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at a time (1896) that the cinema was just being born as a new medium. In 1896 he published his second large work, entitled Matter and Memory. This rather difficult, but brilliant, work investigates the function of the brain, undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. This is especially obvious in Matter and Memory, where he showed a thorough acquaintance with the extensive pathological investigations which had been carried out during the period.] He commented on the need for new ways of thinking about movement, and coined the terms "image-temps" (images-as-time) and "image-mouvement" (images-as-movement). However, in his 1906 essay L'illusion cinématographique (in L'évolution créatrice), he rejects film as an exemplification of what he had in mind. Nonetheless, decades later, in Cinéma I & II (1983-1985), the philosopher Gilles Deleuze takes Matière et Mémoire as the basis of his philosophy of film and revisits Bergson's concepts—combining them with the semiotics of Charles Peirce The Italian futurist Ricciotto Canudo is considered to be the first true theorist of the cinema. He published The Birth of the Seventh Art in 1911 Another early attempt was The Photoplay (1916) by the psychologist Hugo Münsterberg So-called classical film theory (from the 1910s through, approximately, 1970) arose in the silent era and was mostly concerned with defining the crucial elements of the medium. It largely evolved from the works of directors like Germaine Dulac, Louis Delluc, Jean Epstein, Sergei Eisenstein Lev Kuleshov Dziga Vertov Paul Rotha and film theorists like Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs and Siegfried Kracauer. These individuals emphasized how film differed from reality, on how it might be considered a valid art form. In the years after World War II the French film critic and theorist André Bazin reacted against this approach to the cinema—arguing that film's essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality. He also co-founded the highly influential Cahiers du cinéma. Cahiers was more concerned with film criticism than with film theory, but it was the birthplace of the auteur theory Cahiers' young critics, such as directors-to-be François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, were some of the first to take popular Hollywood cinema seriously as an art form. Their fascination with Westerns and gangster films encouraged the development of genre theory. In the 1960s and 1970s, film theory took up residence in academe, importing concepts from established disciplines like psychoanalysis anthropology, literary theory, semiotics
and linguistics—a tendency encouraged by the influential British journal, Screen, among others. During the 1990s the digital revolution in image technologies has had an impact on film theory in various ways. There has been a refocus onto celluloid film's ability to capture an indexical image of a moment in time by theorists like Mary Ann Doane, Philip Rosen and Laura Mulvey. There has also been a historical revisiting of early cinema screenings, practices and spectatorship modes by writers Tom Gunning, Miriam Hansen and Yuri Tsivian. Structuralist film theory emphasizes how films convey meaning through the use of codes and conventions not dissimilar to the way languages are used to construct meaning in communication. An example of this is understanding how the simple combination of shots can create an additional idea: the blank expression on a person's face, a piece of an appetising cherrytopped chocolate fudge cake, and then back to the person's face. While nothing in this sequence literally expresses hunger—or desire—the juxtaposition of the images convey that meaning to the audience. Unraveling this additional meaning can become quite complex. Lighting, angle, shot duration, juxtaposition, cultural context, and a wide array of other elements can actively reinforce or undermine a sequence's meaning.