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### Here are a few excerpts from Carl Friedrich Gauss Titan of Science on this question.  ### From a point external to the circle construct two lines which cut the interior of the circle. This forms a V cutting through the circle interior. ### We then construct a second V from the four circle intersection points generated by the first V. ### We next construct an X. ### The X consists of the two remaining lines that can be constructed between the four circle intersection points. ### This generates two additional circle intersection points. We find that these points permit us to construct tangents to the circle from the first V vertex. ### When we add the concentric circle, we find that we have generated two local parallels. ### If we proceed with the second V in a like manner we find:       ### we have generated as the top half of the eight faced octahedra. We have not yet begun to measure anything. We know from the later work of Kepler that nevertheless the Golden Section is lurking in our harmonic net of the celestial sphere. That is the physical action seen in changes or “cycles” of these heavenly bodies conforms to Golden Section harmonics. So, implicitly, from a physical synthetic geometric perspective the Golden Section is lurking even at this stage. We next proceed to see if we can construct anything of use from our ninety degree arcs. The four arcs cannot be readily put into the upper half of the celestial sphere, they are bounded to the celestial equator. But it is possible to construct a triangle from ninety degree arcs in this upper portion of the sphere. This can be done by utilizing our second length, the radius of the circle. If we place this along the circle perimeter we find that it divides the circle into six equal arcs, that is, 60 degree arcs. It also generates three 120 degree arcs. Utilizing this division by three and the division by four we can locate within our spherical bowl the three vertices of this triangle containing three ninety degree arcs and that is centered on the axis determined by the pole star. ### are each 45 degree arcs which we could have already generated by folding the celestial circle a third time. This third degree of circular action has also generated the Golden Section! ### With a number of leaps of discovery in between we discover that these six 45 degree arcs are really half portions of what are really 90 degree arcs of six other 90 degree sided triangles. In other words we have reproduced the original octahedron we generated with two folds of the circle. ### Our reproduction of the octahedron is also a triangular anti-prism. ### D B
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### At this point it is useful to introduce one possible construction to elucidate that which Fra Luca Pacioli is carrying out in his famous Barbari portrait. This construction develops Leonardo-Pacioli approach to perspectivo and their more general pentagon-pentagram method which led me directly to the rediscovery of the Gauss Pentagramma Mirificum which embodies that pentagon-pentagram method of Leonardo and Pacioli. The construction is actually a projection down of a more thorough and rigorous spherical one, which we will develop later. To start with here are some views of the final spherical construction.       ### Here are some more wire frame views of this spherical construction with just the edges:   ### Here are two views of the Gauss Golden Pentagramma Mirificum:  ### In Barbari's famous portrait Pacioli is apparently instructing Durer on the general method of perspectivo. Here is an analysis written up by the late Dr. Steven Pepper in collaboration with me in 1992 before the rediscovery of the Gauss Pentagramma Mirificum. ### The Pacioli construction begins with an equilateral triangle inscribed within a circle, which as we discussed above actually derives from the octahedron: B
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### The Golden Section is generated by the Celestial cut through the edge midpoints of the equilateral triangle. Today this is called the Odom construction, though, Christine Tuveson developed it independently. ### In the Pacioli construction two singularities of the pentagon are focused on. B

### Here is a pentagon with one of its diagonals inscribed in a circle. A circle diameter at pentagon vertex B bisects the diagonal and one edge of the pentagon. These two bisection points will provide the singularities for generating the pentagon from the equilateral triangle. (W is the center of the circle.) B
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### The first step of the Pacioli construction is to construct the three edge midpoints of the equilateral triangle by simply constructing diameters through each of the three vertices A, B, C of the triangle. B
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### D B
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### D B
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### D B
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### We now construct a perpendicular line segment to CA at C B
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### We now project the proportion of g^3 to one to the diameter through BF. B
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### We first construct the line segment between C and the circle center. Then the line segment between the opposite ends of the diameter and the perpendicular line segment as shown above. The cross point at the green point then allows B
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### The line through this cross point gives us the large green point on the diameter through BF and divides the diameter in the proportion g^3 to one. It is thus the midpoint (M) of an edge of the pentagon as discussed above. A line parallel to AC through this point would generate two vertices of a pentagon edge at its intersections with the circle. (Again these relative proportions can be readily demonstrated with similar triangles.) B
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### We now construct the singularity at T by utilizing the simple proportion one to g by the golden cut of BM B
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### A We therefore have
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### First we construct the five cubes with 60 sticks. The 60 vertices of the inner pentagons of the pentagrams are the 60 vertices of the final icosahedron stellation. ### You can extend the edges of the small stellated dodecahedron until they pass through the 60 inner pentagon vertices of the five cube pentagrams. ### Here is a non-numeric, spherical construction for the Golden Section. The construction I presented with the stella octangula with two moving triangles is a non-numeric, spherical construction of the golden section—extreme and mean.

. ### The only fact one needs know is that the only thing of substance in the universe is creative action, noetic mentation. This is both objective and subjective. Everything else as Plato paints the picture are shadows. And as Johannes Kepler suggests, the five cubes uniquely demonstrates this reality. Not as a fixed construction, but rather as an object and subject of discovery, which was not even touched upon in what I sent you, so far. The process of differentiation (dissymmetry) and Kepler's extreme and mean (the divine proportion) are selfsame. To be more precise, let's look at Kepler's construction of the house in which his and the Universe is born and grows. In his Harmonies, Kepler begins with a cube, and then constructs a roof on that. As shown, we begin with Kepler's stella octangula inside the cube. Two faces rotate to mark the roof posts. They can arrive either as bookends or a single convergence. In any case they provide the Delian division of the cube in two, or maybe the other way round.      ### (To put the discovery in a nutshell—in general, mathematicians are completely nuts—you cannot proceed from one to two without passing through the square root of five; a minor point, though, nevertheless an essential one, raised by Pythagoras.)  ### Then, Cusanus goes to the crux of the matter. He writes: “There can namely be given an incidental angle that is greater than a rectilinear, and another incidental angle smaller than the rectilinear, and nevertheless never one equal to the rectilinear. Therefore with incommensurable magnitudes this conclusion does not hold.” [See Figure 8] [in figure caption 3 should be c] ### [See Figure 9]. This is the angle between the circumference of a circle and the tangent. It is referred to in the same location in Euclid as “the remaining angle.” ### According to this proposition, if a straight line touches a circle at one point only, i.e., is tangent, then any other straight line which one attempted to interpose between that tangent and the circumference, would necessarily cut the circumference in two points, and thus fall within it [See Figure 10].  ### I have only most recently discovered the fact that much of the work of my tutor, Stanley Tennenbaum was centered on this Eudoxian method of exhaustion. I just now realize that when Stanley arrived in Leesburg for the first time in the mid-1980s as a participant in the Fusion Energy Foundation Seminar Series, he presented us with an extremely sharp horn angle for our consideration. In particular he wrote down the function as 1- 1/e to the x squared power and even drew a few graphs of it. As x approaches zero, the function becomes extremely fat. As Stanley said, “flatter than a straight line.” And he noted that mathematicians generally avoid things like this, though it tends to crop up in physics, chemistry and biology all the time.   ### We show by contradiction that the square root of two cannot be represented as a single ratio of two ordinary integers. Geometrically, assuming that such an integer ratio exists means there exists a square with an area equal to the sum of areas of two equal, smaller squares. That is ### The key idea that Stanley Tennenbaum proposes at this point is put everything in the same box and to superimpose all three squares, placing the first smaller blue square in the upper right corner of the white square, and the second blue square in the lower left corner. ### Actually this list can be extended infinitely in a rather simple manner ### suggested by Lyndon LaRouche. We notice that the resulting octahedron consists of twelve 90 degree arcs. Could five of these provide the desired closed five 90 degree arc configuration. And in fact if you take three of the four 90 degree arcs circumscribed by the Celestial Equator you could connect the open ends to the Pole star with two of the four 90 degree arcs which connect to it. Thus we have a closed spherical configuration consisting of five 90 degree arcs. Two problems with this five 90 degree arc configuration is that first it is irregular. Second it cannot be put in a plane like the octahedron triangle face, or the square circumscribed by the Celestial Equator. In this case we must think out of the box and introduce a little topological singularity. We take one connected 90 degree arc off the surface of the sphere, while still maintaining its connection to the other four, and twist it once. This is precisely the sort of operation that young students building the five cubes explored with their initial pentagram constructions. With a little experimental juggling we quickly find that a very regular and flat pentagram can be generated. This can be turned into a number of different configurations. And they should all be explored. But, reflecting back to how we ended up proceeding with the octahedron, an irregular pentagrammic anti-prism suggests itself:      