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Basketball History of Basketball

 is a game played with two teams. Five players of each team are on the court at any given time of the play.  It is played in 4 Quarters of 10 or 12 minutes.  Was invented in December 1891 by the Canadian clergyman, educator, and physician James Naismith. Naismith introduced the game when he was an instructor at the Young Men's Christian Association Training School (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts. At the request of his superior, Dr. Luther H. Gulick, he organized a vigorous recreation suitable for indoor winter play.  Game involved elements of American football, soccer, and hockey, and the first ball used was a soccer ball. Teams had nine players, and the goals were wooden peach baskets affixed to the walls.  By 1897-1898, teams of five became standard. The game rapidly spread nationwide and to Canada and other parts of the world, played by both women and men; it also became a popular informal outdoor game. U.S. servicemen in World War II (1939-1945) popularized the sport in many other countries. A number of U.S. colleges adopted the game between about 1893 and 1895. In 1934 the first college games were staged in New York City's Madison Square Garden, and college basketball began to attract heightened interest. By the 1950s basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball. The first pro league, the National Basketball League, was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. This league only lasted five years before disbanding; its demise spawned a number of loosely organized leagues throughout the northeastern United States. One of the first and greatest pro teams was the Original Celtics, organized about 1915 in New York City. They played as many as 150 games a season and dominated basketball until 1936. The Harlem Globetrotters, founded in 1927, a notable exhibition team, specializes in amusing court antics and expert ball handling. In 1949 two subsequent professional leagues, the National Basketball League (formed in 1937) and the Basketball Association of America (1946) merged to create the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Boston Celtics, led by their center Bill Russell, dominated the NBA from the late 1950s through the 1960s. By the 1960s, pro teams from coast to coast played before crowds of many millions annually. Wilt Chamberlain, a center for the Los Angeles Lakers, was another leading player during the era, and his battles with Russell were eagerly anticipated. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, also a center, came to prominence during the 1970s. Jabbar perfected his famed "sky hook" shot while playing for the Los Angeles Lakers and dominated the opposition. The NBA suffered a drop in popularity during the late 1970s, but was resuscitated, principally through the growing popularity of its most prominent players. Larry Bird of the Boston Celtics and Magic Johnson of the Los Angeles Lakers are credited with injecting excitement into the league in the 1980s through their superior skills and decade-long rivalry. During the late 1980s Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls rose to stardom and helped the Bulls dominate the NBA during the early 1990s. A new generation of basketball stars, including Shaquille O'Neal of the Orlando Magic and Larry Johnson of the Charlotte Hornets, have sustained the NBA's growth in popularity. In 1959 a Basketball Hall of Fame was founded in Springfield, Massachusetts. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees, and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game.


Shoes The shoes worn by basketball players are high-topped shoes made to facilitate higher ankle support than normal running shoes for extra comfort during play. The rubber covered basketballs are the ones which are used for daily practices and play. You would be able to see backboards made of glass. the better the rebound effect will be. Prior to the commencement of a match. Whistle-operated stop-clock systems. This rim is mounted 10 feet (3. Every team will have their own uniform. Backboard The Backboard is the firm rectangular board behind the rim. Basket The Basket is the Goal in the game. In international games. as opposed to 29. The heavier and thicker the backboards are. A basketball usually weighs 600 to 650 grams and is 75 to 78 cm in circumference. the regulation basketball court is 28m x 17m (approximately 92 ft x 49 ft).5” circumference and 22 oz weight ball used for men’s games. they will lose possession of the ball. Other equipment other important equipment includes Scoreboards. the official size of the basketball is 28. aluminum and acrylic (clear and tinted). whereas it is 29m x 15m (approximately 94 ft x 50 ft) in the National Basketball Association (NBA). If women are playing. Assist A pass that immediately precedes and sets up a scored basket. Floor / court The Floor / Court is a playing surface made of wooden floorboard.5” in circumference (which is size 6) and weighs 20 oz.05 m) above the court and 4 feet (1. alternating which team gets possession of the ball. the referee will test the ball for suitability. Score-sheets. which will be numbered on both the front and back sides (and sometimes with names printed on it) for quick and easy identification. The size of a backboard would usually be 1800mm horizontally and 1050mm vertically. 2 . circular metal rim with a net attached to it.2 m) inside the baseline. Alternate Possession Arrows / Indicators and Lighting. Uniform this is one important part in the game. steel. which includes a shirt (jersey) and a pair of shorts. If they fail to attempt a shoot that hits the rim within this time limit. The size and weight of the basketball depends on who plays the game.Equipment and facility Ball The ball is an inflated sphere usually made out of leather. Shot clock This is the clock that counts down the maximum 24 seconds the offence is allowed to have the ball in hand before shooting. Leather basketballs are those which are recommended for indoor professional competitions. Basketball Terminology Alternating-possession rule the possession arrow changes direction after each held ball situation. and is made up of a horizontal.

Boxing out: A player’s attempt to position his body between his opponent and the basket to get rebounds and prevent the opponents from doing so. Carrying the ball: Also called “palming. Center court circle: The circular area at midcourt from which jump balls are taken. is able to get past an opponent who is guarding him. Crossover dribble: A dribble in which the ball is moved from one hand to the other while the dribbler changes directions. Conversion: A made basket or free throw. the court a team is attempting to defend.” a violation committed by a dribbler that involves placing the dribbling hand under the ball and momentarily holding or carrying it while dribbling. Cut: A quick movement by an offensive player to elude an opponent or to receive the ball. the best players possess this trait. Ball handler: The player with the ball. Bonus free throw: See “One-and-One. Center: Also called the “pivot player. Charging: A personal foul committed when an offensive player illegally contacts a defensive player who has established position or is stationary. and through which points are scored. Blocked shot: The successful deflection of a shot by touching part of the ball on its way to the basket. thereby preventing a field goal. Controlling the boards: Securing a majority of the rebounds. Bench Points: The number of points scored during a game from players that began the game on the bench.” an offensive position typically played by a tall player who plays mainly in the key areas (at the post).Backboard: The rectangular or fan-shaped board behind the basket. Also referred to as Blocking out. Baseline: The boundary line behind each basket. Bank shot: A shot where the ball is first bounced (or banked) off the backboard at such an angle that it then drops into the basket. Basket: Attached to the backboard. also used to refer to a successful field goal. Blocking: The use of a defender’s body position to illegally prevent an opponent’s advance. with or without the ball. All points scored by non-starters. also called the end line. Chest pass: A two-handed pass thrown from the passer’s chest in a straight line to the chest area of the receiver.” Bounce pass: A pass that strikes the floor before it reaches the receiver. Ball Side: The half of the court from the middle to the sideline where the ball is currently located. it consists of a metal rim 18″ in diameter suspended 10′ from the floor. Backcourt: The half of the court that is opposite a team’s offensive basket. 3 . from which a 15-18″ corded net hangs. Court vision: A player’s ability to see everything on the court during play — such as where his teammates and defenders are set up — which enables him to make better choices in passing. Beat the defender: When an offensive player. usually the point guard at the start of a play. the opposite of charging. May also be referred to as the ‘strong side’.

Cylinder: The imaginary area directly above the basket where goaltending or basket interference can occur. Double-double: When a player scores double-digits in 2 categories during one game (points. Fake or feint: A deceptive move to throw a defender off balance and allow an offensive player to shoot or receive a pass. It’s the only legal means by which a single player may move the ball across the court. a sign of great versatility. Dead ball: Occurs whenever the whistle blows to stop play and after a field goal. End line: See ‘baseline’. 4 . Elbow: A term often used to indicate the area of the court where the free-throw line and side of the key meet. Field goal: A basket scored on any shot other than a free throw. worth two or three points depending on the distance of the attempt from the basket. Double foul: A situation in which two opponents commit a foul against each other simultaneously. Double team: A defensive tactic in which two defenders temporarily guard one player. Defensive rebound: A rebound of an opponent’s missed shot. Dribble or dribbling: Process by which a player repeatedly bounces the ball off the floor so that it returns to his/her possession. Dunk: When a player close to the basket jumps and strongly throws the ball down into it. Flagrant foul: Unnecessary or excessive contact against an opponent. followed by a successful free-throw. but it can also be blocks or steals). even if there is no contact. Down court or down the court: The direction a team on offense moves. Drive: A quick dribble directly to the basket in an effort to score. an athletic. it is a foul if contact is made. 4-point play: A made 3-point field goal in which the shooter was fouled. players use their eyes. creative shot used to intimidate opponents. Fast break: An offensive strategy in which a team attempts to move the ball down court and into scoring position as quickly as possible so that the defense is outnumbered and does not have time to set up. assists and rebounds are most common. from its backcourt into its frontcourt and towards its own basket. Double dribble: A violation that occurs when a player dribbles the ball with two hands simultaneously or stops dribbling and then dribbles again. head or any other part of the body to trick an opponent. also a specific pattern of play used by a defending team. Defense: The team not in possession of the ball whose objective is to keep the opponent from scoring. Established position: When a defensive player has both feet firmly planted on the floor before an offensive player’s head and shoulder get past him. but before the opponent gains possession of the ball. the offensive player who runs into such a defender is charging. Forward: An offensive position played to the sides of the basket near the key area and out toward the sideline along the baseline. Elbowing: It is a violation if a player vigorously or excessively swings his elbows.

” Foul shot: See “Free-throw. or away from the basket. such as a layup.” a 12-foot wide area extending from the baseline to the freethrow line. Full–court press: A defensive tactic in which a team guards the opponents closely the full length of the court. Foul line: See “Free-throw line. Free-throw line: A 12-foot-long line that is parallel to and 15 feet from the backboard. If successful. The official tosses the ball into the air between the two opponents positioned at the center-court circle. opposite of fast break. the offensive half of the court. Players may not be in this area during a free-throw attempt. Game clock: Shows how much time remains in each quarters or halves of games. Held ball: Formerly called a “jump ball. such as the give-and-go or a screening play. also the act of bringing the ball into this area by means of a throw-in. 5 . Hesitation Dribble: A dribbling action with a change-of-pace intended to confuse and/or freeze the defender. so named because this area of the floor is painted. taking an open shot or making easy an pass.Foul (also referred to as ‘personal foul’): A violation resulting from illegal contact with an opposing player. Front court: The half of the court (divided by the center line) that contains the offensive team’s basket. Jump ball: The procedure for starting play at the beginning of a game or an overtime period. The basic action is a stutter step in which the dribbler momentarily slows his or her pace and speed. Free-throw line extended: An imaginary line drawn from the free-throw line to the sideline to determine the location for certain plays.” When two players on opposite teams are in joint control of the ball.” Free throw: An unguarded shot taken from behind the free-throw line after a foul. Free-throw lane: Also called the “key” or “lane. Intentional foul: A personal foul that the official judges to be premeditated. Inbounds: The area within the baselines and sidelines of the court. Help Side: The half of the court from the middle to the sideline opposite to where the ball is currently located. Guarding: The act of following an opponent around the court to prevent him from getting close to the basket. the two players jump up and try to tap the ball to a teammate. High percentage shot: A shot that is likely to go in the basket. In the paint: In the “key” area. High post: An imaginary area outside either side of the foul lane at the elbow / free-throw line extended area. Jump shot: A shot that is released after the shooter has jumped into the air. while avoiding illegal contact. the shot counts one point. Guard: An offensive position played primarily at the perimeter. Half-court or set offense: When a team takes the time to develop a play in its frontcourt. Inside shooting: Shots taken by a player near or under the basket. Incidental contact: Minor contact usually overlooked by officials.

stop and start play. Passer: The player who passes the ball to a teammate. half or overtime segment. Key: Also called the “free-throw lane” or “lane. trip. One-and-one: The “bonus” free-throw situation awarded for non-shooting fouls after the opposing team exceeds a certain number of team fouls in a half. or ‘rolls’. such as one thrown by a player who is off balance or outside his shooting range. the shooter takes a second shot. if successful. Loose ball: A ball that is alive but not in the possession of either team. toward the basket looking for a pass from the dribbler for a shot. these are also counted as team fouls. hack. Perimeter: The area beyond the foul circle away from the basket. and impose penalties for violations and fouls. Offensive rebound: A rebound of a team’s own missed shot. Offense: The team that has possession of the basketball. hold. Pick-up games: Impromptu games played among players who just met. restrain or charge into an opponent. Over-and-back violation: A violation that occurs when the offensive team returns the ball into the backcourt once it has positioned itself in the front court. The person fouled shoots one free throw. players may not push. Period: Any quarter. Personal foul: Contact between players that may result in injury or provide one team with an unfair advantage. Outside shooting: Shots taken from the perimeter. Pick: See “Screen or Screener” Pick and Roll: A play in which an offensive player sets a pick for the dribbler. Man-to-man defense: A team defense in which each player is assigned to guard a particular opponent. Also. including 3-point line. Lower percentage shot: A shot that is less likely to go in the basket. a structured pattern of play that a team uses while attempting to score. Layup or lay in: A shot taken close to the basket that is usually banked off the backboard towards the basket. Pivot: A footwork technique in which a player keeps one foot in contact with a “spot” on the floor while moving the other foot to adjust the 6 . Both feet must land simultaneously – either parallel or staggered – in order for it to be a jump stop. Out of bounds: The area outside of and including the end lines and sidelines. Officials: The referees who control the game.” the area measuring 12 feet in width and extending from the free-throw line to the end line. from which players take long-range shots. then cuts off that pick.Jump stop: A method used to come to a complete stop. Low post: An imaginary area outside either side of the foul lane close to the basket. Overtime: An extra period played to break a tie score at the end of a regulation game. Palming: See “Carrying the ball. Overhead pass: A two-handed pass thrown from above the forehead.” Pass: An intentional throw to a teammate. elbow.

Team fouls: Each personal foul committed by a player is also counted against his team. Screen or screener: The offensive player who stands between a teammate and a defender to gives his teammate the chance to take an open shot. its opponent is awarded free-throw opportunities. Technical foul: A foul that does not involve contact with an opponent. Quadruple double: A triple double with double-digits scored in 4 categories. 30 seconds for women. considered good shooting position.” Squaring up: When a player’s shoulders are facing the basket as he releases the ball for a shot. threequarter court or full court. 7 . or five-on-five play between team members in a practice situation. Possession arrow: Used to determine which team’s turn it is to inbounds the ball to begin a period or in a held ball situation. 35 seconds for men. Scrimmage: An unofficial game between two teams. Run: Occurs when one team scores several field goals in quick succession while its opponents score few or none. Swing man: A player who can play both the guard and forward positions. followed by a successful free-throw. Shooter’s roll or shooter’s touch: The ability to get even an inaccurate shot to bounce lightly off the rim and into the basket. or a contact foul committed by a player while the ball is dead. when a team goes over the limit. 24 seconds in the NBA. Shooting range: The distance from which a player is likely to make his shots. in college. Press: An aggressive defense that attempts to force the opponents to make errors by guarding them closely from either half court. Shot clock: A clock that limits the time a team with the ball has to shoot it. Point guard: An offensive position played by a guard who usually brings the ball up the court and initiates the offense. Sidelines: 2 boundary lines that run the length of the court. 3-point play: A made 2-point field goal in which the shooter was fouled. Sixth man: The best substitute on a team. coach or non-player. Possession: To be holding or in control of the ball. Rebound: The act of gaining possession of the ball after a missed shot. Scoring opportunity: When a player gets open for a shot that is likely to score. Post: An offensive position played close to the basket along the key. a foul that involves unsportsmanlike conduct by a player. Shooter: A player who takes a shot at the basket. Slam dunk: See “dunk. Substitute: A player who comes into the game to replace a player on the court. 3 seconds: A violation in which an offensive player remains within the key for more than three seconds at a time. usually the first player to come off the bench to replace a starter.position of the body or to evade a defensive player.

Upset: When a higher-seeded (better) team loses to a lower-seeded (inferior) one.a shot made from anywhere outside the 3 pt arc. Triple double: When a player scores double-digits in 3 categories during one game (points. assists and rebounds are most common. Triple Threat Position: Triple threat is an offensive position a player can use who has not dribbled yet. Zone defense: A team defense in which each player is responsible for defending an area of the court and the opponents within that area. Zone offense: An offensive pattern of play designed to attack (score against) a particular zone defense Basketball Rules SCORING:  2 point field goal. a sign of great versatility.a player’s position between an opposing player and the basket to obtain a better rebounding position. and both hands on the basketball. Weak side: The side of the court away from the ball. Turnover: A loss of possession of the ball by means of an error or violation. Three-point field goal: A made basket from a distance greater than 19 feet and nine inches during a high school or college game. From this position. dribble. Transition: The shift from offense to defense. the offensive player can either shoot. .  3 point field goal.bouncing the ball with 1 hand using your fingertips instead of your palm so that it rebounds back to yourself (the only legal way to move with the ball) 8 . Traveling: A violation occurring when a player with the ball takes a step without dribbling (moving the established pivot foot). feet slightly wider than shoulder width.  Dribbling. Violation: An infringement of the rules that’s not a foul.Ten-second line: The mid-court line over which the offensive team must advance the ball from the backcourt within 10 seconds to avoid a violation. Timeout: When play is temporarily suspended by an official or at the request of a team to respond to an injured player or discuss strategy. but it can also be blocks or steals).1 point is awarded to an unguarded shot taken from behind the free throw line while the clock is stopped. The penalty for a violation is the awarding of the ball to the opponent. or pass to a teammate … thereby being a ‘triple threat’ with the basketball.a shot made from anywhere during play inside the 3 pt arc. SKILLS:  Boxing out. and vice versa. Three-on-two: A common fast break situation in which three offensive players attempt to score on two defenders. The offensive player stands with knees flexed.  Free throw. trying to score  Turn over.    Passing. They are positioned near the basket.running into a stationary player while you are moving with the ball.the player holds the person with or without the ball. Point guard: The fastest player in the team takes charge of the team's offense by controlling the ball.impeding the progress of an opponent by extending one or both arms horizontally or getting in the path of a moving player. He/she makes sure that the ball goes to the right player at the right time.  Hacking.the player hits the arm or hand of the person holding the ball. He/she also stops the defenders and facilitates other players from his team to score a goal.throwing the ball to make a basket Pivoting.a player dribbles the ball with both hands at the same time or they stop and then start dribbling again. 2-3 The 5 Positions Center: The tallest players are at the center. TERMS:  Air ball.a defensive strategy where everyone guards an area instead of a player (21-2.the area under the basket) for more than 3 seconds  Double dribble. bouncing.  Holding.  Charging. Shooting guard: Shooting guard is responsible for the shots on trying to stop the other team from scoring  Dunk. or rolling it to another player (Chest.The recovering of a shot that bounces off the backboard or the rim. Lob) Shooting.any loss of the ball without a shot being taken  Zone defense.moving illegally with the ball  Three seconds. FOULS: results in one or more free throws awarded to the opposing team  Blocking. The center player in the defensive team prevents the opponents from shooting the ball. Rebounding. The center player from the offensive team passes and shoots the ball.a defensive strategy where everyone guards an assigned player  Offense. VIOLATIONS: results in a change of possession with the team in bounding the ball at the side line opposite where the infringement took place  Traveling. He/she also guards the best perimeter player of the opponent team on defense.dribbling or passing the ball towards your basket before the defense can set up  Man-to-man.a shot that completely misses the rim and the backboard  Assist.moving the ball by offensive player remains in the key (free throw throw the ball down into the basket with the hand above the level of the rim  Fast break.stepping once or more in any direction with the same foot while holding the other foot at its initial point.a pass to a teammate who then scores a field goal.  Defense. handing. 9 .

layups and free throws. It is also best if you know how to dribble equally well with both hands. Rebound The act of gaining possession of the basketball after a missed shot. a team’s scoring ability. The player from the defensive team tries to prevent the drives to the goal. including jump shots. A proper shot requires precise aiming. Possession of the ball is key factor in basketball game. Basketball skills Dribbling The dribble is an act by which a player repetitively bounces the ball off the floor. while taking shots and sometimes while trying to catch a pass. The act of throwing the ball towards the basket in an attempt to score. It also refers to the method a team uses to score the basket. The player from the defensive team is below the basket or against the opposing power forward. On defensive you will need the ability to jump when trying to block a shot or a pass. 10 . maneuver past defenders and execute plays. There are different types of shots you need to learn. Offense-Defense Offense refers to the team which has possession of ball.Power forward: The player at this position plays offensively with his back to the basket. This skill will allow you to move up and down the court. as well as. This requires the ability to properly hold and throw the ball into the air toward the basket while avoiding defenders. The ball should be obtained as quickly as possible and possession is retained until a basket is scored. Being able to out jump your opponent for a rebound also is important. Small forward: The player at small forward is mainly responsible for scoring points via dribble penetration and cuts to the basket. On other hand defense refers to the team without the ball whose main focus is to prevent the opponents from scoring a basket. Jumping is involved in offense during the jump ball in the beginning. Jumping Jumping is another skill that can define how good a basketball player is. Proper dribbling requires ball-handling skills and knowledge of how to spread your fingers for ball control. Passing A play that involves one player throwing the ball to another. Catching It is the act of stopping the ball and takes possession of it by a teammate. Dribbling can be in place as well as while moving. arm extension and lift from the legs.