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Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in Science

Class IX

2011

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Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in Science


Class IX

Chief Advisor

Rashmi Krishnan, Director, SCERT

Guidance

Dr. Pratibha Sharma, Joint Director, SCERT

Contributor

Harpreet Kaur Bedi, TGT, (N.Sc), GGSSS No-2, Uttam Nagar J.B. Gupta, PGT (Physics), SBV No.1, Tilak Nagar Lalit Gupta, TGT (N.Sc), GBSSS Hastsal Laxmi Kant, TGT (N.Sc), GBSSS, A-1 Janakpuri Ravinder Kaur, TGT (N.Sc) SKV, D-Block, Janakpuri Sher Singh, PGT (Physics), Navyug School Dr. Ravinder Pal, Sr. Lecturer, DIET Rajender Nagar

Online Training Co-ordinator :

Sapna Yadav, Sr. Lecturer, SCERT

Publication officer

Mukesh Yadav

Publication Team

Navin Kumar Radha Prasad

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction
Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry Physics Physics Physics Biology Biology Chapter 1- Matter in our surroundings Chapter 2- Is matter around us pure Chapter 3- Atoms and molecules Chapter 4- Motion Chapter 5- Force and Laws of Motion Chapter 6- Gravitation Chapter 7- Cell Chapter 8- Tissues Chapter 9- Why do we fall ill

1-09 10-17 18-26 27-33 34-49 50-63 64-71 72-80 81-88 89-97

10. Biology

I N T R O D U C T I O N
Teaching and evaluation have long been taken together in our education system. Whenever there is teaching, a test to assess what the student has learnt will definitely follow. But in our past practices, the area of assessment has been often too narrow i.e; limited to the cognitive domain only and the objective of assessment has been just to declare how much the student has learnt. Moreover, there were only three tests in a year and on the basis of these three tests the decision was taken to promote the student in to the next class or to retain him/her in the same class. This encouraged rote learning and use of unfair means to pass the examination. The real learning had always been ignored. Now, with the introduction of continuous and comprehensive evaluation from class III onwards, a positive shift is being expected from rote learning to learning by doing. Continuous evaluation through various activities, worksheets, projects etc. will definitely help the students learn better, reduce mental stress and discourage the use of unfair means. Moreover, the learning area will expand from 'only the cognitive domain' to all the three domains i.e., cognitive, psychomotor and affective. With this approach one can think of realization of the aims of science education as stated in NCF 2005. Aim of Science Education as per the guidelines of NCF 2005 The general aim of science education follow directly from the six criteria of validity: cognitive, content, process, historical, environmental and ethical. Science education should enable the learner to know the facts and principles of science and its applications, consistent with the stage of cognitive development, acquire the skills and understand the methods and processes that lead to generation and validation of scientific knowledge, develop a historical and development perspective of science and to enable her to view science as a social enterprise, relate to the environment (natural environment, artifacts and people), local as well as global, and appreciate the issues at the interface of science, technology and society, acquire the requisite theoretical knowledge and practical technological skills to enter the world of work, nurture the natural curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity in science and technology, imbibe the values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life and preservation of environment, and cultivate 'scientific temper' - objectivity, critical thinking and freedom from fear and prejudice.

In order to realise the aim of science education, the content at the secondary stage has been organised around themes that are potentially cross-disciplinary in nature. These themes are:
? Food, ? Materials, ? of the living, The world ? work, How things ?things, Moving ? ideas, People and ? Natural phenomena and ? Natural resources.

1.

The syllabus based on the above mentioned themes covers questions that need to be answered, the key concepts, resources that a teacher may use to make the students learn along with a list of suggested activities. The detailed syllabus for science (Class IX) as given by NCERT is

Theme/ Sub-theme
1. Food Higher yields

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes
Collection of weeds found in fields of different crops; collection of diseased crops; discussion and studying composting/ vermicomposting

What do we do to get higher yields in our farms?

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement, use of fertilizers, manures; protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.

Visit to any fish/bee/dairy/pig etc farms; data showing harmful effects of insecticides; process for the preparation of compost, vermicompost.

(Periods 8)

2. Materials Material in our clothing

What kinds of clothes help us keep cool? Why do wet clothes feel cool?

Cooling by Work done in evaporation. Class VII; Absorption of heat. glassware, heat source, black paper, thermometers.

Experiments to show cooling by evaporation. Experiments to show that the white objects get less hot. (Periods 5)

Different kinds of In what way are materials materials different from each other? Is there some similarity in materials? In how many ways can you group the different materials you see around; How do solids, liquids and gases differ from each other? Can materials exist in all the three states?

All things occupy space, possess mass. Definition of matter.

Everyday substances like wood, salt, paper, ice, steel, water, etc.

To feel the texture, observe the colour and lustre, effect of air, water and heat, etc. on each of the materials (Periods 4)

Solid, liquid and gas; characteristicsshape, volume, density; change of state-melting; freezing, evaporation, condensation, sublimation.

Wax, water, ice, oil, sugar, camphor/ ammonium chloride/ naphthalene.

Sorting out a medley of materials, in various ways. Observe shape and physical state of different materials. Observe effect of heat on each of the resources. (Teacher to perform the experiment for camphor, ammonium chloride and naphthalene). (Periods 4)

2.

Theme/ Sub-theme
What are things made of?

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes
Discussion on claims 'Air is a mixture' (Mixture of what? How can these be separated?). Water is compound' and 'Oxygen is an element'.

What are things around you made of? What are the various types of chemical substances?

Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Colloids and suspensions.

Samples of commonly available elements, compounds and mixtures. Samples of solution, suspension and colloid.

Do substances combine in a definite manner?

Equivalence - that x grams of A is chemically not equal to x grams of B.

Historical accounts. Titration using droppers Glassware, or syringes, quantitative chemicals (oxalic experiments. acid, sodium hydroxide, magnesium ribbon). Kits for making molecular models. Historical account including experiments of Lavoisier and Priestley. Discussion on the fact that elements combine in a fixed proportion through discussion on chemical formulae of familiar compounds.

How do thing combine with each other? Are there any patterns which can help us guess how things will combine with each other?

Particle nature, basic units: atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses.

How do chemists weigh and count particles of matter?

Mole concept. Relationship of mole to mass of the particle and numbers. Valency; Chemical formulae of common compounds.

Simple numericals to be done by the students. A game for writing formulae. e.g crisis crossing of valencies to be taught through dividing students into pairs. Each student to hold two playcards: one with the symbol and the other with the valency. Keeping symbols in place, teacher to more only valencies to form the formula of a compound.

3.

Theme/ Sub-theme
What is there inside an atom?

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes
Brief historical account of Rutherford's experiment

Can we see an atom or a molecule under a microscope or by some other means? What is there inside an atom?

Atoms are made up of smaller Charts, films particles: electrons, protons, etc. and neutrons. These smaller particles are present in all the atoms but their numbers vary in different atoms. Isotopes and isobars.

(Periods 18)

3. The World of the Living Biological Diversity

How do the various plants around us differ from each other? How are they similar? What about animals? How are they similar to an different from each other?

Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scienctific naming, Basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories/groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates up to phyla and Chordates up to classes).

Specimens of some animals, and plants not easily observable around you.

Discussion of diversity and the characteristics associated with any group.

(Periods 14)

What is the living What are we made up of? being made up What are the of? different parts of our body? What is the smallest living unit?

Cell as a basic unit of life; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles: chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, ER. Golgi Apparatus: nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. Tissues, organs, organ systems, organism. Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals: meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).

Permanent slides, model of the human body.

Observation of model of human body to learn about levels of organizationtissue, organ, system and organism, observe blood smears (frog and human). Cheek cells, Onion peel cell, Spirogyra, Hydrilla leaves (cyclosis). (Periods 12)

4.

Theme/ Sub-theme
How do we fall sick?

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes
Surveying neighbourhood to collect information on disease occurrence pattern. Studying the life cycle of the mosquito and malarial parasite. Discussion on how malaria is spread, how to prevent mosquito breeding. (Periods 10)

What are the various causes of diseases? How can diseases be prevented? How can we remain healthy?

Health and its failure. Disease and its causes. Diseases caused by microbes and their prevention - Typhoid, diarrhoea, malaria, hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, TB, polio; pulse polio programme.

Newspaper articles, information from health centres, photographs of various causal organisms, Photographs, permanent slides of bacteria.

How do substances move from cell to cell?

How do food and water move from cell to cell? How do gases get into the cells? What are the substances that living organisms exchanges with the external world? How do they obtain these substances? How do we describe motion?

Diffusion/exchange of substances between cells and their environment and between the cells themselves in the living system; role in nutrition, water and food transport, excretion, gaseous exchange. Motion displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line, acceleration distancetime and velocity time graphs for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method, elementary idea of uniform circular motion. Egg membrane, Rhoeo leaves, sugar microscope slides.

Looking at closed and open stomata, plasmolysis in Rhoeo leaf peels.

(Periods 15)

4. Moving Things, People and Ideas Motion

Analysis of motion of different common objects. Drawing distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and for uniformly accelerated motion.

(Periods 12)

5.

Theme/ Sub-theme
Force and Newton's laws

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes
Demonstrating the effect of force on the state of motion of objects in a variety of daily-life situations. Demonstrate the change in direction of motion of an objection by applying force. (Periods 10)

What makes things change their state of motion?

Force and motion. Newton's laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.

Historical accounts. Experiences from daily life, wooden and glass boards, sand, balls, wooden support, some coins (say of Rs. 2 or Rs. 5), tumbler, balloons etc.

Gravitation

What makes things fall? Do all things fall in the same way?

Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity, mass and weight, free fall.

Spring balance

Analysis of motion of ball falling down and of ball thrown up. Measuring mass and weight by a spring balance. (Periods 7)

Work, energy and power

How do we measure work done in moving anything? How does falling water make a mill run?

Work done by a force, energy, power, kinetic and potential energy, law of conservation of energy.

Rope (or string), board or plank, wooden block, ball, arrow, bamboo stick, spring, etc.

Experiments on body rolling down inclined plane pushing another body. Experiments with pendulum. Experiments with spring. Discussion.

(Periods 6)

Floating bodies

How does a boat float on water?

Thrust and pressure. Archimedes' principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density.

Cycle pump, board pins, bulletin board, mug, bucket, water etc.

Experiments with floating and sinking objects.

(Periods 4)

6.

Theme/ Sub-theme
How do we hear from a distance?

Questions

Key concepts

Resources

Activities/ Processes

How does sound travel? What kind of sounds can we hear? What is an echo? How do we hear?

Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans, ultrasound, reflection of sound, echo and sonar, Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only).

String, ball or Experiment on stone as bob, reflection of sound (Periods 10) water tank, stick, slinky, rope, echo tube, rubber pipe etc. Model or chart showing structure of the ear.

5. How Things Work 6. Natural Phenomena 7. Natural Resources Balance in Nature

Why do air, water and soil seem not to be consumed? How does the presence of air support life on earth? How have human activities created disturbances in the atmosphere? How does nature work to maintain balance of its components?

Physical resource, air, water, soil, Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures, movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages. Biogeo chemical cycles in nature, water, oxygen carbon, nitrogen.

Daily newspapers, magazines and other reading materials. Weather reports over a few months and air quality reports over the same time period. Case study material.

Case studies of actual situation in India with more generalised overview of inter relationship of air, water soil, forests. Debates on these issues using resources mentioned alongside, visit to from an environmental NGO, discussion. (Periods 15)

The teaching-learning activities that have been suggested in the syllabus can be summarized as: Observations Collections Demonstrations Experiments Discussions Debates Case studies Visits Projects Books

The students should be encouraged to perform activities, make models with their own hands, display their work on bulletin boards and wall magazines, prepare scrap books, write accounts of their visits; display photographs collected and maintain a portfolio.

7.

All these activities will help in the formative assessment of the students as per the guidelines of CBSE. Details of CBSE guidelines for formative assessment (as displayed in their website) are as follows:Evaluation of Academic Subjects in Class IX & Class X. Six assessments are proposed. These are valid for most schools; however they can be varied or adapted with written communication to the Board. Type of assessment Percentage of weightage in academic session FIRST TERM Formative Assessment-1 Formative Assessment-2 Summative Assessment-1 10% 10% 20% SECOND TERM Formative Assessment-3 Formative Assessment-4 Summative Assessment-2 10% 10% 40% October-November January-February March SA2 = 40% FA 3+4 = 20% April-May July-August September SA1 = 20% FA 1+2 = 20% Month Term wise weightage

Total Formative Assessments = FA1 + FA2 + FA3 + FA4 = 40% Summative Assessments = SA1 + SA2 = 60%

Modalities of Assessment
Role Plays, Crossword Puzzle, Flow Charts, Popular Science, Book Review, Field Trips, Class Work/Home Work Assignments, Group Work, Survey, Project Work, Worksheets, Games and Multiple Choice Questions.

Suggested Assessment Tools and Techniques


Any of the following assessment tools and techniques may be used for carrying out different formative assessments.

Class Response Assessment worksheets


? Demonstration based ? Graph based ? based Diagram ? Numerical based ? Flow chart ? Crossword puzzle/games ? of Balanced chemical Equations / Formulae/Units Writing ? MCQs

8.

Active-learning assessment tools


? Model making ? Chart making ? Assignments ? Science Book Review Popular ? Science events/news report Current

Hands-on practical examination Class work/home work Assessment Group work - Seminar/Symposium/Presentation/Bulletin Board Display/Role Play Survey/Field Visit Project Work-Group or individual Short formal written Paper-pen test

Important
Hands-on practical examination may be necessarily conducted once in each term. Class work and Home Work assessment may also be conducted necessarily once in each term. It is suggested that for science, at least one out of four formative assessments in the year are experiments. Any one formative assessment may include one short written paper-pen test/hands-on practical examination and a maximum of two other assessments using any of the above suggested tools. The average of these assessments may be calculated out of 10%. Due care may be taken to ensure that students are not put to any stress due to over assessment in the form of Formative Assessments.

Record Keeping
It is absolutely essential that teachers maintain a clear record of the formative assessments conducted because they will be verified by CBSE from time to time. The following points have to be kept in mind while recording FA. Individual report book as suggested by CBSE has to be maintained in addition to student report form. A separate consolidated marks register must be maintained reflecting the following for each student. Tools of Formative Assessment (quiz, MCQs, debate, group discussion, creative writing, presentation etc) must be recorded. Maximum marks, marks obtained and weightage for 10 marks for each of the four formative assessments must be maintained. Cumulative total in FA must be calculated and recorded.

School may devise a suitable format for the marks register. Many schools are computerising the entire process of recording the assessments. While evolving such a programme, care may be taken to ensure that all the relevant particulars are included in the programme. Lesson wise activities and tips for Formative Assessment

9.

C H E M I S T R Y CHAPTER-1
Matter In Our Surroundings

10.

Chapter- 1

Matter In Our Surroundings

CONCEPT MAP

Made up of particles

Particles are very small

Physical nature of matter

Solid state

Particles have space between them

Gaseous state

State of matter

Matter

Characteristics of particles of matter

Particles attract each other

Liquid state

Particles are continuously moving

Evaporation

Changing its state

Effect of change of pressure

Effect of change of temperature Factors affecting evaporate

Evaporation cause cooling

11.

Assessment teaching Task Objectives - To enable the students to


? know various factors affecting the rate of evaporation.

Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) Individual

? the different phenomenon occurring in every day life. explain

Time: 05 min Procedure : You may


?the factors affecting evaporation. explain ? various phenomenon happening the surrounding. tell them ? the phenomenon with the factors affecting the process connect

Assessment parameters : 1 mark each for correct answer.

Student Work Sheet


Choose the best correct option in the following questions: Q.1 Rate of vaporization increases with: a. an increase of surface area. b. an increase of surface temperature. c. decrease in humidity. d. all of the above Q.2 We prefer to wear cotton clothes in the summer because: a. Cotton is good absorber of heat. b. Cotton is good absorber of sweat. c. Cotton is bad absorber of sweat. d. Cotton clothes are cheaper. Q3. Humidity is: a. Amount of water vapours present in the air. b. Amount of oxygen present in the air. c. Amount of dust present in the air. d. Amount of heat present in the air. Q4. Clothes dry faster if: a. humidity in air increases. b. wind speed decreases. c. wind speed increases. d. temperature decreases. Q5. When some ice cold water is kept in the tumbler, water droplets are seen on its outer surface due to the process of: a. Evaporation of water. b. Sublimation of ice. c. Condensation of water vapours. d. Solidification of vapours.

Suggestive Remediation
Some students may not understand the concept of humidity they should be clarified by giving examples.
12.

Chapter 1 Matter in our surroundings


Class Work | Home work Assessment
Assessment technique Objective : To help the learners to
? take active part and interest in doing class work / home work. ? the habit of regularity and neatness in doing assigned task. inculcate ? learning through additional tasks. reinforce ? the habit of self learning and extended learning. inculcate

Class work / Home work assignment

General guide line about class work:The class work includes the task assigned by the teacher to the student in the class, during the lesson or at the end of teaching period and may include:
? Work sheet to be completed for recapitulation of the topic. ? of formula, chemical equations, numerical, diagrams etc. Practice ? Oral questions being asked from individual students during the lesson. ? of graph diagram, ray diagram, circuit diagram date etc. Practice ? Any group work/activity.

Parameters of assessment may include:


? Correctness of the task performed. ? Time taken/ regularity of the task performed. ? of the work. Neatness

Detailed record of students response and achievements in the class may be maintained in a register for assessment purpose.

Home Work : The H.W includes the tasks/assigment to be done by the students as home and may include:
? questions meant for reinforcement of learning (These questions may be framed in such a way Practice

that they are not able to copy answers directly done the prescribed text books).
? Questions based on application of class room learning to real life situation. ? Questions based on enhancement of skills related to drawing diagrams, solving numerical, writing of

formulae & chemical equation etc.


? Tasks related to rectification of mistakes/errors.

Area of assessment may include:


? Regularity in submission of H.W. ? Completeness and neatness of H.W. ? quality of answers. Over all

The note book of the students may be corrected once or twice in each of the two terms and the detailed records be maintained. The marks allocation to different parameters of assessment may be decided by individual school/teachers.

13.

Chapter 1 Matter in our surroundings


Assessment technique Objectives: To enable the learners to Task: Approximate time: Procedure: Following information may be given to the students
? exists in three states. Matter ? can be changed in all three states under different conditions of temperature & pressure. Matter ?is the process of changing a solid into liquid on heating. Fusion ? Sublimation is the process of changing state directly from solid to gas without changing into liquid state. ? the S.I unit of temperature. Kelvin is ? Condensation is the process of changing a gas into liquid by cooling. ? liquid is cooled it changes into solid state & the process is called solidification. When a ? Vaporisation is the process of changing a liquid into gaseous state on heating. ? related with change of state may be explained giving various examples. Processes

Crossword Puzzle

Learn that three states of matter can be inter changed. Change of state takes place due to change in temperature or pressure. S I unit of temperature is Kelvin. Learn the name of various processes used during change of state. Understand some substances directly change state from solid to gas. Individual worksheet 15 minutes

Assessment Parameters : One mark for each correct completion of the blank Student Work Sheet Instructions : Given below is the cross word puzzle and the class, complete the puzzle using given clues.
1 2 3 4

5 6

14.

Down 1. 2. 3. Process of changing water to water vapours on heating. Process of changing of a liquid into solid. Physical state of water at 120C.

Across 4. 5. 6. 7. Process of changing a solid directly to gaseous state. Process of changing a solid into liquid. Process of changing a gas into liquid on cooling. S.I unit of temperature.

Suggestive Remediation Some students may not be able to clearly distinguish among various processes. They may be helped to have clear understanding by giving more examples.

15.

Chapter 1 Matter in our surroundings


Assessment technique Objectives: Students will be able to
?three states of matter. identify ? the property of force of attraction among particles. compare

Role Play

Task: Approximate Time: Procedure: The teacher may


? make four groups of five students each, rest of the students will observe. ? group in following way: guide the w group should hold each other from back and lock arms. first w second group should hold hands to form a human chain.

4 Groups of 5 Students 3-5 Minutes

w group should form a chain by touching each other with only their finger tips. third w fifth group of student should run around and try to break the human chains one by one into as the

many small groups as possible. Guide theme as to depict the?exists in three states. matter ? of matter have force acting between them. particles ? keeps the particles together. the force ? the strength of the force varies from one kind of matter to another.

Assessment Parameters: One mark for each of the following indicators: 1. Does the child understand the task given? Yes/No. 2. Is the child able to work in a team? Yes/No. 3. Is the child able to apply the concepts in the practical situation? Yes/No. 4. Can the child think logically & rationally? Yes/No. 5. Does the child raise any inquiry about the concept? Yes/No. 6. Does the child have good understanding in the following concepts? Yes/No. (Mark each).
w Different states of matter. w Particles of matter have force acting between them. w force keeps the particles together. The w strength of the force varies matter to matter. The

Suggestive Remediation:A few students may find it difficult to understand the interaction between students behaving as particle & the particles of matter. The teacher may explain it to them.

16.

Chapter 1 Matter in our surrounding


Assessment techinique Objectives: To enable the students to understand:
? That particles of matter have space between them. ? That particles of matter are continuously moving. ? That particle of matter has force of attraction between them.

Activity based work sheet

Task Procedure/Direction:-

In Groups

? The teacher may form three groups of five students each. Rest of the students may observe the

activities.
? One activity may be assigned to each group. ? 1.1 of NCERT Book may be given to first group. Activity ? 1.4 may be given to second group. Activity ? 1.7 to be given to third group. Activity ? Guide students on the basis of activities performed by each group as follows: ? of matter have space between them. Particles ? of matter are continuously moving Particles ? of matter have force of attraction. Particles

Assessment Parameters:? Performance of Activity: 2 marks ? Observation by the groups: 2 marks ? Questions: 6 marks

Answer the following questions on the basis of activity performed. Questions for group- 1 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 What happed to the substance (Salt) added ? Does the level of water changed? What do you conclude from the activity? What do you observe immediately after adding the ink in water? Which process is responsible for spreading of with the water? What do you conclude from the activity? Which substance breaks easily? Breaking of which substance is most difficult? What do you conclude by this activity?

Questions for group- 2

Questions for group- 3

Suggestive Remediation: - Some students may not be able to draw correct conclusions. Teacher many help giving explanation. Other activities of the book related with the concept may be performed.

17.

C H E M I S T R Y CHAPTER-2
Is Matter Around Us Pure

18.

Chapter- 2

Is Matter Around Us Pure

CONCEPT MAP

Non-metals Properties Metals Elements Metalloids Solutions Compounds Pure Homogenous

Matter around us

Mixture Hetrogeneous

Evaporation Suspensions Centrifugations Seperation techniques Crystallisation Colloids

Sublimations Seperations of immiscible Chromatography

Properties

Distillation & Fractional distillation

19.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


Assessment technique Objectives: To enable the students to
? Understand and identify the solutions, suspensions and colloids. ? Differentiate among solutions, suspensions & colloids. ? their communication skills. Enhance

Data based worksheet

Task Procedure:- The following information may be given to the students


? A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Individual

? A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solutes particles do not dissolve but remain

suspended in the medium.


? A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles are uniformly spread throughout

the solution. Size of solute particles is relatively smaller than in suspensions.


? The students may be asked to conduct a survey of their homes and prepare a list of various

materials used in daily life. They may be further asked to describe them as solutions, suspensions & colloids and then prepare a survey report. Student Work Sheet Time 2-3 days Aim of the survey: To Identify and classify the materials commonly used at home and around into solutions, suspensions and colloids Format of the Report 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Aim of the survey Introduction with purpose Method used for survey Information Interpretation of data Conclusion Reference

Assessment Parameters: Presentation Data collection and Reporting Analysis Viva Suggestive Remediation: 1. 2. The purpose of this activity is to relate classroom learning with student's surroundings. Some students may not perform accordingly. They should be helped by giving more examples. 3 marks 3 marks 2 marks 2 marks

20.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


Assessment technique Objectives : To enable the students to
? Understand that a mixture is composed of more than one kind of pure substances. ? Be aware

Activity based worksheet

with the two groups of mixtures i.e; Homogenous mixtures & Heterogeneous

mixtures.
? Understand the characteristics of mixtures.

Task Procedure / Directions The teacher may


?the students of the class into four groups A, B, C and D. Divide ? Each group takes a beaker containing 100 ml of water. ?A adds 1 spatula full of KMnO4 crystals. Group ?B adds 2 spatula full of KMnO4crystals. Group ?C adds 1 spatula full of KMnO4 and sand each. Group ?D adds 2 spatula full of KMnO4 and sand each. Group

In Groups

Observations may be written in the following table: S.No. substance added Colour Visibility of particles Visibility of particles beam of light (torch)

A B C D Note: Any other salt like Copper Sulphate can also be taken in place of KMnO4.
? basis of observation, the teacher may explain homogenous & heterogeneous mixture. On the ? the questions in the work sheet after carrying out the activity. Answer

Assessment Parameters Observation Table 4 marks Q.1 to 6 - 1 mark each Q.1 What is in the colour of KMnO4 Solution? Q.2 Does all KMnO4 get dissolved in water? Q.3 Out of A and B group, which has more intensity of colour in solution. Q.4 Particles of Substance are seen in which groups? Q.5 In which groups, particles are visible in beaming light? Q.6 Classify the groups A, B, C, D, mixtures as homogenous & heterogeneous. Suggestive Remediation: ? may explain the characteristics of Homogeneous mixtures and Heterogeneous mixtures. Teacher ? The teacher should clarify the difference in properties of students, colloids & suspensions.

21.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


Assessment technique Multiple choice question Task Individual Objectives:- To enable the students to ? a mixture in composed of various components. Learn that ? about the various separation techniques used to separate components. Be aware ? Understand the different properties of the component on which they are separated. Time: 10 Minutes Procedure : You may ? different properties of the components of mixtures. Explain ? Give detailed explanation of various separation techniques used for separating mixture. Assessment Parameters: 1 Mark for each correct answer Student Work sheet Choose the best correct option in the following as :Q1. The used tea leaves are separated from prepared tea by the method of: a. Centrifugation b. Filtration c. Evaporation d. Sublimation Q2. Separating funnel technique is used to separate components which are: a. Miscible liquids b. Immiscible liquids c. Solid & liquid d. Solid and gas Q3. Centrifugation technique is used to separate: a. Cream from milk b. Ammonium chloride and salt c. Alcohol & water d. Iron filling & sulphur Q4. Which one is a correct method of separating iron filings from sulphur powder: a. Heating with water b. Passing the mixture over a magnet c. Heating in a china dish d. Using a separating funnel Q5. The process of cooling a hot and concentrate solution of a substance to obtain crystals of the solute is called: a. Evaporation b. Sublimation c. Crystallization d. Chromatography Q6. Identify the method used to separate more than two components of a mixture whose difference in boiling point is <25C: a. Distillation b. Fractional distillation c. Crystallization d. Centrifugation. Q7. A simple distillation technique is used for the mixture if: a. Two liquids are miscible b. They boil without decomposition c. They have sufficient difference in their boiling points d. All the above Q8. For water purification system in water works, the following steps are carried out: 1. Loading 2. Sedimentation 3. Chlorination 4. Filtration the correct sequence of steps is: a. 2,1,4,3 b. 2,3,4,1 c. 2,1,3,4 d. 4,1,2,3 Q9. A mixture containing sand, Sodium chloride, Ammonium chloride and iron filing may be separated by using following steps: 1.By using magnet 2. Filtration 3. Evaporation 4. Sublimation The correct sequence of steps would be. a. 1,2,3,4 b. 1,4,2,3 c. 1,3,2,4 d. 4,3,2,1 Q10. The process of crystallization is used to: a. Purify a large number of water soluble salts b. Purification of salt that we get from sea water c. Separate crystals of alum (phitkari) from impure sample d. All the above Suggestive Remediation The teacher may quote more examples of separation techniques from daily life and may co-relate.
22.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


Assessment technique Objectives:- To enable the students to:
? components of heterogeneous mixture like air, the constituents may be separated by Learn that

Flow Diagram based worksheet

fractional distillation.
? that various techniques of separation are used in fractional distillation. Be aware

Procedure:? show a picture of flow chart of the fractional distillation of air to obtain the gases, present in it You may

(Fig 2.11, page 22, NCERT IX).


? tell the various components (gases) present in air. You may ? The students need to be told that this technique of separation is used to separate fractions with the

sufficient difference in their boiling points and volume. Student work sheet Time 10 minutes Look at the following flow diagram carefully and answer the questions as follows: Air Compressed and cooled by..................pressure and decreasing......................
(1) (2)

........................air
(3)

allow to warm up slowly in fractional distillation column gases get separated at different heights S.No. Boiling Points (oC) % air by volume ...............................
(4)

Oxygen -183

Argon -186 0.9

Nitrogen -196 78.1

Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7

Fill the blanks: 1. 2. 3. 4.

1x4 = 4 marks

The process of separation of a mixture shown in the flow diagram, called . 1 mark The above process used to separate the .. mixture of gases in air with the sufficient difference in their . 0.5 x 2= 1 mark Arrange the gases present in the air in increasing order of their boiling points. Which gas forms the liquid first as the air if cooled? Why is the warm up of liquid air is done slowly? Which of the fraction of air has highest boiling point? 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark

23.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


Assessment technique Objectives:- To help the learners to? that Heterogeneous mixtures are composed of different kind of components with Be aware

Crossword Puzzle

different properties.
?different techniques used for separating the components of a mixture. Identify ? with the apparatus used in the technique. Be aware

Procedure: Teacher may provide following information to the students:


? Components of a mixture can be separated using physical methods. ? Following separation techniques are used for separating these components of a mixture. Filtration,

distillation, centrifugation, sublimation, using separating funnel, chromatography, crystallization and fractional distillation.
? above mentioned techniques may be explained in detail giving examples of each. The

Assessment parameters: 1 mark for each correct completion of the blank.

Student work sheet Instructions:- Given below is the crossword puzzle and the clues, complete the puzzle using given clues.
2

1 3

4 5 6

Down Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Across Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Method of purifying solids. Process of changing a solid directly into gaseous state. Technique of separating two or more colours of a dye. A method of separation of insoluble solid from a mixture. Process of separating two miscible liquids. Technique of separating cream from milk. Method of separating salt from sea water.

24.

Chapter 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure Field visit


Assessment technique Objectives:- To enable the students to? interest in out-of-school activities and learning. Develop ? their understanding of science concepts and principles. Broaden ? knowledge through extended learning. Enhance ?interrelation between classroom learning and every day life applications. Difficult ? classroom learning to the school. Connect

Questionnaire

Approximate time: 5-6 hours Procedure Suggestive steps to be followed. Before the visit The teacher may:
? visit well in advance. Plan the ? be discussed with school authorities, authorities of the place of visit, parents and students. Plan may ? children on where they would be going. Brief the ?spell out the do's and don'ts to be followed during the trip. Clearly ? students to carry note book, pen crayons or any other items necessary for trip. Instruct ? teacher ratio 20:1 during trip for better learning and management. Keep pupil ? a questionnaire in advance to assess the students after the trip. Prepare ? Inform the students that they will be assessed on the basis of questionnaire following the trip.

During the visitStudents should be encouraged to take notes, sketch pictures, ask questions or make collection of national that would help them later. After the visitOne day after the visit, the students may be given the questionnaire in the classroom. Their responses may be analysed and appreciated. Assessment may be carried out on the basis of response to the items included in the questionnaire may be designed in advance Suggestive field trips Chapter-2 Is matter around us pure? 1. To understand the separation process centrifugation the following visits can be arranged. a. b. 2. To visit a diagnostic laboratory for blood and urine tests. To visit dairy where butter separated from creamy milk.

To understand the techniques used to purify the drinking water, visit: - Water works in the city

25.

Sample Questionnaire
Name: __________________ Time: 20 min Class & Section _____________ Max Marks 10

Instructions:- Answer the following questions on the basis of your observation and understanding during the visit. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name the diagnostic laboratory you visited, where is it located? Mention the samples being tested over there. Name the various techniques used for testing the different samples. What kind of technique was adopted to separation cream from milk. Name the chemical being added in water works for killing germs. ( More questions may be added related to the trip.)

Assessment criterion:- 1 mark for every correct answer

26.

27.

C H E M I S T R Y CHAPTER-3
Atoms & Molecules

28.

Chapter- 3

Atoms & Molecules

CONCEPT MAP

Elements Symbols Atomic mass

Mole concepts

Atoms & Molecules Chemical formula

Molecular mass

Compounds

29.

Chapter 3 Atoms & Molecules


Assessment technique Objectives:- To help the learners to:
? the molecular mass and formula unit mass of compound. Calculate ? The molecular mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic mass of all the atoms in a molecule

Numerical based worksheet

of the substance.
? Understand that word formula unit mass is used for those substances whose constituent

particles are ions. Task Procedure: Following information may be given to the students:
? have been assigned relative atomic masses in whole number. All atoms ? Their relative atomic masses are expressed in atomic mass unit, written as '' (unified mass). ? The molecular mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic mass of all atoms in a molecule. ? mass can be calculated by adding atomic mass unit of all atoms in a molecule. Molecular ? mass is also expressed in atomic mass unit (). Molecular ? Word formula unit mass is used for those substances whose constituents particles are ions. ? unit mass is calculated in same number as we calculate the molecular mass. Formula

Individual work sheet

Assessment Parameters Correct placement of atomic mass Correct addition of atomic mass Correct unit of molecular mass 2 2 1 Student worksheet Given that: Atomic mass of C=12, H=1, O=16, Ca = 40 Solve the given numerical on the basis of above information Q.1 Calculate the molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6). (5) .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. Q.2 Calculate the formula unit mass of calcium carbonate CaCO3. (5)

.............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. Suggestive Remediation:Some students may not be able to calculate the molecular mass in formula and formula unit mass of compounds. They may be given more numericals for practice to enhance their numerical skills.

30.

Chapter 3 Atoms & Molecules


Assessment technique Task Objectives:- To enable the students to:
? symbol of elements. Learn the ? Understand atomicity of elements (Non-metals). ? Differentiate between molecules of elements and molecules of compounds.

Multiple choice questions Individual work sheet

Procedure:
? explain how symbol are given to element and how they are written. You may ? of atoms of an element constituting molecules is known as its atomicity is highlighted. Numbers ? may practice writing chemical formula of few molecules of element and molecules of Students

compound.
? should be clear about certain symbol of Latin and Greek language. Learners

Time Assessment Parameter: 1 Mark for each correct answer Student Work sheet Choose the best correct option in the following questions: Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Symbol of sodium is: a. S b. SO c. Na Ag is the symbol of: a. Argon b. Aluminium d. N c. Gold d. Silver d. Monoatomic

10 minutes

Atomicity of phosphorous is a. Tetra atomic b. Diatomic

c. Triatomic

Elements present in the molecule of Ammonia are a. Hydrogen and oxygen b. Nitrogen & hydrogen c. Carbon and oxygen Mono atomic element is a. Helium b. Hydrogen c. Nitrogen d. Sulphur

d. Hydrogen & chlorine

Chlorine is represented by the symbol of: a.C b. Cl c. Cu d. Ch S8 is a. Molecule of a compound c. Molecule of an element b. Polyatomic ion d. None of them. d. Iodine.

Q8. Q9. Q10.

'Ferrum' is the latin name of which element a. Florine b. Iron c. Phosphorous Potassium is represented by the symbol a. P b. Pb c. K d. S O2 is a a. Molecule of an element

b. Molecule of a compound

c. Polyatomic ion

d. None of them

Suggestive Remediation:Many students, may not be able to have a clear concept of molecule of elements and molecules of compound, it may be clarified giving more examples. Sufficient practice of symbol may be practiced in tabular form to enhance their learning skills.

31.

Chapter 3 Atoms & Molecules


Assessment technique Objectives:- To enable the learners to
? write the symbol of cations and anions with their correct valancies. Learn and ? write symbol of some important polyatomic ions. Learn and ? formula of a compound by taking cation and anion as per their valancies. Write the

Data based work sheets

Procedure: Following information may be given to students


? Metal elements have positive valancies. ? elements have negative valancies. Non metal ? The valancies or changes on the ion must balance. ? If a compound is made of a metal and a non metal, the name of symbol of the metal is written first. ? In compounds for metal with polyatomic ions, the ion is enclosed in a bracket before writing the number

to indicate the ratio. Assessment parameter 1 mark for every correct answer. Student work sheet Time Instructions: Observe the table 3.6 NCERT text base IX given below correctly: On the basis of above table answer the following questions: Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5 Magnesium has two______ valencies while Chloride has one______ valency. The chemical formula of Calcium carbonate would be __________. Oxide (O2-) has negative valencies because oxygen is a ________ element. What will be the no. of sodium ions in the compound Sodium oxide? Write the formula of Aluminium sulphate. 10 minutes MM: 5

Suggestive Remediation:? Few students may not be able to differentiate between the elements & ions, concept of ions should be

explain in detail to clarify the term.


? The teacher should practice the formation of compounds especially polyatomic ions.

32.

Chapter 3 Atoms & Molecules


Assessment technique Objectives:- To help the students to:
? Identify the symbol of elements. ? the molecules of elements and molecules of compounds and differentiate Recognise

Work sheet (Match the following)

between them. Task Time Procedure:? The students

Individual work sheet 10 minutes are given a worksheet that has a table showing names of ions/elements, symbol & their

charges.
? Symbol

of elements/ions and amount of charge on them is not in the correct order. shall make connecting line to match the correct name with the symbol & charges. in the table has been done for the students. Student Work sheet

? The students ? One example

Time

10 minutes

Instructions:- Make connecting lines to match the name of element ion with its correct symbol and charge on them. One example in the table has been done for you. (You may use scale for drawing the lines)

Name of Elements

Sodium
Name of Ion

Calcium

Aluminium

Chloride

Oxide

Nitride

Symbol

Cl

Na

Ca

Al

Valencies or charges

+2

+3

-3

+1

-2

-1

Suggestive Remediation:? Some students may not be able to match the symbol and charges correctly; teacher may explain further

symbol & valencies.


?may practice other symbol & charges as given in the table 3.6 (NCERT Book) Teacher

33.

Chapter 3 Atoms & Molecules


Assessment technique Objectives: To enable the students to? Learn laws of chemical combination,:? is Law of conservation of mass. First law ? law is Law of constant proportion. Second ? Aware that both the laws were established by Lavoisier and Joseph L. Proust. ? Aware that these laws give easy evidence of existance of atoms.

Individual work sheet

Approximate time Procedure: The teacher may


? Explain Law of conservation of mass and Law of constant proportion.

20 minutes

? Let the student know that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed. (Suitable example may be

given to establish this law).


? Let the student know that a pure chemical compound always contain same elements combined together

in the fixed proportion by mass what may be source of the compound. (Suitable example may be given to establish this law). Assessment Parameters: Marks for every correct answer may be fixed (may be shown in front of question). Student work sheet Instruction:- Answer the following questions: Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Name the two laws of chemical combination. Which law establishes that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed?" Which law tells that a compound always has the same composition, what ever is the source of compound? Name the scientists who proposed the laws of chemical combination. Consider the equation:C
12g

(1) (1) (1) (1)

O2
32g

CO2
44g

by which law the above reaction is proved. Q.6 Read the statement Water molecule will always contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio of 1:8 by mass irrespective to its source of origin by which law the above statement is proved. Q.7 Find x in the reaction follows AgNo3 + Nacl = AgCl + NaNo3
3.4g 1.5g x 2.8g

(1)

(1) (2)

Q.8

Explain with an example in which the law of constant proportion is established.

(2)

Suggestive Remediation:? Some students may find it difficult to understand the both laws of chemical combination. Explain with

example both the laws.


? The activity 3.1 of IX NCERT may be preformed to make the Law of conservation of mass more easy. ? be extended by correlating the laws of chemical combination with Dalton's Atomic theory. This can

34.

35.

P H Y S I C S CHAPTER-4
Motion

36.

Chapter- 4

Motion

CONCEPT MAP

MOTION

A continues change in the position of object is called motion.

The change in position of the object is called displacement.

Length of the path travelled by object is called distance.

Distance per unit time is called speed.

Displacement per unit time is called velocity.

If object covers equal interval of time, it is called uniform motion.

Total distance divided by total time is called average speed.

Total displacement divided by the total time is called average velocity.

In uniform motion object moves with constant speed.

The slope of the position time graph is the velocity. For non-uniform motion the distance time graph is not straight line. The slope of the velocity-time graph is acceleration and the area under the graph is distance.

For the uniform motion distance time graph is straight line and the slope of the graph is the speed of object.

37.

Chapter 4 Motion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Student must able to: Understand the difference between displacement and distance. Understand the uniform and non-uniform motion. Plot position-time graph and to determine the velocity, average velocity and average speed from this graph. Distinguish the average velocity and average speed. Plot velocity time graph and to determine the acceleration, distance and displacement from this graph. Find the relation v= u+at, s = ut+ at2 And v2 = u2 + 2as Solve the problems based on graphs and equation of motion. Interpret the data to plot the graph and to understand the graph given. Activity based

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the learner to: Task Approximate Time Procedure Understand the displacement and distance. Measuring the displacement and distance. Differentiate the distance and displacement. Relate the displacement in terms of distance.

Individual 20 minutes

Teacher may provide the situation by drawing the path followed by an object in motion. Students may be asked to measure the path and difference in initial and final position. Students may be asked to write the distance and displacement for each situation in two columns.

Assessment Parameters One mark for each correct answer Student Work sheet 1. An object moves from point A to C. Find the displacement and distance traveled by the object in the following cases.
(A)
A B C

(B)

(objects moves along a staright line)

(objects moves from A to B then return to C)

(C)

(D) (objects moves vertically up from A to B then return to C)

(E)
A

(objects moves from A to B through (i) B (ii) through C

A C

(objects moves from A to B then to C)

[Note- The scale can be choosen as 1cm= 10m]

38.

Answer any five of the followings: 1. Is displacement equal to the distance? 2. Can displacement be equal to the distance? 3. In what type of motion displacement is equal to the distance? 4. Can displacement be greater than the distance? 5. Can displacement be zero? 6. Can distance be zero for non-zero displacement? 7. In what type of motion distance is greater than displacement? 8. Can displacement be same for two objects, if distance travelled by them is unequal? Suggestive Remediation Physical significance of displacement and distance may be given taking examples from everyday life. The concepts involves is that: (a) (b) Displacement can not be greater than distance. Displacement can be equal to distance. Displacement can be zero distance cannot may be explained through examples.

39.

Chapter 4 Motion
Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the student to Task Approximate Time Procedure The teacher may draw and explain position-time graph for motion of a body for (i) uniform motion (ii) non-uniform motion. Different examples and different graphs for these motions may be discussed in the class room. Few related oral questions may be asked to ensure learning of graphical representation of motion. Read the position-time graph correctly. Interpret the given graph for motion of a body and comparing it with the motion of another body. Solve simple problems based on graphical representation of motion. Individual 20 Minutes Graph Based work sheet

Assessment Parameter One mark for each correct answer

Student Work Sheet Position-time graphs for two objects A and B are given below:

Position x (m) 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 5 10 15 20 25
t(S)

30

35

40

45

Do the objects start from rest? Do the objects meet each other during their journey? Do the objects have uniform motion? Write the intervals of time for which motion of object A and object B respectively is uniform. Write the ratio of distance covered by object A to object B from t= 0 to t= 20s. Write the time for which object A is in motion and object B is not in motion.

40.

Student Work sheet Positions of three objects A, B and C with respect to time are given in the table below:

TIME t(s)

0 0 0 0

5 2 0 4

10 4 0 8

15 6 6 12

20 8 12 16

25 10 12 20

30 12 12 24

position of A x1(m) position of B x2(m) position of C x3(m)

B C

Plot the position-time graph for all the three objects A, B and C and distinguish the motion of the three. For time interval t= 10s to t= 15s which of the object moves faster? For time interval t= 20s to t= 25s which of the object moves faster? And which of the object moves slower? Specify the nature of the graph for the motion of different objects. Prepare a similar table for velocity with respect to time.

Suggestive Remediation General representation of motion is a comparatively higher level of learning skill in class IX. Students response to the given worksheet may be analysed carefully and suitable additional inputs may be provided to help the students who are not able to understand the same. Physical significance of graphical representation of motion may be given taking examples from everyday life.

41.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the student: Task Approximate Time Procedure: Read the given data correctly Plot the given data graphically Correlate the given data to motion in real life situation Compute simple data based numerical Compute simple graph based numerical

Data based work sheet

Individual 10 minutes

Write an arbitrary data on motion on blackboard and explain it to the students. Ask them to read it carefully and conclude it to different kind of motion. Help them to correlate the given data to motion in everyday life situation.

Assessment Parameters One mark for every correct answer

Student Work Sheet Position-time for the motion of an object is given in the table below:

TIME t(s) position of x(m)

12

16

20

10

Plot a position-time graph for this motion. Write three points of your observation based on this graph. Plot a velocity-time graph for this motion. Write two points of your observation based on this graph. How will you decide whether the motion is straight line or not on the basis of position-time graph and velocity time graph?

Suggestive Remediation
? Some students may not be able to distinguish between displacement time and distance time graphs.

They may be helped to understand this difference by taking suitable examples.


? The underlying concept may clarified by different examples from everyday life.

42.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To help the students to:? the given graphical representation of motion a body. Interpret

Graph based worksheet

? Distinguish between graphs corresponding to uniform motion and uniformly accelerated

motion.
? from a given graph. Read data ? identify graphs corresponding to, accelerated and retarded motion. Correctly

Task Approximate time Procedure: The teacher may


? Give examples and draw graphs for different kind of motion of a body.

Individual 10 minutes

? the difference between graphs corresponding to uniform linear increase/decrease in velocity. Explain ? Give examples from daily life situations corresponding to graphical representation of motion. ? Give examples to help students to convert a given data into graph and using a graph to read data.

Assessment Parameters One mark for every correct answer

Student worksheet The velocity time graph for two objects A and B are given below:
20 18 16
v(ms-)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t(s)

35

40

45

50

? After what time of start A meet B? ? After what time of start B meet A? ? After what distance of start A meet B? ? After what distance of start B meet A? ? B have same velocity? Do A and ? B have ever have same velocity? Do A and ? motion of A and B straight-line motion? Does the ? to t= 2s which object move fast? For t= 15s ? time interval change in velocity of object A is more? For what ? time interval change in velocity of object B is more? For what

43.

Student work sheet Velocity- time graph of an object is given below: u(ms-1)
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100t(S)

? object always move with acceleration? Does the ? Is the motion of the object a straight line motion without change in direction? ? object cover equal distance and displacement for entire journey? Does the ? intervals of time, the distance and displacement of the object are equal? For what ? difference of distance and displacement for t= 50s to 70s and t= 60s to 80s equal? Does the

Student worksheet Velocity- time graphs for the objects A and B are given below:

v(ms-)

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
A B

? time interval object A has maximum acceleration? For what ? time interval object B has maximum acceleration? For what ? time interval A has minimum acceleration? For what ? time interval distance covered by object A and B equal? For what ? different instant of time object A and object B have equal velocity? For what ? the distances travelled by object A and object B? What are

44.

Student worksheet Velocity -time graphs for the objects A and B are given below:
B A

35
v(ms-)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40
t(s)

50

60

70

? time interval object A, has maximum acceleration? For what ? time interval object B has maximum acceleration? For what ? time interval A has minimum acceleration? For what ? time interval distance covered by object A and B equal? For what ? different instant of time object B has equal velocity? For what ? the distances traveled by object A and object B? What are

Student work sheet Plot velocity time graph for the following motion:
? For a freely falling object. ? For an object moving along a straight line with changing velocity at constant rate. ? For an object thrown vertically up to the certain height and returns back to the same point where from it

is thrown.
? For an object moving with constant velocity. ? position-time and distance -time graph for all the above cases. Also plot

Suggestive Remediation
? A few students may not be able to read the given graph correctly and may fail to co-relate the two

columns.
? be explained the nature of different graphs in small steps. They may ? The significance of a parallel to the time axis and on the time axis itself graph may be explained. ? simple examples/practice exercises may be given to draw corresponding to given data. Suitable ? The difference in the graphs, corresponding to a linear variation and non-linear variation (straight line

and curved graphs respectively) may be brought out.

45.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To help the students to:? units from one system to another correctly. Convert ? Select and use correct formulae for desired computation. ? Make calculations using correct formulae.

Numerical Based work sheet

Task Procedure:

Individual work sheet

? students to convert units of a given physical quantity from one system to another by taking Help the

appropriate examples.
? students learn different formulae for desired calculations e.g. Help the

v = u+at, s = ut + at2, v = u +2as uav = total distance Total time


?practice for making calculations using correct formula and units. Provide

Approximate time Assessment Parameters Correct formula Correct substitution Solving problem Correct answer with unit 1 mark 1 mark 2 marks 1 mark Students worksheet 1 2 3 4 5

5 minutes for each question

The distance traveled by a student between two points is 1.4 times the displacement. If difference of distance and displacement is 0.4 m then find the distance and the nature of the path. A bus covers half the distance of its journey in 2h and rest half the distance in 3h. If total distance covered is 24km, find the average speed of the bus. A car covers half the distance of its journey with the speed of 20 kmh-1 and rest of the distance with the speed of 30 kmh-1. Find the average speed of car. An object moves with the speed 20 kmh-1 for 2h and then with the speed of 30 kmh-1 for 3h. Find the average speed of the object. A student moves a distance AB and BC where AB = BC = 20km and takes time from A to B 2h and from B to C 3hr. As shown in figure.
A C B

Find the average speed and average velocity. 6 7 8 A driver of a bus moving with the speed of 50 kmh-1 decides to stop the bus in 10 minutes. At what distance before the stop point he should apply the break? The velocity of an object changes from 4 ms-1 to 12 ms-1 while it covers a distance of 400m. Find the acceleration of the object. How long will it take to cover next 400m? A stone tied to a rope is whirled along a circular path of radius 14m. The time taken by stone from a point and its path to another point, which is just diametrically opposite, is 6s. Find the speed of the stone.

46.

The position-time graph of the motion of an object is given below. Find distance and displacement of the object and the average velocity of the object.

Position x(m) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

t(S)

10

The velocity of an object reduced from 16 ms-1 to 8 ms-1 and covers a distance of 40m. How long will it take to come to rest? What more distance will to cover before come to rest?

Suggestive Remediation:
? Some students may not be able to convert the units from kmh to ms . They may be helped to learn the
-1 -1

same.
?may not know that the units for average speed for forward and return journey have to be in the Others

same systems. This point may be emphasized upon and clarified.


? Still others may not realize to assume the distance P and Q to be an unknown quantity and may not be

able to start the solution. Sufficient explanation may be given for solving numerical based on such situations.

47.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To help the students to:-

Multiple Choice Questions work sheet

? Understand fundamental concepts related to motion of a body. ? Solve simple numerical problems of motion. ? Understand graphical representation of motion. ? Connect classroom learning to everyday life situation. Relate /

Task Approximate Time

Individual 20 minutes

Procedure: After having taught the chapter on motion, the teacher may summarise core concept with detailed explanations to the students in the form of summary. The worksheet based on key concepts may be given to students to assess their learning. Assessment Parameters:- Two marks for every correct answer.

Student Worksheet Multiple Choice Questions with one choice correct 1 If an object moves along a straight line without changing the direction of its motion, than its (a) displacement > distance (b) displacement < distance (c) displacement = distance (d) 2 displacement = distance In a play a student moves 3 steps forward and two steps backward along a straight line. If total number of steps moved by student is 50 then his (a) displacement = distance covered (b) displacement = 1/5 distance covered (c) displacement = 3/2 distance covered (d) displacement = 2/3 distance covered In uniform circular motion (a) distance is always greater than displacement. (b) displacement cannot be zero. (c) displacement is equal to distance covered. (d) displacement can be greater than zero. In uniform motion (a) speed remains constant. (b) velocity remains constant. (c) acceleration remains constant. (d) acceleration remains zero. For a moving object (a) average speed is always greater than average velocity. (b) average speed is always equal average velocity. (c) average speed may greater than or equal average velocity. (d) average speed is less than average velocity.

48.

Match the equations of motion given in column B with the corresponding graph given in column A. Column A
Distance Distance

Column B

(a) (b)
Time Velocity Velocity Time

(I) v = u + at (ii) v = D/t (iii) v = 0 (iv) v = at


Time

(c)
Time

(d)

(v) s=ut-1/2at2 (vi) v2=at (vii) s=ut+1/2at2

Velocity

Distance

(e)

(f)

Time Distance

Time

(g)

Time

A student goes to his friend's house with the speed of 30 kmh-1. He finds that the house of his friend is closed. He come back immediately with speed of 40 kmh-1. (a) His average speed > average velocity (b) His average speed = average velocity (c) His average speed < average velocity (d) His average speed = 30+40 kmh-1 2 In the given velocity -time graph (a) Average velocity = average speed (b) Average velocity is zero. (c) Average velocity is greater than average speed (d) Average velocity is small than average speed
Velocity

For an object moving in straight line (a) Speed is the magnitude of velocity (b) Average speed is the magnitude of average velocity (c) Distance is equal to the displacement (d) Distance is less than the displacement For an accelerated motion always its (a) Speed changes (b) Magnitude of velocity changes (c) Velocity changes (d) Neither its speed nor its velocity changes

Time

10

49.

Assessment Technique Objects: To enable the students to:? Understand, identify and verify the concept learnt. ? the data related to the variables. Generate

Project work

? To present the data in such a way that the students can read the data and plot the graph. ? the data by computation and graphs. Conclude

Task Approximate time

Individual 1 hour

Assessment Parameter Identification of motion Generating data Recording and Presenting data Drawing conclusion Mentioning some interesting fact Total 1 mark 2 marks 2 marks 2 marks 1 mark 10 marks

50.

Student work sheet 1 1 2 3 4 5 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Topic - Uniform Motion Take a time clock in round shape and measure the radius of its dial. Generate the data for distance traveled by a tip clock hand and time taken. Record and Present the data in tabular form. Plot a distance time graph. Conclude the motion of time hand in clock on the basis of data available and the graph plotted. Topic - Uniformly accelerated motion Take a time clock. Generate the data for the time taken by an object to fall freely from the different heights. Record and present the data in tabular form. Plot a height fall-time graph. Conclude that acceleration of the object during its motion is constant.

Procedure:

Procedure:

Suggestive Remediation Teacher may ask the students


? To identify the objects with (i) uniform motion (ii) uniformly accelerated motion. ? data as per their convenience. Generate ? the appropriate scale to plot the graph. Choose ? Draw conclusions as many as they can do.

51.

P H Y S I C S CHAPTER-5
Force and Law of Motion

52.

Chapter- 5

Force and Law Of Motion


CONCEPT MAP
FORCE

An effort which can push, pull or twist the objects is called force.

When force is applied to produce a relative motion between two surface in contact an oppositional force to oppose the cause of motion is developed between the surfaces, it is called force of friction.

It can change the inertia of the object. If two surfaces do not move with respect to each other under an external force,the force of Bfriction is called static force of friction which is equal to the external force. When there is a relative motion between two surfaces, the force of friction is called kinetic force of friction and it is always less than the external force. Force of friction is a necessary evil. Force can change the momentum of the object. An object will remain in its state until and unless it is acted upon by an external force. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. When object starts moving from rest, its inertia changes from inertia of rest to inertia of motion.

It is required to change the state of the object called inertia.

Inertia depends on mass. For more mass inertia is more for less mass inertia is less.

The external force acting on the object is directly proportional to the ratio change in momentum. F= p t

When a moving object comes to rest its inertia of motion changes to inertia of rest.

F= p t If F=0, p=0 t .. t = 0 .. p=0 . / .

When an object changes the direction of its motion, its inertia of direction changes.

?>P = Constant
If internal force acting on an object is zero, its momentum remain conserved.
53.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Learner should be able to:? Understand that the mass objects have tendency to remain in their state called inertia. ? the situation of consequences of change in inertia. Identify ? Understand that external force is required to change the inertia i.e., First law of motion. ? the relation between mass, acceleration and force i.e., Second law of motion. Establish ? conservation law of momentum and its consequence on the force (Third law of motion). Apply the ? problems related to momentum, acceleration, mass and force. Solve the ? Understand the concepts of balanced and unbalanced force. ? Understand the force of friction its causes and consequences. ? the velocity time graph, momentum time graph to calculate the force acting on an object. Interpret

Graph cum Numerical based worksheet Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the learner to:? interpret the graph correctly. Read and ? Solve simple graph related numericals. ? Apply laws of motion and equation of motion simultaneously to solve problems. Task Approximate time Procedure: The teacher may ? graph on the blackboard. Plot the ? the graph along with given figures. Explain ? students to answer the given questions based on the information given in the graph. Ask the Assessment Parameters ? Calculation of acceleration and force for part (a) ? Calculation acceleration and force for part (b) ? Interpretation for time interval Student Worksheet The velocity-time graph of an object of mass 500g is as shown. Observe the graph carefully and answer the following questions. (a) (b) (c) Calculate the force on the object in the time interval . Calculate the force on the objet in the time interval of 30s-50s. Justify the situation for the time interval 30s-60s.
v(ms-)

Individual 10 minutes

2 marks 2 marks 1 mark

60 50 40 30 20 10

Suggestive Remediation

10

20

30

40
t(S)

50

60

? Few students may apply the correct formula for calculations of acceleration and force but not use same

system of units and hence get incorrect answer. This may be emphasised upon.
? The reasons for justification for correct answer in part (c) may be explained clearly.

54.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the learners to get familiar with:? effects of force. Different ? Co-relating the effects with daily life situation. ? The concept of force in terms of the different effects.

Matching/co-relating

Procedure:
? State different effects of force. ? State some 'daily life situation' where the 'effects of force' are observed. ? students to co-relate/match the different effects' with their corresponding 'daily-life situation'. Ask the ? students to state some daily life situation corresponding to another effect of force, not Ask the

mentioned in the list given earlier. Assessment Parameters mark for each correct matching and 2 marks for two correct statements of daily-life situation. Student worksheet Instructions: Q1. Read the given terms / situations in columns A and B carefully and match the two: Column A a. Push b. Pull c. Stretch d. Acceleration e. Squeeze f. Change in direction Q2. (a) (b) Column B i. Taking a sharp turn ii. Drawing water from a well with the help of a rope and container iii. A ball falling freely iv. Shifting a table from one place to another v. Putting a rubber band on a bundle of papers vi. Polishing the shoes with help of a brush

State one situation each from some daily life situations where a force cause no motion. cause accelerating motion.

Suggestive Remediation:
? students realize that the concept of a force is best understood in terms of its different effects. Make the ? Give students practice in naming different

(a) (b)

'daily life situations' corresponding to different effects of force. effects of force corresponding to given 'daily-life situation'.

55.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to:? the habit of 'careful observation'. Get into ? State their observations. ? Draw conclusions based on their observations.

Demonstration based worksheet

? a general result based on their observations and conclusions. Arrive at

Procedure:
? a card board/play board at some angle to the ground to a place where a long stretch of floor is Arrange

'clear'.
? Make provision for holding the board in its inclined position and for adjusting its angle of inclination. ? identical bottles, one completely filled with sand or water and other half-filled with sand or Have two

water.
? bottle role down, from the inclined surface for a given angle of inclination. Let each ? the distance (from the lower edge of the inclined surface), that bottles can travel the floor Measure

before coming to rest.


? result of your observations on the black board or notebook. Write the

Assessment Parameters: 1 mark for each correct observation (three observations) 1 mark for recording the observation (in tabular form) 1 mark of conclusion-arrived at Student worksheet Instructions Observe the 'demonstration' and the data written on the black board carefully and answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is the distance moved by both the bottles same? Does the distance moved by both the bottles change with change in inclination? Does the sand or water filled in both the bottles move? Why do the bottles come to rest after traveling different distances? Write the results of the demonstration in tabular form. State your 'general conclusion' if any, based on your observation.

Suggestive Remediation: Make the students understand the role of friction in bringing the bottle at rest. Explain why the force of friction is different in both the cases. Help the students to understand how observations and 'data' can be based to arrive at some 'general conclusion'.

56.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to Task Procedure: Examine and record the cause and effect of the change.

Activity based work sheet

Conclude the cause of change in terms of inertia and conservation of momentum. Relate the observation with real life situation. Apply the concept in real life situation. Individual

Set a five-rupee coin on a card covering an empty glass tumbler placed on a table as shown in the figure.
5

Give the card a sharp horizontal and fast flick with your figure. Give the gentle flick to the card and notice the change in first observation. Repeat the above two act by putting a less adhesive between the coin and the card and observe.

Assessment Parameter: One mark for each observation (Three observations) one mark for each conclusion (two conclusions)

Student work sheet Time Instructions: Take an empty glass tumbler, a coin (Rs.5) and a card. Place the card covering the empty glass and put the coin on it. Give fast flick to the card by your finger horizontally. Give gentle flick to the card by your figure horizontally. Put a small adhesive between the coin and card and repeat the above two activity. Record and present your observations in tabular form. Conclude the each observation. Observation Conclusion 20 minutes

Activity 1. fast flick 2. gentle flick 3. fast flick with small adheshive 4. gentle flick with small adhesive Suggestive Remediation:

Teacher may explain the observation to understand the concept of inertia. Teacher may help the students to understand the difference between fast flick and gentle flick. Teacher may also explain the role of friction force between the card and the coin. Teacher may clear the concept of rate of change in momentum to overcome the force of friction is adequate or not.

57.

Assessment Technique

Data based work sheet

Objectives: To enable the student to: Understand the relation between mass, acceleration and force. Know the relation between mass and acceleration for constant force. Calculate the force acting on a body from the acceleration and mass of the body. Express the result in proper unit. Procedure: The force acting on a body of mass m moving the acceleration 'a' is given as F= ma. If F is constant, m 1 . a The product of different mass and acceleration may provide same force acting on different marks. Some force produce different acceleration if acts on bodies of different masses.

Assessment Parameters 1 mark for each correct calculation. Student Worksheet Tasks Time: 10 minutes A force F is applied on different mass bodies. The different masses and acceleration of them produced by forces F are given in two columns A and B. Match the mass given in column A with its corresponding acceleration in column B for F= 12 N.
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mass (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 6 (e) 8 Acceleration (ms-2) (i) 3 (ii) 2 (iii) 1.5 (iv) 6 (v) 4

Individual

Suggestion Remediation: Help the students to recall the equation F= ma Ask the students to get a by using the above equation as a= F/m of to get by using the equation m = F/a. Graph based work sheet

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to: Task Procedure: The teacher may draw and explain different types of graphs. Read the data given in the graph carefully. Interpret the given graph correct. Solve simple problems based on graphical representation.

Individual

Different examples from real day life can be taken for their corresponding graphs. Few related oral questions may be asked to ensure learning of graphical representation of motion.

Assessment Parameters One mark for each correct answer


58.

Student Work sheet Task Approximate time Individual 10 minutes

Following graphs are plotted force a constant for acting on a body. Find the force acting on the body in each case.

-1 momentum (kgms )

accelaration (ms-)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time(S)

mass (kg)

Suggestive Remediation: Teacher can help the students to read the graph by taking few more examples. Teacher can help the students to relate the variables, which are given in the graph. Teacher can explain the difference between linear and curved graph.

The velocity-time graph of the motion of an object of mass 20 kg is given below

16

v(ms )

-1

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t(S)

35

40

45

50

For which time interval the rate of change in momentum of the object is (a) maximum (b) minimum (c) zero For which time interval the change in momentum of the object is (a) maximum (b) minimum (c) zero For which time interval the force acting on the object is (a)maximum (b) minimum (c) zero In which of the following cases force acting on the object is (i) minimum (i) maximum and (iii) zero? (a) An object of mass 10 kg starts moving with velocity 10 ms-1 and comes to rest in 10s. (b) An object of mass 10 kg starts moving with velocity 10 ms-1 and comes to rest after traveling a distance of 10m. (c) An object of mass 10 kg starts moving with velocity 10 ms-1 reduces its velocity to 6ms-1 in 2s. (d) An object of mass 10 kg falling freely from the height of 78.4m (g = 9.8 ms-2) (e) An object of mass 10 kg moving with constant momentum. (f) An object moving in straight line whose momentum changes from 10 kg ms-1 to 30 kg ms-1 in 4s.

59.

Student worksheet Task Approximate time Position-time graph of an object of mass 2 kg is given below For which time interval the momentum is (a) Maximum (b) Minimum (c) Zero Also find the difference of momentum for time interval 50-60s. Individual 10 minutes

Position 60 x(m)
50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

Assessment Technique Work sheet Objective: To enable the students to Procedure: Teacher may help the students to understand the observations. Teacher may help the students to relate the observation to daily life situation Conclude the given observation.

Observation based

Assessment Parameter: One mark for each conclusion

Students worksheet Tasks Approximate time In which of the following cases force acting on the object is (i) maximum (ii) minimum (iii) zero? (a) (b) (c) (d) An object of mass 10 kg moving with constant velocity 20ms-1 . An object of mass 5 kg whose velocity increases from 4 ms-1 to 20ms-1 in 5s. An object of mass 10 kg moving with an acceleration of 4 ms-1 . An object of mass 2 kg whose velocity changes 12 ms-1 to 24 ms-1 when it moves a distance. Individual 10 minute

60.

Students Work Sheet Task Approximate time Topic: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Procedure: Take two-spring balances of identical scales. Place these two-spring balances on a horizontal surface. Fix their hooks into each other as shown in figure.
Support ring

Individual 20 minutes

Apply the force on any one of the spring balance keeping the other spring balance at rest by holding it with the help of the support ring or force can be applied on both the spring balance in opposite direction. Generate the data by observing the reading'of both the spring balance for different applied force. Record and present the data in tabular form. Plot a graph between the readings of the spring balances. Conclude your observations on the basis of reading the data and interpretation of graph.

Student Work Sheet Task Approximate Time 2. Topic: Force of friction depends on the natural of the surface. Procedure: Take a wooden block or any block having a hook fixed on its one side as shown in the figure. Place the block on the horizontal surface say tabletop having sunmica surface.
Block Spring balance

Individual 20 minutes

Pull the block with the help of spring balance just to make it move. Repeat the same with wooden surface, glass surface, wooden surface having powder spread over it, wet surface of glass, etc instead of sun mica surface. Generate the data by observing the reading of spring balance. Record and present the data in tabular form. Draw the bar diagram or graph on the basis of data. Conclude your observation on the basis reading the data recorded or interpretation of graph.

61.

Student Work sheet Task Approximate time Identify the action force (F1) and reaction force (F2) in the following cases: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A ball dropped from the height of 4.9 m and re-bouncing back. When a 50 kg man walk in a particular direction. A 500 g mass suspended with a spring balance of range 0-1000g. Two spring balances placed on a horizontal table. Their hooks are attached into each other and both the spring balances are pulled out horizontally. A plastic bottle having a balloon fixed at its open mouth suspended with the spring balance vertically and being heated from bottom as shown in figure. Individual 10 minutes

If all above conditions are ideal then how will you ensure that F1= F2 i.e., every action has an equal and opposite reaction. spring balance An effort can change (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The state of rest of the object The state of motion of the object The direction of the motion of the object Shape of the object

Write a statement about the force in terms of effort. The object in rest possesses inertia of rest. The object in motion possesses inertia of motion. The object having rotational motion possesses inertia of rotation. The object in motion in one specified direction possessed inertia of direction. Write a statement about inertia in terms of state. Also write a statement about force in terms of inertia. Suggestive Remediation Few of the students may not able to make use the observation to conclude it properly. Thus teacher may help the students to transform the observation into formulation. Teacher may help the students to understand the cause and effect and their relation based on observation to draw the correct conclusion. Project work

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to: Identify the effect of force Generate the date based on observations Record and present the data in tabular form Read the data and interpret the same Draw the graph or making calculations based on observation

Assessment Parameter Record and presentation of data Interpretation or drawing the graph Drawing conclusion 2 marks 2 marks 1 mark
62.

Student Worksheet Task Approximate time 3. Topic : Force of friction does not depend upon the area in contact. Procedure: Take a wooden block or any block of different length, breadth and height having its all surface uniformly polished or rubber or smoothen. Fix the three hooks on its different faces say face ABGH, EFGH, BCFG
G H E

Individual 20 minutes

B A D

Now pull the block with the help of spring balance, keeping it horizontal, just make it move. Generate the data by observing the reading spring balance. Record and present the data in tabular form. Plot the graph on the basis of your observations recorded. Conclude your observation on the basis of reading of the data recorded and interpreting the graph.

Suggestive Remediation Teachers are advised to explain the working of instrument used in the project work. Teacher may explain how to take readings and write them in proper form. Teacher may help the students to present the data and make calculations or interpretation of data to draw correct conclusions. Numerical based work sheet

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to: Procedure: State the information/data for doing the necessary calculation. Ask the students to calculate the required quantity. Help them to understand the SI unit of momentum and force.

Understand that force is required to change the velocity of the object. Understand the concept that force acting is the rate of change in momentum. Apply the relation F = ma Appreciate that the negative sign, in a result has its associated physical meaning. Get familarised with SI units of momentum and force.

Help them to understand the significance of the 'negative sign' in their result.

63.

Assessment Parameters One mark for each correct solution. Student work sheet Task Approximate time Individual 30 minutes

Instructions: Two forces are acting on a block of mass 40 kg. The block is at rest as shown in diagram
10N 40 Kg 10N

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

What is the reason to remain the block at rest? What is the net force acting on the block? Can the block be made move with the same force acting on it? Give justification of your response. Is there any other force acting on the block, which is not seen in the diagram? Write the relation between the different forces acting on the block.

Suggestive Remediation: Teacher may help the students to understand the concept that for no change in position the net force acting on the block is zero. Teacher may help the student, to understand the concept of force of friction. The external force in the figure is not adequate to overcome the force of friction. Hence, the block is at rest. To make the block move, either the weight of the block be reduced or the external force may be increased. Multiple choice questions worksheet

Assessment Process Objectives: To help the students to: Task Approximate Time

Understand fundamental concepts related the force acting on a body and produced acceleration by it. Solve simple numerical based on the equations of laws of motion. Result / connect classroom learning about laws of motion to everyday life situations. Individual 20 minutes

Procedure: After having taught the chapter on laws of motion, the teacher may summarise over concepts with detail explanation to the students in form of a summary the work sheet based on key concepts may be given to students to assess their learning. Assessment Parameters: Two marks for every correct answer.

64.

Student Work sheet Task Approximate time 1. A person traveling in bus is likely falls forward when the bus suddenly stops. It is due to (a) Inertia (b) change in momentum (c) change in velocity (d) force exerted by bus . 2. A body under the action of two forks F1 and F2 is at rest. The F1 and F2 are related as (a) F1>F2 3. (b) F1<F2 (c) F1= -F2 (d) F1=F2 Individual 20 minutes

For a body moving with constant velocity (a) Net force acting on it is zero. (b) Force acting on a body is greater than force of friction between the body and the surface on which it is moving. (c) Force acting on a body is smaller than the force of friction between the body and the surface on which it is moving. (d) The body has non-zero acceleration. External force acting on two bodies A and B brings the same change in momentum in 2s and 4s respectively. It is due to (a) More force on A (b) More force on B (c) More mass of A (d) More mass of B A block is being pulled by a spring balance on a horizontal surface. The spring balance reads 4 N when the block does not move. The force of friction between the surface and the block is (a) zero (b) >4N (c) <4N (d) = 4N
4N

4.

5.

6.

The product of mass and velocity of an object changes from 4 kg ms-1 to 9kg ms-1 in 2.5s the force acting on the object is (a) 2N (b) 2.5N (c) 5 N (d) 10N The momentum of body of mass 2 kg changes from 9kg ms-1 to 18kg ms-1 in 3.0s. The acceleration of the body is (a) 1.5 ms-2 (b) 3.0 ms-2 (c) 2 ms-2 (d) 6 ms-2

7.

8.

Force of friction is always remains (a) in the direction of motion (b) in the opposite direction of motion (c) in such a direction that it opposes the cause of motion (d) in perpendicular direction of motion External force acting on a body is (a) directly proportional to change in momentum (b) directly proportional to rate of change in momentum (c) directly proportional to velocity (d) directly proportional to momentum Which of the following relation is not correct? (a) F= ma (b) F= P (c) F= m.dv (d) F= mv T dt
65.

9.

10.

P H Y S I C S CHAPTER-6
Gravitation

66.

Chapter- 6

Gravitation
CONCEPT MAP

Force of attraction between mass bodies

Universally all mass bodies attract each other

Directly proportional to the product of the masses

Pt is universal phenomenon

Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the mass bodies

G is the universal gravitational constant G=6.6710-11N.m/kg2

F=

Gm1m2 R2 Weight is the force of gravity on mass object Weight is the force which exerts pressure Weight is not constant, it changes from place to place

mg= GMm 2
R

Pressure is the force per unit area

g = GM 2
R

Weight of the object may be zero for non zero mass object

Floating objects have zero weight

Pressure of the liquid column P=hdg

67.

Chapter 6 Gravitation
Learning Objectives Student must able to: Understand the gravitational force between the mass bodies. Know the factors on which force of gravitation depends. Differentiate between mass and weight. Understand the variation of weight. Know about the factors on which acceleration due to gravity depends. Understand the principle of floatation of the objects in liquid. Apply the Archimedes principle. Understand that pressure is the force per unit area. Know that pressure exerted by liquid column does not depend upon the area of cross-section. Know the relation of pressure exerted by liquid column P= hdg. Conceptual Clarification work sheet

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to learn that Procedure: Write the data of volume of water displacement by objects Calculate the thrust up on the mass objects immersed in water. Ask the students, why one object sinks and the other does not?

The gravitational attraction due to earth acts vertically downwards on all objects. The thrust up due to liquid acts vertically upward on any object immersed in it. It is the comparative value of the density of (the material of) the object, and the density of the liquid that decides whether the object will sink or float in the liquid.

Assessment Parameters: One mark for each correct answer.

Student Work Sheet Task Approximate Time Instructions: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Take two blocks, one of iron and the other of wood of same mass, say 100grams. Immerse both the objects one by one in water kept in a graduated cylinder. Observe and record the change in water level in graduated cylinder. Observe and record which object sinks and which floats. Carry out the following calculations: Volume displaced by both the blocks Thrust up in both the cases Now conclude, why iron block sinks and wooden block does not? Make out the factors which are responsible for the floatation of object in liquids. Give reasons for the difference in thrust up in both the cases. Individual 10 minutes

68.

Suggestive Remediation Teacher may help the students to read the volume correctly. Teacher may help the students in calculating the thrust up force by providing the value of density of water. Teacher can explain that if an object displaces water (liquid) of weight greater than its own weight than it floats otherwise it will sink. Physical Interpretation of mathematical formula

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to: Task Approximate time Instructions:

Learn correct significance of scientific terms. Interpret a mathematical formula correctly. Make simple computation including change in the value of variables in a given relation. Co-relate dependence of a physical quantity and factors on which it depends. Individual 10 minutes

Assessment Parameter: One mark for one question or conclusion

The value of two masses m1 and m2 and separation between them R is given in the following table but not in series of correct combination. Choose the correct sequence of combination in such a way that force in each case remains same.
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 m1(kg) (i) m (ii) m/2 (iii) 4m (iv) m (v) m/2 m2(kg) (a) 4 m (b) 2 m (c) 4 m (d) 9 m (e) m/2 R(m) (f) R (g) 2R (h) 3R (i) R/2 (j) 4R

Suggestive Remediation: Special attention may be given to: The meaning and significance of the word 'universal' and value of G must be brought out clearly in the expression F= Gm1m2 R2 Some students may not be able to interpret the mathematical relation correctly. Changing the value of m1, m2 and R and its effect on F may be explained very clearly to help the students to help the students to solve such problems.

69.

Assessment Technique

Numerical based work sheet

Objectives: To enable the students to:Learn the following relations:(I) Thrust up = volume displaced x density of liquid x acceleration due to gravity. Gm m (ii) Gravitation force of attraction between two masses m1,m2 and separation R, F= R 1 2
2

The weight of the object is the force of gravity acting on it. The acceleration due to gravity of a planet gp = GMp Rp2 (v) Pressure is the force acting per unit area. Procedure: ? Teacher may provide the information or data for computation. Teacher will provide the data with proper unit. Teacher may explain the correct unit of density, volume, force and pressure. Teacher may explain the concept of pressure with the help of suitable illustration. Task Approximate time Assessment Parameters One mark for formula Two marks for calculations One mark for substitution One mark for result with proper unit Student work sheet 1. The force between two mass bodies at certain separation is F. If mass of both the bodies is made double and separation is made half, then what will be the new force between the bodies? 2. If separation between two mass bodies R is increased as 2R, 3R, 4R and 5R respectively, then show the variation of force graphically. 3. Calculate the acceleration due to gravity for planet earth. Take mass of the earth= 6.0 x 1024 kg, radius of the earth= 6.4 x 106m. 4. The masses and radii of 5 planets are given in the table. Calculate acceleration due to gravity for each planet and arrange them in increasing order.
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Mass M 4M 2M M M/2 Radius R R/2 2R 4R 6R

(iii) (iv)

Individual 30 minutes

5. Water is filled in jar of radius 10 cm to the height 20cm. Find the pressure exerted by water column at the bottom of the jar. Take g=10 ms-2 Suggestive Remediation Some of the students may use incorrect units in computation. The importance of using units of different physical quantities in the same system may be highlighted. It may be explained clearly that when the value of 'g' is not given in a problem, it may taken as 10 ms-2 in order to simplify the calculations. The relations may be written in different mathematical forms and sufficient practice may be given to avoid mistakes in mathematical calculations. The consistency of mass of a body at different places may be highlighted.
70.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to:-

Work sheet on connecting learning to real life situation

? between force and pressure. differentiate ? between mass and weight. differentiate ? pressure decreases with an increase in area over which the force acts. relate that ? how nature has made 'adequate adjustment' for different animals. appreciate ?the pressure exerted, on ground by a human being, an elephant, and a camel. compare Procedure: Help the students to understand the (i) meaning of (ii) difference between force and pressure. Guide the students to collect data about the mass/weight and foot size of animals like the elephant and the camel. Help them to estimate the area covered by the elephant/camel on the ground. Help them to do the similar estimation for an average human being. Ask them to appreciate the significance of the broad feet of the elephant/camel.

Assessment Parameters: One mark for each estimation/calculations. Student Work Sheet Task Instruction: Divide the class in groups of five students each. Ask each group to collect the data about the mass/weight of one of the animals. Ask them to estimate the area of the foot of the animal taken up by the group. Ask them to calculate the pressure exerted by each animal on the ground. Ask them to present their data and estimation to the class. Ask the students to appreciate the difference in the pressure exerted by the animals on the ground. Group

Suggestive Remediation Some students may find difficulties to collect the relevant data. Help them in surfing the net; visiting libraries and taking to them in the field. Some students may find it difficult to calculate the pressure values in Nm-2. Help them in doing the necessary calculations. Make students appreciate the role of nature in ensuring that the huge weight of the elephant/camel does not cause it to sink into the ground.

71.

Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to: Task Approximate time

Multiple choice to questions

Understand fundamental concepts related to the gravitational force, thrust up and pressure. Solve simple numericals based on the mathematical relations. Understand the graphical representation of the variables. Relate/connect class room learning about the gravitation to everyday life situations. Individual 20 minutes

Procedure: After having taught the chapter on gravitation, the teacher may summarise core concepts with detailed explanation to the students in the form of a summary. The worksheet based on key concepts may be given to the students to assess their learning. Assessment Parameters: Two marks for every correct answer. Student work sheet Instructions: Read the following questions carefully and put a tick mark () on the most correct answer. 1. (a) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) 5. (a) (b) (c) (d) Which of the following is not the unit of pressure? Pascal (b) bar (c) Nm-2 (d) kgm-2 Acceleration due to gravity does not depend upon the radius of the planet mass of the planet mass of the object placed at the planet the distance of mass object from the surface of the planet Gravitational force between two masses placed at certain separation is directly proportion to each mass separation square of separation product of the masses Weight of the object does not depends on the mass of the object the mass of the planet the radius of the planet density of the material of the object Two different masses cannot have different volumes different densities different weights different weights per unit mass at same place

72.

6.

Pressure exerted by liquid at the bottom of which container is more? (a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D

7. (a) (b) (c) (d) 8.

A floating body has zero weight when inside the liquid zero thrust up weight equal to thrust up zero mass A block of mass 12 kg is floating in liquid keeping its 1/3 part outside the liquid. What additional mass is required to put above the block to get it completely inside the liquid? (a) 6 kg (b) 12 kg (c) 3 kg (d) 18 kg

9.

The acceleration due to gravity of mass M and radius R is g. The value of acceleration due to gravity on another planet of mass 2m and radius 2R will be (a) g (b) g/2 (c) 2g (d) g/4

10. Ice is floating in water keeping its some part outside the water as shown in figure. The level of water in the container after melting the ice will (a) (b) (c) (d) increase decrease remains same reaches to the position of ice level of M
L M

11. (a) (b) (c) (d)

Pressure exerted by liquid column depends on weight of liquid area of cross- section of container height of liquid column volume of the liquid

73.

B I O L O G Y CHAPTER-7
Cell

74.

Chapter- 7
CONCEPT MAP
CELL
Constituents of cell Size of cell

Cell

Type of cells

Different type of cells

HYPOTONIC
PLASMA

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

ISOTONIC HYPERTONIC

CELL WALL Plant cell NUCLEUS Animal cell

CYTOPLASM

CELL ORGANELLA

CELL WALL

VACUOLE

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

GOLGI APPARATUS

LYSOSOME

MITOCHONDRION

PLASMA

75.

Chapter 7 Cell
Assessment technique Time Learning objectives: 1. 2. 3. To help students learn how to use a compound microscope. To help students understand how the various parts of a compound microscope are useful. Increase students appreciation of power of magnification of a compound microscope. Activity (individual) 40 min

Procedure: The compound microscope is an essential tool in activities related to Biology. At the onset of the activity after introducing microscope, to increase students inquisitiveness the teacher should pose some questions to students1. Have you ever used a magnifying glass or a dissecting microscope? 2. How do you think lens of compound microscope are different? 3. What is the need of mirror under the stage? 4. How are adjusting apertures useful? A number of such questions can be framed that increase students participation. Now three students can be asked to view commonly available materials like hair strands, a thin thread, anthers of hibiscus, small mustard seeds let your imagination run riot and ask the students to see these under microscope. Evaluation: As it is based on the initiation of students towards compound microscope the student can be assessed on the following parameters 1. Placing the objects on the stage of microscope 2. Use of lenses 3. Focusing of objects by adjustment of lenses 4. Focusing of light on stage Suggestive:
? This activity can only be successful if all the microscopes are in good working condition. ?parameters are enough for rating this activity at Class IXth level. In class Xth the students will Only 4

learn about the concept of focal length and magnification and rest can be added to scale then. Assessment Technique Time: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Activity (Role play through group task) 1hr

Learning objectives: At the end of this activity the students will be able toAppreciate the difference between unicellular and mutlicellular organism. Understand that a single cell can function as a whole organism. Appreciate that since multicellular organisms are complex different cells must work together. Learn how to work as a team to achieve a common goal. Distribute the work for its effective execution.

Procedure: The students can be asked to get pictures of amoeba, paramecium, chlamydomonas and bacteria. These are easily available on internet and various books and textbooks. Besides electron microscope images of various cells of human beings, nerve cell, egg, sperm and blood cell, are also easily available. This activity can be distributed as a group task. Group A can comprise unicellular organism and Group B can comprise the cells of multicellular organisms.
76.

Group A can gather information on unicellular organisms and with the help of role plays, explain each of organism and what function is performed by each. Group B needs to highlights the variation in SIZE and SHAPE of the cells of multicelluar organisms. With the help of images the group can highlight this aspect. The use of electron microscope images help the students understands the concept at micro level. The teacher can help provide an interface as she can now highlight the following:

In unicellular organism the single cell performs all the functions whereas in the multicellular organisms cells perform function as an integrated society like in the family where each member is assigned a specific task for smooth functioning.

Evaluation: At the end of the role play the following rating scale can be used: Groups Quality Information Explanation

The ratings can be on scale of 0-5. The activity gives ample scope to students to share the work amongst themselves. Suggestions: The role play can be carried further to give initiative to the students by designing a small quiz. Each group can prepare questions and this can help in reinforcing the given tasks. Suggested questions:1. Name a unicellular organism which can make its own food. 2. Which unicellular organism can change its shape? 3. Name the largest cell in human body.

77.

Assessment Technique Time Learning Objectives: At the end of this activity the students will be able to1. Recall the name of cell organelle. 2. Associate each organelle with its function. Procedure: Distribute the individual worksheets to each student to fill.
1

Individual Work sheet 10 Minutes

2 3 5

Clues: Across: 3. These give colour to plants. 6. These are storage sacs for solids and liquids in a cell. 7. Power house of cell. Down: 1. It serves as channels for transport of material within the cel.l 2. It carries the material to intra cellular and extracellular spaces. 4. The outermost covering of a plant cell. Evaluation: Each right answer can be given 1 mark each. Suggested: The teacher can follow this up with students by asking them to make more crossword puzzles like this. Assessment Technique Time Learning objectives: To enable the students to 1. Understand the function of various cell organelles. 2. Appreciate the different concepts related to a cell. Procedure: The worksheet that has the multiple choice question (MCQ's) is given to the students. The students have to select the correct answer from the four different choices given for each question. Individual activity (MCQ based work sheet) 10 min
7

78.

Student Work sheet 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (a) (b) (c) (d) Living cells were discovered by Robert Hooke (b) Purkinje (c) Leeuwenhoek (d) Robert Brown The only cell organelle seen in prokaryotic cell is mitochondria (b) ribosomes (c) plastids (d) lysosomes Which amongst the following is the best definition of osmosismovement of water molecules from region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration though a semi-permeable membrane. movement of solvent molecules from its higher concentration to lower concentration. movement of solvent molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration of solution through a semi-permeable membrane. movement of solute molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration of solution through semi permeable membrane. Chromosomes are made up of DNA (b) Protein (c) DNA and protein (d) RNA The undefined nuclear region of prokaryote are also known as nucleus (b) nucleolus (c) nucleic acid (d) nucleoid Which cell organelle is involved in forming complex sugars from simple sugar endoplasmic reticulum (b) ribosome (c) plastids (d) golgi apparatus. Kitchen of the cell is mitochondria (b) endoplasmic reticulum (c) chloroplast (d) golgi apparatus Lysosomes arise from endoplasmic reticulum (b) golgi apparatus (c) nucleus (d) mitochondria Lipid molecules in the cell are synthesized by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (b) golgi apparatus (c) rough endoplasmic reticulum (d) plastids Which of these options are not functions of ribosomes? It helps in manufacture of protein molecules. It helps in manufacture of enzymes. It helps in manufacture of hormones. It helps in manufacture of starch molecules.

Evaluation: Marks for each correct answer= (Total marks x 10 = 5) Suggested: A few students may not be able to give correct answers to a few questions. The concepts related to such questions may be explained again, the students may be asked to answer simple questions after a few days.

79.

Assessment Technique Time Learning Objectives: To enable the students to Recognise the cell organelles. Learn the name of cell organelles. Relate the functions to the names of cell organelles.

Group Activity 20 min

Procedure: This activity can be bifurcated into two sub activities depending on availability of time. 1. 2. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Solving the anagrams with respect to cell organelles. Associating the cell organelle with their functions. Prepare the chits for following anagrams (Jumbled words) MITOCHONDRIA VACUOLE NUCLEUS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM GOLGI APPARATUS PLASTIDS CELL WALL PLASMA MEMBRANE HAOTIRMICNDO LEVCAO LSUNCEU PLDOENCIMSA TIRE MULUC LGOIG RATPPAUSA TIPLASDS ELLC ALLW MAALSP BRAMEMNE

Carry out this activity as a quiz. Ask the groups (divide the class in 3 or 4 groups) to pick up a chit and unjumble the cell organelle anagram. Write each correct word on Black/Green board once all words are on board. Play the next part. B. Now ask each group (one by one) to assign function to each cell organelle.

Evaluation: Give 2 marks each for unjumbling the words. 2 marks each for identifying the function. 1 mark as bonus point if the question passes.
Group name Unjumbling the Anagram 2 marks Identifying the Function 2 marks Bonus Points 1 mark

Suggested: The concepts should be thoroughly reinforced if some students are unable to unjumble the words. Some additional multiple choice questions can be given to students.

80.

Assessment technique Time: Learning Objectives: The students will become familiar with celland cell components.

Model Making (Group task)

The students will be able to understand the different components of cells, both plant and animal, and the organelles common and different in both cells. At the end of the model making, students will be able to get a good overall impression of structure of cell.

Procedure: Before class prepare a gelatin (gelatine) mixture. (It is commonly available at all Bakery shops). You can add any food colour preferably the lighter colours to make it more attractive. Now prepare the following cell organelles (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Nucleus : Mitochondria : Endoplasmic : Ribosomes : Golgi apparatus : Lysosomes : Vacuoles: corrugated balls (small plastic balls with grooves on them) kidney beans (rajma) insulated electrical wires can be used mustard seed (black) aluminium wires, cover these with tape so that the ends are covered more than the centre here we can use some jellies or jello candies (or synthetic jelly beans) water balloons or fill some gelatin liquid in balloons

This activity is to be carried in a group so the material to be arranged can be gathered in group. Now ask the students to prepare flags by using toothpicks and paper tape. The flags can be prepared by folding the tape in half around the toothpick. Divide the class in two groups. Ask half to bring plastic containers (disposable) and other half to bring aluminium foil containers (disposable).

Cell membrane Nucleus Mitochondrian Small vacuoles Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosome Ribosome

Cell wall

A
Chloroplast

Animal cell Plant cell

B
Large vacuole

Once all the things are arranged we can start the activity. (To cut out on loss of time the things needed can be deposited in lab a day prior to activity). Heat the gelatin mixture gently, while the students work in their group the teacher can guide students how to pour gelatin into containers. Allow the mixture to cool. While this happens the teacher can explain the difference between plant and animal cell with the help of this VENN diagram.

81.

Now arrange the organelles, the nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome, golgi apparatus, ER with the help of a forcep line mustard seeds around ER to make it RER. Precautions make sure the gelatin is semi-solid when you embed organelles this way they will be nicely set. You can use refrigerator (if available, to set this model) once the material is set, ask the aluminium foil group to cut the outer foil. Thus this can represent the animal cell (minus the cell wall) and the models set in plastic for containers can be used to represent plant cell. Evaluation: The given model can be evaluated on following parameters: Group Overall Impression Arrangement of cell organelles Explanation of Model

Suggested: The given model can be presented and can be displayed in science lab for future reference.

Assessment Technique Time Objectives: To enable the students to Procedure: 1. A worksheet will be given to students with a table to be completed. 2. The student will complete the table as per instructions. Differentiate between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.

Individual Worksheet 10min

Identify these two cells based on size, nuclear region, chromosome, cell organelles.

Type of cells Parameters size nuclear region chromosome membrane bound cell organelles Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells

Evaluation: On completion of the table the students can be given marks or 1 mark each for each right completion. x 8 = 4 marks or 1 x 8 = 8 marks Suggested: The teacher can facilitate better learning by introducing the concept of the units such micro units.

82.

83.

B I O L O G Y CHAPTER-8
Tissues

84.

Chapter- 8
CONCEPT MAP

Tissues

Plant Tissue

Meristematic Tissue

Permanent Tissue

Apical Meristem Intercalary Meristem Lateral Meristem Simple Complex

Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma

Xylem Phloem

Animal Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Connective Tissue

Muscular Tissue

Nervous Tissue

Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Stratified

Areolar Tissue Adipose Tissue Bone Cartilage Tendon Ligament Blood

Striated Unstriated Cardiac

Neurons

85.

Chapter-8 Tissues
Assessment Technique Objectives : To enable the students to: Learn the names of different tissues present in plants and animals. Identify the tissues based on their structure, location and function in living organisms. Understand the difference in structure, location and function of tissue present in plants and animals. Task Approximate Time Q1. Which at the following shows division of labour? (a) Multicellular organism (b) Amoeba (c) Unicellular organism (d) Bacteria Q2. Growth of root takes place due to growth in : (a) Apical Meristem (b) Intercalary meristem (c) Lateral meristem (d) Permanent tissue Q3. Which of the following parts have cartilage? (a) Kidney (b) Lungs (c) Trachea (d) Heart Q4. Which of the following elements is not a part of the xylem tissue? (a) Tracheid (b) Sieve tube (c) Vessel (d) Xylem Parenchyma Q5. Some parts of the plant are flexible due to the presence of: (a) Parenchyma (b) Collenchyma (c) Sclerechyma (d) Meristematic Tissue Q6. Which of the following tissues connect two bones? (a) Tendon (b) Cartilage (c) Ligament (d) Areolar connective tissue Q7. Which of the following is skeletal muscle? (a) Neuron (b) Striated muscle (c) Smooth muscle (d) Cardiac muscle Q8. Which of the following is not composed of neurons:(a) Brain (b) Heart (c) Spinal cord (d) Nerves Q9. Which of the following is involuntary movement? (a) Movement of food in the alimentary canal (b) Movement of hand (c) Neck movement (d)Movement of lips Q10. The length of the stem increases due to: (a) Apical meristem (b)Vertical Meristem (c) Lateral Meristem (d) Intercalary Meristem Criteria for Assessment Marks for each correct answer = 1 Total marks 1 x 10 = 10 Suggestive Remediation: A few students may not be able to give the correct answers to some of the question. The concepts related to such question should be explained again. Ask similar questions after a few days. Individual Work 15 minutes Individual Worksheet (MCQ Based)

Instructions: Select the correct option from the four different choices given for each question.

86.

Activity Task Time Objective : To enable the students to Identify and collect one soft and one hard stem. Cut fine section of stems to prepare slides (Hard stem/soft stem). Mount the horizontal section on the slide. Identify types of simple permanent tissue in both slides. Individual Work (Practical Based) 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The student will collect two plants (a) soft stem plant (b) Hard stem plant. Cut very thin sections of each stem. Stain the sections with safranin. Place one neatly cut section of soft stem and one hard stem on two slides. Put a drop of glycerine on each section with cover slip and observe under a microscope.

S.No. 1.

Activity Cutting of horizontal section Staining

3 marks Very thin

2 Marks Thin on one side and thick on other side Well stained

1 Mark Thick

2.

Very well stained

Not uniformly stained Dirty slide

3.

Cover Slip

Well kept, no bubbles

Neat but glycerin is coming out Little bit dirty

4.

Prepared Slide

Very neat

Very dirty

Q1. Q2. Q3.

As per activity done Identify and write namse of simple permanent tissue in hard and soft stem. Draw simple permanent tissue you identify in Q No.2. Total Marks 20

4 x 3 = 12 1x2=2 3x2=6

Suggestive Remediation: A few students may not be able to cut the fine sections of stem. The teacher may explain again or show all the steps of preparation of slide.

87.

Activity Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to Task Time Identify the tissues based on their function. Learn the functions of various tissues. Recognise the parts of an organism where a particular tissue is present. Individual work 10 Minutes Work sheet (puzzle)

Procedure : The students are given a work sheet that has ten puzzles. The students have to answer the name of tissues. Who am I ? (Name the tissue) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I transport food in plants. I am present in brain. I make up the husk of coconut. I form the lining of kidney tubules. I am very flexible, strong and connect two bones. I store fat in your body. I am responsible for movement in your body. I form the inner lining of your mouth. I am connective tissue with a fluid matrix. I am present in respiratory tract and have cilia. Total 1 x 10= 10

Criteria for Assessment: Marks for each correct answer = 1 Suggestive Remediation

Some students may not be able to answer the puzzle. They may be explained the concept again. Teacher may give some questions for homework. Assessment Technique Objective : To help the students to Task Time Procedure Teacher may give the following information to the students: Xylem and phloem are complex permanent tissue Complex tissues are made of more than one type of cells. All these cells coordinate to perform a common function. Xylem transport water and minerals vertically and side ways. Phloem transports food from leaves to other parts of the plant in both directions. Identify the elements of complex permanent tissue in plants. Identify the functions of these complex permanent tissue. Individual work 10 minutes Work Sheet (Match the following)

88.

Chapter-8 Tissues
Student work sheet Instructions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The students are given a worksheet that has a list of tissue elements and their function. The students shall put them in the right box. Tracheids Xylem fibre Companion cells Transport water and minerals vertically Transports food from leaves to other parts of the plant. Mostly living cells Mostly dead cells Vessels Sieve tubes Phloem fibres

Xylem

Phloem

Criteria for Assessment Each correct identification = marks Total x 10 = 5 Marks Suggestive Remediation Some students may not identify the elements of complex permanent tissue. They may be guided by the teacher by again explaining the concept. Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to Task Approximate Time Procedure: 1. 2. The student will be given a worksheet that has the incomplete diagrams of animal, tissues, plant tissue in which specific parts have been labeled using numbers only. The students shall read the questions given below the diagrams and make additions in the diagram/ answer the questions accordingly. Identify the diagrams of different animal tissues plant tissue. Recognise the different parts of animal tissues plant tissue. Individual work 15 Minutes Individual Worksheet (Diagram based)

89.

Student Work sheet Time 20 Minutes Instructions: Study the diagrams given below and then answer the questions in the space provided.

2
Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6.

B (2x1 = 2) ( x 4 =2) (1) (2) (1) (2) Total marks 10

Complete the diagram 'A' by drawing the missing parts. Identity the parts numbered 1 & 2 in both diagrams. What is the term given to the gap between two nerve cells? What is the function of stomata in plants. What does a neuron look like? Find out the role of transpiration in the plants.

Criteria for Assessment: Marks for each correct answer as given in worksheet

Suggestive Remediation: A few students may not be able to give the correct answer draw the missing parts. They can be given the home work assignment to draw plant and animal tissues and after a few days such students one given an alternative classwork assignment. Assessment Technique Time Learning Objectives: To enable the students to learn name of different tissues. Relate the functions to the names of different plant & animal tissues. Procedure: This activity can be bifurcated into two sub-activities. 1. 2. Solving the Anagrams (Jumbled words) with respect to plant & Animal tissue. Associating the tissues with their functions. Group activity (Quiz) 15 minutes

Prepare the chits for following Anagrams (Jumbled words) 1. 4. 7. 10. Isstue Suovnre Stemmenatic Isstue Melyx Diaccar Issuel 2. 5. 8. Chenparyma Meolph The lliapith Issuel 3. 6. 9. Chymacollen Biummca Clerenschyma

Correct Words: 1. 4. 7. 10. A. Divide the class into two groups carry out this activity as a quiz. Ask the groups to pick up a chit and unjumble the name of tissue. Nervous tissue Meristematic Tissue Xylem Cardiac Tissue 2. 5. 8. Parenchyma Phloem Epithelial Tissue 3. 6. 9. Collenchyma Cambium Sclerenchyma

90.

Write each correct word on Black board. Once all words are on board, play the next part. B. Now ask each group one by one to write function of these tissues. Evaluation: a. 1 mark each for unjumbling the words b. 1 mark each for writing the function of tissue. c. mark as bonus point if the question passes. 1x10 = 10 1 x 10 = 10 Total Marks = 20

Group name A B

Unjumbling the Anagram 1 mark

Identifying the function 1mark

Bonus Points mark

Assessment Technique Learning Objectives: At the end of this activity the students will be able to1. Recall the name of tissues. 2. Identify functions of plant and animal tissue. Procedure: Distribute the individual worksheets to each student to fill. Across 3. 4. 7. 8. Down 1. 2. 5. 6. Which type of connective tissue connects two bones? It is transported to all the body cells through blood. It provides mechanical support to plants. The epidermis of the leaf contains small pores. Name ----------------Alimentary canal is ----------------- movement. Nervous tissue is made up of -----------------. Group of cells similar in structure and function -----------------. Tissue present in the growing regions of the plant -----------------.

Individual work sheet (Puzzle)

2 1

I
5

E 6 7 S

91.

B I O L O G Y CHAPTER-9
Why do we fall ill

92.

Chapter- 9

Why do we fall ill

CONCEPT MAP

Health

Failure of Health

Disease

Infectious diseases Significance of Health Distinction between healthy and disease free

Non-Infectious diseases

Spread

Methods of transmission

air water vector direct contact

Principles of Treatment

Principles of Prevention

93.

Assessment technique Time Learning objectives: To enable the students to

Game based quiz- group and individual activity 30 Minutes

Revise the concepts related to common diseases and their causes. Answer questions based on content of chapter. Learn how to collaborate and find the answer to a question. Procedure: 1. The question bank of about 20 questions may be prepared. Each question is written on a card (use pastel sheet or discarded visiting cards to mark the cards). 2. The class is divided into groups according to class size. 3. Now colour code the various groups, use coloured chalks on board (or use coloured stickes). 4. Draw the building on board or before class such an activity assigned for a chart to be made. So this can be drawn on chart and time saved.
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Team Blue

Team Pink

Team White

Team Green

5. The game is to be conducted by the teacher. A stop watch may be used to limit/record the time for response. 6. One by one the questions related to various diseases can be asked to each team, each team answers after consulting other members of group (10 questions to each team). 7. A correct answer takes the team 1 floor up on building.

94.

8. At the end of quiz whichever team reaches/scales highest floors wins. 9. The teacher may prepare a number of questions (question bank) and the game can be continued till all the floors scaled. 10. Efforts should be made that every student gets to answer. Evaluation: 1 point for each correct answer The question unanswered can be answered by teacher so the total points remain 10 in activity. Each point can be converted to marks that will be common for all students belonging to a group. However, the individual viva based questions can also be added to include an individual level of assessment. Suggested: Some students may not participate actively in this process. The teacher can guide such students by giving them some remedial work in the form of additional worksheets.

95.

Assessment technique: Time Learning Objectives: The students will be able to

Presentation (Group task) 40 minutes (10 minutes to each group)

1. Research and compare differences between communicable and non communicable disease. 2. Explain a particular disease. 3. Identify how a person becomes infected with this disease. 4. Describe the symptoms of this disease. 5. Explain how this disease is treated. Procedure: The teacher can guide the students to various books and internet sites to which the students can consult for their presentation some examples are given belowa) Oxford's Children Encyclopedia b) Children's Science Refresher c) Common cold on Influenza Internet sites like a) www.microbe.org b) www.nationalgeographic.com c) www.discovery.com d) www.worldhealthorganization.com The students can also access discovery and related channels on T.V. Now each group will come and give their presentation. The teacher can give a detailed assignment sheet based on which the group will give the presentation. Guidelines for Final Paper I Verbal Presentation Name of a disease (Communicable or non-communicable). Name the causitive agent and explain the symptoms of a disease. How to treat and prevent the spread of disease.

II Presentation (on Paper)Each group can submit the report on following patterns a) Cover page (include disease name, name of the team members) b) Report should cover the following Disease (Name) establish if communicable or non communicable Causitive Agent Symptoms Spread Treatment Prevention

c) At the end of the report acknowledge the referred material be it books or website. Include at least 4 references.

96.

Evaluation: Total points for class presentation: 100 points Oral presentation: 10 points Writter presentation: Give 10 points each for correct format & presentation (Total 80 points) Disease & causes (10 point) Symptoms (10 points) Spread (10 points) How to treat the disease (10 points) How to prevent further spread (10) 10 x 5 = 50 points Reserve 20 points for diagrams or photographs 10 points for Reference Teacher evaluation: At the end of presentation teacher can ask 5 questions one to each group member related to topic (2 x 5 = 10 points). So in a nutshell: Oral presentation Written presentation End of presentation Total
Evaluation: Total points for class presentation Oral/verbal presentation Written Presentation Teacher evaluation Verbal Presentation:
GROUP Disease (comm/non-comm) Give 2 marks for correct identification Symptoms Treatment Prevention Use of pictures

: : : :

10 points 80 points 10 points 100 points

The referred material can be books or website. This should include at least 4 references. : : : : 100 points 10 points 80 points 10 points

Give 2 marks if all symptoms covered

Give 2 marks if all forms of treatment explored

Give 2 marks if all forms of treatment stated

Give 2 marks if electron microscope images charts diagram used Give 1mark if only a four images

Give 1 mark if one correct identification

Give one mark if a few symptoms covered

Give 1 marks if all forms of treatment explored eatment explored Give 0 marks if all forms of treatment explored

Give 1 marks if all forms of treatment stated

Give 0 marks if no mention

Give 0 marks if no symptoms stated

Give 0 marks if all forms of treatment stated

Give 0 mark if no image used

Kindly note 0 mark probability in column 4 will only come into focus if presentation is not given in that case ask the group to prepare the presentation again. Suggested: Follow up the presentation with class response ask if students enjoyed the process.

97.

Assessment Technique Time: Title: Learning objectives: To enable the students to Learn that various organisms cause different diseases.

Project (Individual task)

Understand different organisms produce different symptoms of a disease manifestation. Learn the various ways of how to prevent and treat a disease.

Procedure: This assignment is to be given as a project. The teacher can give broad outlines about how to prepare this project. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Select a disease Classify under communicable and non-communicable diseases Write the causative agent Symptoms of disease Treatment of disease Prevention of disease Diagrams/Images related to the disease.

All this information is to be collected, and given to the teacher concerned and deposited for evaluation. Evaluation: As it is individual work, the teacher can evaluate as per following parameters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Suggested: The teacher can guide students to read certain books like- Diseases and Man (NBT) and Websites like a) www.mirobe.org b) www.nationalgeographic.com c) www.discovery.com d) www.worldhealthorganization.com Correct identification of causative agent -1 mark Symptoms identification Proper treatment Proper prevention Use of Images and illustration Bibliography Total 2 marks 2 marks 2 marks 2 marks 1 mark 10 marks

98.

Why do we fall ill


Assessment Technique Objective: To enable the students to Task Approximate Time Procedure 1. Infectious diseases and means of spread may be discussed in the class before this worksheet is given to the students. 2. Given below is an incomplete flowchart on common methods of transmission of diseases. Some boxes in the flow chart have been left blank. Complete the flow chart adding terms/mark as and where required. Recognize common methods of transmission of diseases. Correlate the disease with methods of transmission. Individual work 10 Minutes Individual work sheet (flow chart based)

Common Method of Transmission of Diseases

Air

Direct contact

Cough

Cholera

Syphilis

Rabid Animals Dengue

Pneumonia

Virus spread other than the sexual contact

Criteria for Assessment: Marks for each correct answer = 1 mark Total Marks = 1 x 10 = 10 Suggestive Remediation A few students may not be able to complete the flow chart. They can explain the topic again and asked to do an alternate assignment Match the following.

99.

Why do we fall ill


Assessment Technique Objectives: To enable the students to Task Approximate Time Procedure: The worksheet that has the multiple choice questions (MCQs) is given to the students. The students have to select the correct answer from the four different choices given for each question. Student Worksheet Instruction: Select the correct option from the four different choices given for each question. Q1. Which one of the below diseases is an acute disease? (a) T.B. Q2. (b) Elephantiasis (c) AIDS (d) Common cold Understand the mode of spread of different diseases. Differentiate between infectious and non-infectious diseases. Differentiate between chronic and acute diseases. Identify the symptoms and preventive measures of diseases. Individual work 20 Minutes Individual Worksheet (MCQ based)

Which one of the following diseases has been eradicated? (a)Small pox (b) Polio (c) Tuberculosis (d) Typhoid

Q3.

Kala Azar is caused by (a) Virus (b) Bacteria (c) Protozoa (d) Fungi

Q4.

Which one of the following methods is not used for transmission of diseases? (a) Direct contact (b) by food (c) By air (d) By genes

Q5.

Which one of the following diseases does not spread? (a) Cancer (b) Malaria (c) AIDS (d) Dengue

Q6.

It is difficult to make anti-virus drugs because (a) Viruses are very small in size. (b) Viruses are on the borderline of living and nonliving. (c) Viruses use the host cell machinery to grow and divide. (d) Viruses are surrounded by a protein coat.

Q7.

The disease causing microbes that enter the body through the nose are likely to go to the (a) Brain (b) Liver (c) Lungs (d) Heart

Q8.

Disease spread through air is (a) Cholera (b) Typhoid (c) Common cold (d) Dengue

Criteria for Assessment

Marks for each correct answer = 1 Total Marks = 1 x 8 = 8

100.