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Merike Ring1, Heidi Soosalu1,2, Valerijs Nikulins3,4
Tallinn University of Technology, 2Geological Survey of Estonia, 3Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Center , 4University of Latvia firstname.lastname@example.org
An example is Aidu open cast oil shale mine (for location, see Figure 2) where usually in one blasting 34 to 40 m berm width and a length of 60-90 m is blown up. Blast holes were 215 and 243 mm in diameter and up to a depth of 13.5 m. I. INTRODUCTION Blast holes were ranked at intervals of 6 m and the distance Currently in Estonia, blasting operations are regulated by between the rows was 6 m. the Explosive Substance Act and by the regulation Depending on the situation, an escarpment of 6-7 wells “Requirements on blasting projects”. A blasting project must row was blown up, with the weight of charge in a drill hole include the following information: amount of explosives and being 240-350 kg . their cost and the specific charge, blast parameters, charge During measurements a photo session was made of each structure, blasting sequence, order of blasting, length of blasting – mass-charge, charge distance from the location and stemming material and blasting circuit connection. In addition, readings from blasting seismogram the maximum oscillation. there have to be calculations on seismic vibration and air blast During open cast blasting, vibration was measured in soil caused by the blasting, and measures to ensure the safety. The and on exposed rock on which a geophone was mounted. topic of this research is the linkage between the above data Each measurement recorded the maximum oscillation and seismic oscillations caused by blasting. It is important to (v, mm/s), which relates to reduced distance (ds, m x kg-0,5), consider local geological conditions that have an effect on weight of explosive charge (Q, kg) and the distance of seismic vibration. measurement blasting charge (d, m) . Previously, the This article provides an overview of the current situation in relationship between blasting operation and ground this field in Estonia and Latvia. oscillation has been examined in 1988 in the Leningrad Mining Institute. R. Kall carried out studies on the effects of II. PREVIOUS STUDIES AND PROBLEMS ground oscillation in the NE Estonia in 1993. The relationship Arvi Toomik has compiled a study "Seismic tremor caused was investigated by the Institute of Ecology in 1996 (Toomik by blasting operations" examining seismic features in the NE and Tomberg, 1997, cited in ). Estonian oil shale mining area. The study observed ground oscillation caused by blasting operations both on the ground III. DATA COLLECTION surface and underground In Estonia, eight companies have a right to conduct Seismic vibration caused by open cast blasting (blasting blasting. Five of them have provided blasting operation data the overburden) is recoded by instruments mounted on the for this study. We receive data for blasting operations from ground. Such instruments are classified as seismometers or oil shale open casts and limestone quarries. geophones, however, both function in a similar manner. Blasting in oil shale open casts was made by using Compared to geophones, seismometers are much more multistage blasting circuit. The explosions are usually sensitive – but are less robust and compact and have to be set produced with a delay between the individual steps from 25 up carefully. They are used to measure weak signals, as is to 42 milliseconds. Generally, the depth of wells containing a often the case with global seismology with distant sources. charge does not exceed 20 m. Geophones are used in small-scale seismic surveys where The number of blasting operations in a year is large, many instruments have to be set out quickly but the highest because in order to mine oil shale, two detonations are needed sensitivity is not needed.  in each case. In addition, blasting is needed for making Toomik has argued that there is both vertical and drainage trenches. horizontal geological environment vibrational anisotropy in Data will be collected for three years, from 2012 to 2014. (vertical tectonic fracture network, weak contacts between the The co-operating companies have signed an agreement, horizontal layers) influencing the intensity of oscillations in where seismic measurements by a ground-based sensor can different directions depending on the charge . be made. Analysis of the measurement results showed links between Seismic sensors are installed e.g. when local inhabitants blasting parameters and seismic velocity. These reveal a have made complaints of blasting operation induced vibration function between vibration velocity, distance from the source or damage of buildings, such as cracks. and size of payloads . This study concentrates on oil shale and limestone, as they The study dealt with measuring ground oscillation caused are the most important mineral resources mined in Estonia. by blasting with both traditional initiation of detonating cord and non-electric initiation systems.
Abstract – this article provides an introduction to the background that motivates the study „Blasting parameters, seismic data analysis and their correlation in Estonia”.
IV. OIL SHALE AND LIMESTONE The most important geological resource in Estonia is oil shale, a sedimentary rock that originates from the Ordovician Period. The Estonian oil shale deposit consists of alternating layers of limestone and oil shale . Limestone is a carbonate rock where the most common mineral is calcite (CaCO3). Other carbonate rocks found in Estonia are dolostone, where the dominant mineral is dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), and marl.  V. . SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS IN ESTONIA This study uses national seismic observations of mine blasts. The Geological Survey of Estonia is responsible for seismic monitoring in the Estonian territory and surrounding areas. This includes detection, localization and identification of natural and man-made seismic events.  Seismic monitoring is conducted using data from the three Estonian seismic stations Matsalu (MTSE), Vasula (VSU) and Arbavere (ARBE) (Figure 1). In order to ensure hiqhquality seismic analysis, data from several Finnish and one Latvian seismic stations is used on regular basis, in cooperation with the Institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki. 
amount of explosives than in the oil shale open casts. Poor signal-to-noise relation of these events make their location procedure challenging. However, seismic monitoring is in concert with the fact that only small blasts are allowed in Sillamäe that is located close to many enterprises dealing with hazardous waste.
Fig. 2. Located seismic events in NE Estonia in 2011 (green dots). Magnitudes are defined using the Helsinki University scale (MHEL). Oil shale open casts are marked as yellow areas. Crossing lines reflect the location accuracy. 
VI. . SEISMIC WAVES Seismic body waves can be divided into longitudinal, compressive P-waves (P for primary) and transverse shear waves, S-waves (S for secondary) . P-waves are always faster (approximately 1.7 times), than S-waves, and have a velocity of a few kilometres per second in the Earth’s crust. . Surface waves (L-waves) arrive after the body waves P and S. L-waves have longer wavelengths than the P-and S-waves, and usually their amplitudes are higher (Figure 3).
Fig. 1. Seismic stations in Finland, Estonia and Latvia (red triangles) that are routinely used for detection of Estonian seismic events. Estonian and Latvian stations are labelled. Black box shows the location of Figure 2.
To obtain full information on ground motion, a threecomponent seismometer is needed: one component to measure vertical ground motion, the other two to measure horizontal motion at right angles, typically N-S and E-W.  Figure 2 shows detected seismic events in 2011, which were all caused by man-made explosions. Oil shale mining blasts in the open casts Aidu and Narva produce relatively large seismic events (magnitude typically between 1.2 and 2.0) that are quite well localized with the current seismic network. Seismic events around the Sillamäe harbour produce a cloud of inaccurate locations. These events, reflecting harbour construction work, are weak because of considerably smaller
Fig. 3. A three-component seismogram (up: the horizontal components, E-W and N-S, down: vertical component) showing the different wave types: P, S and the surface waves (Love and Rayleigh) .
VII. LATVIA In Latvia, the most common mineral resource is dolostone, mined in quarries. Current economic situation has led to a reduction in conducted blasting. As well as in Estonia, blasting activities in Latvia are regulated with legislation: „Explosive for civil uses movement“.  Blasting operations are also regulated by an act. Estonia has a similar document “Blasting project requirements”. The legislation in Estonia sets out exact requirements for a blasting project. Starting with the explosive cost and ending with calculations on seismic vibration and air blast. Latvian legislation merely outlines what a project must include. It does not instruct how to calculate the necessary data for a blasting. As mentioned, most quarries mine dolostone and a mass in one blasting is in the range of 1.5 to 6.0 tons, the average being 4.5 to 5.5 tons. Some examples of blasting operations in Latvia are given here: In 1999, only one company, Spradziens, conducted 143 explosions in eight quarries. The maximum amount of explosives (6450 kg) was used in the quarry Kumas; In 2000, there were 277 explosions carried out in Latvia, and the total quantity of explosives was more than 441 tons of TNT. In 2002 and 2003, 558 explosions were carried out in eight quarries in Latvia. Weight of explosives (TNT) in quarries varied in a wide range. Blasting in Latvian quarries was made by using multistage blasting circuit. Since the purpose is not to create a maximum seismic effect, but rather the achievement of maximum loosening of the geological formation at a minimum seismic effect, the explosions are usually produced with a delay between the individual steps from 25 to 50 milliseconds. At the same time, usually for the first seven stages a time delay of 25 milliseconds is used. From the level 8 to level 15, a delay of up to 50 milliseconds is used. Generally, the depth of wells to contain the charge does not exceed 15 meters, charges placed to a depth of 10-11 m wide variety of blasting circuits, not only for different quarries, but also within the same quarry at different sites. VIII. SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS IN LATVIA Latvia uses the Baltic virtual seismic network (BAVSEN), registers the seismic events of the Baltic region, determines
their parameters (origin time, magnitude, hypocentral depth) and attempts to define the origin of the seismic events (i.e. man-made or an earthquake). BAVSEN is based on the seismic stations of the German GEOFON network of the German Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam in the Baltic region. As there is only one Latvian seismic station, “Slitere” (SLIT) (see Figure 1), also other seismic stations of the Baltic region and Scandinavia are used. IX. RESULTS As the relationship between blasting and seismic data is not yet thoroughly studied, it is crucial to take into account all the blasting parameters, because each of them may affect the produced seismic waves. The aim is to find out which blasting parameters cause the largest influence on seismic vibration. As a result, suggestions will be offered for conducting blasting operations in more efficient and environmentally sustainable ways. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is linked to the research projects „ETF9018 – Mine collapses in NE Estonia – detection, identification and causes“ and „AR12007 - Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining“. The first author has financial support from the Doctoral School of Energy and Geotechnology II. Many thanks to companies that provide data for this study: Eesti Energia Kaevandused AS, Lõhketööd OÜ, Voglers Eesti OÜ and Intexler OÜ. REFERENCES
 A.E. Mussett, M. Aftab Khan, „Looking into the Earth, An Introduction to Geological Geopyhsics,“ Cambridge University, 2000, pp. 27-28, p. 33, p. 57.  A. Toomik, „Earth tremors caused by blasting operations“, in Estonia, p. 135, p 137, p 152.  E. Pirrus, „Geology of mineral Resources“, TUT Publisher, Tallinn 2000, p. 61, pp. 71-72.  http://www.egk.ee/asutusest/seired/  http://seire.keskkonnainfo.ee/seireveeb/ http://seire.keskkonnainfo.ee/seireveeb/aruanded/13109_2011seismoaruan ne.pdf, p. 11  R. Järveots, V. Hein, „Seismic monitoring“, Tallinn University, 2010, p. 5.  http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=221395
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