Sales Cycle & Documents

• Sales is a component of the Sales & Distribution module that supports the sale, delivery, and billing of materials and/or services to the customers of the organization. • In keeping with the system’s Document Principle, the steps in the Sales Cycle are represented by various documents, which are produced in the Sales & Distribution and Financial Accounting modules. • Chapter Objectives – Provide an overview of how the system supports an integrated Sales Cycle and a description of the purpose and functionality of each document created in the system in support of the Sales Cycle.

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17.1Sales Cycle
A/R Cash

X

X

Inquiry / Quotation

Sales Order Credit Check (SD)

Receive Payment (FI)

Credit Check

Delivery Note (SD) Authorization to Ship

Invoice Sent

FI
X

Billing Document (SD)

Credit Check

FI Goods Issue (MM) Inventory COGS
X X

A/R Sales Revenue

X

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17.2 Sales Documents
Inquiry Quotation Sales Order Credit & Debit Memo Requests

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Inquiry
Customer Seller

?
Inquiry
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Quotation

Inquiry

Quotation

Customer

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Sales Order
Price

Sales Order

Quantity

Delivery Dates

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Delivery Note
Delivery Note

• Initiates Shipping Activities • Forms the basis for Goods Issue & Billing

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Goods Issue
Sales Order Stock

Goods Issue
Billing Due List
Inventory COGS

Delivery Quotation Order

Updated

X

X

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Billing Document
Delivery Note Billing Document
A/R Sales Revenue

X

X

Accounting Document

Invoice

Customer
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Incoming Payment
Accts. Receivable

Cash

Receipt of payment

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17.3Accounts Receivable in the Sales Cycle

FI Accounts Receivable (A/R)

Create Customer Master Records Credit Management

Display Customer Account Balances

Incoming Payment Processing Dunning

Display / Change Customer Line Items

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Sales Cycle
A/R Cash

X

X

Inquiry / Quotation

Sales Order Credit Check (SD)

Receive Payment (FI)

Credit Check

Delivery Note (SD) Authorization to Ship

Invoice Sent

FI
X

Billing Document (SD)

Credit Check

FI Goods Issue (MM) Inventory COGS
X X

A/R Sales Revenue

X

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Sales Cycle & Documents Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Sales Cycle – Sales Documents – Inquiry – Quotation – Sales Order

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Sales Cycle & Documents Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Shipping Documents – Delivery Note – Goods Issue – Movement Type – Billing Document

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Chapter 18 Automatic Account Assignment
• To ensure a real-time, integrated Sales Cycle, the system contains functionality which will automatically determine the proper General Ledger Accounts to be posted to when a Goods Issue and a Billing Document is created. • Chapter Objectives – Gain an understanding of the configuration used in automatic account assignment for Accounting Documents created in the Sales Cycle.

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Material Account Assignment Overview

Goods Issue
Account Assignment Area

Inventory COGS

X

X

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What is Valuation?
Stock Value Stock Quantity Material Price

$120

=

4 Pieces

x

$30 / Piece

$120

4 Pcs.

$30 / Pc.

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Selecting the Valuation Level
Valuation Level

Valuation Area is a Plant

Valuation Level is Company Code

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Accounting Data in the Master

Material

1 2

Valuation Class Price Control Price

Raw Material Finished Product Standard or Moving Average Price Current, Previous Month, Previous Year, Future

3

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Valuation Grouping Code
Case 1: Valuation Area = Company Code Valuation Grouping Code 0001 Company Code Chart of Accounts

0001 0002 GKR

0002 0003 0003 0004 IKR
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Valuation Grouping Code
Case 2: Valuation Area = Plant Valuation Grouping Code 0001 Valuation Area 0001 0002 0002 0003 0004 0003 0005 0004 IKR
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Company Code 0001 0002 0003

Chart of Accounts

GKR

Linking a Material Type to a Valuation Class
Material Type FERT Account Category Reference 0001 Valuation Class 7900 3000 HALB 3010 HAWA ROH1 0002 0003 3020 3030 3040 ROH2 ROH3 0004 3100 3200
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Transaction / Event (Process) Keys

BSX - Inventory Posting

GBB - Offsetting Entry to the Stock Posting

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How Does the System Find the Relevant G/L Accounts?
1 Chart of Accounts 550000 2 Transaction Key (Process Key) 81000 231000 140000 4 Account Grouping (Account Modifier) 3 Valuation Grouping Code
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5 Valuation Class

Performing a Simulation of the Account Assignment
Movement Type: 231 Plant: CSPL Material: RES-A Plant CSPL Valuation Grouping Code Posting Strings: Transaction Key BSX GBB G/L Acct - Dr. 300000 191100 G/L Acct. - Cr. 300000 191100 Material RES-A Chart of Accounts Valuation Class Movement Type 231 Value String

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Revenue Account Assignment Overview

Billing Document

ACCOUNT ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA
A/R Sales

X

X

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Interface to Financial Accounting
SD
Billing Document

FI
Accounting

Billing Document
Posting Block

Accounting

Release
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Account Assignment Criteria in the Billing Document
Billing Document Chart of Accounts Sales Organization Customer Account Assignment Group Material Account Assignment Group Account Key

Company Code Assigned to Payer Master Record Material Master Record Pricing Procedure Price 100.00 ERL Discount 10.00 ERS

G/L Account

Account Key ERL = Revenue ERS = Sales Deduction
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Revenue Account Determination
Acct. Determination Procedure KOFI Condition Type: KOFI Access Sequence: KOFI Specific Billing Document Type
Item 10 Price $10 Discount (10%) $1

Sales Deduction

1
Material Acct. Group

Condition Tables
1. Charts of Accounts 2. Charts of Accounts 3. Charts of Accounts 4. Charts of Accounts 5. Charts of Accounts Sales Organization Sales Organization Sales Organization Sales Organization Sales Organization Account Key Account Key Account Key Account Key Customer Acct. Group Customer Acct. Group Material Acct. Group

General

Records for Condition Type KOFI No valid record exists Valid record exists (search ends)

Account Sales Deduction
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Automatic Account Assignment Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Valuation Area – Valuation Class – Valuation Grouping Code – Account Category Reference – Transaction / Event Key (Process Key) – Account Modification code – Account Determination Procedure

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Automatic Account Assignment Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Condition Type – Access Sequence – Condition Tables – Account Assignment Group (Customer) – Account Assignment Group (Material) – Account Key

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Chapter 19 Credit Management
• Credit Management is the process of establishing customer credit limits, establishing credit checking policies and monitoring Customers against those criteria. It is configured in both the Financial Accounting (FI) and Sales & Distribution (SD) modules. • Chapter Objectives – Provide an understanding of how credit limits are set and maintained for customers. – Provide an understanding of the hierarchical relationships between Credit Control Area, Company Code, and Customer. – Identify and understand the functionality of monitoring credit limits for Customers using Automated Credit Checking in FI and SD.

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Credit Management
Used to Set and Control Credit Limits for Customers Customer
Sales Order Check

Customer Sales Rep.

Customer Credit Limits

Credit Check
Customer Credit Information

• Accept Order • Accept Order / Block Delivery • Refuse Order

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Credit Control Area
Client Credit Control Area
Client

Company Code

Customer

Example:

PepsiCo.
Credit Control Area

Credit Control Area

CCAA
Company Code Company Code

CCBB
Company Code

123 Customer A Customer B

456 Customer A Customer C

999 Customer A
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19.1Defining a Credit Control Area
Step 1: Define a Credit Control Area

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19.1Defining a Credit Control Area
Step 2: Assign Company Codes to the Credit Control Area

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19.2Assigning Credit Limits Per Customer
2 levels of credit limit: • Globally across all Credit Control Areas • Per Credit Control Area
Example: Customer A Global Limit: $2,000,000.00 Client PepsiCo.
Credit Control Area CCAA Company Code 123 Credit Control Area CCCH Company Code 999

Credit Control Area Limit: $500,000.00

CCAA < = $ 500,000.00 CCCH < = $ 500,000.00 CCAA + CCCH < = $ 2,000,000.00

Customer A

Customer A
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Maintaining Credit Limits Per Customer
Total limit already assigned across all Credit Control Areas Highest limit already assigned for an individual Credit Control Area

Maximum amount that can be assigned per Credit Control Area

Maximum sum amount that can be assigned across all Credit Control Areas
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Monitoring Credit Limits for Customer
Special G/L Transactions such as down payment

Receivables from sales

Open Sales Orders, Deliveries and Billing Docs.

Postings: Increase these amounts Clearings: Decrease these amounts

Total receivables, Special G/L Trans. and outstanding order value
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19.3Credit Checking

SALES ORDER TYPE
Check Credit Limit (Select One) A: WARNING MESSAGE B: ERROR MESSAGE C: WARNING MESSAGE WITH DELIVERY BLOCK D: AUTOMATIC (AUTOMATED CREDIT CHECKING) STATIC or DYNAMIC
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STATIC ONLY

19.4Static Credit Check
OPEN SALES DOCUMENTS

+

OPEN DELIVERY DOCUMENTS

+
OPEN BILLING DOCUMENTS

CREDIT EXPOSURE

+
OPEN ITEMS (A/R)
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Dynamic Credit Check
Static Component
OPEN DELIVERY DOCUMENTS

Dynamic Component

+
OPEN BILLING DOCUMENTS

+
OPEN ITEMS (A/R)

+

OPEN SALES DOCUMENT WITHIN HORIZON

Credit Exposure
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19.5Automated Credit Checking Features
Credit Checks
– STATIC CHECK
– DYNAMIC CHECK – ON BASIS OF MAXIMUM DOCUMENT VALUE – WHEN CHANGES ARE MADE TO CRITICAL FIELDS – ON DATE OF NEXT INTERNAL REVIEW – ON BASIS OF OVERDUE OPEN ITEMS – AGAINST HIGHEST DUNNING LEVEL

System Reaction
– WARNING – WARNING WITH BLOCK – ERROR

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19.5 Automated Credit Checking Configuration in FI
Credit Control Areas (CCA)
EURO CCCS Europe North America

Customer Credit Management Area
Customer Credit Control Area Risk Category Credit Representative Group Credit Limit : 6 : EURO : R02 : 001 : 10,000 USD

Risk Categories
RO1 RO2 RO3 High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk

Credit Representative Groups Credit Representative
001 002 Europe North America Part Func. KB Pers.No. 012 Mail Jones
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Automated Credit Checking Configuration in SD
Document Credit Groups 01 02 03 Sales Order Delivery Goods Issue Item Categories Active TAN AGN

X
Yes

Sales Document Types OR D . . .

= Automated Check Factors influencing credit: Credit + Risk + Document Control Category Credit Area Group

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19.6Reviewing and Releasing Credit Holds
Credit Control Area CCXX Credit Rep Group US
Credit Account Customer A Customer X Customer Y Order 351 567 595 Credit Value 1000.00 200.00 50000.00

Blocked SD Orders
Risk Medium High Low Status Dynamic Chk Dynamic Chk Static Chk

Release the order(s)

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19.7 Risk Management
Risk Management Payment Cards Letters of Credit Export Credit Insurance Credit Management

+

Static/Dynamic Checks Manual Checks

Sales Order 101 Sold-to #6 Net value $1000 XYZ 10 ABC 20 500 500 2. The system determines that letters of credit are allowed and finds one for this customer valued at $600.
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Letter of Credit for customer 6 of $600

3. System performs a credit check against remaining $400 of the sales order.

1. At sales order entry, the sytem determines what types of payment guarantees are allowed for the payer and document type.

19.8 Credit Control Area Determination Options
First
A User Exit at the Header Level
Order of checks for determining the Credit Control Area

Billing View of the Payer Master Record

The Sales Area of the transaction Company Code of the Sales Organization

Last
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19.9 Early Warning List

Creates a report on customers who are likely to become critical The Early Warning List derives its information from the A/R Summary. It is necessary to run the A/R Summary on a timely basis to ensure up to date information. Management can use the results of these reports to determine a course of action on clients. Automatic actions can also be set in customizing.

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19.10 A/R Summary in distributed and nondistributed systems
Report: RFCMCRCV

SD Creating SD - Documents
Non distributed systems: CHECK a) performance+ Distributed systems: CHECK a)

FI

Creates

Report: RFDKLI42 CHECK

A/R Summary

b)

b)performance?

Actual Data

via RFC

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19.11AR Summary
● It contains all credit information for an account in compact form ● Can be used for SD credit checks both in distributed and non-distributed credit management ● Increases efficiency in nondistributed systems as repeated read of open items is avoided

Preliminary settings are done here.
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19.12 AR Summary - Aging Settings
A/R Summary aging settings in SD

A/R Summary aging settings in A/R
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Credit Management Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Credit Management – Credit Control Area – Credit Limit – Automated Credit Checking – Static Credit Checking – Dynamic Credit Checking – Risk Category

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Credit Management Chapter Summary
Key Terms – Document Credit Group – Risk Management – Early Warning List – A/R Summary

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Chapter 20 Incoming Payment Processing

The receipt of payment from a customer is the final step in the integrated Sales Cycle. The system provides full functionality for processing customer payments, clearing open items in the Customer Account and resolving any payment differences. Chapter Objectives – Provide an understanding of how the system processes incoming payments. – Provide an understanding of how the system processes payment differences. – Provide an understanding of Payment Advice functionality and its uses.

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20.1 Post Incoming Customer Payment

Mandatory Dates

Defaulted Information: Document Type (for payment) Account Type (for Customer)

Bank Account & Amount paid

Customer Account

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Entering the Customer Payment

Parameters for Open Item Selection

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20.2.Selecting Open Items to Be Cleared

Activated Open Item

Entered & Assigned Amount

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20.3.Partial Payment / Residual Payment
If a payment amount doesn’t match the open item amount, it can be processed as a partial payment or residual payment.
Partial Payment • Leaves original invoice intact (full amount) • Credits the Customer Account for the payment amount • No items are cleared Residual Payment • Clears the original invoice • Creates a new invoice for the remaining amount • The new invoice has a new Document Date and Baseline Date; although it is changeable
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20.4.Payment Advice
Structure: Header Date Amount 1/27/98 Item 1 Amount 100 Item 2 Amount 600 ... 700 Cur. USD Cur. USD
Payments
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Currency USD Doc. # 123 Doc. # 999
Match

Documents: Doc. # 123 456 789 999 627 Amount 100 500 200 600 235 Cur. USD DEM USD USD SFR

Usually by Document Number

Invoices

Sending and Receiving Payment Advices
Customer: Receives Goods Sends Payment

Execute Payment Program

Payment Advice Generate Clear

Cleared Documents

Seller: Receives Payment Sends Goods
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Types of Payment Advices
Types delivered with the system:

EDI Account Statement Bank

Lockbox

Manual

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20.5Automatic Handling of Payment Differences

How to Handle the Difference:

Payment Difference Detected

Write off to a G/L Expense Account (Charge Off Indicator is set)

Reason Code

Or Generation of a New Item (Charge Off Indicator is not set)

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20.6 Lockbox Processing
Bank:
Checks

Lockbox File (Format)
BAI: Bank Administration Institute

Payment Advice Database

Cleared Documents

A Payment Advice is created for each check.
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Lockbox Processing
Key Reports:
RFEBLBT1: RFEBLB00: RFEBLB20: RFEBBU00: Generates pre-programmed test data (for internal use only) Imports data into lockbox processing BAI format processing Post account statement / check deposit listing

Key Tables:
T049A: Destination and origin definition (“Who”) T049B: Format definition (of EDI, BAI, etc.) (“How”) T049C: Evaluation of Autocash Tapes (creation date and time) (output - results) T049L: Link to House Bank table for Lockbox Master
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20.7.Interest Calculation
● The R/3 Interest Calculation program calculates and books interest on customer/vendor accounts in arrears resulting from items that are not yet paid or were paid too late. ● User definable correspondence for the recipient is generated specifying the details of the transaction. ● Configuration options determine timing and rates of interest.

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Chapter 20 - Incoming Payment Processing Chapter Summary
Key Terms: – Clearing – Partial Payment – Residual Payment – Payment Advice – Reason Code – Lockbox Processing

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Chapter 21 Dunning
•Dunning is the process of notifying customers that an unpaid obligation has become past due. •Chapter Objectives – Understand the functionality and configuration of a Dunning Procedure and how it is executed in the Dunning Program. – Understand the Organizational Structure of Dunning Levels within a given Dunning Program and how parameters can be set for each of them. – Understand how to send dunning correspondence to customers and vendors through Dunning Letters. – Run the Dunning Program.

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21.Dunning
Organizational Structure related to Dunning: Client CLAA

Company Code CCAA

Company Code CCBB

Dunning Area DA01

Dunning Area DA01

Dunning Area DA02

The Dunning Area is an optional unit in the Organizational Structure used to group Customers / Vendors for dunning. Each Dunning Area can represent different dunning policies or Organizational Units responsible for dunning.
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21.1Dunning Run -Overview
Run date Identification
Status Maintain Parameters Parameters entered Schedule dunning run Dunning Run has finished Change dunning notices Dunning data has been changed Start dunning printout Printing of dunning notices has been terminated

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21.2.Dunning Program Configuration
The Dunning Procedure contains the configuration of a Dunning Program. The Dunning Procedures can be tied to Dunning Areas or to a Customer / Vendor master record.
Dunning Procedure Dunning Program

Configuration

Execution

Dunning Levels

Minimum Amounts

Dunning Charges

Dunning Texts

Basic Parameters of the Dunning Procedure
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21.2Assigning the Dunning Procedure in the Master Record

•Master Record •Company Code Data •Correspondence Tab

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21.2Configuring the Dunning Procedure
Frequency for running

Days in arrears after which a Dunning Notice will be sent

Items that are overdue less or equal to the grace period will not be dunned (works like a bonus period) Grace Period Minimum Days in Arrears # Days in Arrears

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12
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21.2.Selecting Open Items to be Dunned
Grace Period: 4 Days Minimum Days in Arrears: 8 Days

Items:
Due 1) 2) 3) 4) -6 +3 +6 +10 Amt. 1,500 350 800 5,400 Status Not Overdue Within Grace Period Within Min. Days in Arrears Overdue 10 Days

Result:
Items 3 and 4 will be dunned. You will dun the account for Item 3 because there is another item that is overdue more than the minimum days in arrears. If Item 4 did not exist, then item 3 would not be dunned.
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21.2. Dunning Levels

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21.2Minimum Amounts
Minimum Amounts define an overdue threshold of the total Account Balance, which must be exceeded to reach a Dunning Level.

Dunning Level

• Minimum Amount • Minimum Percentage • Minimum Amount for Interest

Example: Total Account Balance: USD 25,000,00 Configuration of Dunning Level 1: Min. Amount = USD 15.00 and Min. Percentage = 5% Dunning Balance Level 1: USD 500.00 Will be dunned? No, because USD 500.00 >= Min. Amount but USD 500.00 < Min. %
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21.2.Dunning Charges
For each Dunning Level, it is possible to define an amount to be charged if the minimum amount for dunning is exceeded. A Dunning Charge is used to cover the postage and handling of Dunning Letters. Dunning Charge: Static amount to be charged Dunning Level

Dunning Charge %: Percentage to be applied to the total of all overdue items in the Account to determine the Dunning Charge

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21.2.Dunning Texts

Dunning Level

Dunning Form

A form is set up using SAPScript and can be shared by more than one Dunning Level.

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21.3 Parameters for the dunning run
The Dunning Program examines the open items of a Customer / Vendor and, if overdue items exist, produces the appropriate notice.

Dunning Date Documents Date Company Code, Range of Customer / Vendor Numbers

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21.3 Parameters for the dunning run
It’s possible to create an additional log to analyze the dunning run.

A range of customer and vendor accounts has to be specified

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21.4.Selecting the Dunning Level
New Level = Old Level + 1

Overdue Item

Old Level

The Dunning Letter

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21.4. The dunning run
Dunning can be started at a specific date and time or it can be started immediately.

Dunning notices can be created immediately after the dunning run. If this parameter is set it is no longer possible to change the dunning proposal manually or to delete it.
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21.4The dunning run

Dunning Block Reasons are used to block a Customer / Vendor or an item from being dunned. The user specifies the Dunning Block Identification and a Description.

Dunning Keys are used to mark items that should not trigger a higher Dunning Level. The user specifies the Dunning Key Identification and the Maximum Level that can be triggered.

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21.4. The dunning Run
Dunning run can be divide in to three steps: 1. The program checks which accounts shall be considered in the dunning run according to the parameters and configuration. 2. The system checks which line items are overdue in the selected accounts and which dunning level should be applied. 3. The system checks whether payments have to be dunned for an account and ,if so,which dunning level should be used.

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21.5. Editing the dunning proposal
Dunning items Accounting Overview Dunning data Dunning data Dunning data Account Clerk Dunning Area Dunning Level Dunn Block Account Items Item 1 Dunning Level Dunn Block Item2 …. Customer Document Items Item 1 Correspondence Company code Dunning data Correspondence
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21.6. Printing dunning notices
This image cannot currently be display ed.

• A payment coupon may be attached to a dunning letter or account statement. • Payment coupons can also be printed in a separate spool on dedicated forms.

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21.6Cross Company Code Dunning

This feature enables users to create one dunning notice that covers business partners that exist in different company codes. Likewise, data that would normally be spread over several company codes (and hence several correspondence letters) can now be grouped into one correspondence letter.

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Sending Correspondence to Customers / Vendors

Pre-Defined Action

Trigger

Correspondence

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Chapter 21 - Dunning Chapter Summary
Key Terms: – Dunning – Dunning Area – Dunning Procedure – Grace Period – Dunning Level – Minimum Amount – Dunning Charge

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Chapter 21 - Dunning Chapter Summary
Key Terms: – Dunning Letter – Dunning Program – Dunning Block Reason – Dunning Keys

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