Tools for Managers

Statistical Process Control
Professor Stephen R. Lawrence
College of Business and Administration
Graduate School of Business and Administration
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80303
303/492-4351
Stephen.Lawrence@Colorado.Edu
© 1996-1999

Cpk

PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX -- Cpk
Process Name: Potato chip salter
Process Units:
% salt

Specification Target:
Lower Specification Limit:
Upper Specification Limit:

1.00
0.98
1.02

% salt
% salt
% salt

Process Mean:
Process Standard Deviation:

1.01
0.005

% salt
% salt

Ratio
Cp:
Cpk:

Value
1.33
0.67

Process is:
capable
not capable (not centered)

Percent Under Spec:
Percent Over Spec:
Percent Out of Spec:

Process Density

Process Capability Chart
90.00
80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0.94

0.96

0.98

1.00

1.02

1.04

Quality Dimension

-0.50
-0.49
-0.48
-0.47
-0.46
-0.45
-0.44
-0.43
-0.42
-0.41
-0.40
-0.39
-0.38
-0.37
-0.36
-0.35

Chart Setup
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.96
0.0000
0.97
0.0000
0.97
0.0000
0.97
0.0000

0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

Page 2

1.02

1.06

0.00%
2.28%
2.28%

Cpk

-0.34
-0.33
-0.32
-0.31
-0.30
-0.29
-0.28
-0.27
-0.26
-0.25
-0.24
-0.23
-0.22
-0.21
-0.20
-0.19
-0.18
-0.17
-0.16
-0.15
-0.14
-0.13
-0.12
-0.11
-0.10
-0.09
-0.08
-0.07
-0.06
-0.05
-0.04
-0.03
-0.02
-0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17

0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0004
0.0005
0.0008
0.0012
0.0017

0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885
79.7885

Page 3

0024 0.4096 6.2092 71.00 1.01 1.7885 79.63 0.99 0.99 0.6847 4.58 0.7885 79.4789 5.52 0.23 0.99 0.6313 14.21 0.7885 79.99 0.9553 19.7885 79.7885 79.01 1.5831 1.99 0.7885 79.65 0.7885 79.41 0.0194 0.7885 79.7885 79.42 0.00 1.7885 79.0139 0.7885 79.33 0.57 0.Cpk 0.4768 0.32 0.4594 50.00 1.2821 0.0268 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.19 0.2920 31.00 1.7885 79.7885 79.01 1.00 1.7885 79.25 0.4463 3.7414 9.35 0.7885 79.00 1.43 0.36 0.7885 79.00 1.48 0.00 1.7885 79.00 1.7885 79.38 0.61 0.7885 79.34 0.01 1.01 0.54 0.99 0.7885 79.00 1.6814 16.6138 46.44 0.20 0.00 1.99 0.00 1.00 1.3289 54.69 0.1728 57.45 0.7982 12.0501 0.7885 79.49 0.55 0.7885 79.37 0.99 0.99 1.99 0.99 0.0100 0.4565 22.00 1.7885 79.26 0.7885 79.0915 0.1065 79.7885 79.7885 79.00 1.51 0.7885 79.9742 2.7885 79.1842 25.7885 Page 4 .01 1.00 1.30 0.7885 79.53 0.7885 79.6450 35.7885 79.1329 28.1722 10.8372 42.0050 0.7885 79.00 1.00 1.00 1.1627 0.7885 79.7885 79.7885 79.01 1.00 1.7885 79.1224 0.0035 0.7885 79.7885 79.40 0.28 0.9986 1.29 0.00 1.1695 38.7885 79.7885 79.5703 65.7885 79.99 0.4921 7.68 0.7885 79.50 0.67 0.39 0.27 0.7885 79.60 0.00 1.00 1.7885 79.22 0.2149 0.59 0.56 0.7855 0.0679 0.18 0.0071 0.7885 79.7885 79.7885 79.7885 79.31 0.0125 68.00 1.0119 3.99 0.24 0.64 0.7885 79.46 0.7885 79.99 0.62 0.7885 79.3679 0.0367 0.00 1.6140 0.66 0.2613 1.9383 61.99 0.47 0.99 0.

7885 79.99 1.001 0.4096 4.03 1.02 1.5703 57.03 1.71 0.1224 0.10 1.01 1.7885 79.05 1.02 1.81 0.5233 75.001 0.1728 50.14 1.80 0.001 0.7885 79.7885 79.01 1.5233 78.01 1.02 1.11 1.02 1.9742 1.73 0.2821 0.4789 3.02 1.01 1.88 0.93 0.02 1.00 1.7885 79.3289 46.01 1.84 0.001 0.8372 35.4768 0.95 0.6540 75.82 0.001 0.0119 2.01 1.19 1.7885 79.7885 79.Cpk 0.7982 9.12 1.001 0.0125 61.7885 0.7414 6.02 1.7885 79.0915 79.09 1.85 0.97 0.8061 77.87 0.2613 0.03 1.7885 79.001 0.01 1.76 0.17 1.1695 31.6140 0.94 0.9986 0.08 1.8061 73.03 1.6814 12.96 0.4463 1.79 0.001 0.21 1.7885 79.03 73.7885 79.91 0.01 1.18 1.7885 79.03 1.7885 79.02 1.02 1.001 0.6540 71.07 1.02 1.02 1.7885 79.7885 79.001 0.6138 38.02 1.5831 1.7885 79.7885 79.001 0.02 1.16 1.7885 79.001 0.1329 22.03 1.7885 79.7885 79.1842 19.74 0.01 1.4594 42.89 0.01 1.02 1.90 0.03 1.70 0.78 0.01 1.7737 79.01 1.001 0.7885 79.001 0.9553 14.02 1.7885 79.02 1.02 1.02 1.77 0.02 1.1627 0.001 0.7885 79.02 1.7885 79.7885 79.9383 54.13 1.1722 7.2920 25.7855 0.72 0.1065 68.7885 79.01 1.75 0.001 0.02 1.001 0.03 1.4921 5.01 1.7885 79.02 1.92 0.20 1.7885 79.5335 79.4565 16.02 1.01 1.2149 0.6450 28.01 1.06 1.01 1.001 0.7737 77.01 1.83 0.7885 79.2092 65.02 1.001 0.02 1.86 0.6313 10.6847 3.01 1.98 0.7885 79.3679 0.001 0.02 1.5335 78.15 1.001 Page 5 .7885 79.03 1.04 1.

25 1.0005 0.03 1.03 1.001 0.0001 0.50 1.001 0.001 0.0139 0.0000 0.001 0.34 1.001 0.03 1.0000 0.0679 0.22 1.001 0.0000 0.03 1.0008 0.03 1.28 1.001 Page 6 .38 1.0501 0.001 0.37 1.001 0.29 1.001 0.04 1.04 1.03 1.43 1.0367 0.03 1.0000 0.001 0.0002 0.40 1.0000 0.001 0.23 1.0000 0.03 1.04 0.0035 0.48 1.35 1.30 1.001 0.001 0.001 0.Cpk 1.0194 0.42 1.36 1.03 1.0004 0.45 1.0071 0.04 1.47 1.31 1.32 1.04 1.0000 0.04 1.04 1.001 0.27 1.001 0.03 1.24 1.03 1.0000 0.04 1.0000 0.001 0.0012 0.001 0.44 1.0268 0.03 1.0024 0.001 0.03 1.41 1.33 1.0100 0.0001 0.46 1.26 1.04 1.0050 0.04 1.001 0.0002 0.04 1.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.49 1.03 1.001 0.04 1.39 1.001 0.03 1.0017 0.001 0.03 1.04 1.001 0.

Cpk (not centered) Page 7 .

00 12.00 16.03 millimeters 0.00 10.XR-chart XR-Charts for Controlling Process Variables D Process: Potato chip slicer Control Variable: chip thickness Measurement Unit: millimeters Observations per Sample: Average Sample Mean: Average Sample Range: 6 samples 10.00 8.00 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 Observation 64 71 78 85 92 99 R-chart 20.00 12.87 6.00 2.00 18.00 8.13 R-chart 16.00 millimeters X-chart 13.00 6.00 Sample Range 16.00 14.00 millimeters Upper Control Limit: Lower Control Limit: X-chart 18.00 0.00 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 Observation Page 8 64 71 78 85 92 99 Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 .00 0.00 10.00 millimeters 8.00 4.00 4.00 Sample Mean 14.00 6.00 2.

XR-chart 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Page 9 .

XR-chart 100 Page 10 .

032 n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Page 11 d(2) 1.864 0.49 7.032 0 16.867 6.032 0 16.04 4.032 0 16.09 X-chart LCL UCL 6.1334 13.1334 13.06 10.1334 13.867 6.867 6.032 0 16.31 11.778 3.704 2.51 11.97 8.1334 13.032 0 16.032 0 16.34 9.1334 13.66 11.032 0 16.059 2.07 9.03 10.15 5.47 8.867 6.1334 13.867 6.532 3.867 6.032 0 16.10 10.858 3.867 6.1334 13.78 9.89 9.867 6.867 6.1334 13.1334 13.032 0 16.032 0 16.42 8.13 7.032 0 16.720 0.64 10.1334 13.10 9.81 10.1334 13.1334 13.39 10.867 6.867 6.708 .1334 13.867 6.46 11.867 6.787 0.70 9.12 11.1334 13.1334 13.1334 13.032 0 16.14 9.85 11.032 0 16.867 6.693 2.19 10.032 0 16.02 3.867 6.1334 13.1334 13.867 6.712 0.05 8.032 0 16.67 7.032 0 16.588 3.640 3.97 12.867 6.867 6.43 9.1334 13.534 2.46 10.867 6.76 5.27 8.258 3.867 6.867 6.10 8.09 8.867 6.032 0 16.867 6.032 0 16.744 0.00 9.82 9.931 d(3) 0.1334 13.62 10.078 3.43 7.47 10.65 11.032 0 16.87 9.63 4.1334 13.31 11.95 11.867 6.1334 13.032 0 16.032 0 16.867 6.1334 13.1334 13.27 5.65 8.91 5.867 6.880 0.1334 13.848 0.1334 13.032 0 16.59 10.30 8.853 0.032 0 16.032 0 16.1334 13.23 7.739 0.64 8.819 3.867 6.1334 13.867 6.797 0.34 9.42 9.724 0.032 0 16.032 0 16.032 0 16.867 6.867 6.032 0 16.90 9.032 0 16.867 6.847 2.778 0.97 6.1334 13.867 6.34 11.59 9.1334 13.867 6.05 8.716 0.88 7.867 Control Chart Factors R-chart LCL UCL 0 16.11 7.1334 13.032 0 16.734 0.867 6.867 6.867 6.97 11.96 9.173 3.1334 13.1334 13.867 6.80 9.1334 13.85 8.1334 13.032 0 16.51 10.689 3.032 0 16.867 6.66 6.24 12.29 13.1334 13.867 6.42 11.50 8.49 9.12 7.867 6.032 0 16.77 12.750 0.867 6.1334 13.970 3.032 0 16.86 9.10 10.032 0 16.032 0 16.1334 13.30 11.1334 13.032 0 16.735 3.867 6.032 0 16.895 3.60 9.1334 13.10 9.06 8.1334 13.867 6.25 9.04 3.867 6.24 6.41 11.820 0.888 0.032 0 16.833 0.729 0.1334 13.65 10.XR-chart Data Mean Range 8.128 1.032 0 16.98 8.63 12.34 8.1334 13.1334 13.032 0 16.032 0 16.032 0 16.1334 13.38 5.867 6.1334 13.032 0 16.326 2.032 0 16.95 12.867 6.52 11.808 0.032 0 16.1334 13.

867 13.15 3.19 3.1334 6.032 16.1334 6.867 13.11 10.032 16.032 16.XR-chart 10.032 16.1334 6.97 1.867 13.1334 6.867 13.032 16.86 3.61 4.032 16.81 9.867 13.46 9.75 13.34 14.032 16.1334 6.16 9.1334 6.867 13.1334 6.14 17.032 16.032 16.867 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.53 9.1334 6.1334 6.1334 6.032 16.867 13.1334 6.867 13.032 16.032 16.032 16.867 13.70 6.1334 6.37 13.1334 6.867 13.032 16.93 12.21 9.72 10.04 6.1334 6.032 16.1334 6.88 0.032 16.867 13.35 17.032 16.867 13.71 17.94 6.867 13.867 13.30 6.032 16.032 16.25 2.867 13.30 7.1334 6.90 9.867 13.59 3.53 4.032 16.1334 6.867 13.80 15.1334 6.1334 6.85 6.12 10.1334 6.032 16.1334 6.65 14.42 8.867 13.1334 6.032 16.62 4.03 8.032 16.1334 6.867 13.36 8.867 13.032 16.85 7.032 16.58 9.38 15.032 16.867 13.88 10.13 4.867 13.867 13.55 13.32 10.032 16.88 9.00 12.867 13.032 16.67 10.867 13.032 16.867 13.1334 6.1334 6.25 12.08 10.34 12.39 14.50 16.032 16.867 13.867 13.84 2.53 18.867 13.867 13.867 13.51 10.29 11.91 3.032 16.867 13.1334 6.032 16.867 13.1334 6.32 14.1334 6.1334 6.90 13.79 0.867 13.032 16.867 13.1334 6.867 13.032 16.82 3.44 10.1334 6.1334 6.65 14.032 16.1334 6.1334 6.54 2.1334 6.867 13.62 8.032 16.032 16.83 13.1334 6.032 16.65 16.52 12.1334 6.85 16.21 14.032 16.867 13.1334 6.032 16.867 13.70 10.867 13.1334 6.88 15.867 13.96 15.1334 6.09 10.1334 6.032 16.54 15.1334 13.06 16.29 13.39 9.867 13.73 7.10 15.032 16.032 16.43 13.1334 6.03 8.867 13.032 16.94 10.08 12.1334 6.867 13.1334 6.87 18.70 13.18 9.032 16.1334 6.867 13.867 13.11 14.032 16.76 7.032 16.032 16.11 5.99 6.81 0.60 11.1334 6.69 13.22 11.1334 6.60 8.1334 6.02 15.032 Page 12 .1334 6.76 9.23 7.1334 6.47 13.867 13.31 11.867 13.867 13.032 16.032 16.76 12.48 7.1334 6.867 13.867 13.032 16.93 15.

867 0 16.22 14.032 Page 13 .56 6.1334 13.XR-chart 8.

153 D(3) 0.337 0.425 0.162 0.184 0.460 D(4) 3.285 0.000 0.136 0.157 0.609 1.637 1.816 1.269 2.548 1.566 1.212 0.452 0.223 0.XR-chart A(2) 1.586 1.363 0.622 1.924 1.378 0.266 0.716 1.575 1.881 1.597 1.114 2.391 0.434 0.483 0.419 0.004 1.000 0.000 0.403 0.180 0.167 0.414 0.000 0.282 2.256 0.308 0.284 0.557 1.187 0.373 0.577 0.777 1.443 0.864 1.203 0.194 0.540 Page 14 .729 0.744 1.076 0.023 0.000 0.173 0.574 2.

20000 0.fixed sample size Data Proportion Product: Potato Chips Type of Defect: bad seals Unit of Measure: bags/case Observations per Sample: Average Proportion Defective: 10 0.35000 Proportion Defective 0.15000 0.05000 0.05 samples P-Chart 0.P-chart P-Chart for Controlling Proportion Defective .26 proportion defective 0.30000 0.00000 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 Observation Page 15 71 78 85 92 99 Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 .25000 0.10000 0.00 proportion defective Upper Control Limit: Lower Control Limit: Proportion Defective: p-chart 0.

P-chart 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Page 16 .

12354 0.20086 0.14381 0.06033 0.256761 0.256761 0.08077 0.256761 0.25693 0.23323 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.13867 0.06364 0.20993 0.256761 0.11513 0.256761 0.07291 0.256761 0.11072 0.256761 0.10952 0.17768 0.22196 0.256761 0.256761 0.12806 0.22205 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.20914 0.256761 0.07540 0.256761 0.20329 0.09935 0.256761 0.13688 0.15734 0.256761 0.05035 0.24734 0.256761 0.02382 0.12675 0.10868 0.10017 0.256761 0.12605 LCL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 p-chart UCL 0.09593 0.256761 0.256761 0.07589 0.14873 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.09253 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.13161 0.256761 0.10341 0.256761 0.07513 0.256761 0.256761 0.17808 0.13516 0.11924 0.17660 0.256761 Page 17 .256761 0.P-chart Data Proportion Defective 0.11771 0.256761 0.23591 0.07007 0.16249 0.256761 0.256761 0.06839 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.14323 0.256761 0.

13870 0.256761 0.256761 0.13875 0.256761 0.12730 0.256761 0.12549 0.256761 0.16939 0.256761 0.09709 0.256761 0.256761 0.12332 0.13906 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.15075 0.04071 0.256761 0.256761 0.P-chart 0.256761 0.256761 0.08999 0.17852 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.10481 0.256761 0.33120 0.12608 0.05869 0.256761 0.12980 0.14107 0.256761 0.256761 0.29414 0.14101 0.256761 0.16084 0.15042 0.14107 0.15604 0.18928 0.256761 0.11608 0.19420 0.15625 0.256761 0.21983 0.10019 0.256761 0.14302 0.256761 0.256761 0.11382 0.256761 0.19909 0.07411 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.20099 0.256761 0.08544 0.19570 0.256761 0.09579 0.256761 0.09851 0.14482 0.256761 0.08851 0.11336 0.256761 0.18023 0.256761 0.11159 0.256761 0.256761 0.256761 0.17289 0.10010 0.256761 0.256761 Page 18 .256761 0.20765 0.256761 0.256761 0.17203 0.14575 0.11575 0.07672 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.256761 0.13145 0.256761 0.256761 0.

C-chart C-Chart for Defects per Unit Data Product: Potato chip cooking oil Type of Defect: particles of burned potato Unit of Measure: quart Mean Number Defects per Unit: 10.49 defects per quart 0.51 defects per quart Upper Control Limit: Lower Control Limit: Defects per Unit: c-chart Defects per Unit 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 Observation Page 19 71 78 85 92 99 Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 .00 defects per quart C-Chart 19.

C-chart 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Page 20 .

513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 10 Page 21 .513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.C-chart Data Count Defective 13 1 7 6 12 11 7 8 10 20 15 12 5 0 11 7 14 1 8 1 12 2 18 13 2 11 12 7 13 2 11 13 6 10 10 5 4 4 11 16 8 11 10 2 10 12 14 11 p-chart LCL UCL 0.513167 19.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.48683 0.48683 0.513167 19.48683 0.513167 19.

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Is the process "capable: of producing components 3. for ProVenture Electronics manufactures a line of MP3 audio players. Calculate average of range R-bar – enter in XR-chart spreadsheet Instructions: Control limits now established. Specifications allow for a variation of plus or minus 0. Calculatethat samples meet ranges specification? R belowWhat fraction of components will fall outside of specification? 4. Read percent outside of specification limits .Example 1 Process Capability ProcessChart Control Capability.6 volts.0 volts. An analysis 1.. Read capability index number 4. new data andinlower XR-chart specification spreadsheet limits and in Cpk track spreadsheet 2..192 below volts. One of the components manufactured by Venture and used in its players has a nominal output Instructions: voltage of 8. Calculate with a standard sample deviation means X-bar of 0. Clearofdata current in XR-chart production spreadsheet shows that mean output voltage for the component is 8. 6. Enter upper 1. Calculate average What can sample management mean (mean do toofimprove X-bar )this – enter fraction? in XR-chart spreadsheet 5. Enter mean and standard deviation of actual voltages 3.054 volts 2.

6. The company sends out Instructions: thousands of orders five days a week.. Calculate samples ranges R below Instructions: 4. Chic Clothing is an upscale mailorder clothing company selling merchandise to successful business women. in XR-chart 200 orders spreadsheet are carefully checked every day for errors.. Calculate is shownsample below when means the X-bar orderbelow fulfillment process was thought to be "in control. Enter new data in P-chart spreadsheet and track Initial Data Sample # Defects Fraction 1 10 2 5 3 10 4 12 5 11 6 9 7 22 8 4 9 12 10 24 11 12 12 15 13 8 14 14 15 4 16 10 17 11 18 11 19 26 20 13 21 10 22 9 23 11 24 12 Mean: New Data Sample # Defects 1 13 2 18 3 4 4 7 5 4 6 18 7 34 8 13 9 7 10 4 11 18 12 16 13 15 14 6 15 6 16 16 17 7 18 10 19 8 20 4 21 14 22 29 23 4 24 8 25 10 26 19 27 20 28 8 . Enter newmean data in fraction XR-chart defective spreadsheet -. Clear data process... Calculate average sample mean (mean of X-bar ) – enter in XR-chart spreadsheet 5. Calculate Control fraction limits defects now below established. In order to monitor the accuracy of its order fulfillment 1. 3." 3. Calculate 3. Calculate dataaverage in P-chart of range spreadsheet R-bar – enter in XR-chart spreadsheet 2. Clear 1.Example 3 Control Chart for Proportion Defective Control Chart for Proportion Pro Defective. Enter obserbations per sample in P-chart spreadsheet Control limits now established.enterand in P-chart track spreadsheet 4. Initial data for 24 days 2.

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 10 2 16 14 11 18 5 16 12 11 8 4 8 13 12 8 4 35 5 12 17 5 24 10 14 3 4 18 14 26 9 4 14 14 12 7 2 16 16 11 6 9 6 16 24 8 6 .

. 3. The data show the number of "defects" shown in the service category. but also evaluations throughout the restaurant. and service (promptness. Calculate mean number of defects below -. friendliness..) The evaluator considers not only his/her order experiences.Example 4 Control Chart for Defective per Unit Control Chart for Defective per Unit. Instructions: 1. courtesy. Following are the results of one evaluator's 20 visits to one particular restaurant over a four month period. Dave's is a restaurant chain that employs independent evaluators to visit its restaurants as secret shoppers to the asses the quality of service. order accuracy.enter in C-chart spreadsheet Control limits now established. etc. The company evaluates restaurants in two categories. Enter new data in C-chart spreadsheet and track Initial Data Sample # Defects 1 4 2 6 3 10 4 3 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 5 9 2 10 5 11 9 12 4 13 3 14 4 15 13 16 9 17 10 18 11 19 15 20 12 Mean: New Data Sample # Defects 1 9 2 10 3 16 4 6 5 4 6 6 7 13 8 5 9 4 10 3 11 3 12 12 13 10 14 7 15 6 16 4 17 4 18 7 19 4 20 3 21 4 22 13 23 14 24 4 25 4 26 10 27 5 28 16 . Clear data in C-chart spreadsheet 2. food quality.

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 6 12 7 5 5 8 5 7 6 12 5 6 2 5 3 3 6 7 4 5 7 5 6 8 3 7 3 8 6 4 9 5 5 6 6 4 5 3 5 5 4 5 5 6 5 5 3 .

19 1003. 6.03 1012.15 982.03 R .08 X-bar 986 994 1008 998 993 1005 1020 996 1007 979 989 1011 1003 984 992 Means: 987.96 1001.71 981. Calculate average of range R-bar – enter in XR-chart spreadsheet Control limits now established.77 1001.35 1000.000 ohms each. Calculate sample means X-bar below 3. what comments can you make about the process? Instructions: 1.49 1003.12 1000.52 1006. Enter new data in XR-chart spreadsheet and track Sample # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sample # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1010 995 990 1015 1013 994 989 1001 1006 992 996 1019 981 999 1013 Initial Data Readings (in ohms) 991 985 996 1009 1003 1015 1020 1009 1019 1005 1001 994 992 982 986 996 989 1005 1007 1006 1006 997 996 991 991 989 993 988 1002 1005 998.84 989. 15 samples were taken with four resistors in each sample.. To create a control chart to be used throughout the run. Resistors for electronic circuits are being manufactured on a high-speed automated machine.29 994.57 1016. Develop X-bar and R charts and plot the values.19 1007. Calculate average sample mean (mean of X-bar ) – enter in XR-chart spreadsheet 5. The machine is set up to produce a large run of resistors of 1.05 1008.35 1014.96 1015. Clear data in XR-chart spreadsheet 2.61 1023.77 975.13 1005.50 992.88 996.48 New Data Readings (in ohms) 992. Calculate samples ranges R below 4. From the charts.52 1009.19 1007.09 997..Example 2 Control Charts for Continuous Variables Control Charts for Continuous Variables.

45 1009.23 988.74 985.28 993.46 1003.59 1006.57 1000.64 983.78 981.11 973.42 984.66 982.02 1004.78 981.90 997.00 1005.95 1033.91 1016.78 1005.07 982.57 1009.03 987.57 991.89 993.70 1007.67 1006.21 1002.97 999.77 999.93 998.26 1008.18 992.96 989.17 1013.36 994.43 996.32 992.50 988.93 989.58 989.07 1002.47 981.76 991.59 995.46 983.01 1029.51 1006.81 994.88 993.02 994.53 1010.31 993.04 1017.16 1006.32 1005.62 997.28 995.94 973.27 1004.98 1017.39 997.83 1010.04 1005.58 1004.36 1003.55 978.56 1003.23 .71 982.13 989.61 1009.43 1005.85 1000.08 1022.83 1006.02 1019.53 1013.41 985.91 991.20 994.25 1022.02 989.32 1000.43 996.31 1011.16 991.69 978.35 986.07 1010.91 1014.19 997.20 998.84 998.98 988.66 993.71 999.58 1006.39 1002.61 986.94 1001.31 989.20 1040.35 994.87 993.48 985.89 1000.55 991.51 994.94 996.79 1016.34 1021.80 1002.51 985.73 1006.04 1006.61 991.75 996.85 981.19 1006.87 1011.63 995.19 1028.21 997.94 1013.05 1003.87 1016.46 993.14 992.70 1024.52 1011.59 1032.46 1016.19 1003.13 998.24 1029.87 998.37 1008.21 997.43 1006.80 990.22 1007.95 1009.98 1017.40 999.64 984.79 991.18 989.74 1005.84 1001.28 1001.49 978.95 1016.93 1005.40 998.98 994.67 1005.03 968.02 990.35 984.26 974.70 999.72 996.28 1005.03 981.19 999.87 982.94 1007.50 1003.48 992.91 1001.41 980.37 984.38 986.67 1004.12 1006.43 1006.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 1009.02 1009.21 1012.65 1005.41 996.72 1003.16 974.57 1005.55 1014.10 1000.27 1003.38 1003.52 996.98 979.07 988.79 991.71 990.81 988.48 991.82 988.17 1008.22 994.35 1002.58 1008.05 1000.35 1005.93 990.12 1000.65 991.57 986.06 996.76 994.41 1004.

29 982.23 1005.79 993.39 1001.56 1003.66 996.08 1026.30 1013.47 1026.54 1001.89 1005.47 934.27 1004.96 1000.75 1013.26 987.89 1016.06 1001.45 998.79 1026.59 1003.54 1026.50 984.63 992.37 1005.02 1007.26 1011.45 979.21 1010.97 1022.43 1020.68 1022.08 1011.90 1010.71 997.61 977.33 1037.66 988.60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 1041.85 1016.14 998.27 988.47 1033.47 987.21 1001.85 1016.81 1001.33 995.49 992.33 993.36 975.81 1018.58 1009.63 1020.69 1000.74 .92 1019.15 1018.89 1006.10 1017.24 1022.33 1023.94 1003.72 1006.12 985.