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Sean Li Math 4340 Notes Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra Lecture 10 2/11/13 Went over rst isomorphism theorem

em last time. Note. HK denotes the set {hk|h H, k K}. If H, K are subgroups of G, it doesnt follow that HK is a subgroup. Note that in general (h1 k1 )(h2 k2 ) is not in HK. However, if one of H or K is normal, say K G, then HK is closed under multiplication. Second Isomorphism Theorem. Given subgroups H, K of G, K G, there is a natural isomorphism H/(H K) HK/K induced by the natural map : H HK/K, where h hK. Proof. First, is surjective, as an element of HK/K can be written (hk)K = hK, so hK = (h) by denition of . Secondly, ker = {h|(h) = K}, so (h) = e hK = K = h K h H K. So by the rst isomorphism theorem, we get H/(H K) HK/K. Third Isomorphism Theorem. Let H, K be normal subgroups of G. Suppose K Then G/H = (G/K)/(H/K). H.

Proof. There is a natural map : G G/H that is surjective and has kernel H, given by (x) = xH. Given a homomorphism f : G K, and H = ker f , H G, there exists an isomorphism f : G/H K. 1

G/K 2

(G/K)/(H/K)

Note that f is surjective because 1 , 2 are surjective. What about ker f ? Note that x ker f 1 (x) ker 2 . But ker 2 = H/K. But (x) = hK xK = hK x H. Therefore, ker f = H, so by the rst isomorphism theorem, we get G/H (G/K)/(H/K).

Fourth Theorem. Given the natural surjection : G G/K, K G, there is a natural bijection between the set of subgroups of G and the set of subgroups of G/K given by H H. Cyclic Groups. A group C is cyclic if there exists x C such that every element is a power of x. Can write C = (x), where C = {xn |n Z}. If C is nite with n elements then we write Cn (also Zn ). In Z, an innite cycle, the generators are 1 and 1.

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