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Criteria: Standards For Decision Making Intro.

Criteria: evaluative standards used as reference points in making judgments most important for defining the "goodness" of employees, programs, and units in the organization as well as the organization itself discrepancies may result from perceptual biases, different expectations, or varying operational definitions associated with criteria Conceptual Versus Actual Criteria conceptual criteria: a theoretical construct, an abstract idea that can never actually be measured it is an ideal set of factors that constitute a successful person as conceived in the psychologists mind Actual criteria: the operational or actual standard that researchers measure or assess goal is to obtain a reasonable estimate of the conceptual criterion by selecting one or more actual criteria that we think are appropriate Criterion Deficiency, Relevance, and Contamination Criterion Deficiency: the degree to which the actual criteria fail to overlap the conceptual criteria (how deficient the actual criteria are in representing the conceptual ones by careful selection of the actual criteria, we can reduce (but never eliminate) criterion deficiency Criterion Relevance: the degree to which the actual criteria and the conceptual criteria coincide the greater the match between the conceptual and the actual criteria, the greater the criterion relevance (cannot know the exact amount of relevance) Criterion Contamination: the part of the actual criteria that is unrelated to the conceptual criteria. The extent to which the actual criteria measure something other than the conceptual criteria Contamination consists of two parts Bias: the extent to which the actual criteria systematically of consistently measure something other than the conceptual criteria Error: the extent to which the actual criteria are not related to anything at all criterion contamination distorts the actual criterion because certain factors are included that don't belong criterion deficiency distorts the actual criterion because certain important dimensions of the conceptual criterion are not included in the actual criterion Work Analysis Work Analysis: (Frederick Taylor) a cornerstone of the principles of scientific management Lillian Moller and her husband used time-and-motion studies to identify units or segments of work in performing a job, which they called "Therblig" I/O psychologists must often identify the criteria of effective work performance. these criteria become the basis for hiring people, training them, and paying them work analysis is often regard as a required first step in many areas of I/O psychology for practical, theoretical, and legal reasons Sources of Work Information most critical issue is the accuracy and completeness of the information

three major sources of work information, each source is a subject matter expert(SME) a person knowledgeable about a topic who can serve as a qualified information source three major sources Job incumbent: the holder of a job Supervisor: play a major role in determining what job incumbents do on their jobs, and thus are a credible source of information Work Analyst: used when comparisons are needed across many jobs, often provide the most consistent across-job ratings incumbents and supervisors are the best source of descriptive job information, work analysts are best qualified to comprehend the relationships among a set of jobs Work Analysis Procedures the purpose of work analysis is to explain the activities that are performed on the job and the human attributes needed to perform the job tasks are the basic units of work that are directed toward meeting specfic work objectives position a set of tasks performed by a single employee job a set of similar position in an organization job family a grouping of similar jobs in an organization possible to understand work from either a task-oriented or a worker-oriented perspective Task-Oriented Procedures seeks to understand work by examining the tasks performed, usually in terms of what is accomplished focuses on activities involved in performing work the procedure begins with a consideration of work duties, responsibilities, or functions Example: Functional Job Analysis, developed by Fine and Cronshaw, obtains two types of task information what a worker does- the procedures and processes engaged in by a worker as a task is performed how a task is performed- the physical, mental, and interpersonal involvement of the worker with the task Worker-Oriented Procedures seeks to understand work by examining the human attributes needed to perform it successfully human attributes classified into four catigories Knowledge specific types of information people need in order to perform a job Skills the proficiencies needed to perform a task Abilities relatively enduring attributes that generally are stable over time Other personal attributes, most often personality factors Known as KSAOs

serve as a means of understanding the human attributes needed to perform a job linkage analysis: unites the two basic types of work analysis information: task-oriented and worker-oriented examines the relationship between KSAOs and tasks performed How to Collect Work Analysis Information three procedures used: the interview, direct observation, and a questionnaire Procedures for Collecting Information the interview work analyst asks SMEs questions about the nature of their work direct observation employees are observed as they perform their jobs questionnaire analyst uses a commercially available questionnaire that organizes existing knowledge about work information into a taxonomy Taxonomy: a classification scheme useful in organizing information Taxonomic Information several sources of taxonomic information for work analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire consists of 195 statements used to describe the human attributes needed to perform a job statements are organized into six major categories: information input, mental processes, work output, relationships with other persons, job context, and other requirements Fleishman identified 52 abilites required in the conduct of a broad spectrum of tasks (ex. oral expression, arm-hand steadiness, multilimb coordination, reaction time, selective attention, and night vision permits jobs to be described in terms of required abilities and levels of those abilities needed to perform tasks Occupational Information Network (O*NET) a national database of worker attributes and job characteristics database provides the essential foundation for facilitating career counseling, education, employment, and training activities three domains of descriptive information: three worker-oriented worker characteristics worker requirements experience requirements three work-oriented workforce characteristics occupational requirements occupational-specific data Managerial Work Analysis professional and managerial position questionnaire examines work along the dimensions of complexity, organizational impact, and level of responsibility

personality-related position requirements form analyzes work on the basis of the personality factors needed to perform them Uses of Work Analysis Information 1. an analysis of KSAOs reveals those attributes that are needed for successful job performance, including those needed upon entry into a job 2. work analytic information provides a basis to organize different positions into a job and different jobs into a job family 3. work analytic information helps determine the content of training needed to perform the job 4. work analytic information provides one basis to conduct performance evaluations Competency Modeling competency: a characteristic or quality of people that a company wants its employees to manifest modeling: refers to identifying the array or profile of competencies that an organization desires in its employees KSAOs are designed to be more exclusive, differentiating one job from another KSAOs are identified by work analysts using technical methods designed to elicit specific job information competency modeling tries to link personal qualities of employees to the larger overall mission of the organization Job Performance Criteria Objective performance criteria taken from organizational records and supposedly do not involve any subjective evaluation Subjective performance criteria judgmental evaluations of a person performance Nine Major Job Performance Criteria production using units of production as a criterion is most common in manufacturing jobs sales a common performance criterion for wholesale and retail sales jobs Tenure or Turnover turnover is typically calculated on an annual basis as a percentage of the companys workforce Absenteeism absence form work, like turnover, is an index of employee stability appears to be the product of many factors, including family conflicts, job dissatisfaction, alcohol and drug abuse, and personality Accidents used as criterion for mainly blue-collar jobs accidents are difficult to predict, and there is little stability of consistency across individuals in their occurrence accidents can be measured in many ways: number of accidents per hours worked, miles driven, trips taken, and so on Theft major problem for organizations,with annual losses estimated to be $200 billion annually

Deviant Workplace Behavior includes a broad range of employee actions that are counterproductive for the organization Emotional Labor Adaptive and Citizenship Behavior adaptive behavior: being important derived from the continuous pressures placed on organizations over the past 30 years , and the need for employees to adapt their own behavior to these changing work duties citizenship behavior: refers to those aspects of employee performance that transcend performing tasks on a job Dynamic Performance Criteria applies to job performance criteria that change over time job performance is not stable or consistent over time, and this dynamic quality of criteria adds to the complexity of making personnel decisions identified three potential reasons for systematic changes in job performance over time (Steele-Johnson, Osburn, and Pieper) first, employees might change the way they perform tasks as a result of repeatedly conducting them second, the knowledge and ability requirements needed to perform the tasks might change because of changing work technologies third, the knowledge and abilities of the employees might change as a result of additional training