You are on page 1of 5

Recommended Mean Velocities in Pipe From Various Sources Fluid Velocity Dry Gas 100 fps Wet Gas

80 fps High Pressure Steam (150 psig+) 150 fps Low Pressure Steam (< 50 psig) 100 fps Air 100 fps Vapor Lines, General Max velocity 0.3 mach or 0.5 psi/100 ft Light Volatile Liquid near Bubble Point, Pump Suction 0.5 ft head total suction line Pump Discharge, Tower Reflux 3 to 5 psi/100 ft Hot Oil Headers 1.5 psi/100 ft Vacuum Vapor Lines below 50 MM Abs Pressure Allow max of 5% absolute pressure for friction loss Source: Branan, "Rules of Thumb for Chemicl Engineers", 2nd ed., Page 5

Typical Design Velocities for Process System Applications Service Average liquid process Pump suction, supercooled fluid Pump suction, boiling fluid Boiler feed water Gravity liquid drain lines Liquid to reboiler (no pump) Vapor-liquid mixture out of reboiler Vapor to condenser Gravity separator flows

Velocity, ft/sec 4 - 6.5 1-5 0.5 - 3 4-8 1.5 - 4 2-7 15 - 30 15 - 80 0.5 - 1.5

Liquid Fluid Ammonia, liquid Benzene Bromine, liquid Calcium chloride Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine, dry liquid Chloroform, liquid Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Hydrochloric acid, liquid Methyl chloride, liquid Oils, lubricating Perchlorethylene Propylene glycol Sodium chloride solution Sodium chloride sol'n w/solids Sodium hydroxide, 0-30% Sodium hydroxide, 30-50%

Pipe Material Steel Steel Glass Steel Steel Steel, Schedule 80 Copper, steel Glass Steel Steel Rubber-lined Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Monel, Ni Steel, Ni Steel, Ni

Velocity, ft/sec 6 6 4 4 6 5 6 4 6 6 5 6 6 6 5 5 6 min; 15 max 6 5

Sodium hydroxide, 50-73% Styrene Sulfuric acid, 88-93% Sulfuric acid, 93-100% Trichlorethylene Vinyl chloride Vinylidene chloride Water, average service Water, pump suction Water, usual maximum economical Water, sea and brackish Water, sea and brackish

Steel, Ni Steel 316 SS, lead Cast iron; Steel, Sched 80 Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Rubber-lined, Saran Concrete-lined

4 6 4 4 6 6 6 3 to 8; 6 avg 3 to 8 ; 6 avg 7 to 10 5 to 8 5 to 12

Gaseous or Vapor Fluid Acetylene Air, 0 to 30 psig Ammonia Bromine Chlorine, dry Chloroform Ethylene Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen Methyl chloride Natural gas Oxygen (ambient temp.) Oxygen (low temp.) Steam, 0-30 psi, sat. Steam, 15 psi up, superheated Steam, 30-150 psi, sat or superheated Sulfur dioxide

Pipe Material Steel Steel Steel Glass Steel, Schedule 80 Copper, steel Steel Rubber-lined, Saran Steel Steel Steel Steel 304 SS Steel Steel Steel Steel

Velocity, ft/sec 30 (max) 65 100 35 30 to 80 35 100 65 65 65 100 75 (Max) 65 0.1 to 100 0.1 to 250 0.1 to 165 65

Velocity

h or 0.5 psi/100 ft

olute pressure for friction loss

Recommended velocities or frictional P / 100 ft (physical length) of pipelines

Recommen ded Recommended (mass) velocity v, ft/s psi/100 ft Note all pipe diameters Nominal pipe size lower 3" or 4" 6" 8" or higher 1 Liquid in centrifugal pump suction line 3 to 5 3 to 5 3 to 5 up to 6 1.0 () As above, but 1 to 3 at boiling point (e.g. LPG, LNG) 3 liquid 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 0.3 to 0.5 () 2 Liquid in pumpto 7 5 dischargeto 7 5 line up to 10 up to 12 1.0 () 3 Flashing condensate 1 to 2 1 to 2 1 to 2 1 to 2 as required () Notes () Satisfy both recommendations (velocity and P / 100 psi), e.g. if P/100 ft=2 in 4" pipe with v=4 m/s, you have to chose 6" to lo () Velocity can be higher on the condition that NPSHa of the pump (with all safety margins) is satisfied. () Value of psi / 100 ft can be higher for short lines, up to 3 psi / 100 ft for total length up to 250 m = 820 ft (physical + e Sized by "Cameron hydraulic data" cooling water lines can have 1.5 (instead of 1) psi /100 ft for long lines as above. () Recommended velocity as if all condensate remained liquid

Note

, you have to chose 6" to lower P/100 ft.

0 m = 820 ft (physical + equivalent). t for long lines as above.