at the entering end of the moving vane acts The general form as in impulse turbines. 23 to 26. but they have long since been abandoned. 36. A combination of the impulse and reaction principles has. impulse turbine as indicated in Art. but the velocities involved are so high as to render the type impracti An FiG. however. 12 is one in which expansion occurs only in the fixed passages or nozzles. The long straight portion at the exit end of the moving blades forms a nozzle which restores the velocity just absorbed and adds the power of the reaction of In this type there is exit to that of the impulse first received. 37. 13.e.. A reaction turbine is one in which the energy is derived from the reaction of steam issuing from openings or nozzles in the moving wheel. —Scheme of impulsereaction turbine. — Single Flow Impulse reaction Turbine. 55 and 67 show sectional elevations of two Parsons or impulsereaction turbines. If there were . of the buckets is shown in Fig. there is no reason why a pure reaction turbine might not be built. led to one of the largest and most important types of turbines yet developed. Theoretically. enters at the end and flows axially in one direction. an almost uninterrupted lowering of the pressure.54 Art. No pure reaction turbine is being built at this time. Figs. 36. A number were built in this country many years ago by Avery. i. cal.
and conforming roughly to that which would be given an expanding nozzle. consequently these total two expressions are equal. in the various stages Before the vanes can be designed in this type. and the steam leaves them at a high velocity. expands. Fig.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. moving blades. 36. first row of moving blades receive the steam at a Vi. much more complicated than the simple De Laval wheel. 37. the steam enters at the velocity W. anil for this tiie follow ing data and assumptions are required: . In fact. impulsereaction turbine. and the balanced work is divided is equally between impulse and reaction. increase of steam velocity in TFj. upon accompanying the the moving blade from TT" to reaction blades and expended which is equal to per pound of steam used. The guide blades and moving vanes usually have the same form and angles. using the notation as on page 29. the long passage between the rotor and the casing is essentially an enlarged nozzle. second. fixed in passing through the vanes. 55 no motion in the rotor there would be a corresponding rise in the steam velocity. as shown in the curved line. but it has been successful in a very wide range of service. —Velocity diagram. In the impulsereaction diagram. its sectional area increasing steadily. The total work done in the moving blades is: First. 55 and 07. W^. In passage through the moving blades there is further expansion. same The steam. the heat drop must be determined. The impulsereaction turbine allows the lowest have been attained with high economy. subject to end thrust which is This type of turbine by pistons on the rotor as shown in Figs. the energy — per pound of steam produced in the guide the the moving vanes. 37. respect to With the following row of Fig. and the velocity increases to V. Fig. the fixed vanes Its velocities which is construction beyond the velocity.
Friction losses of the steam in passing through the turbine. while apparently increasing the power. STEAM TURBINES. V. and increasing the size of the turbine. 6. The absolute velocity. to contracted passages The smaller angles than these. 4. with dryness or superheat. The exhaust pressure. The peripheral velocity u (item 6 above) at the H. from a paper of E. P. requiring too many stages. lead and increased friction. 5. 2. with too great angles the power for each stage decreases. gives some basis for selecting the vane velocities. ordinarily between 20° and 30°. Table I. 3. stage varies from 100 to 135 feet per second and increases as the size of the rotor increases in the later stages. Table I. . The peripheral velocity of the blades for the various exit angles are cylin ders or steps. M. Parsons Turbine Practice. The made the same for both guide vanes and rotating blades. Speakman. On the other hand. The initial steam pressure. of steam as it leaves guide blades. This varies progressively through the turbine. Electrical Work. The exit angles of fixed and moving blades.56 1.
Marine Work.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. 57 Type of Vessel .
without bypass. being the perpendicular from /to the hypothenuse of the a. cutting the arc at/. 33 may be combined as shown. and where the work is divided equally between impulse and reaction the figures will be symmetrical with respect to aa'. The proof of this is as follows The separate velocity diagrams in Fig. STEAM TURBINES. =2400 K. f. and from Ecj. is the mean proportional between the segments ab and bp. from the fixed and moving blades are (26) the work is done 1^) W u{V cosa+ViCos 9 u{Aa' +a'o) 9 But bf. outlined definite case. W. these. however. If 5^^ \ 158 / ^ ^ of stages could the heat drops in the various stages were equal. The work done in is foot pounds per pound of steam in the stage W= (bfy . will be used in working out a The conditions will be taken as follows: =2000 K. Initial pressure absolute Superheat Condenser pressure = 50° = 1 pound absolute . those nearest the condenser being much greater than the earlier ones. rightangled triangle inscribed in a semicircle. Stodola. p.: 58 perpendicular from b. the number be determined at once by dividing the total heat inlet to drop from condenser by the stage drop assumed. The and velocities of exit Vi. A method of determining by Prof. therefore bf^ = AbXbp and since = Ab(Aa'^a'o) = u(V cos aiV^cos bp = ao. where bf is measured to the same velocity scale as u and 9 V^. W. /?) (bfy 9 The heat drop producing the work will be 777. The stage drops. vary. =175 pounds Normal capacity Overload capacity.
600 of drums Loss due to steam friction Loss due to leakage Loss due to windage. and in the final stage be 950 feet. M. =4 = = 6% = 15% 28% =3% 24%. Energy in exhaust Number etc.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. 225. P. and a 1/3 of the cross section of the opening. on page 56 these may be taken as u= 120 feet w = 320 for first stage. The curve It follows approximately of steam velocities must be assumed. a horizontal base AB Let the steam velocity in the first stage be 200 feet per second. 38. a hyperbolic curve except toward the exhaust end. 59 =3. for the last cylinder. to represent the length of the rotor. Total losses in addition to steam friction = = Efficiency of generator 94% From reference to We Table I must first assume blade velocities. is laid off at the left. The most advantageous ratio between is the steam and blade velocities from 2 to 3 and it should vary between about the same limits on each drum. to 120. 165. bearings. and 320 feet per second. for the first cylinder. these values being based on experience. laid off at and the velocity 320 feet. Moyer gives an empirical formula for determining the number also to of stages: n= C  (28) u . as in the lower part of Fig. on this basis. practice. It is customary make the ratio between the successive drum diameters The blade velocities. Lay off.. the right. Assume clear area also exit angles for all blades through the blades = and vanes =24°. The is velocity w=120 feet per second. R. come substantially constant. where it The curve here drawn is about as followed in rises rapidly. increasing to feet at exhaust end.
58 B. ' = 2500000  . T. the number of rows required for that cylinder will be that fraction of the n found in the formula.— 3 n.. which. This average drop. however. . . U.600.500. 38. The total heat .1/6 = 30 2500000 . divided into the total heat drop from inlet to exhaust. for . J . 1/4. where C is a constant which varies from 1. taking C at 2. as used. . giving a good approximation for the number of blades on each drum or cylinder. . The heat drop which would occur in a stage located at any point may be determined by the graphical method of Fig. onAB and the drum lengths located tentatively as at cd. and u is the mean blade velocity in feet per second of the cylinder considered.1/4 ' = 12 2252 stages ^ 4th cylmder. . will give the total number of stages.. 2500000 „ . 1st cylmder. =3.000 for electric generator service. we get the broken curve marked "stage drops.60 STEAM TURBINES.= n. The stages are spaced off uniformly ef. As the cylinder considered develops a certain fraction only of the total power. and plotted the corresponding heat drops.500. Having taken a sufficient number of these points. .. The average ordinate of this curve gives the average of the heat drops for all the stages. . n^ • = 2500000 . 3rd cylmder.. and gh. Let us assume that the power developed by the various cylinders shall be approximately 1/6. in this case. stages 2nd cylmder. . . The n found is the number of rows required if the blade speed for the whole turbine were u. . 1/5 = 18 stages 165" .000. 320^ 3/8= 6 stages Total 66 stages. w. and It on this 3/8 of the total. Then. can be seen from the wide range in the constant that reliance formula calls for experience on the part of the designer with the working conditions and their relation to the constant It may be used to great advantage by any one.000 for marine turbines to 2. 1/5." the breaks being as shown in dotted lines.
as Scaled from Curve First cylinder Second cylinder Third cylinder Fourth cylinder Total 32 stages 18 stages 11 stages 7 stages 43 54 64 82 68 stages 243 . therefore 338 X (128) =338X . but there is a loss of energy in the steam of 2/ = 28%. singleflow. The division made here is The 68 stages may be laid as follows: Heat Drop. Fig. — Pressure and volume curves. 61 drop. which have up to this point been divided only tentatively. 40) is found to be 338 B. or from the heatentropy chart (see Fig. impulsereaction turbine. Total heat drop 243 B. U. as shown in full lines. for pure adiabatic expansion. U. B. T. may be readjusted. T. T. 39.58 B. U = 68 Average stage drop 3.72 = 243 Actual heat drop per pound of steam. off on the base AB and the cylinders. of stages The number then will be the instead of 66.. determined from the steamentropy tables. U. T.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING.
B.5%. . 13. H. per pound X 144 steam velocity in feet per second. are available for power. 243x76% = 185 Then T.1 pounds steam per second ^ ^ rise normal load. drops. The last ordinate in a progressive should check with the total net heat drop 243 B. The condition of the steam may be taken from Fig.4 pounds steam a bypass valve is 3600 conditions. Curves of pressure and volume of Fig. per second for overload ^ used. gives the pres sure and condition corresponding to the pressure. we have 20x2400 therefore = 13. which is taken from the heat chart.62 STEAM TURBINES. A. T. and of the dimensions of the blades and vanes. Fig. . (14) the area of the steam passage required. indicates the initial conditions. The heat drop for any point. There remains the determination of the steam volume under the given conditions. the Where steam rate should be further raised for the blading beyond it. 1980000 = 13. as before.r Since the efficiency of the generator = 94%. read off from the curve of total and applied to Fig. The blade lengths may be derived as follows: From Ec^. The steam rate may enough to change the slightly for overloads. 39) in which the ordinates represent the sum of the heat drops from A. P. ^ . rate inside of ^ 20% overload. U. = weight of steam per second X vol. per pound of steam. Therefore. By the initial conditions there are further losses amounting to 24% of the actual heat drop. for 2000X20 —3600 =11. But the 28% energy loss raises the quality of the exhaust to 88. 40 by measuring down from and projecting over to the quality curve A AD. 185X777. but hardly .36 = 20 pounds = steam per K. 39 may thus be derived. The progressive heat drop through the turbine may be shown curve (see Fig.5 steam ^ per B.8 pounds ^ of . The vertical drop to B on the 1 pound line gives a quality of 79. as in Fig. 39.8X1. . The condition curve gives the quality of the steam for any intermediate pressure. in square inches. . 40. W. T. 55. U.2%. hour.
2400 K. For the normal load..]r = 11 1 pounds For the overload.5 1. L= . —Condition curve. singleflow impulsereaction turbine.5v Vd . 63 _WXvXU4: ~ V and the length of blade required to give the necessary area (assuming the blades as occupying 1/3 of the clear passageway. 2000 K. (p.W. . and the blade angle = 24°) is L= Area X 1. G2).CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. TFXVX144X1. (p. Combining these equations and reducing..W.5 4Vd rr^i —W „171. ()2).]r = 13 4 pounds . 40.5^ Xmean blade dia. sin 24° TzXdxA' Fig.
W. ft. 1300 K. turbine of Parsons type. 62.600 R. initial is determined from the values of u.875' dia. . For a slower R. rated. 28 1/2 3600. Initial pressure. 1000 K. absolute. 19' = 14 1/4 ms. Capacity at opening of bypass valve. M. 1. mean . W. 38. Make diagrams and Initial calculations for the blading of a single flow L. 250 150 ft. 28°. 95%. For second cylinder d = ^ For third cyhnder ^ d= = 10 1/2 ins. cylinders. velocities. The mean blade diameter. P. for the various 38. 50° F. ' mean mean dia. Taking V from the curve V. Steam Blade velocities. P.. or 60 revolutions per second. vac. are stepped into groups as shown in Fig. Exit blade angles. Losses and generator efficiency. P. P. For fourth cylinder d = ^ 320 = 1. R. mean dia. calculations for the blading of a single flow Parsons turbine. R. or higher blade velocities the mean blade diameters would of course be correspondingly larger. Exhaust. 3600. having four drums. 350 ft. in. steam pressure. P. and volumes from Fig. Problems. M. 189 225 189 —= 189 1 . For manufacturing reasons the lengths. Exhaust pressure. instead of increasing progressively along the rotor. d. 16 lbs. M. Superheat.. as given on p.7' =20 1/2 ins. Quahty. from which For first cyhnder ^ d— 120 189 165 = = .64 STEAM TURBINES. Exit blade angles. 28 1/2 vacuum. 44. M. 39. and the con dition of 3. the lengths of the various blades may be determined. 25°. Fig. and with the values for w and d above.. 150 gauge. 2. Fig. Make diagrams and Capacity. dia.035'= 7 5/8 ms. to 1000 to ft. w = 60X7rXf?.
C5 .CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING.
Power. p. end of a Parsons turbine its least efficient portion.66 STEAM TURBINES. 1904. Power. A. 1905. G. Christie. which leads to very short blades in the highpressure stages. p. Steam . (London). where the blades are pressure balanced and be had through a portion only of the blade circle. end of the rotor than at the L. Art. coupled with the fact that the end clearances over the short H. This." Moyer: "Steam Turbines. Inst. 631. Report on the Avery turbine. — Double Flow Impulse reaction Turbines. by Power. M. P. but in the later stages where water is present in the steam admission is may more efficient in it is less efficient. P. Nov. Report on article Prof. Rejjort on article on Construction Details of a Reaction Turbine. 9. 1910. Assume same steam and blade stages of Prob. of the drop in pressure through the moving blades Parsons turbine steam must be admitted around the entire circumference. Aug. 761. References. the highpressure ranges than the reaction type. Naval Arch. Leakage is further minimized by using only small pressure drops. on the Internal Losses in a Parsons Turbine. 1412. S. P. Stodola: " Parsons: vol. These considerations have led to the combination of the two types in one machine." Thomas: "Steam Turbines. 4. May. and introduces trouble from expansion which in the larger sizes becomes serious. Report on the article on Blading Calculation." Hodgkinson: Paper.. 24. makes the H. end. 14. P. xxv. lengthens the rotor. 6. Paper. 9. 5. interesting as being a i^ure reaction See American first commercial one. 299. See also references in the following problems. 1909. blades must inevitably give a greater percentage of leakage. A. May 19. turbine and probably the p. E. 1. The Steam Turbine. which increases On account in the the number of H. utilizing the advantages of both. 1908. the pressure drop is greater. velocities as for the low pressure 3. P. stages. p. While the heat drop per stage is less at the H. The pure reaction type. and for the same reason the clearance over the ends of the blades must be very small. Aug. Machinist.
CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. 07 .
Fig. 43. casing. sizes. ' f*~ Exhaust — Section of 10.000K. Let the remainder of the expansion to 1 pound absolute take Let the place in two sets of Parsons blading as in Fig.68 is STEAM TURBINES. Fig. W'estinghouse double flow turbine. . with the reaction portions on each side. 44 type. the upper one of the doubleflow combined type and the lower the old singleflow the distance between the bearings. form and steam flows axially in both directions from the impulse wheel. The rest of the expansion takes place in fixed and moving blades of impulseThe reaction portion is divided in the latest reaction type. Westinghouse machines. 42 shows a Westinghouse turbine of this design where the central impulse wheel is clearly seen. 42. the end thrust of the reaction blades and eliminates the balancing Besides a symmetrical pistons necessary in the singleflow type.W. to 25 Let the steam be expanded in a set of nozzles from inlet pressure pounds absolute and pass through two velocity stages of an impulse wheel of the Curtis type as shown in stage a. with smaller exhaust connections it materially shortens shows two rotors. Fig. let the same conditions be assumed for one of this type. admitted through nozzles to a multistage impulse wheel and expanded to about atmospheric pressure. W. Fig. 43 is a sectional elevation of the same turbine and shows clearly the course of the steam as it leaves the impulse wheel and is divided into two streams flowing This arrangement automatically balances in opposite directions. 29. Doubleflow turbines are found most desirable in the larger but for comparison with the previous problem of a singleflow turbine. k— Exhaust Fig. both for 2000K.
and doubleflow Westinghouse rotors M. and for the lowpressure stages 142. This gives the same conditions the of stages number of the blades. The friction losses in the lowpressure blading will be taken at Fig. T.CALCULATIONS OF TURBINE BLADING. angles may be used to advantage in lowpressure stages than in highpressure ones without unduly increasing the number of stages. T. P. 45 28% as before.8 B. is The net drop available for the impulse stage 9L2 B. osses in the impulse element. 44. 38. and 30° will be used instead of 24° as before. the energy so lost reappearing the steam. as for the last If two drums in Fig. U. and blade leakage. on each side. It will be seen from last article that the number of stages in the lowpressure Fig. gives the expansion diagram for these conditions. due to disc 69 friction. It merely halves the length an advantage in the last few stages where in the Greater blade singleflow machines the length is excessive. etc. 1/4 . Let the blading be carried on two drums or cylinders running at 225 and 320 feet per second and the steam velocity increase from 400 feet per second to 950. the steam and blade Dividing the flow does not affect velocities and the exit angles. — 3600 and 1800 blading depends on the available heat drop.. 3/8 of the total work be carried by the impulse wheel. U.—same H. be assumed as in the increased quality of 40%. —Comparison of single R. P.
45. The pressures and conditions are found directly and the blade lengths determined as in the last article. T. (Fig. 45. by the smaller drums. and those from C to D on the second. doubleflow turbine. Laying these off tentatively and proceeding as in Fig. The stage drops are laid off in Fig.8 Fig. In the present .3 = 21=number of stages. respectively. Then 142. 6. 35 we find the mean stage drop to be 6. the application of formula (27) gives 13 stages and 9 stages for the first and second drums.70 STEAM TURBINES. and 3/8 by the larger ones. U.8 B. —Condition curve. those from B to C being on the first cylinder. 46). Readjusting we may take 13 for the first cylinders and 8 for the second. which will be those for a singleflow turbine of 21 rows.
must be remembered that in this and the foregoing articles certain constants. 160 lbs. velocities and friction coefficients have been V B Fig. can be assumed knowledge of working conditions. 46. each set of blading onehalf the length required for the singleflow. . steam pressure. Exhaust pressure. gauge. Curves of pressures and net volumes per pound of steam are It shown in Fig. Problems. Capacity. c — Velocity curves and heat drops. W. Accurate values for these only after wide experience more or less arbitrarily assumed. 71 one there will be two complete sets of blades of 21 stages each. 43. Impulse wheel to have two velocity stages and to carry expansion down to 20 lbs. . and from intimate Such information on the choice of values as is available may be found in the standard works on turbines referred to at the end of this article. doublefiow turbine.CALCULATIOXS OF TURBINE BLADING. 46. vac. Initial 2000 K. with reheating losses of 40%. 60°. Calculate the blading and draw diagrams for a doubleflow turbine similar to Fig. absolute. j I. Superheat. 28 ins.
000K. STEAM TURBINES. p. Consult J. 43. test of a 10. 1910. vol. Curtis wheel expanding to 25 lbs. Steam Turbines. 3. 39. June 16. 1907. Trans. Turbine. July 9.. W. and Power. 4. impulsereaction turbine. References." Trans. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine. Engineering. Report on the Westinghouse double flow turbine described in Power. Make diagrams and blade 1.) Report on the MelmsPfenninger turbine (CurtisParsons). xxxii. p. described in Lond. 931. absolute. 643. E. A." Naphtaly: "Test of 10000K. Dec. Report on the construction and A. p. M. . 1910. 5." S.. 86. 1909. A. W. E. Moyer. Dec. 30). 1908. doubleflow. similar to Prob. S. M.72 2. p. (Shown in Fig. Sept. described in paper by Naphtaly.. Moyer: "Steam Turbines. The calculations for a turbine for conditions first pressure stage to be a twostage The remainder of the expansion to take place in a series of wheels of Rateau or multicellular type (Fig.
000 R. MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. Some only of its phases will be touched on here. As the velocities in the De Laval turbine are much higher than in any other. as shown in Fig. If a flexible shaft carry a round disc. as in Fig. one side of which is than the other. These involve problems of a purely mechanical nature. among which are provision for centrifugal strains due to speeds of 3. however much the speed this critical speed the axis of rotation shifts from the center of the path of the geometric center." when the vibration excessive. and cause the geometrical center of the disc to describe a circle as at "b". P. bearings suitable for such speeds. the center of gravity will lie at one side of the geometrical center. Art. A thorough consideration of this subject involves extended and complex analysis.000 to 30. This slightly heavier action increases with the speed up to a certain point called the becomes momentarily down and be increased. 15. it is in this turbine that the interesting behavior of a disc rotating at high velocities is most marked. On further increase of speed they settle c y— 1 y' 2 \n 73 . and close and rapid regulation under varying loads. M. to the center of gravity of the w^heel. the balancing of the shafts.. 47 "a". 47 "c". At will run c{uietly. — Centrifugal Strains. If they are rotated rapidly the unbalanced centrifugal force of the heavy side will deflect the shaft toward the heavy side. It can be shown that the deflection is "critical speed. The problems already considered have of dealt with the using steam at the high velocities of turbine practice. 0.CHAPTER IV.
Y ^ the F. e is where critical the eccentricity of the center of gravity and referred to. —Action of the flexible shaft. ?. w = weight per cubic inch of material. the equal to & where >S 12 w 9 v^ (29) = stress in pounds per square inch. velocity The greater the velocity the smaller y becomes. In the De Laval practice the critical speed is from 1/8 to 1/5 of the normal R. P. For cylindrical rings where the radial thickness tensional stress due to the centrifugal force is is small. Fig.74 STEAM TURBINES. = linear velocity of ring in feet per second. approaching the value y = e. M. 47. until the wheel bursts. .
— Large and small De Laval wheels. shown clearly by both theory and experiment. A small hole may even bored disc is greater than double the strains. Fortunately the materials available have been so improved that a factor of safety can be used. in The stress in the nave of a a solid disc. The stresses are greater nearer the center than near the rim. . 75 Calculation of the stresses in discs rotating at very high speeds They vary with the weight of the material and the square of the speed.MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. Second. is difficult. Two to cover an}^ uncertainty as to the centrifugal strains. facts are First. 48. sufficient A Fig.
These principles have been recognized in the design of the De Laval turbine shown in Fig. The curved lines added near the center of the large wheel show the theoretical form. for this use 125. as streaks or lines of weakness. force of the wdieel go with it. The following taken from their published tables: . due to ''piping. and the wheel of danger. Germany. figures are They have but of recently produced nickel steel of even higher strength less elongation. The profile is a form of logarithmic curve as3anptotic to the central axis of the disc. A. In the smaller turbines the flexible shaft runs through disc in the the disc. but in the larger ones the shafts are flanged to the sides. the centrifugal forces are at once The heavy hub is unbalanced. not used for a singlestage machine. of Essen. which reduce the thickness of the wheel close to the periphery. The factor of safety at this point being about will tear off at a little 5. however. breaking up into small fragments. which projects into the casing at B with but small clearance comes into contact with the sides and acts as a brake. which are unable to damage the wheel When the rim lets go. decreasing the strength of the wheel at this point so that the stresses here are about 50% higher than in the rest of the wheel. to which Wheels of this form. the blades which are the impelling case." difficult to detect. may become elements much reduced. to avoid piercing the disc. 48. bringing Discs of rolled plate are the wheel to rest in a few revolutions. tested to destruction. when the attachments are tangent. it In connection with the improvement in materials referred to. large pieces. have a special nickel steel of elastic limit. the rim of the wheel over twice the normal speed. A. 92.76 STEAM TURBINES. would burst through the center into and it is stated that these pieces have been driven through a steel wheel case 2 inches thick. may be noted that Krupp and Co.300 pounds and 12% elongation.800 pounds tensile strength. by turning grooves. This menace is obviated.
Inch . Ult. Tensile Strength.MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. 77 Pounds per Sq.
Stodola: " The Steam Turbine" (especially 4th Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. The principle adopted by Mr. In the Curtis turbine the wheels are plates. Holes are bored through them to permit the lubricating oil to reach the inner sleeves and shaft. . References. 56). is In multistage impulse turbines where the velocity strains built is about half that of the singlestage type. S. up of castings and The blades are milled in a Fig. Weaver. but with a much The 50. July S and 15. Jour. A. E. and were loose on the shaft. p. 1910. while of 005 inch or more was thus provided. A. 1 6. Bearings. sectional blade ring bolted to the discs at the edge." S. each having about . earlier form of bearing used by Parsons is shown in Fig. fitted the journal box tightly.. S.." Jour. which alternated with these. the question of centrifugal not so difficult. A lateral movement This arrangement. Those of the other set. E. They were held in contact by a side spring. June. June." "Design and Construction of High Speed Turbine J. balanced as closely as posand carried in a bearing which would provide sufficient lateral motion to allow the shaft to find its own center. where the space between the shaft and the journal wall was taken up by two sets of rings. still In turbines of the Parsons type the velocities are further reduced (see table. Parsons was to have the drum and shaft stiff. Weaver: "Critical Speed Calculation. 1910. M." ed. show under test 134. by Report on the conclusions of paper on "Critical Speed Calculations.). M. and had play between their outer diameters and the journal wall.900 pounds tensile strength. Art. .630 pounds elastic limit. 14% elongation. has been superseded by one (Fig.002 inch play on the diameter. M. Mover: "Steam Turbines. H. Newton: Rotors. 51) in which there is a nest of bronze sleeves concentric with the shaft. 1910. xxxii.— 78 are used which STEAM TURBINES. vol. Problems." London Engineering. sible. Side play is thus provided as before. I. 49 shows the detail of this construction. and 106. Those of one set fitted the shaft closely. satisfactory.
Fig. M. according to the size. — Later Parsons shaft packing. P. 50. simpler construction. the lubricant is from 150 pounds to 900 pounds per square inch. 51. into the recessed between the bearing faces. wheels. 52.MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. which runs The end of the shaft carries a cast iron upon a similar block in the bearing. The entire weight of the moving parts is thus carried on the The pressure of film of lubricant between the blocks a and b. block. leaving the bearing at the top B. the flexible bearing is dispensed with and solid selfoiling bearings are used. through the journal. . 79 In the large machines. — Old Parsons shaft packing. running below 1200 R. and the field. upward.4. In the vertical Curtis turbine the problem has been to design Fig. a step bearing which would carry the entire weight of the shaft. and circulates out and Fig.. Oil or water is portion forced through the pipe .
Revue de Mechanique. Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. Sept. 10. 52. of labyrinth packings. References. Jan. 401. Jan. p. 8. see Lond. 8. p. 1908. 1. 35.\: "The Steam Turbine" (4th ed. Report on the principles 1908. Report on the general principles of the labyrinth packing. Stodol.80 STEAM TURBINES. Engineering. see Power. . 10. Problems. 401.. — Step bearing of a Curtis vertical turbine. also "Power. 2." For theory of the labyrinth packing see London Engineering. Nov. 1908.)." Sept. 35. p. p. 1910. Fig. 1908.
MECHANICAL PROBLEMS.
81
','y.yy:/>v
te.j..,.,y^j
82
STEAM TURBINES.
Art. 17.
—Governing.
in general use:
First,
There are three types of turbine governors balanced throttling valves.
Second, multiple closing or relay valves. Third, intermittent admission.
The
well
known
fourth
turbines present examples of
all
three of these
classes.
A
method
of control
is
used in conjunction with
the third as supplementary to it. It consists of means for admitting H. P. steam directly to the later stages by means of a bypass valve, in order to provide for heavy overload conditions.
Throttling Type.
As applied on the DeLaval turbine, this governor has a springactuated doublebeat valve, controlled by a spring and weight governor located at one end of one of the gear shafts where the speed has been reduced 10 to 1. Even here the speed is from This high velocity alters the weight 1,000 to 3,000 R. P. M.
arms materially from the well known shape, and they take the form of semicylindrical leaves, D, turning about the knife
edges,
and
closely enfold the controlling spring.
The governing
mechanism has
throttle.
If
a further control in
addition to that of the
the balanced valve
rise,
fails to
govern and the speed
continues to
the tappit, P, comes into contact with an
,
independent valve, operating a butterfly valve, V in the exhaust passage and raising the back pressure. This immediately puts a brake on the wheel and prevents any further accelera
The effectiveness of this action may be shown by the fact that a 150 H. P. turbine, with nozzles designed for 150
tion of speed.
pounds gauge pressure, and 2G inches vacuum, if operated on a back pressure equivalent to an atmospheric exhaust, will slowdown and can not be brought up to full speed even with the entire load removed. The controlling mechanisms of the De Laval, Kerr, Zoelly, and
a large
number
of other turbines follow these general lines.
Multiple or Relay Control.
In the smaller sizes of Curtis turl^ines governing
throttling, as already described.
is
effected
by
is
In the larger sizes the speed
closing of
controlled
by the opening and
small valves admit
MECHANICAL PROBLEMS.
83
1.
Govenor.
2.
Steam Chest.
Nozzle
Moving Blades

Stationary Blades
Jloviug Blades
k<(((«((«((«((«i
Fig. 54.
Stationary Blades

Moving Blades
— Relay control of Curtis turbine.
84 STEAM TURBINES. .
Fig. whatever the load. S£3= Fig. 56. 55. in order to prevent cutting of the seats by wire drawing. 85 shown in the lower part of which in is a schematic section of the casing 2 above. ting to the separate nozzle sections. A heavy spring above the piston tends to hold the valve to its seat. 56. the number action depending upon the fully load. of the unit. — Governing mechanism of the Westinghouse turbine. Admission is through a single doublebeat valve controlled by a steamoperated piston above it. and economy. The general arrangement shown on the general section of of a the controlling mechanism is Westinghouse turbine. as Fig. Steam is .MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. These 1. The last has is used on the later machines. The control of the nozzle valves by the governor electrical connections. as the steam is used at an almost constant thermodynamic efficiency. has been effected by means of positive mechanical connections. 54. popsafety valve. at the top and are designed to be open or shut. Intermittent Control. Fig. This method of control by multiple valves gives excellent been found most satisfactory. and hydraulic cylinders. nozzle like a valves are operated from the governor mechanism.
the horizontal arms bearing against an adjustable spiral spring. — Pulsation diagram. opens bypass valves to the later stages as the pres main one is. governor. 57. end The effect of the governor on the initial pressures of the turbine. . F. Bovari. from the main turbine shaft. is shown in Fig. to admit high pressure steam to the second drum of the turbine for overloads. The fourth method of control. As the load increases the valve remains open longer. A. admitted to the piston B through the annular clearance X. F by the position of the main valve opens for only short remains open. Another device for accomplishing the same thing. is controlled through At light loads the periods and remains closed for the greater part of the stroke oi A. and Co. The motion of C is communicated to the pilot valve. E and D are fixed fulcrums.86 STEAM TURBINES. that of providing for overloads by admission of steam to later stages is also shown in Fig. Westiiighouse turbine. and thence to the main valve. as the It is not opened and closed regularly. used by Brown. moving up and down with the governor sleeve. C is an oscillating lever driven by worm gearing and an eccentric. and conseciuently the time it i270 Fig. The distance that the valve A opens as it moves up and down. 57. around the valve steam and exhausts through a controlling valve A. in Europe. 55 where a secondary admission valve V^ is provided. but is controlled by another pilot valve connected directly with the governor sleeve. The governor is of the bellcrank type. until finally a practically continuous pressure is maintained in the H. P. admitting steam to the turbine in gusts. which is actuated by the governor. a floating one.
Problems. Jan. 1.). Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. 1910. 20." Moyer: "Steam Turbines. 1 Mechanical Engineer. described in Power. 87 It is obvious that steam admitted directly to the hiter stages is not used to the greatest advantage. the simplest and is used almost universally on small units. P.MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. . Oct. 1910. May 10.. References. 1906. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine" (4th ed. A comparison of tests of turbines using the three methods of governing' shows that from the standpoint of steam consumption under light loads the multiple valve control is most economical. 84. but as overload conditions are intermittent the loss in steam economy is admissible. sure rises in the H. Report on the regulation of the Rateau low pressure turbine." Revue de Mechanique. The throttling governor is. chamber.5. intermittent admission next and throttling valve last. see Bulletins of the General 2. Look up and report on the various methods Electric Co. p. however. of operating the multiple nozzle valve on the Curtis turbine.
unit will run for four or The elaborate step bearfive hours after steam has been shut off. and the discs stripped off one by one. may be overhauled independently. 88 . forced lubrication is one of the chief objections. The builders of this turbine adopted this position and still adhere to its it for their large units. Symmetry 3. the machine has to be taken apart from the top down. — ^Vertical Turbines. of design. unc^uestionably has advanThat it reduces friction to a minimum is shown by the fact tages. The following reasons are advanced its in Accurate control of the relative position of of the adjustable step bearing. (Fig. Small foundations. Up to the introduction of the Curtis turbines no one seems to have thought of arranging the shaft to run vertically. it is an object of constant watching.\PTER V. perhaps. by the accustomed position of the reciprocating engines. 1. free from deflection. 54. and work can be done simultaneously on both ends. 52. Its use is limited to self con tained generating sets. Art.) parts by means 2. exposed to the heat arising from it.CH. 6. The arrangement. that unless a brake is applied a 5. with its system of high pressure. favor. shown in Fig. COMPARISON OF TYPES. for inspection and minor repairs.000K. W. Friction practically eliminated. influenced. 7. and to steam leaking past While the vertical position offers convenient access the glands. The generator is located above the turbine. it is inconvenient in case of In the horizontal type the turbine and generator overhauling. and though little trouble seems to have developed from this source. A short shaft. ing necessitated. In the vertical. 4. Small floor space. All bearings relieved from side strain and lateral wear. i8. 5.
The the lower end of the shaft. This arrangement is said to have given a high vacuum.. where it was condensed by water sprayed in from the side. E." com bining the features of the Curtis turbine with those of the ReidlerStumpf A section of this turbine is shown in Fig. turbine. and proven very satisfactory. An interesting example of the by the Allgemeine Electricitiits . E.G. A. The condensed water drained into a centrifugal pump on the end of the main turbine shaft. have. discontinued this vertical type and noAv . G. 89 built in Berlin vertical type was Gesellschaft or "A. The steam exhausted into the passage E. however. and a jet condenser was located at of the ^^^^^^ Fig. 58.COMPARISOX OF TYPES. 58. The weight moving parts was carried by a thrust bearing (B) between the generator and turbine.G. —Section of old A. E.
90
STEAM TURBINES.
Fig. 59.
— 100 H. P. Terry steam turbine, opened.
COMPARISON OF TYPES.
20.
91
build for their larger sizes a horizontal machine illustrated in Art. This has a Curtis singlepressure, multivelocity stage wheel
and a low pressure end with a number of pressure stages, each having a single velocity stage. A section of this turbine is shown
in Fig. 66.
Problems.
1.
Trans. A.
Report of paper, Emmet, "Steam Turbine S. M. E., vol. xxv., p. 1041.
References.
in
Modern Engineering,"
Stodola: "The Steam Turbine." Thomas: "Steam Turbines." Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine." French: "Steam Turbines." Emmet: Paper, "Steam Turbine in Modern Engineering," Trans. A.
M. E.,
Art.
vol.
S.
xxv.
ig.
—Tangential
Flow Turbines.
gential jets.
The Reidler turbine is one of the few turbines which use tanThe buckets for tangential wheels may have two
forms, those which curve in one plane only, as the Reidler
Fig. 60.
— Bucket arrangement, Terry turbine.
and Terry turbines, with the jet divided or not, or they may be of the Pelton type, which curve in all directions. Prof. Rateau and Zoelly both experimented extensively with the divided bucket, but have abandoned it in favor of multicellular
machines with axial
flow.
In the ReidlerStumpf machines,
92
STEAM TURBINES.
however, it has been developed with success, and these have used it in units of 2,000 K. W. and over, having four or more
stages.
Fig. 59, is manufactured in this country. In undivided tangential jets are used. The steam is expanded in one or more nozzles to exhaust pressure and enters at A, Fig. 60, is deflected to one side, and compounded on a single wheel by looping back into buckets B, in the casing, and returned from these into succeeding buckets in the single row on the wheel.
this,
The Terry turbine.
Fig. 61.
— Nozzle arrangement
of
ReidlerStumpf Turbine.
This reversal
is
accomplished four or
five times, a portion of
the
steam escaping at each loop, through the exhaust openings, C. Some of the dimensions of one of these turbines are:
Diameter
wheel of buckets
of
=2 =2 =1
feet.
Number
Width
=70.
1/2 inches.
inch.
of buckets
Pitch of buckets
R. P. M.
Peripheral velocity
It
=2600.
=270
feet per second.
developed 30 H. P. with 145 pounds steam pressure on 32 pounds steam per H. P. hour. Remarkable economy is not claimed for this type but it gives a compact and simple turbine
and adaptability for commercial production. — Rotor of Kerr steam turbine. 01. The stages are repeating forgings. In the Reidler turbines the return loops are made in separate sets of buckets. 93 with low cost and running at moderate speeds. Kerr. Fig. The buckets are drop the multicellular type shown in Fig. The Kerr turbine.. sections with the nozzles increasing in nund)er. 62. mounted on discs. — Section of Kerr turbine. finished on the inside. V. by Mr. The speed of . as rendered necessary by the expansion of the steam. uses buckets It is of of the Pelton dividedflow type. The design shows careful consideration of the manufacturing problems involved. as shown in Fia. developed Fig. 30.COMPARISON OF TYPES. 63. C.
xxxi. into a multicellular type of ber of stages. p. See Power.. but tests of turbines up to 1. 4. vol. S. and paper of Orrok. are of the Problems. 415. E. 21. Orrok. E. 2.. Multicellular Turbines. Am." Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. Art. each with a single velocity stage.000 H. where for a given clearance there is a minimum of leakage. show a friction of only from 2 to 4%. P. S. S. 263. P. A. Trans. M. Nov. 1. 263. 263. 1907. References. A. vol. 64 shows a section of a L. belt from 1200 to 3. P. vol. and Power. see paper of G. Machinist.000 and 2. Report on the Bliss turbine as described in paper of G." See also references in the following problems. A. throttling type. E. Rateau's investigations led him machine having many pressure stages. also 1907. 886. p. 3. machines are practically the same except for the num As mentioned before. p. pumps. 263. M. p. M. Orrok. S. xxxi. 263. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine. xxxi. 6. A. E. p. 1907. Report on the Dake steam turbine. Fig.. The H. E. p. It is also one of the few turbines which have been applied to Marine Service. vol. The pressure and velocity changes are those shown in Fig.. Mar. Report on the Terry turbine. A. xxxi. A. Prof. M.000 R. or . xxxi. S. vol. p. November 16. 20.. p. see Power. M.. M. A. 1905. 30. closely resembling the The governors De Laval. Report on the Kerr turbine as described in paper of G. P. 250. and driving. is the Terry and Kerr turbines and they are used generators. Report on the Richards turbine described in the American Machin ist. The running joints are on the shaft. and paper of Orrok. which has been brought to a high degree of perfection in France and is one of the best known of the European turbines. 1909. Orrok. So many rotating discs would appear to offer large steam friction loss. December. Rateau turbine as manufactured in the U. 801. also for direct connected for blowers. 5. p. p.— 94 STEAM TURBINES. Report on Sturtevant steam turbine. S. A. August 10. 660.
steam as it leaves the moving blades is opposite the openings of the next expansion set. 95 about the same as drum turbines of the Parsons type. 64. in fact the builders do not trouble about giving it any precise value. for the machine when started wears a sufficient play to turn without touching. so that the Fig. where friction is less to be feared.COMPARISON OF TYPES. running from 1/10 to 1/4 of an inch. — Section of Rateau lowpressure turbine. An advantage in this type is that th€ clearance around the blades may be very large. The diaphragm bushings are of soft material with little attempt at clearances. corresponding to the trajectory of the steam. In the highpressure stages they occupy but a small portion of the circumference. The Zoelly turbine has been mentioned as having originally had tangential flow instead of axial flow. . The only small clearances are at the hubs. which gave them a Pelton form where the jet impinged upon them. but extend farther around as the pressure The nozzles or vanes in each falls and the volume increases. The old form had a wheel with long spokes milled on their faces for two grooves. The expansion nozzles are inserted in openings in the fixed diaphragms. successive diaphragm are set around in angular advance of the preceding one.
.96 STEAM TURBINES.
COMPARISON OF TYPES. — Section of A. It has been very successful and is widely known in Europe. in which the steam 7 is expanded to about . and as now built the Zoelly is a multicellular turbine differing from the Rateau only in its construction and details. E. horizontal turbine. the Algemeine Electricitiits Gesellschaft As stated in Art. multi velocity stage wheel. 97 With the change to side admission the long spokes were abandoned. G. are building a turbine combining a Curtis singlepressure. Fig. 66. 18.
1905. July 3. May 2. Engineering. atmospheric Problems. G.. and a multicellular lowpressure end. M.. The AUisChalmers turbine shown in Fig. Soc. blading. Patent issued to Stodola: "The Steam Turbine" (4th ed. 14. Report on the Rateau turbine as described and illustrated in Lond. Report on the A. October 4. turbine described in Lond. Feb. "Different AppHcations of SteamTurbines. the ends are riveted to a channelshaped shroud them against vibration. Report on multicellular turbine described in U. S. May 15.). 67 is a singleflow machine of the Parsons type differing from the Westinghouse only in the method of balancing. —Special Forms of Impulse reaction Turbine. at the lowpressure etid of the rotor where it is practically free from distortion. The Bergmann turbine is also of this type. S. 68. J. pressure. p. " Theory of the Steam Turbine. In the later forms of Westinghouse machines the balancing is accomplished by the double flow. E. Art. A. Nov. Engineering.555. a. M. and nearly the whole area is effective. 20. making a CurtisRateau machine analogous to the CurtisParsons described in Art. 21. 1908. Both are being liuilt in large sizes. No. 1. distorts under pressure and repeated heating and cooling. large sizes the large lowpressure piston.98 STEAM TURBINES. In the Allis turbine this large balancing piston is replaced by a smaller one. its Applications. p. in Lond. 1911." Trans. ring." Journal See also references in the problems. Also Power. so that it has been necessary to give them clearances which permit leakage of steam. 4. 639. In the typical singleflow Parsons turbine the end thrust is In the carried by the pistons P^. stiffening In the blading. Report on the Zoelly turbine as described and illustrated Engineering.. and Pg shown in Fig. 971. Fig. XXV. Patitz. The openings . P2. 7. and in various details. F. vol. Rateau: JuDE Key: : Paper." Paper. 55. 1910. Naval Eng. 1. B. 3. 1910. 639. Pg. E. References. "Rateau Steam Turbine and Am. p. as alread}' described. 1908.
COMPARISON OP^ TYPES. 99 .
for the blade tips are the blades. and the clearance may be smaller than in previous practice. see 2. Report on the Eyermann turbine. Look up and report on the Neilson. early history of steam turbines. 855. Look up the Elektra turbine described in Power. November 24. turbine. and if they do. but the gain from its use is greater in reaction turbines than in these types. of 1909. French or Gentsch. Compare with the new type of small Westinghouse Report on the Wilkinson turbine and small type turbine. 635. . a turbine having combine and axial flow. Problems. April 6. See Power. Westinghouse radial 4. accurately spacing The shape of the ring forms a natural baffle. 3. 1.100 STEAM TURBINES. they wear free without any material heating. The shroud ring itself is not new. p. as both the Rateau and Zoelly have used them. Only the thin edges of the channel can touch the casing. p. stamped in the ring. 1908.
Liddell.— COMPARISON OF TYPES. shows that the heat drop on which the available energy depends is greatest at the low pressures. 2 2." Paris. Art. Fig. or to the heat chart. 69. SozNOWZKi: "Turbines a Vapeur. illustrates and describes Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine. Absolute rre3=." Translated by A. the turbines of any prominence).nres A ISO reciprocating 6 10 15 20 "jl 30 40 SO 70 80 00 too 110 120 130 140 130 170 130 19<) 200 50 £ 40 30 20 5 E: 10 700 B 90 a. Reference to the pressuretemperature curve. References. Ci H a d i Ji "^ 80 70 60 po 40 30 20 10 6O0 90 80 70 CO 50 40 30 20 10 5M 490 . Lowpressure Turbines and Regenerators." Gentzch: "Steam Turbines. 101 Stodola: all "The Steam Turbine" (4th ed.) See also references in the problems. R. 1897. (The last two are valuable for the history of steam turbines.
exhaust turbines were installed on three units to determine their desirability for the remaining sets. and 6 operated by hand . turbines. is higher than when the entire pressure range from boiler to condenser is utilized in an engine or a turbine alone. of operation for fall under two where the steam supply substantially constant or varies with the turbine load. It furnishes.. P. however. exhaust turbines for the latter service is found in the Fiftyninth Street Station of the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. prohibitive sizes of L. W. a valuable means of utilizing existing reciprocating plants and bringing them up to the highest efficiency. the economy of such a combined unit where the engine exhausts into a lowpressure turbine. P. taking into account all running expenses. cylinders. and two 86inch L. City. each unit having two 42inch H. In the first class fall marine engines and those for power station A conspicuous example of the successful installation of service. and the installation of combined units of this kind is coming more and more into use. In fact. turbine plant alone.: 102 STEAM TURBINES. hour. of 7500 K. P. is not so high as for a H. economy and the new White Star steamers Oceanic and Titanic are being ec{uipped with engines and exhaust turbines. This station was equipped with 7500K. fixed charges. P. After consideration of various means of pro viding additional power. N. where it is widely fluctuating or intermittent and is independent of the turbine load. mum rating. each W. compound Corliss condensing engines direct connected to generators. They were 3stage vertical Curtis turbines. and an average steam rate of 17 to 18 pounds per K. it can be coupled with a reciprocating engine to great advantage. Second. The conditions classes First. maxihaving 6 fixed nozzles. cylinders. For marine service there is a further advantage of superior maneuvering power and at slow speeds over turbines alone. Where a good engine plant already exists ically its capacity by the addition of may be increased more economexhaust turbines than by replacing the exhaust turbines is engines with H. all of 60inch stroke. Y. For power station work the total economy of a combined unit of new engines and new turbines. with the wide range of power available below atmospheric pressure. and. P. W.. etc.
"f. and to equalize the supply from these constantly varying sources he has developed the steam regenerator or heat accumulator. the exhaust turbine thus drawing its supply from two sources. Stott summarizes the results of the tests as follows: "a.6%. 26 1/2 to 28 pounds. often with little or no expansion. and of the combined unit . hour. live steam can be admitted through a reducing valve from an independent source. "e. and 15500 K. so as to control the division of load 103 between the engine and its exhaust turbine. forging plants. shown in Figs. and run the engine alone. Prof. approximately 85% of the condensed steam in in 100% 146% in maximum capacity of plant. of the exhaust turbines. W. An average unit thermal efficiency between the limits of 6500 K. condensing. An overspecd governor operating a 40inch butterfly valve on the steam line connecting the separator and the turbine. turbine results. where there is intermittent steam supply. for return to the boilers.COMPARISON OF TYPES. comprises rolling mills. "b. mine hoists. P. and other noncondensing engines. and an 8inch vacuum breaker on the condenser were the only forms of governor used.) over the results obtained by the engine units alone. of 20. limits of 7500 K. The second class of installations. average improvement in economy of 25% (between W. W. "d. 70 and 71. the turbine load rises and falls with the steam supply and no governor is required. and 15000 K.13 to 14 pounds. An An increase of increase of A saving of economic capacity of plant. An An average improvement economy of 13% over the best H. it is found economical to cut it out. Such engines use great quantities of steam under widely varying loads. In an installation of this character where the load on the turbine is electrically connected with that of the engine. The engine exhaust at about atmospheric pressure is condensed in the regenerator when it arrives in large ." The steam rate of the engines alone was from 17 to 18 pounds per K. where a turbine is inefficient. ''c. Mr. Rateau has given much attention to the application of lowpressure turbines to such exhausts. Where the supply of steam from the engine is liable to longcontinued interruptions. W. W. When running at very light loads.
an automatic expansion the previous case. — Side view of Rateau regenerator. injection of steam. STEAM TURBINES. 70. 70) a form like a tubeless horizontal where the water is kept in forced circulation It is by the valve. Baffle Plate Baffle Plate Power Fig. 71.104 quantities. and check valves to protect the regenerator and main engine when the turbine is running direct. off necessary to provide a relief valve to carry as in any surplus steam. The condensation and reevaporation of the steam follow the fluctuations of pressure as the supply exceeds or falls short of that required by the turbine. \Perforatioiis iii Mixing Tube for distributing Steaui into the Water Fig. The regenerator takes boiler (Fig. —Crosssection of Rateau regenerator. and revaporized when the excess ceases. the turbine should the main engine be shut down for any length of time. to supply steam directly to Extension of Mixing Tubes above Water Level Leading steam in Eegeuerator from Manifold Baffle Plate Water Level Baffle Plate Perforations in Narrowed Portion of Mixing Tubes for Distribution of Steam in the Water. The steam flow from the regenerator to the turbine is constant .
. L the mean latent heat of the engine exhaust. S.5 pounds absolute. the difference in temperature between and 4 pounds gauge pressure. ' 12. then the water required is /S^ SL IV. Two regenerators of an older type installed at the Bruay Mines in France to utilize the exhaust of a hoisting engine and drive a 300 H. and consequently pressure. compared Let to that 105 is. turbines are now in successful . must supply the turbines be the total steam consumption of the turbine in pounds per minute. P. . substantially ecjual to the average rate of engine exhaust. T be the maximum time. and condenser pressures from 2 13 to 2 62 pounds absolute. With supply pressures ranging from 12 to 14. however. hour. P. . H. the weight of water required to run the turbine fall in is with an allowed The capacity to absorb the engine exhaust. Then t the allowed temper TRL T minutes temperature. U. and 12. at the outside. The form of regenerator shown in Fig. P. of stoppage of the engine. during which the regenerator alone. pounds gauge). A regenerator may be called on to absorb fluxes of steam five times as great as the more uniform flow to the turbine and they may be thrown on it almost instantly and must be cared for. T. This difference in pressure is not over 3 pounds. determines the amount of water recjuired. Rateau generator set have been in successful service since 1902. rather than the question of the turbine supply.4 B. . in minutes.^ COMPARISON OF T^TES. from the engine to the regenerator and of course.4 (31) ^ ^ which will usually be found greatly in excess of the w above. the plant showed a steam consumption of from 37 4 to 45 2 pounds per E. If be the maximum pounds of steam the regenerator will be called on to absorb. L the mean latent heat at the regenerator Let R pressures (usually to 4 ature drop of the water. 71 has shown the greatest capacity for absorbing the steam. A great number of regenerators and L. Proper values of T. and the mean engine exhaust are determined only by careful investigation for each installation.
P. and kept up the output. as for instance over night. Any exhaust steam used H. Running entirely on the H. 72. or distributed between them. them exceeding of turbine capacity. with steam at atmospheric pressure. machine. the lowpressure turbine being so proportioned that it can carry the entire load. and the group is thus working at the best economy possible. some of 3000 H. one. hour. The two turbines are now combined in one to form a "mixedflow" turbine as shown in Fig. a highpressure turbine has been coupled with the lowpressure one. — Rateau mixedflow turbine. P.106 STEAM TURBINES. H. P. . if its Fig. P. as the in the entirely by either turbine. one of the combined units has been found to give an economy of about 18 pounds of steam per E. turbine passes through the L. use in Europe and in this country. cut in the highpressure The load may be carried turbine. 72.. P. and running entirely on the L. it gave about 36. Where there are long periods. is when the exhaust steam supply not available. momentary conditions require. P. with steam at 110 pounds gauge pressure. a much more compact arrangement. but steam supply fails regulating valves controlled by the speed and the pressure in the regenerator.
2. 14. Turbine. by November 5. December 14. 107 2. p. 1910. November 10. See also Power. P." Trans. A. p. p. Dec. XXV. 7. 1100. E. Power. 1908. p. Report on English and German experience with L. June 22. p. M. p. Burleigh: Paper on Exhaust Turbines. 693. Power. vol.. A. vol. Oct. 1907. 1979. 828. p. P." Moyer: " Steam Turbines. P. 1. 1907. Engineering. 1909. Light Co. Report on investigation into L. H. see paper by Stott and Pigott. p. Stott AND Pigott: Paper. P. 693. Power. Report on the article on compounding piston engines with turbines. 1910. Smoot. 985.. p. Power. See also references in the problems. 1. Smoot. Halliwell: Paper on Exhaust Turbines.. M. 6. Oct. p. 8. p. Report on article by C. Problems. Turbines." Rateau: Paper. 1908. Feb. References. 278. turbines for the Cambridge by Prof. Power. Smoot: Articles. p. March. M. 1909. Hollis. Power.. 8. 1910. 1909. Halliwell. 1979. by C. Report on low pressure steam turbine as referred to in article by R. 9. Report on article. L. given in Lond. 4. M. turbines as described by Gradenwitz in Engineering Magazine. July 6. 787. Report on the test of engines and exhaust turbines at 59th street Interborough Station. F. 1100. on. "Test of a L. S. see Power. xxxiv. p. Elect. 1910. Report on paper on Exhaust Turbines and Regenerators. S. E. on Regenerators. of Steam Turbines. 1909. 17. Report the BrushParsons doubleflow exhaust turbine. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine.COMPARISON OF TYPES. 197. E. 1909. . de1. see also Power. Neilson. 1910. 985. scribed in Lond." Trans. 5. p. Rateau: Article. 1909. and Nov. S. "Different Applications A. Prof. Power. June 22. Engineering. July 8. Trans. 1909. H.. February 5. Rateau.. London Engineering. 3. by R. October.
Lorenz and Knoblauch. Greissman.53 to . of turbines As with reciprocating engines. there is a gain in the economy by the use of superheated steam. rate consumption as a basis for calculating. Linde. Emmett has deduced from a series of experiments pressure of made in 155 pounds that it varies from about .4805 of Regnault is too low. the gain to be 8. While this has been the subject of repeated and extensive experiments from the time of Regnault to the present. and Klebe. Modern experiments show that the value . . was found Then on the basis of the heat units in the steam the gain was found to Heat be. and is sustained by a Knoblauch. have all done important work in this direction. Mr. but how much is gained can not be fully determined until the specific heat of superheated steam is definiteh' known.1 per cent. By taking first the water . Linde and Klebe in Germany.77 for temperatures of 360° to 620° Fahr. CONDITIONS OF OPERATION. for Specific . a Curtis turbine at The usual practice is to take it as constant and at from 6 to 65. but decreases with increase of superheat. the proper values have not been agreed upon.CHAPTER VI. and Carpenter and Jones in America. Apparently the specific heat increases with increase of pressure. —Effect of Superheat. Grindley in England. This conclusion is indicated by Lorenz. 23. The bearing of the specific heat on the theoretical economy of the turbine using superheated steam is well shown by calculations made on a De Laval turbine. Art. but the results are contradictory and have not definitely settled how the specific heat varies with the pressure and temperature changes.
and of such high grade engines as had records of tests under same conditions. as 22 20 18 . and Brown.Bo veri turbines. up to These are based on tests of Parsons. being based on a larger 200°. Zoelly.CONDITIONS OP OPERATION. of 109 In the diagram following are given the average of a nuniber steam consumptions for various degrees of superheat. The lines for the turbines are more relial)le than for the engines. Curtis.
The economy. and neutralize any thermodynamic gains. for while the steam rate can be lowered it is done at the expense of extra fuel required for the there is high superheats." Mover: "Steam Turbines. References. If expansion is carried too far in the steam engine. P. For higher vacuums the turbine gains rapin idly. is usually in favor of the steam engine for vacuums lower than 26 inches or 2 pounds absolute. one of the chief elements in success in competition with the older form. materially decreases the steam friction. as in a L. the L." Trans. absorb power. P. 1905 to 1910. The turbine gains relatively more than the steam engine In fact. M. — Relative is Effects of High Vacuums in Reciprocating Engines and Turbines. Art. practice at the present time of Most of the turbine based on 28 inches to 28 1/2 inches vacuum. this is as the vacuum pushed toward its its limit. turbine can engine. E." Jude: ''Theory of the Steam Turbine. which is alternately exposed to wide — differences of temperature. S.110 STEAM TURBINES. It is densation and by lessening the water going through the blades. The best practice indicates that a moderate superheat.. operate under much higher superheat than claimed that a an Doubtless this is true." French: "Steam Turbines. advantage General practice has set the economical is vacuum for recip rocating engines at 26 inches to 27 inches. The reasons why the turbine shows this greater benefit for the higher vacuums are: First. engine cylinder. A — . 24." Marks and Davis: "Steam Tables and Diagrams. of A. Beyond this the results are not wholly favorable. cylinder valves and passages become abnormally large. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine. of 50° to 100° is of advantage. Second. but it remains to be shown that any advantage in the high superheats the turbine may be made to stand. under equal conditions. The low temperatures of the exhaust pressure can not reach back into the hotter parts of the machine.
the turbines can utilize the large triangular expansion area to h. (b) 2. The usefactor. Fig. g. in addition to all that the engine gains. as fired. maintenance. d. As already stated. auxiliaries. the limit is 28 to 28 1/2 inches. 3. though not reached so soon. nal. beyond which the cost. compound engine calls for a cylinder ratio obviously prohibitive. . there is a practical limit. which is Since the expansion of the engine is limited to the L. termic. represented by the area e. Theoretically the gain increases very rapidly for the rarer vacuums. down within a turbine to the Since expansion can be carried lowest condenser pressures.CONDITIONS OF OPERATION. Ill a cylinder ratio of 4 to 1 using steam at 150 pounds. might expand say 15 times. f. P. 74. The steam consumption (a) of turbine. A turbine presents no difficulties to an expansion ratio of 100 to 110 or down to a pressure of To carry 1 pound absolute. — Pressurevolume curve for engines and turbines. Fig. following: 1. compound engine with . 4. or the ratio of the actual output to the rated output. but its value for any given set of condiInto it enter the tions is a question of engineering economics. and power required for the condensing apparatus offset the theoretical gains. as with the engine. The cost of the coal. 74. this expansion in a of 33 to 1. Cost of injection water. the only gain in a higher vacuum is the lowering of the back pressure. but with the turbine.
50 per ton. may Capacity of turbine Usefactor (2) (3) W. fired. Fixed charges. 15%.500 K. 7 Cost of coal Suppose fixed charges (5) Average boiler evaporation 10%. taxes. space occupied. on the condensing plant. Insurance. $3. (d) etc. covering (a) Interest on cost. of The method be illustrated by an assumed case. (c) Depreciation and repairs. (b) Interest on cost of masonry. pounds per pound of coal. ^ . determining the economical back pressure Let 1. etc.112 5. STEAM TURBINES.
113 Inches of Vacuum .CONDITIONS OF OPERATION.
92. pounds per ton Calculating the yearly cost with the various consumptions. Constant per = hours :^ year ^ = 8760 = 3 2240 . we have Inches of . and tabulating.: 114 STEAM TURBINES.
" Jude: "Theory of the Steam Turbine." Rockwood: M. . Paper. I. p. A. References. This ejector draws nearly all the residual air and vapor from the main condenser and increases the vacuum to 27 1/2 inches or 28 inches. Fig. a guarantee to maintain a working vacuum within 3/4 inch Whether such a high vacuum is profitable of the barometer. Mr. is a steam ejector connection. A. for Steam Turbines. inches vacuum." Trans. S. which has been widely used in Europe. M. into the air pump suction beyond the siphon. 115 Higher vacuums than 28 inches are carried in highclass power Some condenser plants have even been installed under tations. "Condensers for Steam Turbines. p. xxvi. below the main condenser. 383. A. Report on paper of G. xxvi. but for some reason has been little used in He places the air pump. E. Rockwood on "Condensers E. Problems. Stodola: "The Steam Turbine.. S. Parsons has invented a device.CONDITIONS OF OPERATION. as a an inverted siphon. about 1/20 the size of the main one. without the increase in size of main condenser and air pump demanded by the ordinary arrangement. 383. proportioned for about 26 this country. and connects this by Between the air pump and bypass connection. forming an air seal. 76. and is materially less than that required to drive the larger air pump. vol. Parsons states that the live steam required by the ejector is about 1 1/2% of that used by the main turbine at full load. I. delivering through a small surface condenser B." Trans. shown by experience.. vol. which would regularly be provided for the higher vacuum. remains to be Mr. condenser.
steam before and and the W weight of steam per H. per hour. and it would be difficult to show the internal power developed. U. friction. where there are losses from eddies. T. hour + 60 2545 B. P. AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. It applies equally to reciprocating and to turbines. While some device might show the energy of the jet of steam from the nozzle.) or the available heat drop P= 2545 ^ X% utiHzed=B. P. and that available under its different authorities. 25.5 If H^ and H^ are the total heats per pound of after adiabatic expansion to the exhaust pressure. it w^ould be practically impossible to register definitely the energy given up to the blades 116 in a multistage turbine. gives a operating engines.CHAPTER POSITION Art.H. and can be used as a basis of comparibasis. T. son. basis used in determining the is economy of the reciprocating engine No indicator has the steam rate per inclicaited H. 777. is The heat equivalent H. then {H.H.) This "potential efficiency. Economy of a — Relative 33000 of Engines and Turbines. etc. utilized per pound 2545 W{H. which has been variously named by comparison between the heat actually utilized by the motor. been devised for turbines. Engi . conditions. VII. P. U. hour as tested. provided the water rate can be brought to the same The almost universal hour." P.
however. especially as the bulk of turbine work outside of the marine service is in direct connected electrical units.000 K.POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. W. P. W. For direct current generators. P. H. that comparisons are often made by reducing the steam consumption of the turbine to the basis of the I. H. must take into account the efficiency of the generators. and engines. load to 91% at full load. will range from 87 1/2% at 1/4 load up to 96% at 1 1/4 load. are reported in various Name . P. P. it will range from 89% at 1/4 load to 94% at full load. P.000 K. for direct current. 117 neers.. W. as the case may be. of a reciprocating engine having the same electrical output or brake H. efficiencies The following generator tests. as the electrical work is divided between twin Their efficiency may be taken at from 88% at 1/2 generators. 100 K. are so familiar with economies based on indicated H. The efficiencies of enginedriven generators for alternating currents on sizes from 500 to 5. W. turbines.. Where it is possible there is a growing practice of basing the steam rate on the K.. hours or electrical H. which requires no assumptions. and at 86% at 1/2 load to 92% at full load. The generator efficiency with the De Laval units is somewhat lower. Comparisons based on I. to 3.
118 STEAM TURBINES. Engine . Mechanical Efficiency of Engines at or near Rating.
POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE 119 .
.120 STEAM TURBINES.
POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. 121 E^ ^ .
the following table gives the results obtained from some reciprocating engines of exceptionally high economy. hour.122 STEAM TURBINES. Engine . P. Looking at the economy on a basis of steam per H.
W W W 88% 90% 92% used the test was made on brake H. the given steam rates to I.. 123 H. . DeLaVal Where 93% is turbine. P. P.POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. .. W. . P. For units 2000.3000 K. the combined efficiency factors used are: For units 300 400 K. for units from 400 to 500 H. basis. Typical Steam Consumptions of Turbines. For units 500 . Engine efficiency corresponding to the 300 H. Steam Rate Turbine Nominal Power . taken at 92%. Engine efficiency alone without generator. taken at 93%.. P.. 1500 K.. or 300 to 400 K.
2000 K. j ' Parsons WestinghouseParsons : 500 K. W. 400 K. Typical Steam Consumptions of Turbines. W. American American . W. High Superheat 180° to 290° Curtis. W.124 STEAM TURBINES. — Continved. . 3000 K. Curtis.
2. A. Westinghouse Bklyn Rpd.U. That with moderate vacuum. per um W. Eng'rs." References.02 25. of Elect. 1. Chgo. Report on "Test of a 9000 K. B.4 268.4 28 27 16. Hour K.9 294 282. Transit. Escher. Trans.47 29.T. S. xxxii. vol. H.82 16. W. M. P.5 270 271. 3872 5496 1500 1920 1950 200 190 dry dry 92° 176. the advantage in economy still lies with the refined types of reciprocating engine.31 27.7 202.Wyss Berlin Moabit." . Paper by Dickinson and Robinson. Turbogenerator Set.5 209 157 187 185 188 147° 95° 130° 90° 215° 285° 29. 2. G 9870 9173 11466 10186 5059. Inst. 22. Allis' Boston Edison.7 223 264 27 25. Edison.4 3521.. December. BrowTiBovari Turin. Y.70 15 12. Edison.6 3540 3169 4239 192 182 192 191 97°F 59° 106° 27. Parsons Frankfort.90 28. Abs.35 14 312 225 315 276 295 I Without L. The 1.57 14.5 202. Mcintosh Berlin Moabit Berlin Luisenstrasse ." "Theory of the Steam Turbine. 1910.15 15 14.78 17.9 13." "Steam Turbines. Look up and report on methods of testing steam turbines. E. Curtis Carville. Am. 59th St. Westinghouse City Electric. G Rummelsburg. Edison.POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. results brought out in the foregoing indicate That with high vacuums the larger turbines show economies somewhat better than reciprocating engines. 125 Load K. Stodol.4 287. Westinghouse Interborough. December. Min." French: "Steam Turbines. A. 3.. A. Steam Press.35 13. Y.7 11.7 278 297. E." Paper by F.. W. in the medium sizes.35 29 29 Engines N. E. see Art.47 13.\: Moyer: Jude: "The Steam Turbine. Superheat or Moisture Vacu Lbs Steam per K.4 258. Problems. Turbines N.27 28. Varney. W. Westinghouse. Exhaust Turbines.45 12.90 28. 1910. Report on chapters on testing of turbines in Moyer's "Steam Turbines.
. But the turbine is a onespeed machine. Trans. enter such as steadiness and economy under widely fluctuating working loads. the turbine when running has the advantage of a total absence of reciprocating motion and a uniform turning the high speed of the rotor and heavy armature acting as a powerful regulating force. Art. Tests made on a Curtis turbine for variation in steam consumption in relation to the speed resulted as follows: cannot be designed without R. the room required. A. The field available for the marine turbine seems to be deep sea service. — General Comparison of Engines and Turbines. M. Neilson: "The Steam Turbine. vol. and has proved one of the difficult problems in that connection. Other considerations. P. but fluctuations due to the effect of the connecting rod and the weight of the reciprocating parts can be cared for only by the flywheel. the foundations. The flywheel can prescribed limits. Even turbine advocates do not recommend them for intermittent services and varying speeds.. M.126 STEAM TURBINES. cost of installation The governors of reciprocating engines regulate the effort from stroke to stroke to meet varying load conditions. and where a turbine has been installed to run in parallel with piston engines it has always been found to have a In this respect it it is steadying effect on the whole system. S. espein parallel. and lighting circuits from the same machine. however. This is one of the limitations to its use in marine work. where the work consists of long runs at uniform speed. for run at speeds lower than that for which it is serious effect on its economy. E. cially at best only reduce these fluctuations to within In direct connected generating units." Kerr: Paper. xxv. power. with turbines to run railway. and operation. 26. In fact it has been found possible effort. distinctly inferior to the reciprocating engine." Thomas: "Steam Turbines.
railway power plants. but not with good economy. but invariably inferior when running at slow cruising speeds. Carpenter has reported tests of thirtyfive street capacity. of . H. 100%. the turbine boats were superior in economy to the enginedriven l^oats at normal speeds. 127 In the torpedoboat destroyers built by the British Navy for comparing turbines and reciprocating engines. and let it operate at an average load considerably below its rated Prof. The tendency is to provide an engine large enough to handle the maximum loads easily. The following table gives a summary of seven of these tests made on compound condensing engines of the Corliss or similar types. The remaining ones not given show the same tendency. In good practice reciprocating engines are not installed to run under frequent overloads greater than 50% of the normal Corliss engines can be made to carry overloads of capacity.POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. In these this tendency is clearly marked. P.
and less to the average load to be carried. whereas an engine. rated nearer the its maximum table load.128 STEAM TURBINES. the turbine operating at best economy most of the time. with reference to the maximum nearly its load than a steam engine. would be operating at less than in most efficient rating. The following load to shows the variations consumption reported for a Westinghouse turbine on loads varying from 1/2 100% overload. Load .
POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. 129 .
The general adoption of the turbine shows that for large units at least it is the cheaper. P. He says: "The turbine shows more uniform steam rate for varying loads. of Motive Power of the Interborough R. . in a paper before the A. T. however. and it has practically driven out its rival for large power station work. Stott.P. E. Hr. Comp.130 of the STEAM TURBINES. the competition has been rather with the old type engines. Maintenance Cond. Co. and a thermal economy of 6. Comparison of Charges per K.6% The various items are derived better for superheated steam. less. W. Supt. Turbine Engine 5000 H. buildings. makes the following comparison of the operating cost of large enginedriven and turbinedriven units. Any estimate of cost.. E. 7500 H. competing engines.. The manufacturing cost is probably but as there are few turbines in the market and comparatively little competition as yet between them. and foundations. These elements vary so with different conditions that no general results can be given. Mr. must include the land. practically as good economy with saturated steam. New York City. I." from actual costs.
It requires less condensing apparatus and gives a higher economy for saturated steam at average vacuums. of X. The turbine. rolling mills. 853. "The Steam Turbine from an Operating Standpoint. especially in the larger units. and belt and rope driving. too. A. in reversing." Frexch: "Steam Turbines. Problems. free from contact with the steam. p. Turbines are being applied to centrifugal air compressers and to pumps. lighter marine work. hoisting. The general statement that the turbine is 131 requires much less oil borne out in this table. These considerations indicate that the steam engine will hold its place in locomotive work. where the turbine requires but 20% of In a turbine oil is used only in that for the engine generator. 1909. I. 23. xxiv. If the steam engine encounters serious competition in the smaller sizes for miscellaneous work it seems much more likely that it will come from the gas engine than from the turbine. E. Art. a property of great value in places where feed water is expensive. vol. in operating at varying speeds on intermittent and irregular service." Waldron: Paper. with considerable success. the bearings." Mover: "Steam Turbines. It can run at moderate speeds and will therefore have a monopoly of many services where the high speeds of the turbine are prohibitive.POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. so that the steam is returnable to the boilers as soon as condensed. on the other hand. of plant of Public Service Corp'n.. Report on the power described in Power. has demonstrated that it. — Relative Fields of Engines and Turbines.. but it will be some time before they will be a serious rival in this field or in blowing engines. The reciprocating engine is superior to the turbine in starting power. it has proven ." Murray: " Electric Power Plants." Trans. Stevens and Hobart: "Steam Turbine Engineering. J. 27. M. November References. has its field. S. For direct connected services such as for generators and marine work.
although its ascendancy here is not so marked as in power station work. W. A speed of over 34 knots.. AllisChalmers Co. its high economy under widely varying loads.000 R. Experimental investigation developed the existence of "cavitation. was equipped with It was 2. M." a cylindrical vacuum formed around the propeller. Its uniform velocity and close regulation.150. C. About and traction companies. 2. power. W. . found that at the designed speed of rotation only 18 knots could be obtained.132 STEAM TURBINES. 350.UX)^00 K. and its exhaust free from oil. the power was divided up between 3 turbines driving 3 shafts. It is practically immune from danger from priming. P. Parsons has lead the way into this field. A. never before reached by any vessel. and the slowest turbines at 3. 1911. have made it distinctively the central station machine for the generation of alternating current power.000 K. was obtained. P. together with the great saving in the generators due to the high speeds. 4. Here the turbine is at its best." the first experimental vessel.600. turbines designed for 3. M. one can see the hold the turbine has obtained on this field. service In central power station has practically superseded the old type of engine. Up to February. causing great loss of power. propeller shafts ran at from 80 to 120 R. Mr. M.000 K. 1.000 K.000 R. P. the revolutions reduced about 1/2. its compactness and inexpensive foundations. The "Turbinia. W. After clever and extensive experiments propellers were developed on new lines.000 to 5. P. When it is realized that scarcely a dozen of these machines are 9 years old. the sales of the three foremost manu facturers of large turbines in the United States were as follows: General Electric Co. and a combination of turbine and propeller obtained which gave remarkable results. 70 or 75% of the turbines built are for electric light. Westinghouse Machine Co. When he first began his experiments.000 H. In marine service the turbine has also been successful. Total W. and the vast majority not more than 5. it superior to the reciprocating engine. and it is largely to his indomitable will that the successful application of the turbine to marine service is due.
9 feet beam and 44 1/2 tons displacement. says: "I think we are safe in predicting that it will soon supersede of over 5. and H. the development has been steady. Mr. supplies. and probably also in cluding vessels of speed down ward. the largest Cunard liners and to the heaviest battleships. From the Tiirbinia. of 20. 4. Parsons.." paper by C. interest 1 "Combination System of Reciprocating Engines and Steaui Turbines. attendance. Lond. speaking of the future of the marine turbine. 5. Lower cost of operation— i. April 17. and developed over 70.." London Engineering. 11. of gravity with consequent greater stability.. 6.000 I. 22. The advantages to this combination have been considered in Art. the Channel. Smaller propellers— and therefore. suitable for the turbine will increase. 1910. entirely the reciprocating engine in vessels of 16 knots seaspeed and upward. I think. 1908. from this and item three. At present it may. Reprinted in London Engineering. with its 100 feet of length. See also articles on the Engine of the A\'hite Star SS "Olympic. 133 From that time.000 tons and up must be remembered that the speed of ships tends and the turbine to improve. the turbine has been successfully applied to destroyers.^ : POSITION AND FIELD OF THE STEAM TURBINE. tion of reciprocating engines and turbines for marine and attention are being centered on the combinawork as in the Olympic. be said that the above most suitable field comprises about 1/5 of the total steam tonnage of the world. and possibly still slower vessels in course of time. 70% more power than has ever before been concentrated in one set of engines. April 9. and so the class of ships to increase. 1894. etc. 1908. P. Much Oct. A. to the Allan liners. but it to 13 knots.. Institution of Naval Architects. Less weight of machinery with consequent greater carrying Lower center power. Higher average econoni}. Parsons. . giving high economy and a greater flexibility than turbines alone. but it seems especially adapted for ships. The main advantages 1.000 H. 3. small passenger steamers on the Clyde. 2.. of the turbine in the marine service are Absence of engine vibration.e. P. less draft. The Mauritania and Lusitania have maintained average speeds of over 25 knots. and Irish Sea services. in a paper before the Institute of Marine Engineers.
also Power. Lond." Bauer and Lasche: "Schiffsturbinen. 1910. in Germany. March. 263. January 7. 377. Engineer Steam Turbine ing. Report on the MelvilleMcAlpine reduction gear. St.. Sept. of Journal Am. of Trans. "Steam Turbine Power Plant. 571. S. 17. 663. Engineering." Report of Investigating Comm. p.134 STEAM TURBINES. Problems. p. See also references in the following problems. June. A. 1911. Orrok. A. November 8. November 5. Assoc. 1905. 1908. 1970. of Trans. xxxi. October 21. Am. Nat'l Electric Light Assoc. 1910. Power." Berlin. p. Power. 1. E. 1909. Ry. 1910. Inst. 1. Report on the article on the Turbine Plant of the Mauritania." Jour. p. p. Naval Engineers. W. 3. M. vol. April 12. Report on the engine and turbine units of the White Star Steamer "Olympic." A. of Naval Architects. G. turbines. 601. Rice: Files Files Files "Commercial Application of the Turbine Turbocompressor. 1909. 1909. 5. of Engineers and Shipbuilders of Scotland. 2. Inst. " Small Steam Turbines. Paper by p." 1904. J. E. Sothern: "The Marine Steam Turbine. p. Engineering. S. References. 4. Soc.." Lond. BiBBiNs: Paper. . Report on the Fottinger hydraulic reduction gear for marine See Lond. M. Neilson: "The Steam Turbine. 6. on Steam Turbines.
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and German authorities on the flow of steam through orifices.. Webb. The following is a list of professional papers on turbines which have not been referred to in the textl Xotes on Steam Turbines. xxvi. A. p. A. vol. et seq... 1909. board to observe and report concerning the efficiency of turbine engines. N. 1910. X. Y. Jour. E. 1910.) Theory of the Steam Turbine. The Steam Turbine. X. Moyer. (c) Steam Turbines. Dr. 1904. French. 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. The Flow of Steam Through Nozzles. S. A. X. Jour. A. Stevens and Hobart. p. Steam Turbines. 1903. and Str. 1906. Report of . 75. 1909. Rankin Kennedy. E. R. translated by L. J.. 524. J. 1903. 1908.. Sothern. 156. (b) Steam Turbines. 1906. A.. F. S. Jude. p. Prof.. Neilson. Munich u. N. installation. xxii. BerUn. E. C. N. Robt. S. 1906. W.. — (Historical and Descriptive. X.. Note. Leipsic. (a) In Rateau. Y. vol. Theorie der Turbinen. H. and operation of the turbine engines of the S. A. p. (c) A short list of professional papers will be found at the end of Thomas' "Steam Turbines. The Steam Turbine. Sosnowski. Turbinia. L. C. Zeuner. M.) Steam Turbines. N. Reports on turbine installations on steam yachts Lorena. Frank Foster. Y. J. Y. 1906. E. M. Xov. G. valuable list of references (mostly French) will be found in the Revue de Mechanique. Schiffsturbinen (in German). 2nd edition. Y. Stodola. S... Paris. CanagaJanson.) (In French.. (b) A very complete bibliography of the subject up to 1905 is given in Stevens and Hobart. Aug. Revolution. stein. Steam Turbines. vol. Rateau. Steam Turbines and TurboCompressors. E. M. 1908. Y. xvii. M. N. (a) Steam Turbine Engineering. M. The Steam Turbine. 1905. French. Mann. Y. Thurston. B.. X.. Nov. Prof. A. Prof...BIBLIOGRAPHY. Steam Turbines. above. Tarantula. Translated by Liddell. Y. x. 1899.. 1910 (in German only).. S. N. A. X.. S. Brattleboro. Historical. Y. is the most complete and valuable work on steam turbines published. Wilhelm Gentsch. A. London. Y. K. The Marine Steam Turbine. S. C. 749. Loewen N. (In German. A. S. 1S97.. vol. N. above. 1909.. Xov. Vt. Y. Can a steam turbine be started quicker than a reciprocating engine of the same power? A. Steam Tables and Diagrams.. Berlin. W. Report on the design. Marks and Davis." (d) A. Bauer and Lasche.. S. is given a list of 32 Enghsh. X. 1907. (The 4th edition. 1910. Goss. E.) Turbines a Vapeur. 1906. Thomas.
The Efficiency of Surface Condensers. 1906. Determination of the Principal dimensions of the steam turbine. lugr. with special reference to marine work. S. Am. Files of Zeitschrift des Ver Deut. of Nav. Francis Hodgkinson. Proceedings Engineering Society of Western Penn. E. S. Files of Power. 23. Soc. S. 1904. Steam The E. A. Inst. Parsons. London Engineering.. R. Feb. M. Prof. "Marine Turbine Development and Design. Chas. Inst.. Jan. The Steam Turbine. Files of Engineering (London). Paper. Arch. with special reference to their adaptabihty to the propulsion of ships. Proc. Jour. 1906. M.. Effect of admission pressure upon economy of steam turbines. Feb. Scotland. Nov. Weighton. ing. Engineers and Shipbuilders of Inst. 1906. Jour.. Paper. vol. 1903.. best economy 1906. N. Arch. Jour. Nov. Speakman.136 STEAM TURBINES. xiii.. N.. Speakman. 29. 5. 1904. American Institute of E. Trans. . Mar.. 18 and 25. A. London Engineering. E. 1905. Trans. A. 1900. N. Paper by E. Files of Revue Mechanique. 19056. L. London EngineerStevens Mar. Files of Genie Civil. Comparative trials of turbine cruiser Amethyst. Files of Engineering News (London). James A. Apr. E.. Experiments on Surface Condensation. E. Feb. Nav. M. Revue de Mechanique. and Hobart.. of the piston steam engine at the advent of the steam turbine. and Diamond. E." E. 1904. Smith.. 1906. Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. A. turbines. A. Speakman. May. Theorie Elementaire des Turbines a Vapeur.. N. 1905. and the reciprocating engine cruisers Topaz. Emerald.. Jansen. Rateau.
.INDEX.
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M. 44.) Combined engine and turbine Condensers for turbines Critical pressure Critical speed of shafts 73. 95 27 27 3034. 53.INDEX.) 21 35 7378 75 102 115 13. 22 74 (ref.) 78 Critical velocity of steam 14 122. 110. for high ref. Transactions. 62 34.E. A.S. 72. 21.) < 27. 107. 29 100 32.) Centrifugal strains stresses 26 26 43. 94. 66. of Naval Eng'rs. 93. Abbreviation — (ret. 33 Parsons Bibliography Blading. 91. 131. 29.. 17. 124 Economy of engines of turbines of turbines 123 under overloads 128 139 . 98. 56 27 (ref. 125. angles of AllisChalmers calculations for calculations for efficiency of (ref. reference to papers in 78. Soc. 134 Am. due to units (ref. paper by Briling. 66 3134 32 energy developed in forms friction length of Pelton type pitch of sections of velocity of width of Borsody and Cairncross. Numbers refer to the pages. Rateau turbine 98 114 Augmentor Balancing of shaft vacuums and rotor ' end thrust Bearings Curtis • • • 74 98 7880 79 78 135 26. 115. paper by (ref.) = Reference to article or paper on.
reference to articles in 117 119121 126 123 53 2 2 116126. theoretical velocity of jet 12 weight of steam delivered work done in blading Governing intermittent control 14 51 8287 85 8283 82 82 3 7 2 multiple valve or relay throttUng types of Heat drop and velocity equivalent Heatentropy diagram Heat equivalent of energy Hodgkinson. 78. Expansion of steam as shown on temperatureentropy diagram as shown on heatentropy diagram in nozzles loss of 6 7 10 11 energy in Flexible shaft Formula for blade velocity 27. London. 73 30. 98. 80. 29. paper by (ref.140 INDEX. 66 1. turbines Emmet. 133. 130 27. of engines Economy. 72.) 116. economy of comparison with turbines overload capacity of Engineering. 130 126. 131 127 35.) Energy of a gas. 31 efficiency of blading 3032 1 energy energy developed in blades entropy curve heat drop in Parsons' turbine heat equivalent impulsive force kinetic energy 32 5 58 2 1 1 number of stages in Parsons' turbine potential efficiency reevaporation 59 116 12 14 9. and turbines 116125. 107. 14 . Expanding nozzles (see Nozzles). Efficiency of blading of engines of generators 3134 118 potential (ref. relative. steam rate. paper by (ref) Impulsive force. theoretical Energy equivalent of heat Engines. 134 Engineering Magazine. reference to articles in 107 5.
) Sibley and Kemble. 18. 72. 66. Geo. C.) Borsody and Cairncross (ref. 87. experiments on nozzles references to paper by 24 16 on low pressure turbines Reduction gears for marine turbines Regenerators Rosenhain. engine and turbine units Orifice. Prof. 80. 133 Parsons. table of Parsons' turbine practice Specific heat of superheated steam 10. A. G. theoretical 56 108 14 Stodola.' 18 24 33 21 21 quality curve for vibrations in 24.) Latent heat Loss of energy in expansion Lucke.INDEX.. steel for (ref. 18. 53. paper on exhaust turbines on comparison of engines and turbines 42 102103. A. taper of tests of Sibley of and Kemble (ref.. experiments on expanding nozzles 16. low pressure turbines (ref. Interborough R. reference to articles in 66 28. T. simple Orrok. 21 17 Lucke's experiments on over expansion in pressure and velocity curves in — 22.) . 77 78 (ref. experiments on nozzles Nozzles. 18. 134 Quality curve as used with heat chart Rateau. tests on nozzles 21 Speakman.) 98 103 134 101107 16. paper by (ref) . Dr. 20 35. M. 107.) .. 17 drop in pressure at throat forms of Kerr losses in 21 10. Strickland.. experiments by Rotors. 19 DeLaval design of 2225 17 16. 100. 141 102 107 1 Kinetic energy Kneass. C. calculation by heatentropy chart . 18 80 5 11 17 22 18. A. E. Co..) (ref. 25 17 N. augmentor work on marine turbine reference to paper by Power. Steam rate. Edison Co. experiments on nozzles Labyrinth packings (ref. Y. 94. 131. E. H. 128 16 53 115 132. 107 130 . 17 on losses in DeLaval turbine Stott.
91. condition curve for governing rotor . "A.) Eyermann turbine (ref. 53.76 76 40.) field of for electric generators for marine work 100 100 116131 131132 132133 134 66 44 44 40 46.'' • scheme (ref.E.) (ref. 1089 ." turbines (ref.) Parsons' turbine. 33 40.) of velocity diagram for 125 Dake turbine (ref. 97 AUisChalmers turbine Avery turbine (ref.G. 93 94 72 56 66 for small auxiliaries (ref.) DeLaval turbine blading calculations for flexible shaft governing losses in 94 44 32.) impulse turbine and Parsons' type multistage " " scheme of single stage Kerr turbine (ref. 42 19 nozzle rotors safety grooves 75.) BHss turbine bearing Curtis turbine calculations for 98 98 54 66 98 94 88 79 4853 50 83 77 45 4849 82. blade velocities calculation for double flow . scheme of velocities in 41 42 Elektra turbine (ref.) MelmsPfenninger turbine (ref.) INDEX. 43 73 82 41. 4 14 3538 89.142 Superheated steam Temperatureentropy diagram Theoretical steam rate Trajectory of the steam Turbines.) Bergmann turbine (ref.
133 110114 111113 governmg.) "Turbinia" Vacuums. balancing vertical of end thrust calculation for doubleflow " " singleflow doubleflow (ref.) Terry turbine (ref. 58 58 number marine (ref. 96 98 132. 107 126.) 59 132 66. 94 multipressure. calculation for single flow 143 heat drops in 57. 105. multi. 91. 107 46. Parsons' turbine.velocity singlepressure. 89 tangential flow and horizontal Westinghouse turbine. 106 53.INDEX. 133 types of impulse and reaction types compare a low pressure or exhaust marine mixed flow multicellular 106 46.) bucket arrangement velocity diagram for 94 94 9192 33 66 1013. multi. number of stages singleflow Wilkinson turbine Zoelly turbine (ref.) 98 66 58 6672 72 85 59 5466 46.98 91 RiedlerStumpf turbine bucket arrangement velocity diagram for Richard's turbine (ref. 100 46. Turbines. 14 Velocity of a jet Weight of steam delivered . 132.) singlestage impulse turbine 92 33 94 40 41 scheme of Sturtevant turbine (ref. 91. high calculation of effect of Parsons' augmentor 110 114 9 13.velocity 46 46 91 88.) of stages in Rateau turbine low pressure (ref. 95. 94 94.
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