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Probability and Statistics Week 1

Text Book:

Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientist By Wallpole and Mayer

Probability and Statistics
Statistic
(40%)
Probability (60%)
 ∑ Introduction of Statistics ∑ Introduction and Terminology of Probability ∑ Data Organization ∑ Joint Probability, Conditional Probability, Bays Theorem ∑ Data representation ∑ ∑ Grouping of Data ∑ Probability distribution Normal Distribution ∑ Measures of Central Tendency ∑ Binomial distribution ∑ ∑ ∑ Measure of dispersions Measures of Position ∑ Exponential Distribution Random Variables ∑ ∑ Estimation and Expectation Hypothesis Testing

Core Engineering Applications

• 1. Information Theory and Coding

• 2. Computer Communication

• 3. Digital Communication

• 4. Digital Signal Processing

• 5. Microwave Engineering

• 6. Radar and Satellite Communication

• 7. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

• 8. Decision Support Systems

• 9. Product Planning and Marketing Survey

Introduction to Statistics:

The use of statistical methods in manufacturing, development of food products, computer software, pharmaceutical, and many other areas involves the gathering of information or scientific data. Of course, the gathering of data is nothing new. It has been done for well over a thousand years. Data have been collected, summarized, reported, and stored for perusal. However, there is a profound distinction between collection of scientific information and inferential statistics.

Statistic:

Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. It provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models.

Types of Statistics:

Descriptive statistics summarize the population data by describing what was observed in the sample numerically or graphically. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like heights or weights), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race).

Inferential statistics uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing) estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation), describing associations within the data (correlation) and modeling relationships within the data (regression).

Types of Data

Group Data

Data that has been organized into groups (into a frequency distribution). If you see a table similar to the one below, you will know that you are dealing with grouped data:

 Class Frequency 0 – 5 4 6 – 10 5 11 12 – 15 16 7 – 20

Ungrouped Data

Data that has not been organized into groups. Ungrouped data looks like a big numbers.

list of

Measure of Central Tendency of Ungroup Data

Measures of central tendency are measures of the location of the middle or the center of a distribution. The definition of "middle" or "center" is purposely left somewhat

vague so that the term "central tendency" can refer to a wide variety of measures. The mean is the most commonly used measure of central tendency. The following

measures of central

• 1. Mean

• 2. Median

• 3. Mode

• 4. Trimmed mean

Mean of ungrouped data:

tendency

are

discussed

in

this

text:

The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average: When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed that it refers to the arithmetic mean. The mean is the sum of all the entries divided by the number of smaples.

Let x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ,

,

xn be n observations then mean is obtained by dividing the sum of n

... observations by n.

Example: Find the mean of 4,6,8,6,7,8

Solution:

= (4 + 6 + 8 + 6 + 7 + 8)/6 = 39/6 = 6.5

Median of ungrouped data:

If the observations of an ungrouped data are arranged in increasing or decreasing order of their magnitude, a value which divides these ordered observations into two equal parts is called the median of the data. It is denoted by M.

If the number of observations (n) is an odd integer, then

 M = Value of (n+1)/2 th observation in the arrangement of observations in increasing order. If the number of observations (n) is an even integer, then M = (Value of n/2 th observation + Value of (n/2 + 1) th observation)/2 Example: Find the median of the following observations 4,6,8,6,7,8,8 Solution: Observations in the ascending order are : 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 8, 8 Here, n = 7 is odd. Median : M = Value of (n+1)/2 th observation = Value of (7+1)/2 th observation = Value of 4 th observation = 7

Mode of ungrouped data:

An observation occurring most frequently in the data is called mode of the data. It is

denoted by Z.

Example:

Find the mode of the following observations

4,6,8,6,7,8,8

Solution:

In the given data, the observation 8 occurs maximum number of times (3)

Trimmed Mean:

A trimmed mean is computed by "trimming away" a certain percent of both the largest and smallest set of values. For example, the 10% trimmed mean is found by eliminating the largest 5% and smallest 5% and computing the average of the remaining values.

trimming

the

mean

can

reduce

the

effects

of

outlier

bias

in

a

sample

Questions:

• 1- The following measurements were recorded for the voltage of a capacitor, of a

certain period of time.

 3.4 2.5 4.8 2.9 3.6 2.8 3.3 5.6 3.7 2.8 4.4 4.0 5.2 3 4.8

Assume that the measurements are a simple random sample.

Required:

• (a) What is the sample size for the above sample?

• (b) Calculate the sample mean for this data.

• (c) Calculate the sample median.

• (d) Plot the data by way of a dot plot.

• (e) Compute the 20% trimmed mean for the above data set.

• (f) Comment on the bases of given results

 Solution: http://hwvalley.blogspot.com/2012/11/probability-statistics-for- engineers.html

2-

Iqra University purchases a machine trainer according to the Lab Engineer RPM varies for each trial. A random sample of 20 observation is taken and the was measured. The following are the RPM values:

 18.71 21.41 20.72 21.81 19.29 22.43 20.17 23.71 19.44 20.50 18.92 20.33 23.00 22.85 19.25 21.77 22.11 19.77 18.04 21.12. Required:
• (a) Calculate the sample mean and median for the above sample values.

• (b) Compute the 10% trimmed mean.

• (c) Do a dot plot of the given data.

• (d) Comment on the bases of given results

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• 3- In a study conducted by the Department of Mechanical Engineering , the steel rods supplied by two different companies were compared. Ten sample springs were made out of the steel rods supplied by each company and a measure of flexibility was recorded for each. The data are as follows:

 Company A: 9.3 8.8 6.8 8.7 8.5 6.7 8.0 6.5 9.2 7.0 Company B: 11.0 9.8 9.9 10.2 10.1 9.7 11.0 11.1 10.2 9.6 Required:
• (a) Calculate the sample mean and median for the data for the two companies.

• (b) Plot the data for the two companies on the same line and give your impression.

• (c) Comment of the given result.

• 4- The Collector current of a BJT transistor changes with the variation in β, if the biasing technique is simple base bias as the temperature varies the it cause change is β where as Ic = βI B . The random sample of Ic is recorded for the two temperature level in m A.

Required:

• (a) Show the Dot plot for both high and low temperature rating

• (b) Calculate the sample mean, median and mode for both temperature

• (c) Comment on the bases of given results

• 5- CRC Department of IQRA University has assigned a task to record the Hard Disk storage capability in GB New Computer Lab 2 equipped with Core2 Quad. 20 sample were recorded as follows.

 160 80 160 350 80 160 350 350 180 20 80 350 500 20 350 80 160 80 80 80 Required:
• (a) Compute the Mean, Median and Mode of the given data

• (b) Comment which central measure would you prefer and why

• (c) Do an Dot plot of given data