You are on page 1of 97

Stress at Work STRESS AT WORK

A Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of M.B.A Degree of Bangalore University
Submitted By SUHASINI.J
(REG.NO:04XQCM 6033)

Under the Guidance and Supervision


Of

Prof. SUMITHRA SREENATH

M.P.BIRLA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT Associate Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, # 43, Race Course Road, Bangalore-560001. 2004-2006

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

Declaration

I hereby declare that this report titled Stress at work is a record of independent work carried out by me, towards the partial fulfillment of requirements for MBA course of Bangalore University at M.P.Birla Institute of Management. This has not been submitted in part or full towards any other degree or diploma.

Date: Place:

J. Suhasini

(04XQCM6033)

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

Principals Certificate

This to certify that this report titled Stress at Work has been prepared by J.Suhasini bearing the registration number 04 XQCM6033 under the guidance and supervision of Prof. Sumithra Sreenath, MPBIM, Bangalore. This has not formed a basis for the award of any degree/diploma of any university.

Place: Bangalore Date:

Principal (Dr.N.S.Malavalli)

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

GUIDES CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project Report entitled Stress at work, done by J.Suhasini bearing registration No.04XQCM6033 is a bonafide work done carried under my guidance during the academic year 2005-2006 in a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of MBA degree by Bangalore University. To the best of my knowledge this report has not formed the basis for the award of any other degree.

Date:

Prof. Sumithra Sreenath,

Place: Bangalore

M.P.B.I.M.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to sincerely thank to Dr.N.S.Malavalli, Principal, M.P.Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore, who has given his valuable support during my project.

I would like to express my profound gratitude to Sumithra Sreenath. Professor, M.P.Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore, for her constant support, encouragement and guidance throughout this research work .

I equally thank all the respondents who have rendered their sincere opinions and suggestions and helped me successfully complete this research work.

Last but not the least, I express my sincere gratitude to my family and friends who have directly or indirectly helped me complete this project.

J.Suhasini.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

CONTENTS
CHAPTERS
1

PARTICULARS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PART A - THEORETICAL SETTINGS

PAGE NUMBERS
6

2 3 4 5 6 7

INTRODUCTION INDUSTRY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE LITERATURE REVIEW RESEARCH OBJECTIVE , SCOPE AND LIMITATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PART B SURVEY FINDINGS

8 17 22 31 37 39

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION PART C CONCLUSION

41

9 10 11

MAJOR FINDINGS OF RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ANNEXURE

83 87 91

12 13

QUESTIONNAIRE SELECT BIBILIOGRAPHY

92 95

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Organizational life with too much stress leads to rust out and burnout that ultimately makes the organizational life unpleasant and tiring and unproductive. The Stress and Strain and its associates burnout and rust phenomena are highly individualistic and greatly differ from company to company. Stress itself is a function of a number of variables; the nature of the work itself is a major Stressor. There is a need for research to identify the link between the nature of the work and the mindset of the employees towards the work. This is the prime motivator for taking up the research project Stress at work at CARITOR.

Caritor, incorporated and headquartered in the USA, is a global IT Consulting & Systems Integration firm that delivers high-quality IT services to leading clients around the world .

The research was made on employees who are under the pay rolls of the company. It covers only a part of universe as the sample. From the study it was found that, the female employees are found to be more prone to stress compared to their male counterparts. The reason can be attributed to the fact that most women suffer from peer pressure from their male counterparts.. Both the male and female employees feel that work environment has an impact on their performance. The employees are found to be content with the present work environment in the company. The satisfaction of employees is dependent on the quality of work life.

Thus, the analysis of the employees stress level in their work is an essential aspect as it brings out the chances of overall improvement in both the company and the employees.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

INTRODUCTION
What is Stress?

Stress is a normal component of the bodys response to demands that are placed on it. When we are frightened or angry, the body responds to this stress with a number of physical reactions that prepare it for action. Factors that trigger this stress response are known as stressors.

Stressors are encountered in almost every aspect of our lives. Excess stress, or distress, has been identified as an important factor in many types of illness. Occupational stress is often the combined effect of several stressors. Job stressors include physical and organizational factors.

What is Job Stress? Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.

The concept of job stress is often confused with challenge, but these concepts are not the same. Challenge energizes us psychologically and physically, and it motivates us to learn new skills and master our jobs. When a challenge is met, we feel relaxed and satisfied. Thus, challenge is an important ingredient for healthy and productive work. The importance of challenge in our work lives is probably what people are referring to when they say "a little bit of stress is good for you. In general, the combination of high demands in a job and a low amount of control over the situation can lead to stress.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

The bodys pre-programmed response to stress has been called the Generalized Stress Response and includes:

Increased blood pressure Increased metabolism (e.g.. faster heartbeat) Decrease in protein synthesis, intestinal movement and allergic Increased systems Localized inflammation (redness, swelling, heat and pain) Faster blood clotting Increased production of blood sugar for energy Increased stomach acids. cholesterol and fatty acids in blood for response production

energy

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

10

Stress at Work

What are the Causes of Job Stress?

Nearly everyone agrees that job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ, however, on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress.The other causes of job stress are: Work Overload Unreasonable Job Demands Role Ambiguity Career Concerns Inadequate Training Interpersonal Relationships Incompetent Support Personnel Job Security Role Isolation Sex/Race/Age Discrimination Too many bosses Low morale among workers Risk of injury and disease Performance Monitoring

WORK STRESS:

Stress has become an inevitable part of everyday life. However one has to have certain amount of stress to function efficiently. This stress is called driving stress. In the absence of this stress, performance will fall down. But, stress should not increase beyond a certain level. When it goes beyond this level it becomes a hazard (Danger). It results in

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

11

Stress at Work the physical strain, and psychological problems, which again reduces the productivity of the individual.

RESPONSES OF HUMAN BODY TO STRESS: STIMULI

Amity (Friendly)

Enmity (Unfriendly)

Charged (Ready) Maintains right Body-mind equilibrium Fight Reaction

Defeated (Not Ready)

Flight Reaction

Positive effects on the system

Body-mind equilibrium is upset

Negative effects on the system

EUSTRESS

STRESS

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

12

Stress at Work CLASSIFICATION OF STRESS:

Stress has positive and negative aspects. The positive aspects of stress is caused by good feeling (E.g. An employee is offered a job promotion at another location ) this is called EUSTRESS. Eustress is not damaging (or) bad and is something people should seek out rather than avoid.

SOURCES OF STRESS: The physical and mental condition of person alters while undergoing stress. Due to

these changes, several symptoms arise in physical, psychological and behavioral aspects of an individual. These stresses arise from sources which are called stressors and they can be broadly classified as:

1. Environmental Stressors, 2. Organizational stressors, 3. Group stressors, and 4. Individual stressors.

1.Environmental stressors:

Organizations are not

separate; they are

a part of the society.

Besides the

environmental this affects the society and also the organization. Thus, it also affects the individual. The speed at which technology is changing the world is also affecting the societies, companies and organizations. This has overall effects on the employee, as an individual also. E.g. rising prices, status problems, lack of privacy, missed contact, etc.,

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

13

Stress at Work

2.Organizational stressors:

The

stressors

occur

not

only

outside

the

organization,

but

also

inside

the

organization. Organizational stressors are associated with changes in the organizational environment. Organizational stressors can be categorized into

Policies and strategies Structure and Design, Process and Working conditions.

They can be work overload, under experience, pay inequality, crowded working are, heat, poor lighting etc., and act as stressors

3.Group stressors:

People usually are members of various formal and informal groups. These groups have great influence on individual members behavior. Thus, it is also a source of stress. The group stressors can also be categorized into three types.

Lack of group cohesiveness (Unity), Lack of social support, Interpersonal and intergroup conflict.

4.Individual Stressors:

Apart from the other stressors, there are also other individual factors, which cause stress. They are as follows Conflict of role (E.g.: Wife mother (or) executive) Life and career Changes, 14

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work Conflict of goal (Among several goals).

CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS:

Stress is inevitable in peoples lives. Stress in jobs seems to benefit from a mild level of stress, the consequences of high level of stress, which is harmful to individuals, are classified into three:

1) 2) 3)

Physical Consequences, Psychological Consequences, and Behavioral consequences.

1)Physical consequences:

Stress has a tremendous impact on physical health of individuals and employees. A high level of stress is accompanied by high blood pressure, which can result in heart problems, ulcers and arthritis. Doctors report 90% of p atients complain of stress related problems.

2)Psychological consequences:

High

level

of

stress

may

be

caused

and

accompanied

by

anger,

anxiety,

depression, nervousness, irritability and tension. These results in reduced self- esteem, resentment, and inability to concentrate and take decisions, and job dissatisfaction. All these result in poor job performance.

3)Behavioral consequences:

Stress, if sustained over long period, negatively affects the employees behavior. This can be seen in these habits. They can be under eating (or) over eating, sleeplessness,

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

15

Stress at Work increased smoking, and drinking or drug abuse. absenteeism (or) being out by the company. This leads to late coming to work,

All these aspects eventually create problems

for organizations. As hiring new

employees and training them is very expensive. Besides stress it can cause errors, accidents, loss of life too. Extreme case stress is also called Burn out. This can be observed by severe exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal

accomplishment. They are mentally depressed; they are impatient and are unwilling to talk to others.

BURNOUT: Stress is like electric power. It can make a bulb light up and provide brilliant illumination. However, if the voltage is higher than what the bulb can take, it can burn the bulb out. The phenomenon of burnout is a harmful effect of stress resulting in loss of effectiveness.

Burnout can be defined as the end result of stress experienced but not properly coped with, resulting in the symptoms of exhaustion, irritation, ineffectiveness, inaction, discounting of the self and others, and health problems (hypertension, ulcers, and heart ailments).

The opposite phenomenon of glow-up occurs when stress is properly channeled, resulting in a feeling of challenge, high job satisfaction, creativity, effectiveness, and better adjustment to work and life. One study has shown that stress tolerance is higher in individuals with greater impulse control (voluntary delay of gratification of physical and physiological needs) or self-control.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

16

Stress at Work COPING STRATEGIES: Stress cannot be removed but it can be reduced. Thus elimination, but stress reduction (or) coping. there is no stress

Research has shown that the social and

emotional support available to the person can help him or her to cope with stress effectively. People maintaining close interpersonal relationships with friends and family are able to use more approach strategies. Organizations should effectively utilize its human resources to achieve the human resources to achieve the organizational goals and create meaningful and enriching jobs.

Organizations must adapt to the changing social, economic, political and technological improvements. Thus, the organizational structure should be flexible so as to accommodate such changes.

Planning should be done well in advance so that organizations will know what to do next. This can meet both individual and organizations requirement and it

reduces stress at all levels.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

17

Stress at Work INDUSTRY PROFILE

Information Technology

Overview India's IT market reached a turn over of US$ 16.2 billion in 2004-05. The IT Sector employs 697,000 people and this is likely to reach 2 million by 2014. IT Companies are expected to account for 8-10% of GDP by 2008 from 1.4% in 2001 India has emerged as a global player in Information Technology with software exports of US Dollars12 billion in 2003-2004 and $ 17.2 billion in 2004-2005. The revenue from exports of IT and related services is expected to reach US$ 57 billion by 2008, according to a McKinsey report. Of the Fortune 500 companies 220 outsource their software from India.80 out of world's 117 SEI CMM level-5 companies are from India.India's IT and IT-enabled services exports go to 133 countries. Indian IT companies train people in 55 countries. India's IT workforce is 650,000. This is projected to reach 2 million in the next ten years.

Computer software

India has become one of the most preferred destinations for sourcing software and IT enabled services. India in comparison to other low cost locations ranks high in several critical parameters including, level of government support, quality of the labour pool, English language skills, cost advantage, project management skills, entrepreneurial culture, strong customer relationships and exposure to new technologies. India's strength has been enhanced by the industry's strong focus on quality software and processes. This is evident from the fact that a large number of Indian companies have received SEI-CMM Level 5 and ISO-level certifications.

Additionally, a favorable time zone difference with North-America and Europe helps organizations achieve 24x7 internal operations and customer service. Indian IT software and services industry is expected to account for about 2.64 per cent of India's GDP and M.P.Birla Institute of Management 18

Stress at Work 21.3 per cent of exports during 2003-04 and is projected to grow to 7% of India's GDP and 35% of exports by 2008.

India's vibrant IT software and services industry has been projected to reach an export potential of $57-65 billion for the software and services sector by 2008. This implies a share of 6% of the relevant global market. The ITES-BPO sector exports is likely to reach US $ 21-22 billion by 2008.

The number of professionals employed in India by IT and ITES sectors is estimated at 813,500 by March, 2004 of which 260,000 were in the IT software and services export industry; nearly 245,500 in ITES-BPO sector; 28,000 in the domestic software market and over 280,000 in user organizations.

Indias Strengths in Software Industry

The Indian software industry truly symbolizes India's strength in the knowledge based economy. Highly skilled human resources coupled with low wage structure and world class quality have transformed India into a global powerhouse in the Information Technology (IT) software services and solutions sectors.

Despite a slowing global economy, Indian Software exports grew by 23 percent in 2001-02, while overall exports fell down by 2 per cent. India currently exports software to around 95 countries around the globe and more than 250 Fortune 500 companies have outsourced some part of their software requirements from India. North America and Europe accounted for 86% of Indian exports in 2000-2001. The growth of India as a software hub has also been facilitated by the initiatives taken by the Union and State Governments. Many State Governments have set up Hi-Tech Parks and implemented e-governance projects. Many global software majors have set-up operations in India. They include Microsoft, Oracle, Adobe among others.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

19

Stress at Work The Government has also announced incentives for adhering to Quality Standards such as ISO 9000, SEI CMM by providing import duty concessions. Similarly, Exim bank subsidizes the cost of acquiring the quality standard by around 50%.

The growth of the sector has also been enhanced by a Flourishing Venture Capital (VC) industry. The VC industry was estimated to be worth around US$ 408 million in 2000 and is expected to grow to US$ 10 billion by 2008. This shows a CAGR of around 50 per cent.

Policy Initiatives

In the fast paced technology sector such as Electronics and Information Technology, the characteristics which underpin the industry and services are fast technological developments, reducing business cycle times, just-in-time and time to market. To give a boost to the Electronics and Information Technology Industry, a number of policy measures were taken during the year and procedures further simplified.

1. Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG)Scheme: Import of capital goods upto 10 years old and import of capital goods for pre-production and post-production facilities has also been permitted under the scheme. Import of spares has also been permitted to facilitate upgradation of existing plant and machinery.

2. Rationalization of Tariff Structure: Following important measures have been taken by the Government to promote indigenous manufacture.

Customs duty on specified raw materials/inputs for manufacture of electronic components has been reduced to zero per cent. Customs duty on specified capital goods used for manufacture of electronic goods has been reduced to zero per cent. Excise duty on computers has been reduced to 8% from 16% and microprocessors, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives and CD ROM drives have been exempted from Excise duty.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

20

Stress at Work Customs duty has been reduced to 10% on electronic components and on ITA-1 items as per the commitment.

Software Technology Park (STP)/EHTP/EOU/SEZ units are now required to be only net positive foreign exchange earners and there will not be any minimum export performance requirement. Period of utilization of raw materials prescribed has been increased from 1 year to 3 years. Export/Import of all products through post parcel/courier has also been allowed .

3.Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Scheme

Sales from Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) to SEZs will be treated as export. This has entitled domestic suppliers to Drawback/Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) benefits, Central Sales Tax (CST) exemption and Service Tax exemption. Restriction of one year period for remittance of export proceeds has been removed for SEZ units. Export/Import of all products through post parcel/courier has also been allowed for SEZ units.

4.Reduction of Transaction Cost

High priority has been accorded to the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) implementation programme covering all major community partners in order to minimise transaction cost, time and discretion. Customs clearances will be based on self assessment and selective examination. Round the clock electronic filing of customs documents for clearance of goods, presently available in 9 customs formations, is being extended to 23 customs formations. Applications filed electronically through the DGFT's website (www.nic.in/eximpol) shall have a 50% lower processing fee as compared to manual applications. M.P.Birla Institute of Management 21

Stress at Work

Duty / Tariff Structure

1.Customs Duty

Peak rate of customs duty has been reduced to 20%. Special Additional Duty (SAD) of 4% has been abolished. Customs duty on project imports with investment of at least Rs. 5 crore in plants and machinery reduced from 25% to 10%. Customs duty on computers and peripherals reduced to 10% and storage devices, integrated circuits, microprocessors, data display tubes and deflection components of colour monitors continue at zero per cent. Customs duty on Information Technology Agreement (ITA-1) bound items has been reduced as per commitments. Customs duty on specified raw materials/inputs used for manufacture of electronic components or optical fibres/cables and capital goods used for manufacture of electronic goods has been reduced to zero per cent. Specified infrastructure equipment for basic/cellular/internet, V-SAT, radio paging and public mobile radio trunked services and parts of such equipments exempted from basic customs duty. Customs duty on cellphones has been reduced from 10% to 5%. Laptops brought as part of baggage have been exempted from customs duty.

2.Central Excise Duty

Excise duty on computers has been reduced from 16% to 8%. Microprocessors, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives and CD ROM driveshave been exempted from excise duty. Pre-loaded software on PCs, audio CDs, recorded VCDs and DVDs, cellular phones, radio trunking terminals, portable receivers for calling, alerting or paging; parts, components and accessories of mobile handsets including cellular phones have been exempted from excise duty.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

22

Stress at Work

COMPANY PROFILE:

Corporate Overview Caritor, incorporated and headquartered in the USA, is a global IT Consulting & Systems Integration firm that delivers high-quality IT services to leading clients around the world. We have been playing the role of a trusted IT partner to our clients since 1993 by helping them translate their IT vision into solid, measurable value. Today we have a presence that spans the USA, UK, France, the Middle-East, India and Singapore with over 2900 Caritorians working across these locations to deliver winning solutions for our clients.

Caritor offers cost-effective and intelligent IT solutions to clients in the Financial Services, Communications, Retail, Manufacturing, High-Technology, Travel & Transportation and Public Sector industries. We offer IT services in the areas of Application Development, Application Management, Enterprise Business Solutions, Software Testing and Systems Integration through a global delivery model that ensures security, cost-effectiveness and quality for clients.

Since our inception we have firmly believed in ensuring the highest quality and security for the IT solutions that we deliver to clients. Our quality and security processes & certifications are a testament to this commitment - we are one of the very select companies in the world to be certified at SEI-CMM Level 5, PCMM Level 5, CMMI Level 5, ISO:9001 and the BS7799 standards. As part of our continuing quality initiatives we are also rolling out SixSigma processes internally

As a testament to our growth, capabilities and long-term customer relationships Citigroup Venture Capital International (CVC), a business unit of Citigroup Alternate Investments, came on board as partner for strategic initiatives in December 2004 through a

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

23

Stress at Work private investment deal. In our quest to develop new competencies and serve newer markets we also acquired idgo group, a Paris-based provider of high-end IT consulting services to the Telecommunications & Financial Services industries in Europe, in June 2005. History The original dream "My dream is to create an enduring and long lasting global IT Institution, which has the ability to create leaders and affect the lives of people over generations."

- Mani Subramanian, Founder - Chairman and CEO

Caritor (earlier known as 'IT Solutions') was founded as a U.S. Corporation in the San Francisco Bay Area, California on January 15, 1993 by Mani Subramanian, our Founder-Chairman & CEO. Mani is an Engineer and MBA by profession who immigrated to the United States in the fall of 1992. With $150,000 in start-up capital, the former president of Wipro Systems set out to create a new-generation software-solutions company. Of course he had under his belt solid management experience of around 22 years, first at the Tata Group, where he expanded its IT services into other countries, and later at Wipro, where he increased revenue more than 400 percent in 3 years. A Strong Foundation Our Founder's desire to establish a global software company was based upon his own core values and the belief that there would be an ever-growing demand for IT resources that could only be satisfied by a global supply. He was also convinced that the best value to the customer would be only served by having a strong local presence where the demand was substantial. Mani's dream is to create an enduring and long lasting global IT Institution, which has the ability to create leaders and affect the lives of people over generations. This

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

24

Stress at Work institution should provide accountable value proposition consistently to customers by offering competitive solutions leveraging Global Sourcing software delivery business model. Based on his belief that for a company to be truly global, it has to have a rich home market, Mani chose the San Francisco Bay Area to start the company. There is no market more appropriate than Silicon Valley, for its wealth of technology, and California, for the size of the economy. If we could succeed in the Silicon Valley, we could gain recognition elsewhere in the world. Core Values Customer Partnership We approach every customer with a view to build a professionally enduring relationship

Integrity We demonstrate integrity and have the intellectual honesty to refuse opportunities that we cannot fulfill to the satisfaction of our customers Result orientation We leverage technology with a single-minded focus on delivering leadership results for our customers Accountability We promote accountability at all levels and honor what we commit to our customers Flexibility We encourage flexibility to help us serve our customers with technology optimal and cost effective solutions Global Autonomy We ensure global standards while enabling local autonomy to deliver high-quality, responsive and personalized service

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

25

Stress at Work Expertise Business is about results, and not just returns

Customers mean much more than just another sale

People are as important as profits.

Caritor believes that technology is just the means to an end. Even though we operate in the technology industry as a consulting organization, we focus on business processes to build "business solutions" keeping technology in the background, as a mere enabler. Technologically, we are a client/server company that has successfully transitioned into Internet technologies, E-Commerce and E-Business applications. We also possess strong expertise in Unix and NT systems. Our work in databases has extended into OLTP systems all the way from post-implementation services to ERP applications. We have the ability to quickly master any technology - be it legacy or state-of-the art, and harness the learning to deliver appropriate solutions for our customers. One of the fundamental principles around which Caritor was built was to have a strong local presence in the markets we serve. The leadership in these local markets not only facilitates acceptance of the Caritor business model with potential customers, but also brings scalability to local operations Our self-developed software architecture- CAFe (Caritor Application Framework for eBusiness Solutions) is used for web-enabling complex IT projects. We are able to provide our customers with increased value due to the productivity and quality gains achieved through the usage of the CAFe and other re-usable components built over a period of time

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

26

Stress at Work Meaning of Caritor The word Caritor has its origin in two languages. "Cari" is derived from the Latin word "Caritas", signifying the concept of caring. Cari demonstrates relationship building through customer care and value creation. It stands for our values-driven culture. "tor" has Spanish origins and is derived from the word "Toreador", signifying the boldness and strength of a bull fighter. It symbolizes the can-do spirit and entrepreneurial drive of our organization. It brings out the ability and courage to take on heavy odds and win. The complete name "Caritor" signifies our agressiveness in being a caring partner for our customers.

Signoff Line

The Signoff line signifies our distinct focus on and approach to delivering value while empowering our customers' vision. Our core competence is to bridge the gap between the vision and the value of our customers' organizations through our products and services. This unique mind set and approach enables us to add long term and sustainable value to our customers' businesses while building an enduring partnership.

Significance of the Symbol The Symbol in essence represents the character of the people who represent this company -A character that is

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

27

Stress at Work Grounded firmly on a foundation that is as strong and caring as the mother Earth - as represented by the globe Always on the move in terms of intellectual advancement and learning to better serve our customers as evidenced by the globe on its natural axis of rotation. Determined enough to dare to dream and preserve to reach for the stars - as symbolized by the unflinching human

character stretching out to reach for the star. Overall, the symbol brings together into perfect harmony the essential elements of the character required in a person to succeed at Caritor. INDUSTRIES & SERVICES:

The industries that the Caritor is into are,

Financial Services Telecommunications Retail & Consumer Products Manufacturing & Logistics Travel & Transportation Public Sector

Caritor provide services in the following domains

Architecture & design Systems Integration Enterprise Business Solutions 28

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work Enterprise Resource Planning Business Intelligence & Data Warehousing Product Lifecycle Management

Application Management Testing & Validation Technology Services Application Portfolio Management.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

29

Stress at Work

Company Profile:

Name

CARITOR 100, Suraj United Manor,Bull Temple Road, Basavanagudi,

Address Phone

Bangalore,04 080.2667 8355 URL www.caritor.com

Key Contacts Sl No 1 2 3 4 Name Mani Subramanian Jim Puthuff Chris Setterington Srikanth Rao Designation Chairman & CEO COO EVP & CFO EVP, Human Capital Jim.puthuff@caritor.com e-mail

Company Size

3500

Annual Turnover

($ Millions)

Key Services Areas Architecture & Design Systems Integration Enterprise Business Solutions Application Management Application Development Testing & Validation Application Portfolio Mgmt.

Technologies SAP Java, C, C++, .NET Winrunner, Testing S/w Oracle, SQL, Access Unix

Clients Honeywell Orange TJX Scottish Life Unisys Helphire

Strategic Partners Honeywell Microsoft SAP Legend Against Inclination Towards Outsourcing

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

30

Stress at Work For NA-

Remarks

31st fastest growing, privately held US company

LITERATURE REVIEW

Purpose: M.P.Birla Institute of Management 31

Stress at Work The purpose of literature review is to identify the problem statement,

understand the secondary data that has been gathered in the field of study and to make new findings on the problem statement.

Methodology: Methodology that is followed for literature review are different facets of information sources concerning to motivation factors of employee satisfaction. Different sources used in order to collect the information or data are:

Magazines and journals

The internet

Publications

Articles

The

following articles have been analyzed and used in the research for better

understanding of the topic.

Title: Employee Stress and Performance

Author: David Lee

Website referred: www.humannature@work.com

Creating a high performance organization requires understanding what factors influence performance. One of the most significant factors is stress. Initiatives like ,The M.P.Birla Institute of Management 32

Stress at Work Learning Organization, Process Re-engineering, Diversity Training, Collaborative Team Work, and The High Performance Organization are all impacted by the way people are affected by stress. Some of the topics that were covered in this website are as follows:

Stress, Threat, and "Numbing Out" Implications for the Workplace. Stress and the Loss of Creativity Uncontrollable Stress and the Dumping Down Process. Implications For The Workplace.

To create a high performance organization, an organization that brings out the best in its people, we need to understand how stress affects people' s intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal functioning. By drawing on the wealth of research available, we can make recommendations, which increase the probability that people will not be compromised by stress, but instead, perform at optimal levels.

Title: What can be done to reduce stress

Author: Alma Dell Smith, Ph.D

1. The first step is to learn to recognize when you' re feeling stressed. Early warning signs of stress include tension in your shoulders and neck, or clenching your hands into fists. 2. The next step is to choose a way to deal with your stress. One way is to avoid the event or thing that leads to your stress ,but often this is not possible. A second way is to change how you react to stress. This is often the best way.

Tips for dealing with stress

Don' t worry about things you can' t control, like the weather. Prepare to the best of your ability for events you know may be stressful, like

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

33

Stress at Work job interview. Try to look at change as a positive challenge, not a threat. Work to resolve conflicts with other people. Ask for help from friends, family or professionals. Set realistic goals at home and at work. Exercise on a regular basis. Eat well-balanced meals and get enough sleep. Meditate. Get away from your daily stresses with group sports, social events and hobbies. Try to look at change as a positive challenge, not a threat.

Title: Journaling for Stress Reduction and Performance Improvement

Author: Kathleen D. Spector, Ph.D.

Website Referred: http://www.jobstresshelp.com/

How to get all the information organized and useful? It seemed overwhelming, if notnear impossible at times. It was at this time that it rediscovered the value of keeping a journal; a place to record our thoughts, organize our ideas, and plant our emotions. The process of keeping a journal not only helps us to reduce stress but also helps to recognize activity that helps us to achieve the results desired.

To get started, listed are some rituals that will ' kick start' out process and get on our way . some suggested ways of incorporating reflection into the process in order to increase self-awareness, identify activity that increases performance (and detractsfrom achievement), and encourages behavior that reduces stress.

Some of the rituals that helps us to be organized and be free of Stress are:

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

34

Stress at Work

Ritual 1: Journal Aesthetics

Ritual 2: Consolidate

Ritual 3: Commit to a specific time of day

Ritual 4: Be Brief (Use bullet points)

Ritual 5: Review the past for better results in the future.

Title: Stress Burnout

Information: Mayo Clinical Staff

Burnout is a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion caused by long-term exposure to demanding work situations. Causes of Stress burnout are:

Lack of control. Perhaps you' re unable to influence decisions that affect your job, such as which hours you' ll work or which assignments you get. Perhaps you' re unable to control the amount of work that comes in.

Unclear job expectations. Examples include uncertainty over what degree of authority you have and not having the necessary resources to do your work. Dysfunctional workplace dynamics. Examples are working with an office bully, being undermined by colleagues or having a boss who micromanages your work.

Mismatch in values. If your values differ from the way your company does business or handles employee grievances, it will wear on you after a while.

Extremes of activity. When a job is always monotonous or chaotic, you' ll need constant energy to remain focused. Over time this energy drain can lead to burnout. M.P.Birla Institute of Management 35

Stress at Work

Title: Facts about Workplace Stress

Author: Ira S. Wolfe

Website referred: www.super-solutions.com

Every employee feels work-related stress. Many employers take it in stride that they complain about their jobs, their bosses, their co-workers. So is that occasional outburst that just releases enough pressure to allow you to calm down and get back to work. Workplace stress costs the nation more than $300 billion each year in health care, missed work and stress reduction efforts.(Source: American Institute of Stress)

Only 45 percent of private-sector employees are covered by or participate in employer-sponsored programs, employers who provide health insurance benefits experienced on average cost of $3,80 per hour for participating employees in 2003.That cost has more than doubled in four years. (Source: Employment Policy Foundation, Employment Trends)

1 out of 5 workers are at risk for stress related health problems.(Source: LLuminari Landmark Study)

1 in 10 are so tired at the end of the workday that they do not enjoy their nonwork time. (Source: LLuminari Landmark Study)

1 in 5 stated that their work regularly interfered with their responsibilities at home and kept them from spending time with their family.(Source: LLuminari Landmark Study)

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

36

Stress at Work Workers who report they are stressed incur health care costs that are 46 percent higher, or $600 more per person, than other employees.(Source: NIOSH)

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

37

Stress at Work

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE ,SCOPE, AND LIMITATION

NEED FOR THE STUDY: The Stress and strain of IT sector and its associate burnout and rust phenomena are highly individualistic and greatly differ from company to company. Stress itself is a function of a number of variables; the nature of the work itself is a major Stressor. There is a need for research to identify the link between the nature of work and the mindset of the employees towards the work. This prompts the need to study about the stress management and find solutions.

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

To identify the level of stress among the employees for the first three levels in CARITOR,Bangalore.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the various causative factors by which the employees get stress at work place Caritor India, Bangalore

SECO NDA RY O BJ ECT I VES:

To analyze the work nature of employees and its association with stress.

To examine the typical ways by which the stress would be de-stressed.

To recommend appropriate stress-coping strategies with respect to IT services.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

38

Stress at Work

SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1. The study mainly covers all the employees of Caritor India Bangalore taking into consideration of levels such as Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. 2. The study covers the employees who are under the pay rolls of the company. 3. The study covers only a part of the universe as the sample i.e. only 100 employees were chosen out of more than 3500 for surveying purposes. 4. The need for this aspect in the organization is mainly to understand the stress level in employees.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study suffers from the following limitations:

The research has been attempted to understand the stress level of employees only at Caritopr India,Bangalore.

Since the period of study is limited to three months, the researcher could not make an in-depth study

Due to time constraint, the study could cover only permanent employees

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

39

Stress at Work

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Descriptive Research design has been used for the purpose of the study. The ideology of using this research design is that the researcher can know more about the problem being studied and new ideas can be generated.

Sampling Technique: Convenience Sampling was used for the purpose of the study so that the sample could be split into different groups based on the convenience of the researcher.

Sample Size: A sample size of 100 has been chosen for the study.

Sample Procedure: Samples have been selected using Random sampling method. This method of sampling involves selecting samples on a random basis.

Contact Method: Contact with the employees has been made through a structured questionnaire.

Data Sources: Primary data This is the data collected from the employees of Caritor India Private Limited India, Bangalore

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

40

Stress at Work

Secondary data: The secondary data sources utilized are:

Magazine www.caritor.com http://hrnet

STATISTICAL TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS: PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio used in making comparison between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relationships and can also be used to compare the relative terms between the distribution of two or more series of data.

Percentage of respondents = (No of respondents/ Total no of respondents) * 100

WEIGHTED AVERAGE: Weighted average is calculated as follows, Weighted average = sumWi (Xi) / n Where,

Wi - Weightage Xi Number of Respondents n Total number of responses.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

41

Stress at Work

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

42

Stress at Work

GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF THE EMPLOYEES

Gender Male Female Total

Frequency 60 40 100 60 40 100

% of Responses

TABLE 5.1

Male

Female

. CHART 5.1 OBSERVATION: From the table it is observed that 60% of the respondents are male . 40% respondents are female.

INFERENCE: It is inferred that majority of the respondents are male i.e. in IT sector male employees are more than female employees. M.P.Birla Institute of Management 43

Stress at Work

AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

Age Less than 21years 21 to 30 years Above 30 years Total

No of respondents 5 90 5 100

% of Responses 5 90 5 100

TABLE 5.2 SOURCE: Field investigation

Less than 21years

21 to 30 years

Above 30 years

CHART 5.2

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

44

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

90% of the respondents belong to the age group of 21 to 30 years.

5 % of the respondents belong to the age group of less than 21 years.

5% of the respondents belong to the age group of greater than 30 years.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents belong to the age group of 21to 30 years.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

45

Stress at Work

INCOME WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

Income Less than 15000 15000 to 20000 Above 20000 Total

No of respondents 12 65 23 100

% of Responses 12 65 23 100

TABLE 5.3

SOURCE: Field investigation

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Less than 15000 15000 to 20000 Above 20000

CHART 5.3

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

46

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

12% of the respondents earnings are less than Rs15000.

65% of the respondents earnings are between Rs15000 and Rs 20000,

23% of the respondents earnings are greater than Rs20000.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents earnings are between Rs15000 and Rs20000.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

47

Stress at Work

MARITAL STATUS WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

Marital Status Married unmarried Total

No of respondents 21 79 100 21 79 100

% of Responses

TABLE 5.4 SOURCE: Field investigation

Married

unmarried

CHART 5.4 OBSERVATION: From the table it is observed that 21% of the respondents are married. 79 % of the respondents are unmarried.

INFERENCE: From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents are unmarried.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

48

Stress at Work

EXPERIENCE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES Experience Less than 2 years 2 years to 3 years Above 3 years Total No of respondents 34 52 14 100 % of Responses 34 52 14 100

TABLE 5.5 SOURCE: Field investigation

Less than 2 years

2 years to 3 years

Above 3 years

CHART 5.5

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

49

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

34% of the respondents have experience less than 2 years

52 % of the respondents have experience of 2 to 3 years

14% of the respondents have more than 3 years of experience

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents have 2 to 3 experience.

years of

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

50

Stress at Work FACILITIES FOR TAKING BREAKS

BREAK FACILITIES Good Not a problem Slight problem Major problem Total

No of respondents 35 21 43 1 100

% of Responses 35 21 43 1 100

TABLE 5.6 SOURCE: Field investigation

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Good Not a problem Slight problem Major problem

CHART 5.6

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

51

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

35% of the respondents feel that break facilities is good.

21% of the respondents feel that break facilities is not a problem.

43% of the respondents feel that there is slight problem in the break facilities .

1% of the respondents feel that there is a major problem in the break facilities.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that there is a slight problem in the break facilities.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

52

Stress at Work

ABSENTEEISM WITH UNRELATED REASONS AMONG RESPONDENTS

Absenteeism(unrelated reason) No of respondents % of Responses Always Sometimes Never Total 69 29 2 100 69 29 2 100

TABLE 5.7 SOURCE: Field investigation

Always

Sometimes

Never

CHART 5.7

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

53

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

69% of respondents give always-false reasons.

29% of the respondents sometimes give false reasons .

2 % of the respondents never give false reasons.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that the majority of the respondents are absent to work for the reasons other than what they quote.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

54

Stress at Work

BETTERMENT OF POSTIONS AND ACHIVEMENTS Strive for betterment Always Sometimes Never Total No of respondents % of Responses 93 7 0 100 93 7 0 100

TABLE 5.8 SOURCE: Field investigation

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A lways S om etim es N ev er

CHART 5.8

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

55

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

93% of respondents always strive for betterment of their position and achievement.

33% of the respondents sometimes strive for betterment of their position and achievement .

0% of the respondents never strive for betterment of their position and achievement.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that the majority of the respondents strive for betterment of their position and achievement.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

56

Stress at Work

SATISFACTION WITH JOB ASSIGNMENTS

JOB SATISFACTION Very happy Happy Just satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No of respondents 8 29 45 18 100

% of Responses 8 29 45 18 100

TABLE 5.9 SOURCE: Field investigation

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Very Good Good Just satisfied Dissatisfied

CHART 5.9

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

57

Stress at Work OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

8% of the respondents are very happy with their job assignments .

29% of the respondents are happy with their job assignments .

45% of the respondents are just satisfied with their job assignments .

18% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their job assignments .

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that with their job assignments

majority of the respondents are just satisfied

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

58

Stress at Work

HAVE LESS TIME FOR HOBBIES AND THEMSELVES

Less time Always Sometimes Never Total

No of respondents % of Responses 88 9 3 100 88 9 3 100

TABLE 5.10

SOURCE: Field investigation

Always

Sometimes

Never

CHART 5.10

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

59

Stress at Work OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

88% of respondents always have less time for their hobbies and to take care of themselves.

9% of respondents sometimes have less time for their hobbies and to take care of themselves.

3% of respondents enough time for their hobbies and to take care of themselves.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents are always have less time for their hobbies and to take care of themselves.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

60

Stress at Work

FLEXIBILITY OF WORKING HOURS

FLEXI WORKING Good Not a problem Slight problem Major problem Total

No of respondents 53 20 16 11 100

% of Responses 53 20 16 11 100

TABLE 5.11 SOURCE: Field investigation


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Good Not a problem Slight problem Major problem

CHART 5.11

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

61

Stress at Work OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

53% of respondents feel that policy of flexi working hours is good.

20% of respondents do not have any problems with the policy of flexi working hours.

16% of respondents have slight problems with the policy of flexi working hours.

11% of respondents have major problems with the policy of flexi working hours.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents feel that policy of flexi working hours is good.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

62

Stress at Work

WORKING HOURS

WORKING HOURS < 40 Hours 40 hours 50 hours 50 hours 60 hours >60 hours Total

No of respondents 0 36 53 11 100

% of Responses 0 36 53 11 100

TABLE 5.12 SOURCE: Field investigation

< 40 Hours

40 hours 50 hours

50 hours 60 hours

>60 hours

CHART 5.12

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

63

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

There are no respondents who work for less than 40 hours in a week.

36% of respondents working hours range between 40 hours 50 hours per week.

53% of respondents working hours range between 50 hours 60 hours per week.

11% of respondents work for more than 60 hours in a week.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that

majority of the respondents working hours

range between 50 to 60 hours per week. The number of working hours exceed the normal amount of working hours for any employee .

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

64

Stress at Work AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY SITUATION OF RESPONDENTS Opinion Sufficient Insufficient Total No of respondents 16 84 100 16 84 100 % of Responses

TABLE 5.13 SOURCE: Field investigation

Sufficient

Insufficient

CHART 5.13 OBSERVATION: From the table it is observed that 16% of the respondents feel that the authority and responsibility assigned to them is sufficient. 84% of the respondents feel that the authority and responsibility assigned to them is insufficient..

INFERENCE: From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents feel that the authority and responsibility assigned to them is insufficient.. 65

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

Stress at Work

COMPENSATION PACKAGE

Compensation package Very good Good Satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No of respondents 4 17 23 56 100

% of Responses 4 17 23 56 100

TABLE 5.14 SOURCE: Field investigation

Very good

Good

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

CHART 5.14

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

66

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

4% of

the respondents are

very happy with their compensation

package.

17% of package..

the respondents are

happy with their compensation

23% of package.

the respondents are just satisfied with their compensation

56% of package..

the respondents are dissatisfied with their compensation

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that with their compensation package.

majority of the respondents are dissatisfied

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

67

Stress at Work

OPPURTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION AND GROWTH Promotion opportunities Very good Good Few No Total No of respondents 27 42 21 10 100 % of Responses 27 42 21 10 100

TABLE 5.15 SOURCE: Field investigation

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Very good Good Few No

CHART 5.15

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

68

Stress at Work OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

27% of the respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are very good in the company.

42% of the respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are good in the company.

21% of the respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are few in the company.

27% of the respondents feel that there are no opportunities for promotion and growth in the company.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that

majority of the respondents feel that the

opportunities for promotion and growth are good in the company. .

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

69

Stress at Work

APPRECIATION OF EFFORTS FROM MANAGERS

Appreciation Very good Good Satisfied Dissatisfied Total

No of respondents 6 17 22 55 100

% of Responses 6 17 22 55 100

TABLE 5.16 SOURCE: Field investigation

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Very good Good Satisfied Dissatisfied

CHART 5.16

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

70

Stress at Work OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

6% of the respondents are very happy with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

17% of the respondents are happy with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

22% of the respondents are just satisfied with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

55% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that

majority of the respondents are dissatisfied

with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

71

Stress at Work

SUPERIMPOSING OF WORK AND HOME ISSUES

Superimpose Always Sometimes Never Total

No of respondents % of Responses 91 7 2 100 91 7 2 100

TABLE 5.17 SOURCE: Field investigation

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Always Sometimes Never

CHART 5.17

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

72

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

91% of respondents always superimpose their work and home issues.

7% of respondents sometimes superimpose their work and home issues.

2% of respondents never superimpose their work and home issues.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that their work and home issues.

majority of the respondents always superimpose

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

73

Stress at Work

TRAINING FOR CURRENT WORK

Training Very good Good Sufficient Insufficient No Total

No of respondents 11 20 18 46 5 100

% of Responses 11 20 18 46 5 100

TABLE 5.18 SOURCE: Field investigation

Very good

Good

Sufficient

Insufficient

No

CHART 5.18

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

74

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

11% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is very good .

20% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is good .

18% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is sufficient.

46% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is insufficient..

5% of respondents feel that there is no training given to them to perform their current work .

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that

majority of the respondents feel that the training

given to them to perform their current work is insufficient..

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

75

Stress at Work

TEAM PLAYER

Team player Very good Good Average Total

No of respondents 31 52 17 100

% of Responses 31 52 17 100

TABLE 5.19 SOURCE: Field investigation

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Very good Good Average

CHART 5.19

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

76

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

31% of the respondents are very good team players.

52% of the respondents are good team players.

17% of the respondents are average team players

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that majority of the respondents are god team players.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

77

Stress at Work

FEEL GUILTY WHEN THEY RELAX

Feel guilty Always Sometimes Never Total

No of respondents % of Responses 4 35 61 100 4 35 61 100

TABLE 5.20 SOURCE: Field investigation

Always

Sometimes

Never

CHART 5.20

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

78

Stress at Work

OBSERVATION:

From the table it is observed that

4% of respondents always feel guilty when they relax.

35% of respondents sometimes feel guilty when they relax.

61% of respondents never feel guilty when they relax.

INFERENCE:

From the table it is inferred that they relax.

majority of the respondents never feel guilty when

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

79

Stress at Work

TABLE SHOWING SUPERIMPOSING OF OFFICIAL AND PERSONAL ISSUES.

weighted Average tools applied by giving the weightage as follows.

Rating Scale Weightage

Always 3

Sometimes 2

Never 1

Table showing the Weightage Average based on marital status

Marial status

Always

Sometimes

Never

Total

Average

Married

21

63

Unmarried

70

226

2.86

Married = (63+0+0)/63 = 63/21=1. Unmarried = (210+14+2)/79 = 226/79 = 2.86

Inference: From the table it is inferred that the employees who are married superimpose official and personal issues.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

80

Stress at Work TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EMPLOYEE EXPERIENCE WITH REGARD TO THE STARTING PROBLEMS IN THEIR WORK.

Weighted Average tools applied by giving the weightage as follows.

Rating Scale Weightage

Always 3

Sometimes 2

Never 1

Table showing the Weightage Average based on experience. Experience Less years 2 years to 3 years Above 3 years than 2 Always Sometimes Never Total Average

44

54

1.10

42

56

1.14

Less than 2 yrs = (0+10+44)/49 = 54/49 = 1.10 2 3yrs = (0+14+42)/49 = 56/49 = 1.14 Greater than 3 yrs= (0+0+2)/2 = 1 Inference: From the table it is inferred that the employees whose experience is less than a year have starting problems with their work. M.P.Birla Institute of Management 81

Stress at Work

TABLE

SHOWING

THE

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

MARITAL

STATUS AND URGE TO CHANGE JOB FREQUENTLY. Weighted Average tools applied by giving the weightage as follows.

Rating Scale Weightage

Very good 1

Good 2

Satisfied 3

Dissatisfied 4

Table showing the Weightage Average based on marital status Marial status

Very good

Good

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

Total

Average

Married

14

41

1.95

Unmarried

29

56

317

4.012

Married = (4+28+9+0)/21=1.95. Unmarried = (0+6+87+224)/79=4.012

Inference: From the table it is inferred that the employees who are unmarried have the urge to change their job frequently

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

82

Stress at Work TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AND URGE FOR AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

Weighted Average tools applied by giving the weightage as follows.

Rating Scale Weightage

Insufficient 2

Sufficient 1

Table showing the Weightage Average based on experience.

Experience

Insufficient

Sufficient

Total

Average

Less than 2 years

23

11

34

1.67

2 years to 3 years

32

20

52

1.61

Above 3 years

05

14

1.35

Less than 2 yrs = (46+11)/34 =1.676 2 3yrs = (64+20)/52 = 1.61 Greater than 3 yrs= (10+9)/14 = 1.35

Inference: From the table it is inferred that the employees who have less years of experience have greater urge for authority and responsibility.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

83

Stress at Work

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH


It is observed that 60% of the respondents are male and 40% respondents are female.

It is noted that 90% of the respondents belong to the age group of 21 to 30 years, 5% of the respondents belong to the age group of less than 21 years. 5% of the respondents belong to the age group of greater than 30 years.

Almost 12% of the respondents earnings are less than 15000, 65 % of the respondents earnings are between 15000 and 20000, 23% of the respondents earnings are greater than 20000.

Nearly 79% of the respondents are married, 21 % of the respondents are unmarried.

It is seen that 34% of the respondents have experience less than 2 years,52% of the respondents have experience of 2 to 3 years and 14% of the respondents have more than 3 years of experience.

It is observed that 35% of the respondents feel that break facilities is good,21% of the respondents feel that break facilities is not a problem,43% of the respondents feel that there is slight problem in the break facilities,1% of the respondents feel that there is a major problem in the break facilities.

It is noted that 69% of respondents always give false reasons for being absent,29% of the respondents sometimes give false reasons ,and 2 % of the respondents never give false reasons.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

84

Stress at Work

About 93% of respondents always strive for betterment of their position and achievement, 33% of the respondents sometimes strive for betterment of their position and achievement ,and 0% of the respondents never strive for

betterment of their position and achievement.

It is observed that 8% of

the respondents are

very happy with their job

assignments ,9% of the respondents are happy with their job assignments, 45% of the respondents are just satisfied with their job assignments ,and 18% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their job assignments .

Nearly 88% of employees always have less time for Hobbies and themselves, 12% of the respondents sometimes have time for Hobbies and themselves and 0 % of the respondents time for Hobbies and themselves.

It is noted that 53% of respondents feel that policy of

flexi working hours is

good,20% of respondents do not have any problems with the policy of flexi working hours, 16% of respondents have slight problems with the policy of flexi working hours and11% of respondents have major problems with the policy of flexi working hours.

It is observed that there are no respondents who work for less than 40 hours in a week,36% of respondents working hours range between 40 hours 50 hours per week, 53% of respondents working hours range between 50 hours 60 hours per week and 11% of respondents work for more than 60 hours in a week.

About 16% of the respondents feel that the authority and responsibility assigned to them is sufficient and 84% of the respondents feel that the authority and

responsibility assigned to them is insufficient.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

85

Stress at Work

About 4% of

the respondents are

very happy with their compensation

package,17% of the respondents are happy with their compensation package,23% of the respondents are just satisfied with their compensation package, and 56% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their compensation package.

It is observed that 27% of the respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are very good in the company,42% of the respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are good in the company,21% of the

respondents feel that the opportunities for promotion and growth are few in the company., and 27% of the respondents feel that there are no opportunities for

promotion and growth in the company.

It is noted that 6% of the respondents are very happy with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers,17% of happy with the kind of the respondents are

appreciation that they get for their efforts from their

managers,22% of the respondents are just satisfied with the kind of appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers , and 55% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the appreciation that they get for their efforts from their managers.

It is observed that 91% of respondents always superimpose their work and home issues,7% of respondents sometimes superimpose their work and home issues, and 2% of respondents never superimpose their work and home issues.

About 11% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is very good ,20% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is good ,18% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is sufficient, 46% of respondents feel that the training given to them to perform their current work is insufficient, and 5% of respondents feel that there is no training given to them to perform their current work .

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

86

Stress at Work

It is observed that 31% of the respondents are very good team players,52% of the respondents are good team players, and 17% of the respondents are average team players.

It is noted that 4% of respondents always feel guilty when they relax,35% of respondents sometimes feel guilty when they relax, 61% of respondents never feel guilty when they relax.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

87

Stress at Work

RECOMMENDATIONS

1.

The employees must be given more responsibilities and power, which shall enable them to make their own decisions.

2. Authority should be given to the employees at various levels, which shall enable them to make their own decisions.

3.

The employees must be provided adequate training programs to improve their skills, so that they would gain confidence in doing any sort of work.

4. Arranging Yoga, Meditation sessions etc for employees to overcome stress.

5. Giving varied tasks to employees for rectifying monotonous in job.

6.

Once in two months outing / get together can be arranged in a location other than work place.

7.

Installation of gym/spa in office premises to enable the employees to relax themselves during leisure hours. everal corporate programs should be

designed by the company to take stress out of the job or at least minimize distress and reduce costs. The company can hold sessions that teach relaxation and coping stress strategies. Gyms and wellness programs are essential. The company can also provide worker incentives that include rebates on fees for programs for losing on weight and keeping it off.

8. The frequency of breaks in between work hours should be increased.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

88

Stress at Work

9. A music hall should be built to entertain employees.

10. Pleasant pictures and sayings should be pasted allover the work place.

11. Redress of employee grievances should be made immediately.

12. Utmost care should be taken that the employees are not working for more than nine hours a day.

13. The management should check whether the employees are satisfied with all the aspects of the job. Job redesign reinforced with job rotation and job enrichment is quite helpful.

14. Our

Personal

enquiry

with

employees

of

the

companies

reveals

that

mentoring goes beyond sustaining a companys greatness to enhancing the personal greatness of its workers. The company can introduce a formal mentoring program which enable the employees to reduce the stress

intensity, if not terminating it completely

15. The company can also introduce the concept of self -managed work teams. There can be a positive linkage between employee empowerment and stress reduction.

16. The

company

should

run

Employee

Assistance

Program(EAP)

to

help

stressed staff cope better. EAP acts as a bridge between the employer and the employees operating on the belief that the workforce is one living unit and not merely a mechanical body of people, EAP provides much needed relief to

employees with work-related or personal problems and include face-to face counseling, helpiness and such other initiatives.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

89

Stress at Work

17. The company should ensure enabling environment of the workplace by:

Setting clearly measurable goals and defined objectives for the employees Ensuring the individuals are well matched to their jobs. Training, retaining employees, particularly in interpersonal skills. Religiously investigating stress levels and their likely causes. Providing necessary guidance and suppose for those experiencing high stress levels.

Soliciting ideas from employees to combat stress. Encouraging flexible hours of working.

18. The company must provide Social support to the

employees. The social

support can be in the for of emotional support among colleagues, through the exchange of knowledge or information or in the form of actual help on the job in addition to ones own work responsibilities. Supportive relationships at work can serve as a form of protection for employees as a shield from stressors.

19. The company should promote adaptive workplace culture which would ensure workplace experience more enjoyable.Mentorship programs facilitate this culture.

20. Assessing levels of stress is of utmost importance. There are several ways b the company can diagnose the intensity or severity of stress in any company. surveying employees, either using a questionnaire or in person about their workplace can be revealing. Conducting focus groups will be very effective in stress management. There are also several stress measurement scales that can be used to measure employee stress.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

90

Stress at Work

Some of the popular scales are (a)Michigan stress assessment (b) occupational stress Indicator and (c) Job stress survey and life events scale. I recommend the use of these for the company.

21. The trust of good stress management initiatives should be not only on identifying the sources of stress, but also troubleshooting solutions based on the input, interaction and needs of all concerned. The company should make efforts to help employees realize that managing stress is nothing but managing oneself and ones life more effectively.

In the sum, it should be recognized that stress is more than a matter of emotional problem and personality conflicts. It is a problem that affects the corporate balance sheet. Manifestations of stress can lead to low productivity, absenteeism, and employee turnover. Unless the company tackles the root causes of high stress be it unrealistic targets, excessive workload, staff shortages or other factors stress can boomrang into bigger problems. What is required is our effective stress management embedded in the sound and realistic human resource management policies.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

91

Stress at Work

DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

The following recommendations are made to improve upon the findings of this project.

1. Measurement of Stress levels in IT Services sector.

2. Behavioral Symptoms of Individual Stress.

3. Impact of Positive Stress on Labour Productivity.

4. Leveraging the Organizational Stress to Organizational effectiveness.

In my view the afore-said areas constitute Green Pasture in this important Field of research.

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

92

Stress at Work

QUESTIONNAIRE

I, SUHASINI, student of MPBInstitute of Management, Bangalore pursuing MBA Degree Course. As a part of my Academic Curriculum, I have undertaken a research Project on STRESS ..AT WORK. I have been authorized by our Institute to carry out this survey-based research project. The following is the Questionnaire for the survey. I request you Kindly to spare your valuable time and give responses to the questions enveloped in the questionnaire. I must state that your responses are of immense use to my research project. I assure you that your responses will be kept strictly confidential and shall only be used for academic purpose.

PERSONAL PROFILE

NAME(OPTIONAL):

GENDER: Male

Female

AGE : < 21 years 21 30 years > 30 years

MARITAL STATUS: Married

Unmarried DESIGNATION:

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

93

Stress at Work LEVEL:

QUESTIONS RELATED YOUR WORK

1. Income: a) <15000 b) 15000 20000 c) >20000

2. Experience: a) <2 years b) 2 3 years c) >3 years

3. Working hours per week: a) < 40 hours b) 40 50 hours c) 50 60 hours d) > 60hours

4. Facilities for taking breaks: a) Good b )Not a problem c) Slight problem d) Major problem

5. Compensation package: a) Very good b) Good c) Satisfied d) Dissatisfied

6. Job Satisfaction: a) Very happy b)Happy c) Just satisfied d)Dissatisfied

7. Opportunities for promotions and growth in the company: a) Very good b) Good c) Few d) No

8. Opinion on flexi working hours: a) Good b )Not a problem c) Slight problem d) Major problem

9. Opinion on authority and responsibility given to you: a) Sufficient b ) Insufficient

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

94

Stress at Work

10. Training given for my current work: a) Very good b) Good c) Sufficient d ) Insufficient e) No

11. Opinion on , appreciation given by superiors for your efforts: a) Very good b) Good c) Satisfied d) Dissatisfied

12. My efficiency as a team player: a) Very good b) Good c) Average

13. I have been absent to work for reasons other than what I quote: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

14. I strive to better my positions and achievements: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

15. I have little time for my hobbies and for myself: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

16. I carry office troubles to home and home troubles to office: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

17. I feel the urge to change job frequently: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

18. I feel guilty when I relax and do nothing during leisure time: a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

THANKS FOR FILLING YOUR RESPONSES

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

95

Stress at Work

Bibliography

TEXT BOOKS: 1. Human Resource Management and Personnel Management By Ashwathappa 3RD Edition TATA McGraw-Hill 2. Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations By Subba Rao 2nd Edition Himalaya Publishing House

WEBSITES: www.hr-guide .com www.caritor.com

JOURNALS: 1. ICFAI HRM Review, February 2005 2. iQ Magazine, November/December 2002

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

96

Stress at Work

M.P.Birla Institute of Management

97