SLOPE STABILITY ENGINEERING VOLUME 1
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SLOPE STABILITY ENGImERING  ISSHIKOKU’99/MATSUYAMA/SHIKOKU/ JAPAN/8 11 NOVEMBER 1999
Edited by
Norio Yagi
Ehime Universio,Japan
Takuo Yamagami & JingCai Jiang
University of Tokushima,Japan
VOLUME 1
U
A. A. BALKEMA/ R OTTERDAM BROOKFIELD/ 1999
The texts of the various papers in this volume were set individually by typists under the supervision of each of the authors concerned.
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0 1999 A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam Printed in the Netherlands
Slope Stability Engineering, Yagi, Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 90 5809 079 5
Table of contents
Preface Organization
XIII
xv
Special lecture
Flowtype failure of slopes based on behavior of anisotropically consolidated sand K. Ishihara, YTsukamoto & S Nakayama
3
Keynote lectures
The limit analysis for slopes: Theory, methods and applications Z Chen Using limit equilibrium concepts in finite element slope stability analysis D. G. Fredlund & R. E. G.Scoular Stability of geosynthetic reinforced steep slopes D. Leshchinsky The mechanisms, causes and remediation of cliff instability on the western coast of the Black Sea M. Popescu Design of slope stabilizing piles H. G.Poulos
15 31 49 67
83
1 Geological and geotechnical site investigations
Geoenvironmental factors influencing the deterioration of shale in a rockslope A. M. Elleboudy Weathering mechanism and slope failures of granitic rocks in Southwest Japan Effect of hydrothermal activities R. Kitagawa

103
109
Site investigation of weathered expansive mudrock slopes: Implications for slope instability and slope stabilization R.J. Mahuruj
V
1 15
Investigation of cut slope consisting of serpentinite and schist H. Kitarnura, M.Aoki, TNishikawa, TYarnamoto, M. Suzuki & TUmezaki Using multibeam sonar surveys for submarine landslide investigations J. Locat, J.KGardner, H. Lee, L. Mayer, J. E. Hughes Clarke & E. Karnrnerer Automatic measurement of pore water pressure in the hardrock slope and the sliding weatheredrock slope  Field survey in mountainous region in Shikoku Island, Japan E.Tamura & S. Matsuka Field measurement of suction in soil and rainfall in Kagoshima Prefecture R. Kitarnuru, K.Jomoto, K. Yamamoto, TTerachi, H.Abe & T Iryo Application of acoustic emission method to Shirasu slope monitoring T.Fujiwara, K. Monrna & A. Ishibashi Acoustic emission technique for monitoring soil and rock slope instability A. Kousteni, R. Hill, N Dixon & J. Kavanagh Hydraulic fracturing as a mechanism of rapid rock mass slides S. Hasegawa & T Sawadu Evolution of ridgetop linear depressions and a disintegration process of mountains K. Mokudai & M. Chigira Geological characteristics of landslides of the soft rock type, Central Japan 7:Fujita Study of configuration, scale and distribution of landslides S. Ueno Geodynamics and spatial distribution of properties of sea cliff colluvium E. Dembicki & WSubotowicz
A mineralogical study of the mechanism of landslide in the serpentinite belt K.Yokota, R. Yatabe & N. Yagi
121 127 135
141 147
151
157 163 169 175 181 187 193 199
Detailed geotechnical study in Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project, Western Nepal VDangol & 7:R. Puudel Local instability in saturated colluvial slopes in southern Brazil WA. Lacerdu
2 Soil slope stability analyses
A new theory on instability of planarsliding slope  Stiffness effect instability theory Qin Siqing Ultimate state of a slope at nonlinear unsteady creep and damage SA ElsouJiev Application of FEM on the basis of elastoviscoplastic model to landslide problems H. Fujii, S. Nishirnura, T.Hori & K. Shimuda Coupled excavation analyses of vertical cut and slopes in clay T.Hoshikawa, 2: Nakai & Y Nishi
VI
207 213 219
225
Effects of a deep excavation on a potentially unstable urban hllside in San Marino G.Gottardi, G.Marchi, L.Tonni & F: Bianchi Displacements of a slope in the Euganean Hills induced by quarrying S.Cola & RSirnonini Stability evaluation of sliding failure along thin mudstone deposit due to excavation Y Nakarnura, J. Kojirna, S. Hanagata, K. Narita & YOhne Appraisal of Bishop’s method of slope stability analysis G.L. Sivakurnar Babu & A. C Buoy A convenient alternative representation of Taylor’s stability chart R. Baker & YTanaka Influence of stressstrain curves on safety factors and interslice forces in FEM A. Mochizuki, J. Xiong & M. Mikasa Slope stability analysis considering the deformation of slices YTerado,H. Hazarika, TYarnazaki & H. Hayarnizu Slope stability analysis using a spring attached to interslice planes K. Kondo & S. Hayashi Threedimensional stability analysis of locally loaded slopes X.Q.Yang, S.X. He & 2 D. Liu . A lowerbound solution of earth pressure of cohesive backfill with inclined slope surface M. Luan, 7:Nian, C.E Lee, K.T. Law, K. Ugai & Q.Yang Shear band formation and propagation in clay slopes L. E.Vallejo Progressive failure analysis of slopes based on a LEM TYarnagarni,M.Taki, J.CJiang & S.Yarnabe Progressive failure analysis based on a method of nonvertical slices TYarnagarni,YA.Khan & J. C.Jiang Back analysis of unsaturated shear strength from a circular slope failure J. CJiang, TYarnagarni & Y Ueta A back analysis of MCDP model parameters based on FEM and NLSSQP method T.Q.Feng, TYarnagarni & J.C.Jiang An FE analysis of anisotropic soil slopes and back analysis for its parameters T.0, Feng TYarnagarni & J.CJiang
233 239 245 249 253 259 265 27 1 277 28 1 287 293 299 305 31 1 3 17
3 Rock slope stability analyses
An upper bound wedge failure analysis method ZYChen, YJ.Wang,X.G.Wang & J.Wang Stability analysis of rockfill dam and retaining wall constructed on dip bedrock S. S Chen & X.S. Fang
325 329
VII
Soilwater coupling analysis of progressive failure of cut slope using a strain softening model 333 TAdachi, E Oka, H. Osaki, H. Fukui & E Zhung A back analysis in assessing the stability of slopes by means of surface measurements S. Sakurai & 7:Nakayama Numerical simulation of excavation of the permanent ship lock in the Three Gorges Prqject Y Zhang & K. Yin Numerical simulation of the buckling failure in rock slopes I!Hu & H. G.Kempfert Fuzzybased stability investigation of sliding rock masses NO.Nawari & R. Liang Stability evaluation of discontinuous rock slope K. Kawarnura & M. Nishioka Earthquake and seepage effects on the mobilised shear strength of closely jointed rock M.J. Pender
339 345 349 355 36 1 367
4 Effects of rainfall and groundwater
Design chart for cut slope in unsaturated residual soils R. Subrarnaniam & E H.Ali Factors affecting on water retention characteristic of soils K. Kawai, D. Karube & H. Seguchi Suction profiles and stability of residual soil slopes E. C.Leong, B. K. Low & H. Rahardjo Effects of perched water table on slope stability in unsaturated soils L. 7:Huat, E H.Ali, S. Mariappan & l? K. Soon Field suction variation with rainfall on cut slope in weathered sedimentary residual soil L. 7:Huat, E H.Ali & S. Mariappan Study of slope stability for Pleistocene cemented sandy sediments in Singapore (Old Alluvium) K. K. Poh, l? B. Ng & K. Orihara Influence of pore water pressures in partly submerged slopes on the critical pool level E.N. Brornhead, A.J. Harris & l D.J. Watson ? Role of pore water and ar pressures on slope stability in reservoir for pumped storage i power plant TSato, N.Nishizawa, M. Wakarnatsu,I Hiraiwa & I. Kurnazaki ! Seepage characteristics of decomposed granite soil slope during rainfall S. Sasaki, S.Araki & K. Nishida Relation between slope stability and groundwater flow caused by rainfalls M. Enoki & A.A. Kokubu
375 38 1 387 393 399 405
41 1 417
423 429
Vlll
Salient aspects of numerical analyses of rainfall induced slope instability C.H.Wang Centrifuge model tests and stability analysis on mobilizing process of shear strength of decomposed granite soil slope S.Yushituk & KOnitsuka Centrifuge tests on slope failure during water infiltration H. G. B.Allersrna Reinforcement’s effects in the tankmodel prediction of slope failures due to rainfalls M. Shirnizu Investigation of danger rainfall prediction system for natural and cut slopes H. Miki, A. Fujii & M. Furuta Predicting ramfallinduced slope failures from moisture content measurement M. Nishigaki, A. Tohari & M. Kornatsu Analytical study on the slope stability during ramfall and the rainfall indexes A. TogariOhta, TSugiyama, T Nara & S. Yarnazaki Evaluation of critical rainfall with logit model I:Sugii, K.Yarnada & T Uno Strategy for prevention of natural disaster due to slope failure R. Kitarnura, T Iryo, H.Abe, H. Yakabe & K. Yarnarnoto Relationships between rainfalls and landslides after forest damages by typhoons S. Murata, H. Shibuya & K. Hayashi Threshold rainfall for Beragala landslide in Sri Lanka
A K. Dissanayake, Y Sasaki & N H. Seneviratne
435
441
447 453 459 465 47 1 477 483 489 495
50 1
The importance of the groundwater regime studies of unstable slopes  An example of investigations on the landslide ‘Plavinac’, Yugoslavia G. Rasula & M. Rasula Landslides induced by rainstorm in the Poun area of Chungchongbukdo Province D. Hun & K. Kim Characteristics of Cretaceous granite slopes that failed during heavy rainfall TYarnarnoto, M. Suzuki, N. Matsurnoto & X Sehara Seepage analyses of embankments on TokaidoShinkansen in long term rainfalls K. Kato & S. Sakajo Instability analyses of embankments on TokaidoShinkansen in heavy rainfalls S. Sakajo & K. Kato Chemical effect of groundwater from acid rain on slope evolution Z X u & R. Huang Slope failures triggered by an earthquake and a heavy rain in Chiba S.Yasuda, XYoshida, I:Kobayashi & TMizunaga
509 515 521 527 533 539
IX
Numerical evaluation of the effects of drainage pipes TYamagami, K. Nishida & J.CJiang Effects of horizontal drains on ground water level and slope stability RCai & K. Ugai
545
55 1
5 Effects of seisrnicity
Collapse of high embankment in the 1994 faroff Sanriku Earthquake KShioi & S. Sutoh Slope instability of large embankments in residential areas caused by the HyogokenNanbu Earthquake, 1995 T.Kamai, I:Kobayashi & H. Shuzui Analysis of toppling failure of mountain slope caused by the HyogokenNanbuEarthquake TOkimura,NYoshida & NTorii Stress condition and consequence of liquefaction on weathered granitic sands ZOkada, K.Sassa & H. Fukuoka Effects of density, stress state and shear history on slidingsurfaceliquefaction behavior of sands in ringshear apparatus G.Wang & K. Sassa Real seismicwaveloading ringshear test on the Nikawa landslide EWWang, K. Sassa & H. Fukuoka Dynamic properties of finegrained soils in presheared sliding surfaces M.Yoshimine, R. Kuwano, J. Kuwano & K. Ishihara Dependence of pore pressure generation on frequency of loading at sliding surface D.A. Vankov & K. Sassa Online earthquake response tests on embankments founded on saturated sandy deposits T.Fujii, M. Hyodo, I Nakata, KYahuki & S. Kusakabe : Dynamic centrifuge tests of embankments on sloped ground and their stability analyses J. Koseki, 0.Mutsuo, K. Kondo & S. Nishihara Evaluation of liquefaction potential for loose minefill slopes €? Kudella Runout distances of earthquakeinducedlandslides I:Kobayashi Evaluation of measured vertical and horizontal residual deformation at crest of rockfill dam under earthquake T. Okamoto Displacements of slopes subjected to seismic loads R. L. Michalowski & L.You Permanent displacement analysis of circular sliding block during shaking H. R. Razaghi, E.Yanagisawa & M. Kazarna
X
559 565
57 1 577 583
589 595 60 1 607 613 619 625 63 1
637 641
Dynamic analyses of slopes based on a simple strainsoftening model of soil A.Wakui & K. Ugai Slope instability due to rainfall and earthquake K. Shirnada, I Fujii, S. Nishirnura, ?:Nishiyarna & ir: Morii 3 Shaking table tests of concrete block retaining walls S. Mori, ir:Matsuyarna & ?:Ushiro Shakedown analysis of soil foundations under varied loads M. Luan, Z: Cao & K. Ugai Author index
647 653 657 663
669
XI
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whch are related directly or indirectly to the soil and rock properties. 12. waste disposal. The main themes of the symposium are as follows: 1. simulation. Site investigation. Ehime from November 8 to 1I . Reinforced steep slopes. . Although significant progress in the field of geotechmcal engineering has been made in past few decades. Yamagami & Jiang (c) 1999 Balkema. land development. Effects of seismicity and rainfall.Slope Stability Engineering. 6. landslide hazard. Stability of landfills. and environmental engineers to overcome different problems caused by natural disasters. and specifications to prevent the possible damages due to unexpected disasters like landslides. Design strength parameters of natural slopes. 1 1. seismic effect. 9. ISBN 90 5809 0795 Preface It is of a great concern to civil. the International Symposium on Slope Stability Engineering: Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Aspects . 4. 7. remediation techniques. etc. etc on slope stability engineering. analysis. Yagi. 1999. The aim of the symposium was to bring different professionals from different disciplines and backgrounds together into a place to broaden the knowledge and understand the problems all over the world from various perspectives. 2. designs. With this objective. geotechnical. soil strength parameters. figuring out these problems and tackling them very professionally are the main challenges at presentday world of geotechnical engineering. Slope stability of waste materials. Effect of land development. 5. earthquakes. The symposium was sponsored by the Japanese Geotechnical Society on its 50th anniversary under the auspices of the technical committee on landslides (TC11) of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE) and the Japan Landslide Society. there are still a number of problems that arise in geotechnical analyses. Rotterdam. Probabilistic slope stability. Simulation and analysis of debris flow. damage assessment. Landslide inventory and landslide hazard zonation. So. Stabilization and remedial works.ISShikoku’99 was held at Matsuyama. 10. human errors and geoenvironmental problems. This symposium covers a broad range of topics such as site investigation. 8. Stability analysis of soil and rock slopes. 3. debris flows.
Norio Yagi Chairman of the International Symposium on Slope Stability Engineering . Finally. Yatabe. Special thanks from the chairman go to all the session chairpersons and to Prof. Prof. and Prof. Prof. Kenji Ishihara.After reviewing the abstracts and manuscripts of 246 full papers from over 4 0 countries by the organizingcommittee. Prof. Prof.Poulos. Dr Jiang and the members of local and international advisory committee for their active involvement in accomplishing the symposium. Science. Prof. and Culture that financially supported the symposium under the GrantinAid for publication of Scientific Research Results is highly appreciated. Thanks are also due to the professionals who made this symposium a grand success by submitting and presenting the papers in different topics in the field of slope stability engineering. All participants without whom the symposium would not have been a lively discussion forum are greatly acknowledged for their active participation. The chairman. Dov Leshchinsky. Mochizuki. Japan November 1999 XIV . Delwyn G. Yamagami. Sports. the Ministry of Education. Mihail Popescu. Prof. on behalf of the organizing committee. a total of 221 papers has been accepted for the presentation in the symposium and publication in the proceedings volumes. would like to extend his deep gratitude to the special speaker. Harry G. Zuyu Chen.Fredlund. President of ISSMGE and the keynote speakers. Dr.ISShlkoku’99 Professor of Ehime University.
J. N. T. K. Popescu. Switzerland Prof.Yanagisawa. India Prof.Sasaki.Okada.T. Japan Prof. Japan Prof. E Lee. Canada Prof.Ohta. Schuster. Senneset. Locat.Chowdhury. T. Nakamura. C. M. M. H. T. Japan Prof. Bromhead. Japan Prof. Japan Prof. New Zealand Dr D. Y. Japan Prof.Yoshimatsu. W. J. Kitamura. H.Slope Stability Engineering. K. Bhandari. Japan Prof. Japan Dr Gongxian Wang. Poulos. R. K. Kawakami. Japan Prof. N. Miyauchi. Rotterdam. Japan Prof. Mitachi. Yugoslavia Prof. Canada Prof.G.Miki. Hong Kong Prof. Japan Prof. UK Dr Zuyu Chen. China Prof. UK Prof. France Prof. Leshchinsky. South Africa Prof. Japan Prof. Japan Prof. K. M. K. Y. Brazil Prof. H. Korea Prof. Petley. M. ISBN 905809 079 5 Organization INTERNATIONAL ADVISTORY COMMITTEE Prof. D. USA Prof. H. M. C. M. K. Japan xv . USA Prof.A. 0. Japan Prof. J. Japan Prof. Y. Japan Prof. China Prof. Y. Faure. Japan Prof. M.Ohrushi. D. Japan Prof. Nishigaki. Duncan. D. K. Japan Prof. Canada Prof. Matsui. Maksimovic.Okuzono. Ichlkawa.Furuya. S. S. Japan Prof. R.Schreiner. T.Adachi. USA Prof. Japan Prof. TOhmura. Norway Prof.Ochiai. Japan Prof. USA Prof. ETatsuoka. Bonnard. L. Italy Prof. J. SangKyu Kim. Japan Prof. Japan Prof. R. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema.Asaoka. Australia Prof. Japan Prof. H. Yagi.Cruden. UK Prof. Japan Prof.Yasuda. Fredlund.G. Pender. Australia Prof.Enoki. Japan Prof. H. Japan Prof. S. Romania Prof. Japan Prof.Narita. Japan Dr H.G. R.Kusakabe.Wright. Israel Dr R. S. L.Arai. L. E. M.Sakurai. Michalowski. M. Kimura. USA Dr H. D. R. Law. Baker. S.Chigira. Picarelli. Lacerda. E. Hutchinson.Sekiguchi. T. Ishihara.FuJita. A. R. Canada Dr H. Japan Prof. Kobayashi. Japan Prof. J. Japan Prof.
Koumura Prof.ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Chairman Prof. Nishda Assoc. Prof. lshikawa E Kamada K.C.Akutagawa Dr S.Yamamoto A. R. Shimizu Y. T. M. N. 1.Yagi General Secretary Prof.Takeyama Prof.Ogura Dr H. K. Sassa Dr N. T. Suemine M.YZiISIanaka XVI .Yamagami Secretaries Dr J. Mochizuki Prof.Ugai M. A.Ohtsu Prof. Jiang Prof. Hasegawa K.Yatabe Members Dr S. K. Muro H.Towhata Prof. Shono Dr A.
Special lecture .
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no matter what is the slidetriggering driving force. even when the peak shear stress is passed over by some external forces. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Flowtype failure of slopes based on behavior of anisotropically consolidated sand K. it was pointed out that the most appropriate way to normalize the residual strength of anisotropically consolidated sand is by the use of the major principal stress at consolidation. the soil in the slope is envisaged to move largely downstream giving rise to destructive damage there. the resulting deformation may not be large enough. In this type of analysis. To evaluate effects of the initial shear stress on the behaviour of sand undergoing large deformation. Thus. cracking or small amount of deformation may be manifested on the surface of soil deposits and damage would be minor. let a potential sliding plane be located in parallel to the surface of the slope as illustrated in Figure 1. In terms of field behaviour. Science University oj' Tokyo. and (2) the factor of safety for the flow failure against the residual strength. It was found that the major effective principal stress at the time of anisotropic consolidation is a parameter controlling dilative or contractive behaviour of the sand under otherwise identical conditions. the factor of safety for the flow slide can be determined rather easily primarily because the gravityinduced shear stress is the major driving force to be compared against the residual strength of the soils. from the equilibrium of 3 . the shear strain of the order of 10 . using the biaxial test apparatus. a potential sliding plane is assumed and the shear stress expected to occur is compared against the shear strength that can be mobilized along the sliding plane. if the soils are loose enough to induce strainsoftening due to contractive nature of deformation. Ishihara. if there is no strainsoftening taking place in the soils. However.Slope Stability Engineering. Thus. BASIC CONCEPT For the sake of simplicity. The only force to be considered is the force induced by the gravity and this makes the analysis simple and straightforward.5%. the factor of safety against sliding of slopes can be defined in two ways. The results of the tests were examined to determine the initial stress conditions distinguishing contractive and dilative behaviour in undrained application of shear stress. a series of laboratory tests were performed. Based on this conclusion. i The am of the present study is to indicate a basic concept for determining the residual strength for sandy soils that can be used to determine the factor of safety for flow type failure of slopes. INTRODUCTION In the conventional analysis of slope stability. In the case of saturated loose sandy soils. In contrast. This external force could be seismic shaking or additional weight by rainfall. namely.Japan ii ABSTRACT: Soil deposits in natural slopes are subjected to an initial shear stress as well as confining stress which are induced by the gravity. YTsukamoto & S. on saturated samples of Toyoura sand consolidated anisotropically under various Kcconditions. The outcome of the test results as above was used to address a method or criterion by which to identify whether or not a given sandy soil deposit under a slope will have a potential to develop the flow type failure with large deformation. Rotterdam. it is a difficult task to determine the factor of safety for the slide triggering. Yamagami 8 Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. (1) the factor of safety for triggering the slide against the peak strength. because of uncertainty in quantitatively identifying the slideinducing external force to be applied to the soil element in addition to the gravityinduced shear stress. the consequence is recognized as more important and there is no need to seek for the cause of the slide. Generally. and there is no need to identify other external forces.20% can easily be generated leading to flow type deformation. the peak stress is mobilized at a relatively small shear strain of the order of 2 . Nakayama Department of C v l Engineering. It has been customary to take up the magnitude of peak shear stress to define the shear strength. Then. Yagi. In this case.
diagram of o. The direction of the line OB indicates the angle of obliquity of stress application. Figure 2. = l+sina . the ratio between the minor and major principal stresses is obtained as 1sina KC= CT~/CT. e Then. and normal and tangential forces N and S acting on the potential sliding plane. the following relations are obtained. = y H( l+sina) o3= y H( 1sina) . a is the angle of the sliding plane. (2). between the two principal stresses has a value between 0.. or the angle of stress mobilization. Then. as above it is possible to locate a point B in the . e N ==y HCOS~CX . where y is the unit weight of the soil. Mohr circle to determine 0. + (tan + lz. given the values of stress components. Relation between Kcvalue and angle of slope.. obtained as CT .2 and 1. one obtains o. Figure 3. 3T 1 + (tana . The relation of Eq. o. a . as illustrated in Figure 2.. 4 .. and 7. (4) is displayed in Figure 3. Kc. the ratio.forces amongst the weight of a soil mass W. By drawing a half circle through the point B so that it is tangential to the line OB. It is known that the majority of natural slopes consisting of relatively soft soils have an angle ranging = approximately between a O and a=45".. (4) Figure 1. Forces acting on the soil element above a sliding plane in a slope... and H is the height of the soil mass being considered.= y Hsina. from geometrical consideration. and and 7. o1= 0 . coscx . a cos 1 ( ~ = C. (1) into Eq. (1) S z = . (2) Introducing Eq. and o3on the Mohr diagram. it becomes possible to identify the points of the minor and major principal stresses o. (3) Thus. and T are .0.. Thus. the stresses o.. and z.)za a cos I 1 . o3from o.
at point C where the phase transformation take place from contractive to dilative behaviour. The residual strength thus defined is called the strength at quasisteady state. This state is called the steadystate. 5 . it shows an increase in shear stress. No matter what is the strength at the steady state at point D. Typical stresspath and stressstrain relation for loose sand. TYPICAL PATTERN OF DEFORMATION The typical pattern of undrained deformation of anisotropically consolidated specimens is schematically illustrated in Figure 4 in terms of stress path and stressstrain curve. and C T ~ and then by shearing the soil specimen under undrained conditions. The principle of duplication of insitu conditions as above would be executed in the laboratory tests by applying under drained conditions the principal stress CT. In addition. point A indicates an initial state of Kcconsolidation whereupon undrained shear stress application starts. namely the point D. the minimum shear stress is encountered. ~ C T ’ ~stands for. q. ~ ~ where o ’ . Thus. the residual strength should be defined as the shear stress mobilized at the steadystate. It would be argued that the undrained conditions may not prevail in shallowly seated partially saturated soil deposits where sliding could frequently take place. When the specimen is loose. With the assumptions as above multiple series of triaxial tests were conducted by subjecting sand specimens to a stress system with varying Kcvalues defined as Kc = C T ’ /~c T ’ . respectively. the abscissa indicates the mean principal effective stress defined by p’=(0’. the stress drop does not appear and the shear stress at the phase transformation does not produce large deformation. concomitant with fairly large deformation. if its volume stays little changed. it has been a usual practice to subject a soil specimen to the stress changes which are similar to those expected to take place in the field. the deformation behaviour is considered to be represented approximately by that of a fully saturated sample. The bentover in the stress path takes place at point C and the shear stress increases to a point D where large deformation starts to occur without any change in the effective mean stress p’ and shear stress q. they were subjected to shear stress under undrained conditions by increasing the major principal stress CT]. to a point B at peak strength and then a decrease down to a point C corresponding to the phase transformation. it may as well be assumed that. When the specimen is medium dense to dense. When the specimen is loose. of practical importance in Figure 4. attention will be drawn to the state of stress at the quasisteady state. In such a case.)/3 and the ordinate represents the shear stress defined by q In Figure 4.BACKGROUND OF LABORATORY TESTS When attempting to identify mechanism of failure of soils underneath sloping surface by virtue of laboratory tests. However. the point C in Figure 4. the and ~ effective major and minor principal stresses at the time of consolidation. the residual strength should be defined by the shear stress qas which is mobilized at point C. even though the soil is partially saturated. the change in void ratio of the soil during large deformation leading to sliding may be deemed not so much appreciable that the constant volume condition may be maintained approximately to a tolerable level of accuracy. In Figure 4 (a). After the specimens were consolidated anisotropically.+20’. that is. In the present study.
6. Figure 7.O. Stress path and stressstrain relation of isotropically consolidated sand with Kc=l .7. . Stress path and stressstrain relation of anisotropically consolidated sand with Kc=0. Figure 6. 6 Figure 8.5. Stress path and stressstrain relation of anisotropically consolidated sand with Kc=0. Stress path and stressstrain relation of anisotropically consolidated sand with Kc=0.Figure 5.
the sample becomes more contractive and susceptible to triggering of the flow failure. 70 and 12OkPa and sheared undrained in the triaxial compression mode.900. Another series of tests with the same initial lateral stress of 03.. seen in Figure 9 that for the two specimens with o’ . dilative responses were observed throughout shear stress application. In such a condition.5. It is seen in Figure 5(b) that large deformation began to occur at an early stage of load application and continues further until an axial strain of 20% developed. Still other series of the tests with a further increased value of Kc are displayed in Figure 7 where it may be noted that the sample with a void ratio of 0.O are demonstrated in Figure 8 where it is apparently noted that the specimen with e=0. determined almost uniquely irrespective of the is Kccondition at the time of anisotropic consolidation.5 through 1..912 has reached a steadystate with a shear stress of q=30kPa which is smaller than the initially applied shear stress of q=SOkPa..’=196kPa and a lateral stress of o.6 and 0. =60.900 has reached a steadystate where the shear stress is about q=SOkPa which is much larger than the initial shear stress of q=20kPa. In comparison amongst the cases of Kc=0. Relation between void ratio and major principal stress G’. Figure 9.’=98kPa but with an increased Kcvalue of 0. ( 1+sin$.0... This conclusion has been proved to be valid as well for Toyoura sand as indicated by the data shown in Figure 9 where four test data are plotted for the cases of K. It may be seen in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) that the dilatant behaviour is exhibited when the sample is prepared with a void ratio less than about 0. to obtain the corresponding major principal stress.’=98kPa producing an initial state of Kc=0. but for other two tests with o’ 120kPa.6 is demonstrated in Figure 6 for samples with various void ratios where the general tendency is seen to be the same as the results of the tests shown in Figure 5. but otherwise the sample is contractive.loose sands would be the shear stress that can be mobilized at the point C in the state of phase transformation.90. It may be consolidation pressure o’.5. Vaid Chern (1985) that the relation between the void ratio and the minor effective stress at phase transformation G’.. It is to be noticed that the sample with e=0. but the scatters become less and less as the becomes large. The saturated samples were consolidated with a vertical stress of oI.892 were consolidated to vertical stresses of o’.’)/2 is plotted versus the effective confining stress defined as p=(o. with an increasing degree of anisotropy at the time of consolidation. The minor effective stress G ’ ~ . This means that.=0. at the state of phase transformation. together with the consolidation curve for the initial void ratio of 0.993 are displayed in Figure 5 where the shear stress q=(o. 7 .’o. It was then possible to draw a curve amongst the data points to establish a correlation between the void ratio and as indicated in Figure 9.892.)/( 1sin$. the strength at the ultimate steady state is beyond the scope of the present study . The specimens with an initial void ratio of ei=0. at phase transformation obtained in the tests was multiplied by a factor. Note that there are some scatters in the data.’)/2.884 exhibits delative behaviour.. the flow type deformation would not be induced because of the gain in shear strength as compared to the initially applied shear stress. 0.882 and 0.=60 and 70kPa.). and this value of is plotted versus the void ratio in Figure 9. o’. and. The last series of the tests with Kc=l. The smallness of the shear stress at the quasisteady state as compared to the shear stress at the outset would be regarded as a criterion for an unstable condition where flowtype deformation could be triggered if the peak shear stress is passed over by application of a slight agitation at the beginning.7. specimens exhibited contractive behaviour with limited deformation. In t h s context. OUTCOME OF TESTS The results of undrained compression tests on samples with void ratios ranging between 0. CONSIDERATION FOR TEST RESULTS It has been shown by Chern (1985). it is noted that the sample changes its behaviour from contractive to dilative with increasing Kcvalues even if the void ratio is kept at a constant value of e=0.’+o.
Thus. In looking at the diagram in Figure 9. if 0 . 268) sus = 4 M cos@ = cos@ . there are three methods that are conceived to properly represent the strength. 1996. Plots of initial states of specimens in terms of void ratio and ollC determine the Initial Dividng to Line for anisotropically consolidated sand.6sin@. the threshold condition differentiating between contractive and dilative behaviour would be obtained as marked in the diagram of Figure 9. where p’s is the confining stress at the quasisteady state as defined by ps’=(o’Is+20’. Note that each point in the figure indicates the void ratio and o’lc at initial stages before application of undrained shearing.. According to the study by Kato et al.1c is chosen as a parameter to indicate confinement of the sample at the initial state. if d I C chosen as a parameter to indicate initial is confinement. the QSSline was shown to be determined uniquely also for anisotropically consolidated sand. Sus. When normalizing the residual strength.)/3 and M is a parameter related with the angle of phase transformation in the p’q plot.p‘ 2 2 s s . Superimposed in Figure 10 is the quasisteady state line established previously in Figure 9. (1999). the major principal stress c f I C at consolidation is plotted in Figure 10 for each of the test results with varying Kcvalues. p’c=(~’lc+20’3c)/3. it may be mentioned that. if the effective major principal stress. In order to examine the characteristic features of undrained deformation as above. Thus. G’I c and G’ are used to plot the test data of Kc . p. In the previous study (Ishihara. been used as a variable to has represent the degree of confinement at the state of 8 . Sus. the deformation behaviour of Kc consolidated sand is dominated by the effective major principal stress o’l. the residual strength is expressed as (Ishihara. the mean effective stress at the time of consolidation.consolidated samples.Figure 10. RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF ANISOTROPICALLY CONSOLIDATED SAND It has been customary to define the residual strength.. 3 .. It may be seen in Figure 10 that the Initial Dividing Line (IDline) defined as a threshold curve differentiating between conditions of flow and nonflow can be established uniquely for anisotropically consolidated sample. (6) M=.sin@. By denoting the deviator stress at this state by qs=o’1so’3s. 1993) dealing with isotropically consolidated samples of sands. it is to be noticed that a unique set of curves are obtained for the consolidation and phase transformation. by referring to the minimum shear stress at the QSS which is mobilized at the state of phase transformation for sands exhibiting contractive behaviour.
24 and Qs=31" . It .cos$.The three options are summarized as follows. p269) as an important parameter to represent the degree of contractiveness in undrained loading on isotropically consolidated sand.'. The results of extensive tests in the previous studies (Ishihara... it may be assumed that the initial state ratio. 1999.(1 2Kc)(2M + 3) The ratio of the confining stress at the initial state to that at the quasisteady state. However...M . the normalized residual strength is obtained variously as follows. C = ..and r. ) 3 sin$.=2. It was referred to as the initial state ratio.O condition is approximately equal to the value of r. It may also be concluded that for Toyoura sand the threshold initial state ratio takes a value of r. (10) is to be taken as a fundamental parameter to indicate the threshold condition between the contractiveness and dilativeness of sand no matter whatever the anisotropic condition would be at the initial state.. The other approach was adopted to arrange the data set in terms of the initial state ratio. (9) and (10). The data plotted in Figure 1l(c) versus the Kcvalue indicate as well that the threshold r.1 corresponding to Kc=l. It is to be noticed in Figure 1O(c) that the value of r. (7) ~ 0' IC = d 1 c Using the three confining stresses. The boundary separating conditions of contractive and dilative behaviour is indicated by a vertical straight line in Figure 11 (a).=2.'.2 for Toyoura sand. ~ . 1 i I  .. (9) .value differentiating conditions between contractive and dilative behaviour tends to increase with increasing Kcvalues. it is considered appropriate to assume that the threshold initial state ratio. r. P'C' 0' 1c + 2 d 3c 3 6 .+ci'. rc=pc'/ps'. when dealing with the anisotropically consolidated samples of sand.. can be derived from their definitions as follows. (1 1) 2M+3 = (1 + Kc)M+6 rc where M= (0' 3(0' 1s. (8). Based on the observation as above. (9). Those data from denser samples exhibiting dilative behaviour are displayed with open circles and those shown by solid circles indicate that samples exhibited contractive behaviour.'/ols' as defined by Eq.3s 1 . rc.. 1993). takes a constant value which is equal to rc'= 1.'. was introduced in the previous study (Ishihara. Thus. The initial state ratio ?. defined by Eq. It can be seen that the threshold initial state ratio differentiating between contractive and dilative behaviour remains almost unchanged with variation of Kcvalues.' are newly introduced in the present study as defined by Eqs. In order to examine effects of Kcconsolidation on the value of the initial state ratio. ic defined by Eq. sus .6sin Qs 6 +2d3. In the subsequent study. the effective confining stress at the state of phase transformation was read off from all the test data such as those shown in Figures 5 through 8..and r. defined by Eq. r. (10) 11 (a).c'/~. The value of rc'=o. The other options would be to adopt the confining stress fjC=(o'.2 for all the Kcconditions employed in the tests. The relationship between rc'. ?.'=1.)/2 or to use the major effective confining stress o'.c' shown in Figure as r rc'  1 9 + .. +d3c 1 '  Pc = . 1993) have shown that for Toyoura sand the value of M takes a value of 1.. it may not be convenient to utilize the mean effective stress p. this value proved to be valid as 9 . may be seen that the threshold value of fctends to increase with an increasing value of K ~ = o ' ~ c / o ' . P'c 2  1 r..consolidation.0 determined in the previous study (Ishihara. (10) was calculated first for all the test data on Toyoura sand and plotted versus the value of Kc =o. The same data set is expressed alternatively in Figure ll(b) now in terms of the Kcvalue plotted versus the initial state ratio.
as demonstrated in Figure 11(a). (1 l). 10 Figure 12.c’/oIs’takes a value of rc7=l.61(1+2Kc) rc‘ It has been known in the above that the threshold initial state ratio rc’=o. Introducing this value into Eq. one obtains 2=0.76( I + Kc) r C  . (12) can be rewritten as. Introducing this value. Relation between Kcvalue and variously defined initial state ratios. ( 13) Figure 1 1. rc = 0. .. . ..2.well for anisotropically consolidated samples of Toyoura sand with various Kcvalues. Eq.91(1+Kc) ~ J 1 .73( 1+ 2Kc) % = 0. (12) TC =0. Relation between Kcvalue and variously defined normalized residual strength.
92 1.are to be used to obtain the normalized residual strength through the use of Eqs. Since the threshold value of rc’ is known to take a constant value of 1./p‘ = ____ 1 + 2Kc 1 The relations of Eq. no matter whatever may be the genetic cause of the slide. Residual strength versus the gravityinduced initial stress.2 needs to be determined by considering the ultimate state (steady state in dilating samples).48 s u s / Pc = 1 . The threshold value of the strength bounding the upper limit of any of the strength values in contractive sand is obtained by simply introducing Eq. It is to be mentioned here that. as obtained from the chart in Figure 3. As mentioned above. (8) and (9). a. The values of the normalized residual strength can be determined for all the test data obtained in the present study based on the three expressions indicated by Eqs. The normalized residual strength obtained using Eq. (8). (10) is displayed in Figure 12(a). (8) (9) and (10). if the 11 . The normalized residual strength Sus/p’.24 which is the upper limit amongst a number of data corresponding to the condition f C 1. POTENTIAL FOR FLOW SLIDE As mentioned in the foregoing..( 14) could represent the upper limit of the strengths if the residual strength is to be normalized by p’. (13) into Eqs. and Sus/pc determined by Eqs. (9) and (10). The ultimate strength at the steady state in the dilative sand is generally higher and beyond the scope of the present study .72 S.. as follows. there would be a potential for is the flowtype slide being induced in the soil and otherwise the soil will be safe and free from being 0...=0. (14) are also displayed in Figures 12(b) and 12(c) where it may be seen that the normalized residual strength as determined by E¶. As indicated in Figure 12 (a). It is to be noticed that the test data indicated 2 by open circles all belong to the state of phase transformation in dilative samples and the normalized residual strength in this region is not the minimum value of the strength. the degree of susceptibility to the flow slide depends also on the initial state of shear stress as expressed in terms of the Kcvalues.2. the gravityinduced shear stress would be the main force driving the soils mass moving downhills. and P. S u s / d I c 0. the value of shear stress qQsat the state of phase transformation was read off and its ratio to the initially applied shear stress qo was obtained as plotted in the ordinate of the diagram in Figure 13. The definition of qQsand qo is illustrated in the inset of Figure 13. Plotted in the abscissa of Figure 13 is the Kcvalue in each of the anisotropically consolidated sample. then the soil mass would continue to move downwards leading to the flowtype of slide. (14) Figure 13. it would be of interest to examine how the initial state will affect the potential for the flow slide if the soil is in the initial state under the slope as illustrated in Figure 1. (13) are considered to hold true with a reasonable level of coincidence to mark the boundary lines differentiating between conditions of contractive and dilative behaviour of Toyoura sand.880 and 0. It may be seen that the relations of Eq. the flowtype failure will be induced in loose sandy deposits. the normalized residual strength takes a threshold value of Sus/0’.24 = magnitude of the residual strength is equal to or smaller than that of the shear stress induced by the gravity force. rc and ?. respectively. If the soil deposit is in a loose state exhibiting the contractive behaviour with a residual strength which is smaller than the gravityinduced shear stress. It may be mentioned that if the ratio.. For each of the results of the tests on loose samples with void ratios ranging between e=0. if the initial state ratio. Thus. 0. the normalized residual strength is determined uniquely independent of the Kcvalue.These relations are displayed in Figures 1 l(b) and 1 I(c). is also demonstrated in Figure 12. Also plotted in the figure in the value of the slope angle. The ultimate strength in the region of fc51.2. (8) and (9). qQs/qO less than unity.
1996. Undrained Response of Saturated Sands with Emphasis on Liquefaction and Cyclic Mobility. This means that neither the mean principal stress defined by p’=(o’. T. it may be inferred from the data in Figure 13 that ..65) would be considered to have a danger of being involved in the flow slide..24 as an upper lirmt beyond which the residual strength can not be defined because of the sand becoming dilative with increasing density. K.147. Kato.5” (Kc 50. o’]. Ishihara & I. Thesis. C. The outcome of the tests indicated that the major at the time of anisotropic principal stress consolidation is a governing factor to uniquely determine the initial dividing line and quasisteady state line in the plot of void ratio and confining stresses. To evaluate whether the Kcconsolidated sand is susceptible to flowtype failure. 12 .)/3 nor p=(o’1c+o’3c)/2is an appropriate parameter to specify the initial state of confinement in the consolidated sand..takes a value of 0. University of British Columbia. Vaid.880 and 0. Soil Behaviour in Earthquake Geotechnics. The outcome of such assessment indicated that for a loose deposit of Toyoura sand. i. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The laboratory tests described herein were performed by the help of Mr. S. Advances in the Art of Testing Soils under Cyclic Conditions. Science University of Tokyo. Liquefaction and Flow F d u r e during Earthquakes. A series of undrained triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated specimens of Toyoura sand with various densities to investigate effects of anisotropic consolidation on undrained behaviour distinguishing between contractive and dilative characteristics. Ishihara. and Tj. Ph. Towhata 1999. Chern 1985. Undrained Shear Characteristics of Saturated Sand under Anisotropic Consolidation. Based on the above conclusion. 1985. Proc.e. 32. Vol. the slope with an angle of inclination greater than about 12. D. Geotechnique.5” and otherwise there would be no danger for such catastrophic failure.involved in the catastrophc slide due to flowtype deformation. CONCLUSIONS Okuhara. with the result that the normalization by oYlcis most appropriate to define the normalized residual strength. the value of residual strength was compared with the shear stress applied at the time of the anisotropic consolidation for loose samples with a void ratio between e=0. Interpreted in this context. Cyclic and Monotonic Undrained Response of Saturated Sands.921. K. & J. Y.. 3 : 351 415.880 and 0.921. 1993.+2o’. Vancouver. submitted to Soils and Foundations. was examined. Yoshimura and Mr. J. It was also shown that the residual strength ~ normalized by o ’ . M. if the Toyoura sand exists in a slope with a void ratio of e=0. Michigan: 120 . The authors wish to express their gratitude to these persons. if the angle of slope becomes greater than 12. students of the Civil Engineering Department. P. C. Oxford University Press.. there would be a potential for the flow failure to be triggered. ASCE Convention in Detroit. It is to be noticed that the relation as shown in Figure 13 depends upon the density and material properties of sandy soils and more test data will need to be accumulated before any conclusion is drawn. REFERENCES Chern. Ishihara. the residual strength of the sand normalized each to different initial p’ stresses. NO. K.
Keynote lectures .
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such the methods proposed by Sarma (1979). such as the upper bound and lower bound theorems of Plasticity.. including those of the Three Gorges and Xiaolangdi projects. Yamagami & Jiang ( 1999 Balkema. the limit analysis method (Chen. Beijing. As a branch of applied science. have been reviewed which indicated that an understanding of the Bound Theorems will help to obtain reliable and economical solutions to slope stability problems. A number of case histories regarding the slope engineering of China’s hydropower construction. Another issue related to this method is that the method is well developed and understood. 1975).1 Fundamentals The procedures of solving slope stability problems is similar to that for solid mechanics. imply a lower bound of the factor of safety. In this paper.. Rotterdam. People’s Republic of Chinu ABSTRACT: The solution of a slope stability problem can be approached by its least upper bound and maximum lower bound. is an approach that has been extensively used in solving various practical problems concerned with slope stability analysis. Those that employ slices with inclined interfaces. However. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 0 The limit analysis for slopes: Theory. The latter makes the application of the theory to practical geotechnical problems possible.. 2THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2. The limit equilibrium method has been regarded sometimes as an empirical approach since some assumptions were introduced when establishing the governing equations and since the displacement of the soil or rock mass is not properly considered in the method. bring some critical issues that have not yet been discussed in literature and report its successhl applications in some important projects in China. care must be taken of the possible two directions of shear between the adjacent slices when the upper bound approach is used. The limit equilibrium methods that employ vertical slices. The concept of upper bound and lower bound principles has been extended to wedge slide analysis. Yagi. For a specified load system. Donald and Chen (1997). = *. 1INTRODUCTION The limit equilibrium method. methods and applications Zuyu Chen China Institute of WaterResources und Hydropower Research. it is required to find a stress fielder. (1) Force equilibrium nq. Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics benefit from the recent developments in the Classic Mechanics and Computer Science. demonstrate its accuracy. The former offers a theoretical background.Slope Stability Engineering. the author wishes to give a general review of the theoretical background of the limit analysis method. such as those proposed by Bishop (1955). More work in updating the method seems not to be highly demanded. In most cases the gap between the two bounds is very small and the rigorous solutions are indeed obtainable. In spite of its successfbl applications in geotechnical engineering for both soil and rock slopes there have been some critical issues needed to be discussed. which satisfy the following conditions (expressed in tensors). Morgenstern and Price (1965). which enables us to establish a modern system of limit analysis based on the traditional method of slices.. with the boundary conditions: 15 . or in a broader sense. and its associated displacement field U. give an upper bound approach to the stability analysis.
T. such as dilatancy.. LJS (2. nonhomogeneous.2 The upper bound and lower.1). However. the tractions in the boundary S and nl is the directional derivatives of the surface S. i. The force equilibrium conditions can be expressed in a formulation employing the virtual work principle. shear strength parameters respectively. . (a) a general case.6).1 will lead to a real or rigorous solution to slope (1) The lower bound theorem The lower bound approach starts from the force equilibrium condition and states that any stress field that satisfies Eq. 20 (2. I. For rock and soil material. . which exhibits complicated deformation behavior at failure. where Cllk. borrnd theorems of Plasiiciiy Satisfying all the conditions stated in Section 2.o. e.. MohrCoulumn' s failure criterion is generally employed.3) is sometimes called energy dissipation. U. which states as . (b) the multislice failure mode: (3) the multiblock failure mode. 2. Finding the solution by some simplified methods is an approach actually employed by many practitioners in their consulting work.c 4 0 r (2. 2. dv +IF. a matrix representing elastic or elastois plastic relationships expressed in tensors. (2. where li is a compatible displacement increment field assigned on each force.. is the body force. For Eq. anisotropic and nonlinear.1 Slope stability analysis by an upper bound approach. (2.in which W. while c and 4. ri.2) and (2. we also restrict the presence of tensile stress. strain softening and large displacements. It includes both deformation and strength requirements.3) stability problems. W . (2) Compatible displacement filed A compatible displacement filed requires that the strain at any point follows the definition: (3) Constitutive law The constitutive law relates the force equilibrium and deformation compatibility requirements and represents the material behavior. The left side of (2.i.8) will 16 .7) or where on and 'tr are normal and shear strength on the failure surface.9) FIG. where 0 3 is the minor Principle stress at any Point of the media. (2.7) or (2. rock mass is highly discontinuous. crJ dv = .ig$ .
=CIF (2.12) tanp. For each of the failure modes.1 (a)). The minimum and maximum loading factors are directly related to the minimum and maximum factor of safety respectively. becoming r 2. (2) The lower bound theorem The upper bound approach starts from an increment of displacement.ds . The limit analysis renders the solution by approaching the real ultimate load from lower bound and the upper bound. The author has given a formal demonstration to Pan’s principle based on the Bound Theorems of Plasticity and Drucker’s postulates (Chen. 2. If the difference between the two bounds is small. 1992). In explaining this concept. the theorems of Plasticity employ a loading factor q that brings a structure to failure.2 shows an example taken from the textbook (Wang. in mode (a).3) consists of two parts. trying to find the least upper bound and the maximum lower bound. find a stress distribution that satisfies Eq.7) or (2. Therefore. we assign a virtual rotation 8 and establish the equation for energy and work balance.zi.be associated with an external load that is lower than or equal to the real load that brings the failure. we present the following three examples indicating that a proper implementation of the bound theory will help us find the solution in a very simple way with high accuracy. Example I The upper bound approach used for solving structural problems. Fig.3. = tanp.2 shows 4 possible such modes. (2. Further more. (2) For a specified slip surface. use of the Bound Theorems could lead to the following very simple and direct solution.12). (2. (2) Among all possible failure mechanism. The frame is subjected to a set of external load. reduces the available shear strength parameters to new values as C. I F L o ~.zi. The advent and rapid development of computers and the associated various numerical algorithms have enabled a practicable procedure to find the extreme for geotechnical problems and confirm that the two bounds are indeed very close. Donald and Chen (1997) discussed the unique and monotonic relationship between the loading factor 7 and factor of safety F which.JdQ+IdD=dW. in the plastic zone Q* and the slip surface r*. in order to bring the structure to failure. Following the Bound Theorems or Pan’s Principles. Pan Jiazheng (1980) summarized the following principles: (1) Among many possible slip surfaces.8) will be either greater than or equal to the real load associated with a real failure mechanism Q and r (Refer to Fig. Equating the work and energy dissipation gives which leads to 17 .. For example. al. (2. We know that the structure collapses in a failure mode that involves 4 hinges. a virtual rotation 8 will cause the external vertical load 2P to do work with a magnitude of 10. Although modern Mechanics of Structure has provided well defined methods to obtain the ultimate external load that brings the structure to failure.1) with the constraints of (2. generally referred to as velocity U. performing slope stability analysis generally includes the following two steps: (1) For a specified failure mechanism. et..~ (2. Fig.11) (2.4. all the statements related to the bound Theorems can be expressed in terms of factor of safety.It states that the load calculated by (2. 2. Pan’s Principle is identical to the Bound Theorems but expressed in a more understandable way. 2. . the subscription ‘e’ appeared for all variables would invariably mean that the related c and 4 values are reduced by (2.4 Significance ofthe Bound Theorems Before proceeding with the details. the real one offers the minimum resistance against failure ( Principle of minimum). find the one that has the minimum factor of safety.1 l).10) where D is the energy dissipation developed on the slip surface r. 1998). 2.3 Definition ofthe factor of safety Traditionally. and develop an internal energy dissipation 011 hinges 2..Uldv+IT. it will offer better understanding to some basic rock mechanics concepts which otherwise could hardly be well interpreted. we may conclude that the rigorous solution is actually obtained. In fact. the stress in the failure mass as well on the slip surface will be reorganized to develop the maximum resistance against failure ( Principle of maximum). The left part of Eq. and search for a distribution that offers the maximum value of factor of safety.8).3) and (2. In the following presentations.
initial estimate. $=30". (a) A four slice failure mode.3(c). we tried to find a failure mode that gives the minimum value of F as shown in Fig. If the failure mass is divided into 16 slices. This example indicates that if we are only interested in the ultimate loads and do not care about the failure process and the information about the stress and deformation during loading. which is mode (b) with P = M/21. 2.013. associated with F."=l.006. (d) are P = M/21 . According to the upper bound theorem..3(a).3 Example 2. Performing the rigorous procedures of Structural Mechanics will give the same solution but in a much complicated way. (c).047.=1. Following Pan's principle of minimum.For this particular example in which c=98 kPa. Sarma's method assumes that failure develops on both the slip surface and the inclined interslice faces. Fig. (b) Results of the optimization search. 18 . 2. =1.047. the ultimate loads for mode (b). FIG.006. the real ultimate load is the one that gives the lowest P. we started with a four slice mechanism as shown in Fig. it is easy to find that the value of factor of safety is F=l.3 shows uniform slope subjected to a vertical surface load. F.]. Therefore this solution can be regarded as the one that realizes Pan's principle of maximum.P = 5 M/81.44 kPa.2 An example explaining a simple way to solve the ultimate loads using the upper bound theorem FIG. 2. Examzple 2 A classical problem with the closed form solution. F = 1. Using Sarma's method. . (c) Result of the optimization search using 16 slices. P = 5M/41 respectively. Sokolovski (1954) gave a closedform solution with the assumption that the weight of the soil is neglected. This concept has been adopted to solve slope stability analysis problems as shown in the next example.Similarly.013. we are able to offer this example a solution for the ultimate load as accurate as the closeform solution. It is clear that with the theoretical support of the Bound Theorems. the closedform solution for the ultimate load T is 111. Associated with this load. an example describing the upper bound approach. we obtained a failure mode almost identical to the one suggested by the closedform solution as shown in Fig. there exists a straight forward and easy way to obtained the solution. 2. = 1. F. 2.3(b) with a solution F. 2.
A variety of optimization methods are available (Celestino and Duncan. 1: the original estimated . 1999).........870 and 1. Pan (1980) argued on the theoretical background of making such assumptions.. the real solution should be related to the one that gives the maximum factor of safety. 1988). m): (2. al. which is associated with the input geometry of the failure mode.the method o optimization f Fig. given the strength parameters for the material The method of optimization renders a powerfbl tool to find the minimum for geotechnical problems that involve complicated slope profiles and material properties..5).J z.( refer to Fig. The traditional method presented in Textbook implies an assumption that the shear forces on the failure surfaces are parallel to the line of intersection of the two failure surfaces... 2..4 shows the forces applied on the two failure surfaces of a typical wedge. which represents the failure mode.. A2. It is after the observation of this critical issue Pan put forward his Principles of Maximum and Minimum...directions.Implementing the optimization routine. i...5. While these methods on many occasions functioned well in finding the minimum factors of safety. H e believed that among all the solutions satisfiing force equilibrium equations. Therefore. In slope stability problems.136 respectively. two assumptions must be made to render the problem statically determinate. whose coordinate values are ZI (i=l. Chen and Shao..... On a separate paper published in this Symposium Proceedings (Chen et. (a) Sketch.2. This indicates that even in a very simple area of rock mechanics. Once this discretization mode is specified... The factor of safety adds one more. In .. associated with the minimum value of F.5 Numerical supports .4 The wedge failure analysis. 1981.. factor of safety can be expressed as a function of x... n1=6 here). represented by A. (Fig.B.e. we noticed that the resultant forces PI and P. 62 . (2) Forces applied on the two failure surfaces: (3) Coordinate system. Negative gradient method and DFP method. . the author and his associates presented an example which showed that the factors of safety obtained by the conventional and the upper bound approaches were 0.5 Search for the critical failure mode by the method of optimization.13) To simulate this curve. The task of an optimization operation is to find F. 62. 2..which is associated with an initial value of F. and a new set of 6.A. Chen and Shao (1988) discussed the applications of the Simplex method.... 2. there are still some fundamental concepts for which a critical study is needed.. Fig.xi. When establishing the force equilibrium equations.applied on the two failure surfaces involve six unknowns.Z . the critical Use of the Bound Theorems or Pan's Principles essentially leads to a mathematical problem of finding the minimum of the factor of safety... and 6.z.A2. they 19 . . . should also be included in the variable.. The number of available force equilibrium equations for the wedge block is three. the slip surfacey(x) is discretized by ni number of points A.Bi. the upper bound method. 2.. 2.. 2. 6v.. .. y. MohrCoulumn failure criterion on the failure surfaces added another two equations.Examule 3 An issue regarding the wedge failure analysis Fig.. the inclination of an interface 6. we connect these points by either straight lines or smooth curves... their components in XJ. We have We start with an initial estimated failure mode. 6.. the minimum of the objective function F associated with the variable ZT=( z2. we eventually obtained a new mode represented by B'.y..y..... A. x. 2.
1).. (2.1 Slope stability analysis by the method of vertical slices. Greco. our profession has a long history of employing the method of slices to solve various practical problems of geotechnical engineering.1) is obtained by projecting all the forces applied on a slice onto the line AA' (Fig.p ( x ) sec t y dx d Gsinp=y(Gcosp) dx +(y G a p ) + 7h d x t d x t d d w (3 4 in which dW . (2) To satisfy (2.1(a)). denoted as P . 3.7). a= inclination of the slice base. (2. 1955.1) on the slip surface.1) for each slice. Eq. y.seuy. (1) To allow the satisfaction of Eq.7) or (2. G'sinp' + cb. dx and dP tan w G = . In that case the resultant of the normal force N and its contribution of the shear force on the base of the slice N tan$. (3.l(a)) which inclined at an angle of $e to the base of the slice. 3. p(x) = sin@: dx a) +qsin@i a) 7. (a) the slope profile.1 Theoretical back ground As a simplified approach. h. as well as by others (Bishop. e. 3.8) on the interfaces. 1992. i. p=inclination of the interslice force.5) 20 . Early approach divides the failure mass into a series of slices with vertical interfaces.sometimes suffered from not being able to find the global minimum. rt.h] > F (3. (c) forces applied on a slice [G' cosp' tanq:. it is required that on the interfaces shear and tensile failure not occur. would be perpendicular to AA' and not appear in Eq.8). = distance between base and the horizontal seismic force. 1983) dG _ The factor of safety will be obtained by solving the relevant boundary conditions based on the assumptions made for the distribution of p(x). imply a lower bound approach since the solutions are associated with a force distribution satisfying Eq. . (b) assumption for tan p . q= the coefficient of horizontal seismic force. and (2. FIG. A random search technique was consequently developed (Chen. dW/& = weight of the slice per unit width.3) G = the total interslice force. or (2. 1973).singlj dx dW (3. Janbu.. q= vertical surface load. the force and moment equilibrium equations are formulated as (Chen and Morgenstern. The method proposed by Morgenstern and Price (1965). 1996) which greatly enhances the efficiency of the search. = y value of the point of application of the interslice force.= pore pressure coefficient (refer to Fig. (3. 3SIMPLIFIED LOWER BOUND APPROACHTHE METHOD OF VERTICAL SLICES 3.
i.1) and (3.‘. where is the friction angle between the retaining wall and the soil..(x). the distance between the point of application of the water pressure and the bottom of the tension crack. the failure mode shown in Fig..7) Among a variety of assumptions for px.9) by iterations.dx  f dW dx (3. a linear function that is zero at x=a and tan6 at x=a . 3. For details refer to Chen and Morgenstern (1983) or Chen and Li (I 998).f ( ) is a linear function that allows the valueJ.PE(b) M. h. Morgenstern (1 983) suggested introducing an assumption defining /3 ( (Fig. 2. (3.l(b)).8) and (3.usinpe)V (4. i.l(a) is simplified to a multiwedge system as shown in Fig.. i.. J.12) (3.. and find one that gives the maximum factor of safety. = P. 3. 2.. the solution means a mobilization of maximum resistance against failure. P.8) and (3.(x)is another function that has zero values at x=a and x=b. =G(a).13) G.1) is equivalent to the force equilibrium equations given by Sarma (1979). 1997). and the energy dissipation developed on the band is d D = (ccosp. i. 4.e. Therefore the factor of safety obtained by Sarma’s method corresponds to an upper bound. Eq.2) where U is the pore pressure applied on the shear surface (Donald and Chen.h.1(b).11) ~ ( x=) [(sinpcosptann)E](nd{ (3. x ) where the first and second terms of the left side of (4. the plastic deformation produced by an increment in external load would incline at an angle $e to the shear band (Fig.. In the following discussion we will demonstrate that Eq. Let us examine a two block failure mode as . 2.) at x=b. P. Estimation for the external load is thus either higher than or equal to the real load.2). It has been understood that for a material that obeys associated flow law and MohrCoulomb failure criterion. The force and moment requirements take the form: andf. Therefore..e.. we () neglect those that produce results violating Eq. the friction angle at the wall Eqs. 4SIMPLIFIED UPPER BOUND APPROACH THE METHOD OF INCLINED SLICES Theoretical background Sarma (1973) presented the method that employs slices of inclined interfaces. . according to Pan’s Principle of Maximum... or active earth pressure at the vertical wall.6 is the value of p at x=b. (3..10) (3.5) or (3.. the value of o/y. It is possible to find F (or P) and h from (3.. is the water pressure at x=a. 1998) to incorporate active earth pressure problems with the presence of a tension crack at the crown.3) in the upper bound approach is approximated as (3..9) where s(x) = sec yE(x) (3. = P.7). (1) Since both the slip surface and the interfaces are assumed to be in a state of limit equilibrium condition. h .l(b). Solutions to the governing equations Chen and Morgenstern (1983) gave the solutions to the differential equations (3..(2.14) in which P is the value of G(x) at x=b.l(b) shows an example that takesfix) as a sine function andf.1 ). 2. We may understand the upper bound nature of Sarma’s solution in the following two ways. Fig. (b) to be equal to the values of tanp at x=a and x=b respectively..1) refers to the energy dissipation developed on the interfaces and slip surface respectively. according to the lower bound theorem.l(a) is simplified to Fig.e. (4.G’>O (3.9) involve an unknown F (or P) and an unknown variable p () Chen and x. They have been recently extended by Chen and Li (1997. the value of o/y. (2) While Fig.e. h is the distance between the point of application of the active earth pressure and the bottom of the wall.(a) x 21 ..P[hCOS 6 + t(b)E(b)] i 7.) at x=a.
Eq. v. V.V. the velocity of the wedge number k is determined by V=kV. Formulations o the upper bound solutions f (4. can be expressed as a linear function of V. = COS^.) w. I .5) remains only one unknown F which is implied in and is readily obtainable. 4. w. respectively is thus zero. The normal force P and its contribution of shear force Ptan@on each of the faces forms a resultant Pwhich inclines at an angle @e to the normal of the bases. C. and V. Pi.= v.. .sin(@. For a pair of adjacent slices. v..=0 + And (4. disappear in the work and energy balance equation and Eq.v. the solution obtained by Sarma’s method would be identical to that obtained by the upper bound method described in Section 4. with a set of virtual displacements. V. as will be given in the subsequent Section. we deliberately assign a set of virtual displacements V. (4.shown in Fig..as unknowns. and therefore are not unknowns.2 A two block failure mode explaining the equivalence between Sarma’s method and the energy approach.=0 + for left and right slice respectively. each inclined at an angle of &e to their respectively shear surfaces. V.. p.3) FIG.6. As explained in section 2. Now. and the relative velocity form a closed triangle. 8 is the angle of the velocity vector measured from the positive x axis. the velocity of the left and right slices V. .5)’ the virtual work principle. We thus reach two conclusions: (1) Sarma’s method. we have formulated in a more efficient way by employing (4.8. MohrCoulomn criterion applies on both the left and right bases of the blocks as well as on the interface. FIG. according to Sarma’s concept. .7) where p is the angle between the weight vector and V The values V. + A.V. P.6) Alel COS@^. 4.8) . y (Fig. (4.5) is identical to (4.. In (4.4)’ can be where 6 is the inclination of the interface with respect to the y axis. 4.2)’ each inclined at an angle of @e to the shear surface.) v. 4.5) (4.+Pi+c..sin(6.. . + wrvrcos p. by P. For details.2.1.... 4. . 4.1) in this particular problem.3) and (4. In Sarma’s approach.3 and Fig. on V. W is the weight of the slice.3) and (4..3).. refer to Donald and Chen (1997)..) (4.4) sin(6. 22 (4. .+Pi+c.8. P..4) reduce to < v.6.cos@J”.1 The plastic deformation V and the energy dissipation developed on a shear band. Therefore we have (Refer to Fig..^^ +Arc.c.. cos (4.. of any slice can then be expressed as a linear function of the velocity of the left first slice V. we start the upper bound solution by establishing a velocity field.. which typically involves a procedure of solving Eq. Establishing force equilibrium equation.4) A brief introduction to this method is given as follows. (4.. (2) Since Eq. The work done P. is the shear force applied on the failure surface developed by cohesion. (4.^. P.. ) = sin(6. P. In general. w.
To enhance the numerical efficiency. 23 . stability analysis with slopes containing weightless material were presented which indicated that the new method is capable of producing results as accurate as the closedform solutions. With the parameters indicated in 4.12) Substituting (4.065 by solving Eq.10) into (4.5(a) and the theoretical solution of q=220. The velocity at any point of the slip surface can be integrated by the following equation.13). (4. we obtained the following equation calculating the factor of safety. = cosec(a  4: . In Chen and Donald (1997). K accounts for the points on the slip surface where a or 4 changes abruptly.5(b).3 Velocity compatibility between adjacent slices. we started at an initial guess of failure mode as shown in Fig.10) where E ( x ) = k exp[ f cot(a ro  p : .8) and (4. The left slice moves upward to the right one. The subscripts 1 and Y refer to the variable at the left and right point of discontinuity.5kPa. 4.11) d< The relative velocity on the interfaces is defined by where T is the external surface load and q . The optimization process .5(a) and obtained F=1.Q)E(x)V. 4. we give another example in which the weight of the soil material is not neglected. the ultimate load is associated with a curved slope surface and a critical failure mode designated in Fig. Fig.2). The left slice moves downward to the right one. as well as in Example 2. V = E(x)V.da (4. as shown in Fig. . Example 4 A test problem with closedform solutions V. V. 4. 2. L is the length of the interfaces. 4. and following (2. (4.10).Q ) d<] da (4. Fig.l(c). 4. is the velocity at x=x.5 shows an example whose closedform solution is available by Sokolovski (1954) who concluded that for a slope whose selfweight is not negligible. In this paper.where Fig. the coefficient of horizontal seismic force. we usually discretize a slip surface by several nodal points which are connected by smooth curves.4 Velocity compatibility between adjacent slices.
3 shows the velocity 7 which represents an upward movement of the left slice with respect to the right one.. 4. let us examine a simple case shown in Fig.7) will produce positive values of V.<a.. 4. 4. BJ is defined as 8 =&peJ 3z ' 2 (4. or when the base exhibits an abrupt decrease of a.E .e.> 0 be satisfied with a definition of eJ by Eq. 2 (4. In this case. i a . lies lower than V. This case. means a violation of Drucker's Postulate.8)> . F. such as (2. is defined as The symbol '+' in ' 'is associated with case 1. . k whereas '' means case 2.=l. one must examine whether the left slice moves in an upward or downward direction. the smaller the factor safety will be obtained. case 1 requires that the condition 8.6) and (4..14) However. When establishing velocity field.. the left block should move downward with respect to the right one since a.=1. 4. It can be easily found that if a downward 7 is assigned and consequently.15) for 8/ .FIG. and consequently symbol '' should be used. with respect to the right one. the existence of the second term on the right side of the equation will produce a smaller value of P associated with a larger c. (b) The final solution. (4. with a definition of Eq. the calculation will lead to absurd results indicating that the bigger the cohesion value at the shear surface where the negative velocity develops.i o.. .. (4..4. This case.10) or (4. (a) The initial trial. and consequently 0. On the two possible directions of shear between the adjacent slices In this section. Further investigation shows that this problem is related to the improper direction of v/ caused by a wrong direction of shear on the interface.. As a consequence.6. F. 4.. refer to Donald and Chen (1997).7) are employed. associated with the minimum factor of safety of F.5 A closedform solution for a slope whose self weight is not neglected. Failure to do so will cause negative values of V. i.. The twoblock system is pushed by a horizontal force at the right side. is most commonly encountered.. If we use the symbol '+'. For this example. if V. Fig.1).. as shown in Fig..=6+p. (4. or v/ In general. Substituting these negative values into the work and energy balance equations.8. It is not difficult to find the critical load of P that brings the system into a state of limit equilibrium by establishing the following equation: z 8. Example 5 A simple problems explaining the need for considering two directions of shear To support this statement. which is controversial to common sense. i or a..5(b).< 0 or 8.6). or when (4. 8. the left slice would move downward with respect to the right one. 4.=l.. defined as case 2.14) while Case 2 requires the condition of @ . . we put forward an important statement which sometimes affects the results of the limit equilibrium methods of inclined slices.O08 yielded a failure mode which is exactly the theoretical one as shown in Fig.008. Q. (4. 24 .15) use of Eq. occurs when the base of the left slice is a weak zone having lower friction angle compared to that of the right one.O65. defined as case 1.
0' The analytical results for Cross Section 20.01 41. However.4" 500 26.6 A two block system explaining the need for considering the shear direction between adjacent slices.3. Six levels of drainage tunnels are provided in both abutments (Fig. presenting a very unfavorable condition to 25 .3.. This is because a relatively lower strength parameters were assigned to the interfaces in the upper bound method. Weathering cp c Unit weight kPa KN/m3 I Totally 35. (2) The highly fractured rock mass may form random wedges whose stability must be carefully reviewed to ensure no hazardous instability triggered either during construction or operation. (1) Landslide may take place along the whole or part of the slope. It is located in the left abutment of the Complex with a total length of 6442 m in which 1607 m is covered with the main structure.2 c. The shiplock slope is 160 m high and involves an excavation of 23. the dam units near the abutment will sit on a slope approximately 60 m high as shown in Fig.1) and by HoekBrown criterion (Table 5. compared to those of the upper bound method. It has been discovered that there exists a set of joint which dips in the same direction to that of the slope. However those for the schist intrusion deviate with each other quite a lot.2) are quite close for various types of weathering granite. TABLE 5. vertical interfaces were employed in the upper bound method.1:l.8 IV Slightly 1500 27 60.1 Shear strength parameters for various types of rock based on a comprehensive geological study Rock No.1. TABLE 5. i. Shear strength parameters suggested by the designers (Table 5. pvalues obtained by HoekBrown Criterion n? RMR (3 c cp Rock Weather condition MPa kPa ( " ) Granite Moderately 25 57 50 60. This may be caused by unexpected high ground water or by the inadequate shear strength of the rock mass especially due to the stress relief after the large amount of rock mass excavation. Parameters for these rock types based on a comprehensive geological review are proposed and listed in Table 5.9' Schist V Slichtlv 150 26. Refer to Fig.8 35. From the results shown in Table .0' I11 Moderately 52. From the top to the bottom. 5. 5.e. the slope ranges from 1. Additional cables are installed where the wedge failure potential is of concern. shown in Fig. the shear strength parameters of the interfaces are set to be equal to those of totally weathered rock. are presented in Fig.4 Granite Slightly 25 77 100 199. 5. A schist vain intrudes transversely through this area. SAPPLICATIONS OF THE UPPER BOUND AND LOWER BOUND APPROACHES Examnle 6 Stability analysis for the shiplock slopes o the Three Gorges project f The shiplock of the Three Gorges project assures the transportation through the Yangtze River and is therefore of utmost importance.1.3. 5. The vertical cut 60 rn high below elevation 161 m is supported by two rows of prestressed cables. 4.Price method and the upper bound approach.7 Schist Slightly 17 57 50 57. with a designed load of 3000 KN in general. moderately weathered to fresh rock mass.5:l to 1.8 million m3 rock material.5 Granite I1 Heavilv 45. 4 ~ 3 5 " c=5OkPu. slightly.1).5 57. Example 7 Stability analysis for the Three Gorges dam The bed rock of the power plants of the Three Gorges project rises near both abutments and consequently shortens the dam. The geology of the shiplock consists of early Sinian Period plagioclase granite.7 FIG. Since there exists a set of steeply dipping joints.050 25 200 26.It has been understood that the shiplock may have two possible failure modes. The horizontal anchor load 1000 KN/m and 30 m in length is applied on the slope where the cables pass through the slip surface.2 and Table 5.1. 5. it can be seen that there is no substantial difference between the results obtained by Morgenstern . 5. A tension crack 15 m deep filled up with water was assigned in the calculation. the slope material transfers from the heavily.8 37. Since the foundations of all the power plants are located at the same elevation. above the elevation 161m. MorgensternPrice sometimes gave larger factors of safety.
(b) from Table 5. the HoekBrown failure criterion.3.34 2. Refer to Table 5. 5.3 for critical slip surfaces 1.Fig.2.80 151m Global 3 2.32 1.38 Without NOTE: MorgensternPrice method adopted designers’ parameters (Table 5. Using MorgensternPrice method. under the application of the reservoir water pressure.5 TABLE 5. refer to Table 5. The result is F=2.91 Vertical With 4 Wall cables 5 2.1 for rock layers I. represented by BCHI.18 7. When Sarma’s method was tried.Price Brown Local Above 1 7. 5.4 .1.4.44 2.2 Critical slip surfaces obtained in local and overall stability review.36 2.79. The question raised by the designers are what the factor of safety is if the dam slide partly along OA. of the Sarma Morgenstern slip surface Designers Hoek. III. we understood 26 .IV.1) the stability of the dam. Strength parameters: (a) from Table 5. 11.89 5.3 Factors of safety obtained by different approach for the Three Gorge Shiplock slope No.08 200m Above 2 5.69 2.07 1.2. with the parameters shown in Table 5.V. 5. we found it not difficult in obtaining a factor of safety which satisfies both force and moment equilibrium conditions. the concrete dam and partly along the joints and rock bridge. Detailed geological explorations suggested some essentially interconnecting long joints as shown by line ABCHI in Fig.33 5.1 Cross section 20 of the Three Gorges Shiplock FIG.4.
passes through the crest of the slope which has a dip direction of 113" (Fig. a set of TABLE 5. the optimization process eventually gave a failure mode shown in Fig.O 0. $=3 1. The F value ranges from 1.89.. 5.4). However.8 joints develops in this area. Heavy reinforcement including prestressed cables has been installed.05.8" c (MPa) 3 . $=11. This result rather confused the designer until the idea of two possible directions of shear was introduced. The possible failure mode of this slope is consequently clear.4(a) shows the critical failure mode associated with F=2. which dips into the slope with dip direction and angle of 280"and 71" respectively.4 Shear strength parameters used in stability analysis for the Three Gorges dam. If the issue about the two directions of relative movements between interfaces is ignored and along the slip surface. Part of the slip surface OA ABCD HI $ 47.5. Using Sarma's method. On the other hand.5". ExamAde 8 Stability analysis for the outlet slope of the Xiaolangdi project The outlet of the water discharge tunnels of the Xianglangdi Multiplepurpose Hydroproject creates a 60 m high slope which consists of severely adverse geological conditions.2 1 . 5.4(b) with a minimum factor of safety F= 2.6.41 associated with different parameters on the inclined interfaces. 5. Fig. which is closed to that obtained by MorgensternPrice method. it has been found that factors of safety were very sensitive to the analytical methods as well as the input parameters of interfaces as shown in Table 5. 5.O" 57. Case I was exclusively used.7" 3 5 . The inclination of the interfaces would be 6=20° based on the set of joints that dip into the slope. It can be found that MorgensternPrice method gave a relatively low factor of safety being 1. Rock mass would slip along F236 the upper part and along a well defined clay at seam between the bedding planes near the toe as shown in Fig. being very unfavorable.08. being c=o.3 Unit 3 cross section of the Three Gorges Dam that for the part of failure mass which constitutes a continuous media of the concrete dam (OA in Fig. 5. optimization process must be introduced to determine the critical failure mode. 5. The dip direction of the bedding planes of the sandstone and shales ranges from 106" to 113". the relative movement between slices take the direction defined by Case 2. the result is based on the understanding that at point A and C.17 to 1. In designing the reinforcement. just as we did for Example 2 and Example 4. the parameters assigned are c=5OkPa..Fig.5). For the rock mass near the toe where the slip surface exits. 27 . Very low shear strength parameters are assigned to the slip surface either on the weak seam or on F236. Fault F.O".
TABLE 5. Example 7 shows that a proper use of this method will give a good insight into the stability behavior of a rock slope for which both safe performance and economical issue are of serious concern.5 Critical slip surface obtained by the Sarma method The large difference in the F values might be attributable to the very low shear strength assigned on the slip surface. The limit equilibrium methods that employ vertical slices. this method is highly commended since its inclined interfaces offer better simulation to a jointed rock mass. The importance of the project requires that the reinforcement must be sufficient to ensure safe performance of this large project. The limit equilibrium methods that employ slices with inclined interfaces. The inclined interfaces represent a set of joints which are not thoroughly persistent. care must be taken on the possible two directions of shear between the adjoining slices. imply a lower bound of the factor of safety. which can be summarized as the following. 28 . giving a set of parameters such as c=SOkPa. The solution of a slope stability problem can be approached by its least upper bound and maximum lower bound. The rigorous solutions are indeed obtainable. On the other hand. such as shown in Example 6. A rational assessment of the stability of this slope depends partly on a good understanding to the analytical methods employed. (b) Case 1 is invariably used.23 MorgensternPrice 6CONCLUSIONS This paper has given a general review on the theoretical background and the numerical advances of the method of slices for slope stability analysis. 5.4’) 1.5 Factors of safety of the Xiaolangdi outlet slope F Method Shear strength parameters of interfaces c.4 Stability analysis for the Three Gorges dam and foundation at Unit 3 using the upper bound approach. In performing the method of inclined slices. @30° on the interfaces should be considered rational. such as those proposed by Bishop (1955)’ and Morgenstern and Price (1965).17 3O0 1. the installation of prestressed cables presents a critical economical concern. Donald and Chen (1997).( kPa) ‘p! Sarma 0 20° 1. especially when a rock slope is concerned as shown in Example 8. Use of powerful optimization routines has enabled the least upper bound being very close to the accurate answers. In making the final decision. Therefore. A rational application of this method usually offers a safe solution to stability problems but is not always economical. Employing Sarma’s method has considered the real condition of the discontinuities. give an upper bound approach to the stability analysis. 1992).OS FIG. Using the energy approach proposed by Donald (p = 17. 5. In rock slope stability analysis.38 50 20° 1. 7 and elsewhere (Donald and Giam.FIG. On most cases the gap between this two bounds is very small. such as those proposed by Sarma (1978). (a) Taking case 2 at point A and C. we believed that the failure mechanism was clear in this particular problem.
The ACADS slope stability programs review. Yujie Wang and Jian Wang. Z. ExanipIe 5 and Example 7 show the importance of a proper consideration of this point in some rock slope problems. et. Slope stability analysis by the upper bound approach: fundamentals and methods.. Evaluation of active earth pressure by the generalized method of slices.1973. Rock Mec. Y. Simplified search for noncircular slip surface. New York. M. have been reviewed which indicated that a better understanding of the Bound Theorems will help to obtain reliable and economical solutions to slope stability problems (Chen et.. Chen.. Z and Shao. Demonstrations for Pan’s Principles of Maximum and Minimum. An introduction to Plasticity. Pan. E. V. A. 1992.717. September 2530. 1995. 1955. Water Resources Press. Z. a criterion defining the two possibilities and the associated formulations for the calculation of factor of safety have been given. V. al.. Proceedings. J. E. especially the encouraging comments of Dr. Slope stability computation. Hoek. The concept of upper bound and lower bound principles has been extended to wedge slide analysis. REFERENCES Bishop.. R. Proceedings o the 10th Asian Regional Conference on Soil f Mechanics a n d Fo undation Engineering. R. Proceedings 8th International Congress on Rock Mechanics. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. . E. including the Three Gorges and Xiaolangdi projects.and Morgenstern. Statics of soil media. W. Journal o Geotechnical Engineering. 10411048. Wang Jian for his help in editing the manuscript of this paper.225233. Vol. Vol25. That is. It has been found that a problem of wedge slide analysis is actually statically indeterminate. 29 . 1998. V. 267270. Z. Random trials used in determining global minimum factors of safety of slopes. (In Chinese) Greco. 1988. 1. Balkema.. Recent developments in slope stability Chen. 735748. No. Comparison between the limit and equilibrium and limit analysis method. Engrs. 1995. Chen. It has been found ( Example 3 and Chen et. The author appreciates the support provided by Golder and the helpful discussions of the participants. J. Geotech. Stockholtn. Chen. Chen. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The draft of this paper is prepared for a presentation on a consulting meeting on large slopes organized by Golder Associates from August 6 to 8. Master of science thesis. R. Extensions to the generalized method of slices for stability analysis.Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 1980. Vo1. J. B. Wang. 1992.pp. N. No. The Institute of Mining a n d Metaf[urg.1 1. 1979. and Bray. the number of the unknown forces applied on the failure surfaces exceeds that of available force equilibrium equations. A. 12. 1665. Int. Chen. I and Chen. 104. Rock slope engineering. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. analysis. Y. Evaluation of minunmum factor of safety in slope stability analysis. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Donald. Newzealand. 1954. 1960. W. 1990. ASCE. Sarma.and Li. Berkeley. S. 15 1 1 1524. 1998 in Vancouver.and Chen (1997). Reprots No. N. “The use of the slip circle in the stability analysis of slopes”.. Huang. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 1999) that the two bounds become an identical value when the friction angles of both failure surfaces are zero and they diverge considerably when cohesion of the two faces are zero.. Proceedings. 1983. M. Y. Huang. New York. Beijing. Embankment Dam Engineering. P. 613. Tokyo. 2. International Sytnposium on Slope Stability Engineering. S. 1997. No. Strength. Celestino. J. 29. J.. f Chen. Satbility analysis and landslide assessment for structures. 34: 853862.109. 105. 3. J. . I. Fanslated by Jones. 20.Y. Y. 122(GT7):5 17525. Min. T. The research work described in this paper is supported by China National Natural Science Foundation . 1998. Z. Y. Geotechnique. al. W. Christchurch.. 1% andScholfield.1670. More research work is needed to finally confirm the theoretical validity and significance of this statement. (In Chinese). M. Vol. VCB/GT/7802. Vol. 27:227229. Journal of Qinghua University. Z.. No. Stability snalysis of embankments and slopes. Chen. 1996.1978. 1975. Y.3. Z. November 8. A number of case histories regarding China’s hydropower construction. pp. stress and bulk modulus parameters for finite element analysis of stress and movements in soil masses. F. 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. China Institufe o Wafer Resources a n d f Hydropower Research. Chen. 4786. Duncan. D. The traditional lower bound approach proposed by Morgenstern and Price (1965) and the upper bound approach proposed by Sarma (1 979) have been upgraded by the fully analytical and numerically more efficiently formulations as shown in Section 3 and 4.l. N. W. 3. ISSHIKOKOU’99. 3. Vol. University o California. Hoek. Xiaogang Wang. Sokolovski. Slope stability analysis by a threedimensional kinematic analysis method. 6th International Symposium on Landslides. Donald. John Wiley and Sons. Wang. London. and Duncan. Am.1. No. GT. Limit analysis and soil plasticity. al. 1981. Soc. Keynote Lecture. 5 . The author is indebted to Mr. 391394.4. The solution is therefore multiple in which both upper and lower bounds exist. 2672 70. 1999). Sci. Efficient Monte Carlo technique for f locating critical slip surface. Z. 1999. 1977. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. K. Z. to be published in the August issue.t Janbu. Hoek. I and Giam. Estimating Mohrcoulomb friction and cohesion values from the HoekBrown failure criterion. Donald. 2. Civ. Proc. 1992. B. 1998. C. An upper bound method for wedge failure analysis. Z. P. Peking University Press.
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The final method is called a "finite eIement method of slope stability analysis" and the results are compared to results obtained when using conventional limit equilibrium method of analysis. The computed factor of safety obtained when using a total shear strength characterization of the soil.. The resulting overall factor of safety retains the basic assumptions inherent to the limit equilibrium definition of the factor of safety. Susk. The overall factor of safety computed using the finite element method shows good agreement with the factors of safety computed using any one of several limit equilibrium methods. The normal force along any selected slip surface can be calculated from the stress distribution that has been calculated using a linear and nonlinear stress analysis. It is well known. Fredlund & R. may not agree with the factor of safety computed when using the finite element stress analysis method. E. local factor of safety. 1). Limit equilibrium methods sum forces and moments related to an assumed slip surface passed through a soil mass (Fredlund and Krahn. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Using limit equilibrium concepts in finite element slope stability analysis D. can be defined as the available shear strength of the soil divided by the resisting shear strength. information not available when using traditional limit equilibrium methods.Slope Stability Engineering. The local factors of safety are an expression of the stability of the soil mass at each point along the slip surface. The complete stress state from the finite element analysis can be "imported" into a limit equilibrium analysis where the normal stress and the shear stress are computed corresponding to any selected slip surface. Rotterdam. The combination of a finite element stress analysis with a limit equilibrium analysis provides greater certainty and flexibility regarding the internal distribution of stresses within the soil mass. Fredlund et al.1975. The method has been updated to take advantage of recent advances in computer technology and algorithms. 1981). factor of safety. Yagi. Suskatoon. and intuitively understood that the stability of a slope should be influenced by the stress versus strain characteristics of a soil (Kondner 1963). when the finite element method is used.G. The overall factor of safety is a combination of the local factors of safety within the slope. The results indicate that it is important to use the effective shear strength characterization of the soil when performing the slope stability analysis. these are summarized in this paper. The finite element method provides additional information regarding the potential performance of a slope. These stresses can subsequently be used to compute a factor of safety (Fig. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a procedure for combining a finite element stress analysis on a slope with the concepts of a limiting equilibrium method of analysis. enhanced method. The procedure lends itself to present day numerical modelling techniques. A finite element analysis utilizes a stress versus strain model for the soils involved to calculate 31 the stresses in the soil mass. these methods do not utilize the stress versus strain characteristics of the soils involved. The proposed finite element method is in a form that can be conveniently used in engineering practice.. 1 INTRODUCTION Limit equilibrium methods of analysis have proven to be a widely used and successful method for the assessment of the stability of a slope. Key words: slope stability analysis. Yamagami & Jiang (c) 1999 Balkema. The overall factor of safety for a slope. strength method. stress level method. However. direct method. . finite element. Cunudu ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the development of finite element slope stability analyses and proposes that such a method can form a practical procedure for solving slope stability problems. Scoular University c?f Suskatchewun. Several slope stability methods have been proposed that make use of the finite element methods.G.
The results showed that stresses along a slip surface were overstressed in the lower portion of the slip circle. It was concluded that the factors of safety determined by the "enhanced limit strength" method (Kulhawy. and 2) changing Poisson's ratio interferes with the relationship between stresses and displacements. ResCndiz had developed a finite element method of 32 . La Rochelle (1 960) estimated the stress conditions in steep slopes using photoelastic tests on gelatine models. Wright et al. 2 and No.O when using the Bishop's Simplified method. It was concluded that "meaningful stability analysis can be made only f the stress distribution within the struci ture can be predicted reliably. showed that: 1) along one third of the slip surface. and 3) the factors of safety calculated by the finite element method using nonlinear elastic material properties increased with Poissonk ratio and are 2% to 8% higher than those calculated using the Bishop's Simplified method. Illustration showing stresses that are "imported" from a finite element analysis into a limit equilibrium analysis." Kulhawy (1969) developed a computer program to obtain an independent assessment of the normal and shear stress distribution along an assumed slip surface. the local factors of safety are less than the overall factor of safety.e. 8. Other researchers have confirmed this observation both with experimental evidence and with numerical modelling. Clough and Woodward (1 967) undertook a study to evaluate the effect of incremental loading with single step loading as it related to stresses and deformations. as shown in Figure 2.. however. $equal to (45" + ~'h)). A slip surface was selected for comparative purposes that had a factor of safety of 1. Brown and King (1966) produced critical slip surfaces from a finite element stress analysis of slopes using a linear elastic soil model. disagreed with points No. The critical slip surfaces were produced by using the angle of obliquity. 1969) were approximately 3% higher than those determined applying Bishop's Simplified method. using the "enhanced limit strength" method. 3 of the results of Wright et al.5% higher than those calculated using Bishop's Simplified method. 2 BACKGROUND Bishop (1952) noted that the stresses from a limit equilibrium method of analysis did not agree with the actual stresses within an earth structure. Wright (1969) compared the factors of safety calculated using the "enhanced limit strength" method with factors of safety calculated using Bishop's Simplified method (1952). requiring a new analysis for each case. The normal and shear stresses fiom an elastic analysis were used to calculate an overall factor of safety.Figure 1. A number of finite element slope stability methods have been proposed and the methods can be categorized as "enhanced limit methods" or "direct methods". Resdndiz (1 974) agreed with the concept of using the finite element method to calculate the stability of a slope. 2) the factors of safety calculated by the finite element method using linear elastic material properties ranged fiom 0% to 4. The formulation of Kulhawy (1969) was classified as an "Enhanced Limit Strength Method". critical slip surface represented a close approximation to an essentially circular shaped slip surface. along the slip surface Each (i. (1973). (1973) because the factor of safety differences were too small. It was concluded that: l ) stresses and deformations in an embankment obtained fiom a direct application of the gravitational body forces on the complete structure were not completely accurate.
Zienkiewicz et al.. The direct method used a finite element nodal formulation to define the slip surface and the factor of safety directly from the analysis. differences as large as 30%) than conventional factors of safety (e. and 3 ) it is usually necessary to carry out a set of analyses with c 'and tan+' progressively reduced by a factor which will become the safety . 2). "Enhanced limit" methods require only one finite element analysis to calculate factors of safety for a slope with various combinations of c' and tand! . "not easy to obtain a safety factor accurate to within the conJidence limits achievable by limit equilibrium methods". The proposed "direct" slope stability method defined the factor of safety either as the increased load necessary to cause failure.factor when . Ordinary method or Bishop's Simplified method). Finite element approaches proposed in computing the factor of safety in a slope stability analysis. Analyses made using nonlinear stress versus strain relationships led to factors of safety which in all cases were higher (i. 2) a code capable of giving reliable results with the Mohr Coulomb elastoplastic model for loading states close to failure is needed. The method is an "enhanced limit stress . (1981) and Tan and Donald (1 985).faillire is eventimlly reached.e. The "enhanced limit" slope stability methods are based on stresses calculated using a finite element analysis and combined with a limit equilibrium type of analysis along a prescribed slip surface. to define the factor of safety.I Finite Element Slope Stability Methods I Direct methods Enhanced limit methods (finite element analysis with a limit equilibrium analysis) Load increase to failure I Kulhawy 1969 Definition of Factor of Safety Stress Level Zienkiewiczef a/ 1975 Strength & Stress Level Adikari and Commins 1985 C/(c' + o'tan4') AL] Figure 2. The prescribed slip surface is the one defined by the lowest factor of safety and is found using a trial and error procedure.level method" (Fig. a "direct" and an "enhanced limit" method of analysis. (1975) formulations are classified as "enhanced limit stresslevel" methods. The stresses along the slip surface are computed using a finite element analysis and can either be used in a ''strength" method or a "stresslevel" method. Farias and Naylor (1996) stated that when using the "direct" finite element method it is. Naylor (1982) established two types of finite element slope stability methods. Both the ResCndiz (1972) and Zienkiewicz et al. slope stability analysis defined as an "enhanced limit stresslevel" method" in 1972 (Fig. 2). These methods 33 have also been studied by Martins et al. (1975) also proposed a finite element method of analysis to compute the factor of safety by using the principal stress difference in the soil at failure to define the factor of safety. This method used the maximum principal stress difference of the soil at failure to define the factor of safety.. or as the reciprocal of the reduction in the strength properties required in order to achieve failure.g. The authors noted that: 1) afine mesh is required.
(1975) method remained high. Second.e. p. limit equilibrium methods. 2). were 10. The resisting force for each slice is calculated in terms of the shear strength. and expressed as the ratio of the sun1 of the incremental resisting shear strengths. were 10. 1993) can be written as: . The available resisting shear strength for a saturatedunsaturated soil (Fredlund and Rahardjo. As a result.. while the value of the factor of safety calculated by the Zienkiewicz et al.20 and 30 degrees. Calgary. +. For each stress analysis. On the other hand. multiplied by the base length of the slice. 1997). In addition. have used an estimated factor of safety when computing the normal force at the base of a slice. inexpensive and easy to use limit equilibrium methods have provided factors of safety that appear to represent failure conditions in the field in most situations.33 and 0.1 Procediire usedfor the finite elenienl analysis The enhanced limit (strength) finite element method proposed by Kulhawy (1969) was selected as the most appropriate method for slope stability analysis. By definition. The finite element slope stability method produces an overall factor of safety that is an expression of the stability of the slope based on the calculated stresses within the slope. as defined by Bishop's Simplified method. Sr. c'.. The final factor of safety is found through an iterative process. starting with Bishop's Simplified method (1955). the factor of safety equation is linear. the finite element slope stability equation is determinate. The latter stresses are used to calculate local factors of safety at the center of the base of each slice as well as the overall factor of safety for the entire slip surface. S. z at the center of a slice . 3. The finite element method factor of safety is defined using the normal and shear stresses computed using a finite element analysis. The finite element method uses the Kulhawy (1969) definition for the factor of safety combined with a finite element stress analysis of the slope. and for the angle of internal friction. 20 and 40 kPa. 1955).48. the Zienkiewicz et al. (1975) methods. 1996). Stress analyses were done using Poisson's ratios equal to 0. Finite element numerical stress analyses have been available for many years. First. however. The Adikari and Cummins (1985) method produced factors of safety that were between the values obtained when applying the Kulhawy (1 969) and the Zienkiewicz et al. was modified to utilizes a search algorithm in order to assign and transfer calculated finite element stresses to a designed point on the slip surface (Bathe. Kralm et al. Alberta. The calculated finite element calculated stresses are used to calculate the normal and shear stresses on the slip surface. The selected values for cohesion. failure does not occur on the plane of principal stress and therefore. the cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the soil were altered as the stability of the slope was computed. Microcomputers now have sufficient computational capacity to perform combined stress and limit equilibrium analyses. The finite element method. 1975) rather than on the plane.Adikari and Cummins (1985) produced a finite element method that combine the "strength" and the "stresslevel" methods as defined by Kulhawy (1969) and Zienkiewicz et al. ( 1 996) provided a summary of the limit equilibrium and finite element methods that have been proposed for slope stability analyses. 3. (1 9 7 9 . It was noted that for nearfailure conditions (i. has not become popular for slope stability studies due to intense computational requirements and difficulties in assessing the stress versus strain characteristics of the soils.O. along the slip surface. therefore. The factor of safety by the Kulhawy (1969) method also approached unity with the factor of safety being dependent on the percentage of the strength mobilization in the component materials. because the nor34 mal stress at the base of a slice is known. The finite element stressdeformation software. (1975) method (or any stresslevel method) is computing a factor of safety that must be higher than the factors of safety produced by a "strength" method. respectively (Fig. Canada). to the slim of the mobilized shear forces. Slope stability problems solved using the finite element method have two important distinctions from limit equilibrium methods. no further assumptions are required to complete the calculations. 3 SUGGESTED STUDY FOR COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FINITE ELEMENT AND THE LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM METHODS OF SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS The finite element slope stability method proposed in this paper is of the "enhanced limit strength" type (Scoular.2 DeJinitiori o factor o safety f f The overall factor of safety is defined in accordance with the finite element slope stability method described by Kulhawy (1969). Duncan et al.. the value of the factor of safety calculated by the Adikari and Cummins (1985) method approached 1. The main difference in results appears related to using the stresses on the principal plane (Zienkiewicz et al.. Sigma/W (a proprietary product of GeoSlope International Ltd. 1982. it is anticipated that the latter procedure will become more common in engineering practice.
The shape functions <N> are defined in terms of the local coordinates (r. stress values from the Gauss points of the element can be transferred to the nodes of the element and consequently to the center of the base. the local coordinates can be obtained by solving Equations (5) and (6). at the center of a slice multiplied by the base length. Then the stresses calculated by the finite element analysis can be "imported" into the stability analysis. y = global y coordinates for the center of the base of a slice. Sm. >ta@b > P (2) The mobilized shear force. and shear stress. Sm. zm. are both calculated using the stresses computed in the finite element analysis. The procedure is in accordance with the method described by Bathe (1982). and the mobilized shear force. p. can be "imported" as known values to the limit equilibrium analysis and the definition of both the overall and local factor of safety equations are linear.( l + r ) ( l + s ) 4 ( 7) N. S y . The local coordinates of the center of the base are then calculated within the element that encompasses the center of the base (Fig. { ) = global x coordiX nates for the element nodal points. Definition of the global and local coordinates for a rectangular finite element. S y . x=< N >X {I (5) 3. on.3 Element identification corresponding to the base of a slice Each element must be checked to confirm that the center of the base of the slice is located within the element under consideration. = 1 (1 r)(l + s ) 4 (8) . A common set of coordinates is used to identify the center of a slice along a slip surface with respect to the surrounding finite element. simultaneously. s). S. s r n = L P (3) The local factor of safety is defined as the ratio of the resisting shear force. at the same point. Since the global coordinates for the center of the base of a slice and the nodes are known. (4) The resisting shear force.Figure 3. and <N> = matrix of shape functions. and to determine which element is associated with the center of the base. at a point along the slip surface divided by the mobilized shear force. The global coordinates for the center of the base are calculated in order to determine the location of the base center within the slope. 3). Sm. The normal stress. for each slice is calculated as the mobilized shear stress. Once the element embracing the center of a portion along the slip surface is located. 35 y = <N>{Y) (6) Where x = global x coordinates for the center of the base of a slice. The shape functions for a rectangular finite element with four nodes are as follows (Bathe 1982): 1 NI = . =zP=(c'+(D~ U. >ta$+(ua U. {Y) = global y coordinates for the element nodal points. zm. The global coordinates for the center of the base of a slice are related to the global coordinates of the finite element nodal points through use of the shape functions.
ox. The calculated values for the normal stress..N.oycos 2 e =  2 ox..N. 3). when the local Gauss point integration coordinates are projected outward to the element nodes.. {oIn= < N > {F) (15) (0 5 r 21) and (0 5 s 21) For a rectangular element. The finite element slope stability calculations require that stresses at the center of the base for each slice be within an element. N3 and N4 = the shape functions defined in Equations 7 to 10. and N I . > > (14) where x and y = global coordinate positions within the element that are known as the center of base of a slice (Fig.N.7320) (Fig.)=< >{oIn N (16) c $ where { = stresses at the center of the base of a slice. and e = angle measured from the positive xaxis to the line of application of the normal stress. and zxy. 3. zxy= shear stress in the x. <N> = matrix of the shape functions. are known at the center of the base for each slice. (o. . culated using Equations (17) and (1S). = ~xycos2e  2 Y = N. The local coordinates vary between 1 and +1 (Fig. The above steps provide the necessary information required to calculate the stability of a slope using the finite element stresses.7320. =  1 ( 1 . zxy can and be computed at each node of the finite element mesh..577.s ) 4 1 4 (9) N. Nz. This projection is carried out for each element and the values for the stresses from each contributing element are averaged at each node.r)( 1 . q. The search continues until an element is found that satisfies these conditions. This is achieved using the following procedure : where r and s = local coordinates within the element. X and Y = global coordinate at the element nodes. The stresses.N. The local coordinates of a point within a finite element are defined in relationship to the global coordinates at the nodes of the element by using the shape functions. q. can now be computed at the center of the base for each slice. Accordingly. 1976): + ox on + oy 2 0 . however.s ) (10) be used to describe the change of a variable within an element in terms of nodal values. q.4 Transfer of element stresses to the center of the base of a slice Calculated stresses are stored within the computer software relative to the Gauss points of an element. the values of ox. 1. 0.. By definition. an element surrounds the center of the base of a slice if the following conditions are met: For a triangular element. the mobilized shear stress. the local coordinates become (1. 5). z.( 1 + r ) ( l .oysin 28 + zxysin28 (17) (18) 2. respectively (Higdon et al.577). as per Equations ( 5 ) and (6): where oIn= stresses at the element node. of an element are and . ox.oy = total stress in the ydirection at the center of the base. and {F) = stress values at the Gauss points. The local Gauss point integration coordinates are (0. on.and ydirection at the center of the base. and zxy. o n . a. can be caland . The nodal stresses. 4). z . The shape functions can 36 where ox= total stress in the xdirection at the center of the base. ) transferred to the center of the base of a slice along the slip surface.5 The normal and shear stresses at the center o a f slice Once the stresses. 3. A knowledge of the local coordinates is crucial to identifying the element overlapping the center of the base of a slice. Stresses must be transferred from the Gauss points of an element to the nodes of the element and then to the center of the base of a slice.z at the center of the base of a slice are entered into Equations (2) and ( 3 ) to give the resisting shear force .. the normal stress. q. and the mobilized shear stress. (1 5 r 21) and (1 5 s 21) (1 1) (12) The center of the base is outside an element if the local coordinates are not within the above specified ranges. = . The stresses from a fmite element analysis are stored at the Gauss points. .
37 . The overall factor of safety is the sum of the shear force resistance values divided by the sum of the actuating shear forces along the slip surface.Figure 4. and the slope is referred to as a wet slope (Fig. The local factor of safety is computed as the ratio of the resisting shear force to the mobilized shear force. respectively. Location of the center of the base along the slip surface within a particular finite element. (strength) and the mobilized shear force (actuating shear). 1997). 6). The second case is a freestanding slope with a piezometric line at three quarters of the slope height. The first case is a freestanding slope with zero porewater pressures and the slope is referred to as a dry slope (Fig. 4 PARAMETRIC STUDIES ON A SIMPLE 2:1 SLOPE A slope at 2 horizontal to 1 vertical is analyzed for 4 conditions (Scoular. 6). Figure 5. Gauss point projections to the nodes of a finite element.
The cohesion of the soil was varied from 10 to 40 kPa and the angle of internal friction was varied from 10 to 30 degrees for each slope type. The load of the water and the lateral support it provides to the slope is simulated by point loads equal to the weight of water on the slope.33 and 0.48.1 Limit equilibrium analysis The limit equilibrium analyses are performed using the General Limit Equilibrium method (GLE). While the local factors of safety differ along the slip surface. 38 .7). The results appear to be within the limits of uncertainty associated with slope stability calculations. The third case is a slope partially submerged in water with zero porewater pressures in the slope (referred to as dry) (Fig. An empirical finite element interslice force function. 8). The results showed that the stresses change with a changing poisson’s ratio. 1986) was used. The partially submerged slope is covered with water to one half of the slope height. is reflected in Figure 8. 9).000 and 200. providing support for the slope and increasing the factors of safety. but are constant for changes in the Young’s modulus. 7).Figure 6 . The difference between the local factors of safety for Poisson’s ratios of 0. The factor of safety computed by the limit equilibrium method and the finite element method appear to be very similar. (Fredlund & Krahn 1977) which provides a combined moment and force equilibrium solution. the overall finite element factors of safety fall within the range of the limit equilibrium factors of safety. 4. The analyses are performed using Poisson’s ratios of 0.000 kPa.33 and 0.48. The finite element method incorporates the stressstrain characteristics of the soil when computing the shear strength and actuating shear force of the soil in the calculation of the factor of safety (Fig. 5 RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT SLOPE STABILITY METHOD The local factors of safety differs along the overall slip surface (Fig. This observation is consistent with the observations of Matos (1982).2 Finite element stress analysis The finite element stress analysis was performed by “switchingon” gravity for the freestanding slope and for the partially submerged slope. 4. calculated using the finite element method. and a Young’s modulus equal to 20. Local factors of safety were computed for a 2: 1 (dry) slope with a cohesion equal to 40 kPa and an angle of internal friction equal to 30 degrees. The General Limit Equilibrium method along with a finite element interslice force function provides a method of comparison between the finite element based analysis and the limit equilibrium analysis. Selected 2: 1 freestanding slope with a piezometric line exiting at the toe of the slope. based on an independent stress analysis (Fan et al. The fourth case is a partially submerged slope with a piezometric line at one half of the slope height (referred to as wet) (Fig.
The factors of safety are grouped according to the soil parameters and plotted versus the stability number and the stability coefficient. the results are grouped according to cohesion and angle of internal friction. when grouped according to cohesion and plotted versus the stability number (Fig. 39 . [(pVtan&)/cl. F3 corresponding to a Poisson's ratio of 0. are plotted versus the stability coefficient. where p is the unit weight of the soil.Figure 7. c'. Selected 2:1 partially submerged slope with a horizontal piezometric line at midslope. The factor of safety results computed using the finite element method (i. 1937). $'is the angle of internal friction. The factors of safety grouped according to the angle of internal friction. To assess the variations in the factor of safety by each method of analysis. 1954). 10) show a Figure 8. (Janbu.33. and c' is the cohesion. Presentation of the local and global factors of safety for a 2:1 dry slope. F4 corresponding to a Poisson's ratio of 0. The greatest difference in factors of safety is noticed at high angles of internal friction. at low values of cohesion and at the maximum values of Poisson's ratio. +'. (c Y y H ) (Taylor.. are plotted versus the stability number. The factors of safety grouped according to cohesion.48) are compared to the factors of safety computed using the limit equilibrium method (GLE) and are shown in Tables 1 and 2.e. The factors of safety for the (dry) freestanding slope. H is the height of the slope.
48 0.765 1.882 1. Shear strength and shear force for a 2: 1 dry slope calculated using the finite element method.48 0.374 1.239 1.884 2.988 1.356 F3 p=O.287 1.918 2.467 0. 2: 1 &eestanding slope Soil kPa Parameters degree Dry 10 20 10 40 20 10 40 20 40 10 10 20 10 20 30 20 30 30 GLE Finite element hnction 0.077 1.260 1.260 1.874 1.339 GLE Finite element function 0.615 1.293 1.669 0.335 1.125 1.867 1.672 0.995 1.892 2.755 0.33 0.Table 1. Figure 10.930 0.647 0.102 1.488 0.352 1.662 0.741 Wet F3 p = 0.312 1.368 1.634 0.661 Figure 9. 40 .969 1.782 0.627 0.33 F4 p = 0.324 F4 p = 0. Factors of safety versus stability number for a 2: 1 dry slope as a h c t i o n of cohesion.456 0.639 1.696 1.230 1.131 1.677 0.953 0.021 1.370 1.775 1.101 1.151 1.794 1.745 0.
48 0. 41 .827 1. Factor of safety versus stability number as a function of cohesion for a 2:l slope with the piezometric line at % of the slope height.296 1 SO5 1.149 20 10 1.874 1. [( yHtan4)lc'J Figure 12.a.318 1.843 1.343 1.880 1.641 0.385 2.268 2. Factor of safety versus stability coefficient for a 2: 1 dry slope as function of angle of internal friction.33 function 0.322 1.970 F4 .316 1.33 F4 p = 0.763 2.721 40 10 1.425 1.U = 0.LI = 0.783 2.s.618 20 20 1.530 1.368 2.260 0.722 2.Table 2.786 2.U = 0.865 10 30 2.046 1.691 n.344 10 20 1. Stability Number.303 F3 .482 13 0 0 1.: no solution achieved 0.297 40 20 2.s.006 40 30 *n.068 1.a.886 1.795 1.899 Wet GLE Finite element function 0.050 1.422 1.OS5 1.274 Figure 11.337 20 30 3.48 0.586 1.649 0.774 1.115 1.08 1 2.204 2.575 1.314 1.* 2.635 0.845 10 10 1. 2: 1 partially submerged slope Soil CI kPa Parameters Dry q Y GLE F3 degree Finite element .
is greater than the General Limit Equilibrium solution. The grouping of the factors of safety according to the angle of internal friction. shows the same pattern as for the (dry) freestanding slope (Fig. are grouped according to the cohesion and plotted versus the stability number (Fig.1 slope with the piezometric line at % of the slope height.. Factor of safety versus stability number as a fimction of cohesion for a 2:1 dry slope % submerged with water. The results show a slight divergence between the fi nite element factors of safety and the General Limit Equilibrium factors of safety when the cohesion is 40 and 20 kPa. The results show close agreement between the General Limit Equilibrium method and the finite element method. The factors of safety for the (wet) freestanding slope with a piezometric line at three quarters of the slope height.Figure 13. plotted versus the stability coefficient (Fig. The 42 . c’equal to 40 H a ) . with a high Poisson’s ratio. 10). 15). The difference between the factors of safety by both methods is constant at all values of cohesion until the angle of internal friction becomes equal to 30 degrees and cohesion becomes equal to 10 kPa (Fig. 11).e. The slight divergence is evident when the factors of safety are grouped according to the angle of internal friction and plotted versus the stability coefficient (Fig. The factors of safety for the partially submerged slope with a piezometric line at one half of the slope height were grouped by cohesion and plotted versus the stability number (Fig. 16). Figure 14. It is also evident that at high values of cohesion. 13). 12). slight divergence in the factors of safety when the cohesion approaches 10 kPa and the angle of internal friction approach 30 degrees. (i. The factors of safety computed when using the General Limit Equilibrium method are greater than those from the finite element methods with either Poisson’s ratio value. The factors of safety by the finite element method. Factor of safety versus stability coefficient as a function of the angle of internal friction for a 2. The differences in the results are more pronounced as the cohesion become less than 10 kPa.
e. The factor of safety can be estimated for a slope that is similar to one of these cases by calculating the stability number and selecting the appropriate value of cohesion and angle of internal friction. The close agreement between the factors of safety when using the limit equilibrium method or the finite element method.. Factor of safety versus stability coefficient as a function of internal fkiction for a 2: 1 dry slope % submerged in water. the location of the critical slip surfaces may be different. Plotting the factors of safety for the various slope conditions. same pattern of divergence is evident as was shown for the dry soil slope which is partially submerged (Fig. the divergence is not quite as extensive. If the limit equilibrium and finite element factors of safety are similar for a simple slope than results from the two methods can be interpreted in similar manners. (i. The same comments apply to the factor of safety versus the stability coefficient as shown in Figure 17. The advantage of the finite element method is that the stressstain characteristics of the soil are used to de43 termine the stress state in the slope. . Figure 16. Both the General Limit Equilibrium method and the finite element method of slope stability produce factors of safety that are in close agreement. 14). dry fieestanding.Figure 15. wet freestanding and dry partially submerged). This study then sets the stage for using the finite element method for situations where the limit equilibrium methods is known to not yield satisfactory results. Examination of the critical slip surfaces reveals that while the factors of safety values are close. has historically favored the use of limit equilibrium methods. The finite element method also produces graphs of the local factors of safety that can be combined with the shear strengthactuating shear force plots to help explain the best support mechanism for the slope. shows the ranking of slopes by factors of safety. However. Factor on safety versus stability number as a function of cohesion for a 2:l slope half submerged with a horizontal piezometric line. versus stability number on Figure 18.
In general. 19 and 20) and the (wet) supported slope (Figs.standing slope. the finite element method with a Poisson's ratio equal to 0.Figure 17. For the free. This information can assists engineers in the design of slopes and slope retaining structures. The use of the finite element method yields more detailed information on the stress state in the soil than is available horn conventional limit equilibrium methods. 21 and 22). evaluated for dry. the finite element method slip surfaces go deeper than the limit equilibrium slip surfaces for the (wet) freestanding slope. showed a considerably shallower slip surface. For the partially submerged slope. The biggest change in location of critical slip surface was experienced for the (wet) freestanding slope (Figs. 7 CONCLUSION The finite element method of slope stability is a viable method of analysis that is now available for engineering practice. Factor of safety versus stability coefficient as a function of the angle of internal fiiction for a 2:l slope half submerged with a horizontal piezometric line. piezometric and submerged conditions.48. 6 ANALYSIS FOR THE LOCATION OF THE CRITICAL SLIP SURFACE The location of the critical circle changes depending on the situation being analyzed.48 44 showed the deepest slip surface. the finite element method with a Poisson's ratio equal to 0. Factor of safety versus stability number as a h c t i o n of cohesion for a 2:1 slope. . Figure 18. The partially submerged slopes show that the limit equilibrium slip surfaces go deeper than the finite element method slip surfaces.
Location of the critical slip surface for a slope with a piezometric line where the factors of safety are closest to 1. With an increasing application of 45 the finite element method to slope stability problems.Figure 19.O. The value of Poisson's ratio can affect the calculation of the factor of safety as well as the location of the slip surface. . a better understanding is required regarding the effect of Poisson's ratio and the overall deformation model on the stability of slopes. Location of the critical slip surface for a slope with a piezometric line where the soil properties are c' = 40 kPa and 30". 4'= Figure 20.
The finite element stress analysis provides input information for the calculation of the stability of a slope. With this assurance.O. soil structures can be better designed to account for a variety of stress conditions. . Location of the critical slip surface for a half submerged slope where the soil properties are c' = 40kPa and qY = 30". Location of the critical slip surface for a submerged slope where the factors of safety are closest to 1. Further research must be undertaken on the stress analysis in order to ensure that the proper 46 boundary conditions are being used and that a reasonable stressdeformation model is being used. Figure 22.Figure 21.
.. N. B. Harvard Soil Mechanics Series (46). & I. ASCE 116(5): 851867.' Soil Mech. These discussions formed the basis for the study of this topic. Mechcinics o ilfaterials New York: John Wiley f & Sons. Ms.Journal of' Geotechnical Engineering. Conf. REFERENCES Adikari. Hyperbolic stressstrain response: cohef sive soils. the University of California. Conj.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to acknowledge the initial discussions regarding the potential for using a finite element slope stability method that were held with Prof. Fredlund & G.H. & P. A.1954. for the modifications made to their software in order that this study could be readily performed. . Eng. Comparison of slope stability methods of analysis. J. & J. Naylor. Finite element analysis of the behavior of embankments. An interslice force %nction for limit equilibrium slope stability analysis. 47 .. 1996. San Francisco. Donald 1985. ASCE 122(7): 577597.C. Wright.W. at Berkley. Noshin Zaderzadeh and Ms. D. ASCE 89(SMl): 115143. ASCE Specierlly C'oiference on Perjormcrnce o Eurlh trnd Etrr/hSupportecl Slriic/ures. G. Geotechniqzre I5( 1 ): 7993. Fredlund..J. & V. Cunudu. .A. Rotterdam: Balkema. Jozirnal of [he Boston Sociefy ofcivil Engineers XXIV(3): 337386. 1974.H.J.Journal of Geotechnicnl Engineering.D. (Jniversioq ? f Saskatchewm. J.F. Sa6 Paulo. Janbu. O. D. F. ASCE. London.. K. Limit equilibrium slope stability analysis using a stress analysis.S. 11th Inl. Matos 1981. University of London.B. An effective stress slope stability analysis method for dams. 1997. Accuracy of equilibrium slope stability analysis. 2: 7 13718. G. Krahn 1977. Found. 3: 463467. California. Thesis. Gdotechnique 25(4): 67 1689. & J.C. 1972.B. Kulhawy. f Wright.D. & H. Pufahl 1981.G. Geolechnique 5( 1 ): 7. California 4: 2041 2044. Stateoftheart: Stability and deformation analysis. Riley 1976. N u m e ~ i cul 1bfethorLs in Geomechanics. The short term stability of slopes in London clay.G. Jozirnd ofthe Soil Mechcinics arid Founcialion Division. Fredlund. Stockholm. Thesis. A study of slope stability and the undrained shear strength of clay shales.. Reis & A. S.G. D. & I. 1963. Indiana. Srrskatoon. Morgenstern. Conf. Finite elements and slope stability.B. Ph. Associated and nonassociated viscoplasticity and plasticity in soil Mechanics. ASCE I OO(GT8): 967970. D.G. Wilson 1986.. Martins.B. Safety analysis using finite elements. Kondner. Lewis 1975. Bathe. West Lafayette.J.y. Brigitte BoldtLeppin in assembling this manuscript is also acknowledged. Calgary. Landslides. Thesis. Stability of earth slopes. The use of finite element computed porewater pressures in a slope stability analysis.. D. C. Price 1965.M.G. Kulhawy. S. Reidel Publishing Company. Tan. Wong Kai Sin of Nanyang Technological University. Proc..E. A.Journd of' Soil Adechanics tmti Founcirition Division. . M. D. Stability analysis of slopes with dimensionless parameters. University of London. Journal o Soil Mechanics Foundation Division 99(SM10): 783791. W. The numerical influence of the Poisson ratio on the safety factor. & D.. Soil Mech. Purdue Univerf sity. Automatic embankment analysis equilibrium and instability conditions. Proc.J. Catieidicm Geotechnique 14(3): 429439.M.L. Brown. Fredlund 1996. Proc . Singapore. Leshchinsky. 1955.S. Krahn & D. 1937. l(Part 1): 817836. Cuinmins 1985. D. Proceedings. f Tenth Internalional Confirence on Soil Mechunics und Foimdutions Engineering.W. Lam & D.P. D. Cariaclian GeorechriiccrlJournal23 (3):287296. The assistance of Dr. The stability of earth dams. N. ASCE. Brazil.E. Fangsheng Shuai.W. King 1967. D. Ph. Found Big. The use of the slip circle in the stability analysis of slopes. thesis. D. La Rochelle. lU[h In/. F. 1982. 93 (SM4): 2092 19 Duncan. PrenticeHall. 1982. Finite element procedures in engineering analysis: 200233. . Bishop. Resendiz. R. Ohlsen. Soil Mech. New methods of analysis for stability of slopes. Proc. The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces.D. Ph.G. P. University o Cd$ornicr cif Berrk1e. 1990. Proceedings of' the Jth ltiterticrfiorial Confiretice on Nutmrical Methods in GeoMechanics 1 : 20721 I . 1960. Slope stability analysis: Generalized approach. L. Rahardjo 1993. Sweden 3: 4094 16. Accuracy of f equilibrium slope stability analysis. 1952. P. Krahn. Humpheson & R. J. E. Duncan 1973. Thesis. Higdon. ResCndiz. Fredlund.A. R. Accuracy of embankment deformations.M. 1982. MSc. A. The relationship between limit equilibrium slope stability methods. Found.W. Naylor 1996.. D.N.Joirrnal . 1214 June. Senneset (editor) 2: 12771282. Matos. Finite element calculation of dam stability. Bishop. Weese & W. Soil mechanics jbr irnstirurcited soils.C. UK. the Soil Mechanics and Foiindutions Division. C. J. I llh Int.E. Farias. Eng. Scoular. The authors are also grateful to GeoSlope International. Fan. New York: John Wiley & Sons.R. 1969. Taylor. A. Zienkiewicz. U.17. C. E. Infogeo 96.G. K. Ph. Stiles J. 1969.W.
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compound. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Stability of geosynthetic reinforced steep slopes D. Finally. the socalled 'reinforced soil'. simple input data. Newark. like concrete.1 General Limit equilibrium analysis has been used for decades in the design of earth slopes. soils. extension of this analysis to the design of geosynthetics reinforced steep slopes. Peak shear strength dictates the location of the critical slip surfaces and hence sets the reinforcement layout. even in permanent and critical applications (Tatsuoka and Leshchinsky. its angle may vary between the asinstalled (typically horizontal) and the 49 ..Slope Stability Engineering. Yagi. Other stability analysis methods can be implemented using the presented framework as a generic template. Rotterdam. comnion to reinforced earth structures. It includes the details of the various stability analyses used to determine the required layout and strength of the reinforcing material. may be reinforced. Del. It is applicable to slopes that are stable only due to the reinforcement tensile resistance. a composite material. has high compressive strength but virtually no tensile strength. Leshchinsky University o Deluwure. Furthermore. Examples of such materials include thin steel strips and polymeric materials commonly known as geosynthetics (i.. A hybrid type of stability analysis is employed. possessing h g h compressive and tensile strength (similar. and results that can be checked for 'reasonableness' through a different limit equilibrium analysis method. useful (though limited) output design information. suggests a new concept related to the factor of safety quantifying stability. In principle. The main drawbacks of limit equilibrium analysis are its inability to deal with displacements and its limited representation of the interaction between dissimilar or incompatible materials comprising the slope. As a result. However. where the reinforcement is tangibly modeled. adequate selection of materials properties and safety factors should ensure acceptable displacements. a meaningful definition of factor of safety is introduced. including safe level of reinforcement deformation. Physically. Elements such as local. The increase in strength of the reinforced earth structure allows for the construction of steep slopes. and addresses the phenomenon of progressive failure. geotextiles and geogrids). geosynthetic reinforced steep slopes are costeffective. general guidelines about the selection of longterm geosynthetic strength and a comparison with a case history are discussed. USA f ABSTRACT: To produce design of stable reinforced steep slopes. Consequently. inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in limit equilibrium analysis is a straightforward process in which the tensile force in the geosynthetic material is included directly in the limit equilibrium equations to assess its effects on stability. similar to concrete. When soils and reinforcement are combined. global and direct sliding stability are ensured. Typically. possess a high tensile strength. Also presented is an instructive parametric study. the phenomenon of progressive failure. Yamagami & Jiang (( ) 1999 Balkema. Attractive features of this analysis include experience of practitioners with its application. To produce economical designs. or even hand calculations.e. and though extensible. Compared with all other alternatives. The materials typically used to reinforce soil are relatively light and flexible. 1 INTRODUCTION Soil is an abundant construction material that. is desirable. Residual strength is used to estimate the required force reaction of the reinforcement in case shear bands are fully developed along the traces of the critical slip surfaces. the inclination of this tensile force must be assumed. It also details the relevant material properties. is addressed in the context of design. To overcome this weakness. This paper describes a design process for geosynthetic reinforced steep slopes. a framework for stability analysis is presented. in principle. 2 DESIGNOIRIENTED ANALYSIS 2. to reinforced concrete) is produced. various earth structures reinforced with geosynthetics are being constructed worldwide with increased frequency. 1994). charts.
Fs.. The extensive experience with limit equilibrium analysis. this factor of safety can be measured in an actual structure. or along the interface with the foundation soil. It suggests a rational and physically meaningful alternative to the conventional factor of safety used in slope stability analysis. the designer can verify whether an individual layer is overstressed or understressed. Therefore. Employing the notion of Fs in limit equilibrium reduces the statical indeterminacy of the stable slope formulation via use of MohrCoulomb failure criterion.2 On the factor o safety in reinforced steep slopes f Limit equilibrium analysis deals with systems that are on the verge of failure. these values represent the average mobilized shear strength of the actual soil. Leshchinsky and Reinschmidt (1985). For this state. a plastic ‘hinge’ develops mobilizing the available strength of the soil). Fs is used to replace the existing soil with artificial one. Current federal design guidelines in the US (Elias and Christopher. Conversely. are the ‘design’ shear strength parameter of the artificial soil. respectively. Such an approach yields an overall factor of safety whose physical meaning is difficult to interpret.. Physically. symbolizing the same average reduction of strength of dissimilar materials that are attaining a limit equilibrium state simultaneously). this force may vary between zero and the ultimate strength when the slope is at a global state of limit equilibrium. It also provides an object for minimization.e. the topic of this paper) is negligibly small and hence. However. only Mr resulting from reinforcement force is considered.. 1997) define the factor of safety for reinforced slope as: Fs = Fsu + Mr / Md (1) where Fsu is the factor of safety for the unreinforced slope and M and Md are the resisting moment due r to reinforcement and the total driving moment. To analyze such slopes. actual force is not included in the equilibrium equations). In fact. it treats the reinforcement as pure moment (i. regardless of the overall stability of the slope. Consequently. A new concept included in this paper relates to adequate definition of factor of safety of reinforced steep slopes.tangent to the potential slip surface. By using a log spiral mechanism. has produced engineering database providing acceptable values of Fs. The end result of such assumption may yield a slope in which some layers actually provide more force than their longterm available strength while other layers are hardly stressed. Assuming the actual force is known in advance. plays a significant role. Once this problem of ‘local stability’ is resolved. Moreover.g. Fs have little physical significance unless viewed in an average sense. = c/Fs where $m and c. implies the reinforcement force is actually active. in which the shear strength is & . M and Md are calculated for the same r slip surface as Fsu. applied Fs equally to all shearresisting components. The longterm value of cohesion used in design of manmade reinforced steep slopes (i.. The rotational mechanism (termed in this paper ‘compound stability’ or ‘pullout analysis’) examines slip surfaces extending between the slope face and the retained soil. A potentially significant problem in limit equilibrium analysis of reinforced soil is the need to know the force in each reinforcement layer at the limitstate. the concept of factor of safety. the inclination of the reinforcing geosynthetic. see Figure 2 where a log spiral mechanism is used. the required reinforcement force needed to restore a state of limit equilibrium can be calculated. The stability of the slope 50 .. for example.e. this inclination has little effect on both the required strength and layout of reinforcement. The force in the geosynthetic layers in this limitstate slope stability analysis is taken directly as the maximum available longterm value for each layer. ‘Fs’ for the soil alone in this case is unity everywhere along the slip surface (i. be it soil or reinforcement. has been introduced. Rather than extending the conventional definition of Fs.. Extension of limit equilibrium stability analysis to reinforced steep slopes requires modification of Fs definition. located at the foundation and backfill interface. overall stability of the slope is assessed through rotational and translational mechanisms. By definition. = tan’(tan$/Fs) and cn. a rational methodology to estimate the required (Le.e. The full strength of the soil will mobilize along slip surfaces. 2. Leshchinsky and Boedeker (1 989) have demonstrated that for typical cohesionless backfill. reactive) reinforcement tensile resistance of each layer is introduced via a ‘tieback analysis’ or internal stability analysis. one can take advantage of the fact that reinforced steep slopes are stable solely due to the reinforcement tensile resistance. In unreinforced slopes. inclination has little effects. existing slopes are stable. the force can be assumed horizontal without being overly conservative. The designer then assumes the available ‘active’ force of each reinforcement layer to ensure that overall satisfactory state of limit equilibrium is obtained. As an example. The translational analysis (‘direct sliding’) is based on the twopart wedge method in which the passive wedge is sliding either over or below the bottom reinforcement layer. Lesliclinsky (1992) pointed out that for problems such as reinforced embankments over soft (cohesive) soil. however. To overcome the potential problem of local instability. Alternatively.. as is commonly done in analysisoriented approach. This renders Fs that is even less physically meaningful then the one used in unreinforced slopes (e. regardless of the problem.
e.. Steep slopes are defined as slopes inclined at angles for which they are considered unstable without reinforcement.g. however. Only the primary layers are considered in analysis. a value that can actually be measured in a structure.e. it is most convenient to use it in conjunction with log spiral stability analysis. This analysis produces the location of the critical slip surface and subsequently.6 m apart). the layers may simply terminate at the slope face as shown in Figure 1. Log spiral slip surface and its statical implications. that this ‘active state’ approach needs further verification if used with clayey backfill. Consequently. the soil will attain an ‘active’ state exactly as assumed in design of retaining walls including those reinforced with geosynthetics. for a limit equilibrium state).now hinges on the reinforcement strength. more than about 0. However. most of the deformation needed to develop the active state will occur during construction as the geosynthetic mobilizes its strength. In reality. secondary layers allow for better compaction near the face of the steep slope and thus reduce the potential for sloughing. if some cohesion exists. Geosynthetic materials are ductile typically rupturing at strains greater than 10% thus allow sufficient deformations to develop within the soil to reach active state. For example. Figure 1 shows notation and convention. the tensile force needed to restrain the steep slope from sliding along potential slip surfaces that emerge along the face of the slope. a slope would be considered steep if its inclination is larger than its angle of repose if granular backfill is used (i. respectively). In practice. The secondary layers are narrow (typically 1 m wide) and are installed only if the primary layers are spaced far apart (e.. i.e. Reinforcement is comprised of primary and secondary layers. The log spiral mechanism makes the problem statically determinate. This definition signifies a factor of safety with respect to the reinforcement available strength. In the context of retaining walls. The reinforcement tensile force capacity is made possible through sufficient anchorage of each layer into the stable soil zone located behind the active zone. or design friction angle. the factor of safety can be defines as: Fs = tavailable (4 trequired where tavailable is the longterm available strength and trequired is the strength required for stability (i. The modified definition of Fs is based on the premise that the soil will attain its full strength before the reinforcement ruptures. It should be noted. That is. For an assumed log spiral failure surface which is fully defined by the parameters xo yc 51 .3 Internal stability analysis Figure 2. in steep slopes the force in the reinforcement is activated by an unstable soil mass. this analysis identifies the tensile force needed to resist the active lateral earth pressure at the face of the steep slope. That is. the geosynthetic layers may be wrapped around the exposed portion of the soil mass or. 2. the necessary reactive force in the reinforcement. i>$d where i and @d are the slope inclination and angle of repose. In general. Hence. the following rational could have been used with any type of stability analysis. Figure 1 . At the slope face.. Notation and convention. Internal stability analysis (also termed tieback analysis) is used to determine the required tensile resistance of the each layer needed to ensure a reinforced mass that is safe against internal collapse due to its own weight and surcharge loading.. the reactive force mobilized in each reinforcement layer has to restore a limit equilibrium state.
. Note in Figures 3 and 4 that the reinforcement layers are wrapped around the overlying layer of soil to form the slope face. The terms K17 and K. determined in STEP I.the reaction t.and A .e. When calculating t.7 was chosen to extend down to layer n. represents the force needed to restore equilibrium and hence stability.J employing the freebody diagram shown in Figure 3 while examining many potential surfaces. It is assumed to act at the center of gravity of the critical mass. it is the boundary between the sliding soil mass and the stable soil. In this case. (see Figure 2) represent the seismic coefficients introducing pseudostatic force components. This tributary area implies a 'toe' failure that activates the largest possible reaction force. reinforcement layers are anchored into the stable soil to ensure their capacity to develop the calculated tensile reaction tJ (see Figure 4)... Using the moment equilibrium equation. Note that D. thus making it physically feasible for a mass of soil to be laterally supported. Note that cohesive steep slopes are stable up to a certain height. That is.. an imaginary facing element in the front edge of the reinforced soil mass) preventing slides of unstable soil above that tend to emerge through it. in slopes that are not as steep (say. i<50 9.. nifies the reactive force in layer n. extends from layer y2 to layer (n1). some layers should be extended further to ensure satisfactory stability (see next section). required to retain the pressure exerted by the unstable mass against D. the scheme in Figure 3 may produce zero reactive force in top layers. sig. typically there is no wrap around 52 . i. max(t. the reactive force in layer (n1) is the only unknown to be determined from the moment equilibrium equation. one can check whether the mass defined by the assumed log spiral is stable for the design values of the shear strength parameters: 4d and c d and the distribution of reinforcement force $. Hence. In STEP I. the distribution of reactive forces for all reinforcing layers. the force against D. is calculated..J. This facing is capable of providing lateral support through the development of tensile force in the geosynthetic. Application of appropriate factors of safety to the required reinforcement strength should ensure selection of geosynthetic possessing adequate longterm strength at each level. down to t l . Note that D. Scheme for calculating tensile reaction in reinforcement layers &. No surcharge is shown in Figure 2 to simplify the presentation. the soil mass acting against D. is known in magnitude and point of action.is considered as a 'facing unit' (i. Figure 3 shows that by repeating this process.. In STEP 2. The outermost critical log spiral defines the extreme surface as dictated by Layer I. until the maximum required restoring reinforcement force is found. forcement level. is signified by a reinforcement layer wrapped around the slope face (see Figure 3). In conventional internal stability analysis it signifies the extent of the 'active zone'. rendering a horizontal pseudostatic force at the crest. However. The resulted tn counterbalances the horizontal pressure against 0 and thus. The moment equilibrium equation is used to find the critical log spiral producing max(t. however. is considered. by comparing the driving and resisting moments. D. K h is also applied to the surcharge load.. are calculated while supplying the demand for a limit equilibrium state at each rein Figure 3. Consequently. the moment equilibrium equation about the pole can be written explicitly without resorting to statical assumptions (see Figure 2).]Jis calculated. That is. That is. resulting in a locally stable mass.e.. inclusion of its effects in the moment equilibrium equations is straightforward. Consequently. Consequently. Though these layers may not be needed for local stability. they may be needed to resist compound failure as discussed in the next section. Figure 3 illustrates the computation scheme for estimating the tensile reaction in each reinforcement layer. This check is repeated for other potential slip surfaces until the least stable system is found. where the surcharge acts. the resulted t. The 'stable' soil may not be immediately adjacent to this outermost log spiral and therefore./.
However. the length kchored into the siable soil zone. Embedding the layers immediately to the right of the outermost log spiral obtained in the internal stability analysis. With time.4 Compound (or pullout) stability analysis For a given geometry. the m layers are sufficient to maintain stability of the active mass as a whole. the following equation is used: m j = I c t(a1lowable )j j=1 c n tj ( 31 Note that m is the number of layers. counting from the bottom. specified reinforcement layers will have allowable strengths in excess of that required (Le. tj I t(allowab1e)jwhereas tallowable 5 tavailable and tavailable is the longterm available strength of the geosynthetics). simply. When m = n the compound stability degenerates to that introduced by Leshchinsky (1992). Since reinforcement layers. It should be pointed out that 'closely spaced reinforcement' does not necessarily mean closely spaced primary reinforcement layers. Tensile reaction transferred into soil next to active zone.able for layers I through m and t. surfaces extending into the unreinforced soil zone) will not be likely to occur.. surface vegetation and its root mat enhances this Yacing.e. In reinforced soil structures. a notion commonly used in conjunction with analysis of retaining walls. The m layers may contribute their full allowable strength simultaneously to global stability when compound stability of the reinforced system is examined. To calculate the minimum number of layers. or tieback analysis. such potential surfaces may render reduced pullout resistance since the effective anchorage length is shortened. In this case. the contribution of secondary layers to the formation of a Yacing' should not be ignored.. i. outside or within the effective anchorage length. will never be critical. the internal stability analysis provides the required tensile resistance at the level of each reinforcement layer. a conventional slope stability approach is used to determine the required reinforcement length so that compound failures (i. the capacity of the reinforcement to develop the required tensile resistance depends also on its pullout resistance.e. by a trace of cohesion and by closely spaced reinforcement layers. 2.. It also yields the trace of the outermost log spiral defining the 'active' soil zone. If the boundary of this stable zone is indeed defined by the 'active' one. In actual practice. porewater pressure distribution and (#d and c d ) . Internally. The end result is that globally. This mass may be formed by soil arching. thls 'plug' can be created by the combination of secondary and primary layers acting together to create a coherent mass.' The end result of forming a coherent face is not just an efficient load transfer fiom the deeply unstable soil mass to the reinforcement. Consequently. The term 'conventional' refers to the nature of the analysis in which global stability is sought (recall that internal stability. capable of developing a total tensile resistance equal to (or slightly exceeding) the net total force obtained fiom the internal stability analysis. however. Internal stability analysis gives the required reinforcement strength at each level. that acts de fact0 as a facing unit thus making feasible the load transfer into the primary reinforcement layer. . the tieback analysis requires only m reinforcement layers extending outside the 'active' zone and into the stable soil. Figure 4. looks at local stability at the elevation Of each reinforcing layer)* The Objective Of the compound analysis is to find the minimum length of each reinforcement layer needed to ensure adequate stability against rotational failures. so that t&. and since the secondary layers extend at least about 1 m into the slope. That is. The end result is a soil 'plug. That is.the face or any other type of facing. however. are spaced approximately 30 cm apart in practice. layers (m+l) through n are also needed to ensure local stability as implied in the scheme presented in Figure 3. then potential slip surfaces that are passing further into the soil mass than the outermost log spiral in Figure 4.' in a sense similar to the one developed at the bottom of a driven openend pile. The assumption of simultaneous availability of reinforcement strength is commonly used in limit equilibrium stability analysis of reinforced slopes. but also improved surficial stability and erosion resistance.l. . the reduced tensile resistance capacity along these surfaces could potentially produce a globally unstable system. 53 . load transfer fiom each unstable soil mass to the respective reinforcement layer is feasible due to a 'coherent' mass formed at the face. m. including primary and secondary layers.
reinforcement layers I through m are lengthened to a test body defined by an arbitrary log spiral extending between the toe and the crest. Since the anchorage length of planar geosynthetic sheet is typically small (only a few centimeters) relative to its total required length in practical problems.C. It considers compound failure developing in both the reinforced and retained soil.lob = (bd than layer m is sufficiently long (see point D in Figure 5). the twopart wedge method. This length ensures that sufficient pullout resistance exists for all layers and therefore.. (b& for this surface will be smaller than (bd used in design (i. (bf&. However. all having the same minimal safety factor against rotational failure (see Figure 5). Specifying a layout similar to the envelope ABCDEFG will contain. m potential slip surfaces. an initial value of Lds is assumed.for layers (m+I) through n can develop through pullout resistance. because of practical considerations. all feasible log spirals between this one and the one from the internal stability have (b. i. To be slightly conservative (and to avoid consideration of surfaces where only a fraction of the pullout resistance is available). First. Only when $. At this stage of analysis. at least. it greatly simplify any computational procedure. all anchorage lengths may be specified beyond points D. for this layout. contrary to the compound analysis procedure. Adding the anchorage length to the length needed to resist compound failure produces the total length required to resist tieback and compound failure. is larger than needed. they no longer contribute tensile resistance to deeper slip surfaces.e.e. signifies the average overburden pressure above the anchored length. Then. from a theoretical view point could be ignored at points A. i. layers previously truncated are lengthened if necessary to ensure that (b... a fictitious situation is analyzed. In these calculations the overburden pressure along the anchored length and the parameter defining the shear strength of the interface between soil and reinforcement are used. A satisfactory length implies that the critical log spiral passing through point D yields a stable system for the design friction angle. lengthen this layer and repeat calculations until satisfactory length is found. this simplification is not needed. Subsequently. however. sometimes termed Pullout Analysis. = 0). and the moment equilibrium equation for the arbitrary log spiral is used to check whether (bmob = (bd. The upper layers)+( I‘ through n (see points A. Compound critical surfaces emerging above the toe are also possible and consequently. represents the required angle to produce a limit equilibrium state while using the allowable reinforcement strength. and so on. for a limit equilibrium state.[tay2((b&+cd]} where 4.l at point D (not zero resistance at D). (bd. Note that the mobilized friction angle. If (br. B and C. or slightly less than.5 Direct sliding analysis Specifying reinforcement layout that satisfies a prescribed (bd against rotational failure does not guarantee sufficient resistance against direct sliding of the reinforced mass along its interface with the foundation soil. to the right of the outermost log spiral (Figure 5).. E. Hence. This parameter.&. The reinforcement length required to ensure stability against failure due to direct sliding. it ensures the following: f(a/lol&le)f. (bd. B and C in Figure 5 ) are not needed for the global stability of the ‘active’ mass and therefore. along this log spiral is equal to..lob = (bd is a limit equilibrium state achieved.nob < (bd indicating they represent less critical mechanisms (note that the strength of layers I through m is available between these two log spirals).. (b).po.. the procedure in Figure 5 should be formally repeated for slip surfaces emerging through the face of the slope. t. can be determined from a limit equilibrium analysis that satisfies force equilibrium. Each layer beyond the slip surface is embedded so that the calculated t(a/lo\vab/e)j can be developed. in an average sense. otherwise.job 5 (bd. when (bnzob < (bd. ensures that. anchorage lengths are calculated to resist pullout forces equal to the required allowable strength of each layer multiplied by a factor of safety Fs. Once the process has been repeated for all layers down to layer 1. The upper reinforcement layer is truncated in a numerical sense (i. or along any reinforcement layer.. As a result. L k . the number of such equally critical slip surfaces is reduced in actual structure since most layers are longer.. $mob. Figure 6 shows the notation used in defining the geometry and forces in the twopart wedge analysis. This simplification is conservative since. the outermost surface from internal stability analysis is most critical). F and G. the system is actually stable since the available soil strength. The process is repeated to find the required length of layer (m1) (Figure 5). a uniform or linearly varying length of layers is specified in practice. some are stronger than optimally needed. 2. as expressed by (bd.. The required anchorage length of layerj then equals t/ / (c~~. this simplification is reasonably conservative. and typically. relates the interface strength to the reinforced soil design strength parameters: tan(& and cd. In a theoretical sense. termed the interaction coefficient. the mobilized friction angle. for an 54 .e. Finally. C. The interaction coefficient is typically determined from a pullout test..e. Since the layers above were already ‘truncated’. ~(a//o)t~ab/e)ml point E (not at zero resistance at E). the length of all layers (curve DEFGH in Figure 5 ) required to ensure that (&job does not exceed $d for all possible log spiral failure surfaces is found..
Length required to resist compound/pullout failure. TR. FWA = TB P cos 6 () 4 This factor of safety corresponds to the assumed value of Lds.sin@.e. This interwedge force signifies the resultant of the lateral earth pressure exerted by the backfill soil on the reinforced soil.Figure 5. Pnt. In case it is unsatisfactory. Some reinforcement layers will typically intersect the interwedge inter . the value of L d s is changed and the process is repeated for Wedge A and Wedge B until the computed factor of safety against direct sliding equals to the prescribed value. Fs. = the interaction coefficient between the reinforcement and the soil as determined from a direct shear test). varying 0 while solving the two force equilibrium equdions for the active Wedge A. The reaction NU is obtained and the base sliding resisting force of Wedge B. The assumed value of 6 may have significant influence on the outcome of the analysis. P.ds.is calculated. When calculating TB. the maximum value of the interwedge force. are needed: one for the interface with the reinforced soil and the other for the interface with the foundation soil. Selecting s>O implies the retained soil will either settle relative to the reinforced soil and/or the reinforced soil will slide slightly as a monolithic block thus allowing interwedge friction to develop. Twopart wedge mechanism used in direct sliding analysis.. is found by . the coefficient Cd. 6. is used (Cd. the actual factor of safety against direct sliding. ussurned interwedge force inclination... is calculated by comparing the resistiiig force with the driving force: Figure 6. the vertical force equilibrium equation for Wedge B is solved considering the vertical component of the lateral thrust of the active wedge (i. At this stage. If the bottom layer is placed directly over the foundation soil. Next. two values of C d .
Twopart wedge mechanism used in direct sliding analysis. Consequently. However. 56 .Figure 5 . the tensile resistance of these reinforcement layers is ignored in stability calculations. selecting a value of 6 in between (2/3)$d and $d should be viewed as a conservative choice. Figure 6. face (especially if i < 70 "). Length required to resist compound/pullout failure.
Wedge B. 3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3. the problem may posses several minima thus complicating the search.. Consequently. even through the foundation soil. (1 995) recommended that the design values of 4 and c (i. if peak shear strength parameters are used. The presented approach assumes the foundation to be competent and therefore. to find equivalent values for & and cd to be used in analysis.e. one may eliminate inertia fiom Wedge B. in the 3. The empirical concept of soil 'plug' is assumed to be valid for closely spaced reinforcement layers. perhaps reaching its residual strength. strict limit equilibrium analysis will indicate insufficient stability at the surface. Leshchinsky et al.e. The presented approach can be modified to deal with this issue by assigning low or zero reinforcement strength at the face provided the geosynthetic is not wrapped around. soils).g. log spiral slip surface is valid for homogenous soil only. Newmark's stickslip model) is recommended. This would ensure that at the state of a fully developed slip surface. Alternatively. The value of the equivalent $hd is used to define the trace of the log spiral passing through the reinforced and retained soils.1 General The presented approach is based on the state of limiting equilibrium. note that FSas is imposed when using 4 d and cd. this may constitute a 'double taxation. Finally.. it has already passed the peak along other portions. the required 57 . with a slope that is at the onset of failure.e. the geosynthetic materials and soils) will all contribute their design strengths simultaneously to attain a state of limit equilibrium. However. In the strict sense of analysis. to MononobeOkabe model used in analysis of gravity walls.e. In the context of limit equilibrium analysis. in a sense. The required strength of the reinforcement increases somewhat (see next section). if (bd and cd equal to or smaller than the residual strength values (see discussion later on progressive failure) then imposing Fsds is unnecessary. separation into direct sliding and compound stability is not needed. No conventional factor of safety was used in the limiting equilibrium analysis..2 Progressive failure and soil shear strength Slip surface development in soil is a progressive phenomenon. this observation indicates a phenomenon of progressive failure implying that while the soil is about to reach its peak strength along portions of the slip surface.. This is possible since the unreinforced slopes are considered unstable thus enabling the soil to mobilize its full strength (i. However. In case of generalized approach. 4d cd) should not exceed the residual strength of the soil.. search routines in generalized methods must be capable of capturing critical surfaces of greatly different geometries. As an approximation. In this case.' That is. However. not all materials in the reinforced soil system possess this idealized plasticity. Possibility of surficial failure is ignored in the presented procedure. However. However. such a factor of safety is essential. Such a state deals. In a pseudostatic approach.g. For materials having constant plastic shear strength after some deformation (e. especially in reinforced soil where reinforcement layers delay the formation of a surface in their vicinity (e. 2. by definition. deepseated failures were not considered. the computational procedure can be modified for slip surfaces that penetrate the foundation soil. the shear strength used in the limit equilibrium analysis is indeed attainable all along the slip surface. Huang et al. the following guidance is provided for selecting material properties. this surface passes through both reinforced and retained soil and possibly. a permanent displacement type of analysis (i. Furthermore. Only the 'dynamic' effects on P are superimposed then on the statical problem. for steep slopes. It is implicitly assumed that the different materials involved (i..6 Commentary compound failure analyses (Figure 5). such an assumption is realistic. large seismic coefficients may produce unrealistically large reinforced soil block.. Application of adequate safety factors should ensure acceptable margins of safety against the various failure mechanisms analyzed.The techmque for incorporating seismicity into the force equilibrium analysis is shown in Figure 6. Use of residual strength has clear cost implications in the design of reinforced steep slopes. However. Zornberg et al. However. The approach can be modified to include any type of limit equilibrium analysis. analogous. 1994). attain an active state). Clearly. considering the compound failure surface lengths in the reinforced soil and in the retained soil. (1998) discuss the elapsed time between failure initiation and complete collapse observed in centrifugal models of reinforced slopes. however. one can use an averaging technique.
In these tests. however. However. Based on plane strain compression tests conducted on 12 different unreinforced sands.527 mm. however. Cohesion has significant effects on stability and thus the required reinforcement strength. is valid for medium to fine sand while the confining pressure is less than. as well as measured traces of slip surfaces in centrifugal models of reinforced granular slopes presented by Zornberg et al. University of Tokyo. That is. (1998) proposed a similar hybrid approach. the ‘slip’ surface) is approximately related to $peak having a value that is slightly less than (45”+ $peak/2). Observing Figure 7 (unreinforced soil element). It is an experimental observation that only one slip ‘surface’ develops during the shear of granular dense soil element (i. Shear band in plane strain compression test (Ticino sand: Dr = 79%.. Yoshida and Tatsuoka (1 997) have demonstrated that the average inclination of the shear band (i. the reinforcement strength becomes critical to stability in case residual strength develops. If cohesive fill is used. These surfaces will be used to determine the required layout of geosynthetic layers (i. Hence. thus rendering construction more expensive than just the cost of extra reinforcing material. As displacement continues. in internal stability use $peak to locate the slip surface and the use $residual in the limiting equilibrium equations to determine the geosynthetic reactive force. (1 998) have shown that indeed their traced slip surfaces correspond well to $peak. length and spacing). In compound analysis use $residual in the limiting equilibrium equations to assess the required reinforcement strength along slip surfaces determined using $peak. say. this combined with what currently appears as overly conservative designed reinforced steep slopes create a need to introduce a less conservative design approach. unreinforced soil in triaxial or plane strain tests). Tatsuoka. Mohr circle at failure combined with Coulomb failure envelop indicates that the shear surface is inclined at an initial angle of (45”+ $ p e k / 2 ) to 03. see Figure 7. 100 kPa. Via limit equilibrium backcalculations. (1998). especially if space constraint exists (e. Zornberg et al. For compacted granular soil.. widening existing embankment). Note that the hybrid approach recognizes that slip surfaces will initiate and have a trace based on the soil peak strength. Consequently. extreme care should be used when specifying the cohesion value. Therefore.e. It should be pointed out that in a sense. This observation. one attributed to $peak and the other to $residual. reproduced from Yoshida and Tatsuoka (1997). However. an increase in length of 30 to 50% might typically be required. Zornberg et al. Note that in reinforced slopes there can be several equally critical slip surfaces. 58 . In fact. Consequently. a shear band forms and the residual state of strength is reached. DjO = 0. possible development of progressive failure is also recognized and at this state.3%). Japan. Tatsuoka et al. there are no two different slip surfaces. the stability of steep slope may hinge then upon the strength of the reinforcement. the following hybrid procedure is proposed for design when granular compacted fill is used: Use $peak and limit equilibrium analysis to locate the critical slip surfaces. a rather narrow shear band is developed.e. The proposed procedure may result in significantly shorter reinforcement as compared to using &esidual.g. the required reinforcement strength will be somewhat larger than that computed by using $peak. This additional length makes construction more difficult. Use $residual along traces of the critical slip surfaces determined in ( a ) to compute the required geosynthetic strength.length of reinforcement increases significantly since much deeper slip surfaces are predicted. a small value of cohe Figure 7 . it was limited to seismic design of reinforced walls. the ductile reinforcement should be sufficiently strong to keep the system stable.. It is entirely possible that the backfill in steep slopes will deform (during or after construction) mobilizing the soil beyond its peak strength. That is.e. As an example.. (1998) have demonstrated that a single ‘slip’ surface also develops in reinforced slopes. Photo courtesy of Professor F. at u3 = 78 kPa and ylllas = 13. indicates a unique slip ‘surface’ within the shear zone. instead.
Next.. In this case stability against deepseated failure must be ensured. It can be argued that these results also satisfy the force equilibrium implicitly. This process can be done using any limit equilibrium procedure. that endofconstruction analysis must be also conducted if a soft foundation is present. for granular vertical slope the reduction factor RF. dR. Notice in this figure that: 1. Observing Figure 8. 3. the approximation regarding A$ becomes accurate. over the long run. turns to: 59 . the resultant force of the distribution of G and T along the log spiral) must coincide with 00' and simultaneously close the polygon to satisfy force equilibrium.$esidl.sion will indicate that no reinforcement at all is needed at the upper portion of the slope. However. It should be pointed out.3 Reinforcement force due to progressive failure The preceding discussion suggests using $peak to determine the location of each critical slip surface. Since long term stability of reinforced steep slopes is of major concern. the assumption about the resultant inclination is similar to that used in the friction circle method (Taylor. the following modified approximate procedure is proposed. are known in magnitude (from the solution of the moment equilibrium equation for $peak) and in direction. It is assumed that the resultant of all elemental dR. one can realize that as the surface tends to be a plane. That is.. 1937).. In a sense. For clarity. must be inclined at $residual to the normal. and dR. Consequently. W. treyujyed.. the force equilibrium will be satisfied by virtue of the existence of an unspecified resultant R that will close the force polygon. To realize this. Furthermore. preferably a rigorous one. Leshchinsky and Boedeker (1 989) have demonstrated that as the slope inclination approaches the log spiral degenerates to a planar surface (i. This assumption allows for the construction of the force polygon (Figure 8). at the residual strength. It is therefore recommended to limit the design value of cohesion to a maximum of about 5 kPu. Hence.$resjdlral.. log spiral with a pole located at infinity). the 'accuracy' of this simplified approach has not been fully verified yet. is inclined at $peak passing through the pole.. The weight of the sliding mass.. only one reinforcement layer is used (expansion to n layers is straightforward). All elemental resultant forces due to o and T along the slip surface. however. However. using the force polygon in Figure 8. Consequently. the elemental resultant force at the peak strength. R. This plan is inclined at (45"+ $/2) when the reinforcement force acts horizontally. dR.e. geometry implies that the angle to equals to (45 ". At each location along the log spiral. The approximate procedure is implied in Figure 8. a simple granular slope (c = 0) without water and seismic loads is depicted. it is perhaps wise to ignore the cohesion altogether. and the required reinforcement force. inclinations must equal to A$ = $peak . cohesion of manmade embankments tends to drop and nearly diminish (normally consolidated clay). The general expression shown in Figure 2 implies that the critical results for the log spiral satisfy moment equilibrium explicitly. dRr no longer pass through the log spiral pole 0. is A$ = $peak .$peak /2). at each point along the surface. Rp. Hence. is the reduction factor in the strength of geosynthetic due to consideration of residual strength along the slip surface while using peak strength in all calculations. for a planar surface the problem is statically determinate and therefore. one can verify that the difference in Rp and R. For clarity. the results obtained for beak be 'corrected' in a simplified way can to adapt to the hybrid approach. The action line of R (i.e. 2.al.. where RF. unlike the friction circle. the angle between dR. That is: Figure S. Approximate approach to consider the effect of residual strength. 3. is also inclined at A$ to the resultant of dRp. To be consistent with the presentation in this paper. refer to Figure 8. along these critical surfaces one should calculate the required reinforcement reaction to maintain a state of limit equilibrium using residual shear strength values.
The equations of RFr (Equations 5 and 6) imply that for 90" slope and constant A$. Typically. reveals that it is relatively insensitive for reasonable range of values of to (between 20" and 50") while holding A$ constant. rupture strain greater than 10%).' It should be noted that performance (i.e. One can envision a scenario in which very stiff reinforcement will have its strength mobilized rapidly. for example... the larger strength value from static and pseudoseismic should prevail.5 Other speciJied safety factors The factor of safety against direct sliding. observing the results presented by Leshchinsky and Boedeker (1989).e. Using typical values of $peak between 40" and 50" and A$ = 5" yields a narrow range of RFr between 1. Note that for normal soil conditions in steep slopes (i. there is no consideration of deformations.24 and 1. =1. RF. collapse.40.. it is practical to conduct the entire analysis using peak strength and then correct the needed strength reinforcement by invoking the multiplier RFr. degradation should not be a problem when using a typical reinforcing polymeric material. The values of RFjd and RFd are site specific. 3. Hence. Some designers concerned with performance prefer to use this value as 'tu/. Simply. since the duration of the superimposed pseudostatic seismic load is short. violating the analysis premise that its tensile resistance will be available with the soil residual strength. That is. large strains will develop locally in response to overstressing thus allowing the soil to deform and mobilize its strength as assumed in the analysis and as needed for stability. it is practically sufficient to investigate the explicit value of RF.3).Close examination of RF.. of nearly 1. since geosynthetics are ductile (typically.5 to 2. It is a straightforward adaptation of analysis from reinforced retaining walls or gravity walls. 1997).. potentially reaching its design value before the soil mobilizes its strength. Finally. The creep reduction factor. Furthermore. However. To ensure that indeed some overstressing of the reinforcement without breakage is possible. following.3 to 1. significant creep is not an issue. tlrll. reduction factors for installation damage (RFjd).. Over twenty years of experience indicate that lack of stiffness compatibility is not a problem in structures based on limit equilibrium design. Alternatively. the specified geosynthetic should have the following shortterm ultimate strength: 3..=1.. ensures that the force tending to cause direct sliding of the reinforced soil block is adequately smaller than the force available to resist it. Fsds.5.0 to avoid possible progressive failure as 60 ... To avoid complication of design via introduction of complex concepts and involved analysis. the reduction factor against creep can be set to one.. ASTM D459586 procedure. The term ultimate strength. for 90" slope and use it as an upper limit in evaluating the effects of progressive failure. It is recommended to use Fsds=l . For simplicity. However.28 (practically one would use 1. deformations) of steep slopes is less critical than that of walls and therefore. the largest value of RF. The result might be local. could be selected. the exact procedure can be followed as suggested. and creep (RF. near neutral pH and no biological activity). the strength at 5% elongation strain in the widewidth test is reported as well. durability (RFd). or even global. is produced (within a reasonable range of both E0 and A$).4 Reduction factors related to geosynthetics The presented limit equilibrium analysis assumes that the geosynthetic will not mobilize its full strength before the full design strength of the soil is attained. the 5% 'limit' is unnecessary and overly conservative for most practical purposes. Typical values for this factor range from F. factor of safety for uncertainties is specified.. Formally. on the polymer type and the manufacturing process. should correspond to the result obtained fiom the shortterm widewidth tensile test.) should be applied so that geosynthetics possessing adequate ultimate strength. To achieve this. in design guidelines the value of $peak can be limited to 45" while the correction factor is set to RF.. premature rupture of the reinforcement. The strength of the factored reinforcement should be available throughout the design life of the structure. depends. This factor multiplies the calculated minimal required reinforcement strength at each level.6. if seismicity is considered in the design. Unusual design values of @peak between 45" and 50" and A$ = 10" yields RF. the designer should verify that the required seismic strength is no less than the required value for static stability where the creep reduction factor is high. to a large extent. an overall Table 1 gives preliminary values for geosynthetics reduction factors (Elias and Christopher. one can configure that toincreases as the steep slope flattens. This may lead to overstressing and subsequently. tull.
The first signifies the ratio of shear strength of the interface between the reinforcement and reinforced soil and the shear strength of the reinforced soil alone. C d . If the design value of the soil shear strength used in analysis is lower than its residual strength. respectively. note the coefficient C d . The value Ci is normally determined from a pullout test. C. the value of Ci varies between 0.6 Practical layout o reinforcement f Two practical options for specifying reinforcement length are common in practice (see Figure 9).5 and 1. For granular soils and common geosynthetics used in reinforcement. Practical layout of reinforcement. sociated with peak shear strength of soil. signifies the interaction coefficient.5. Factor of safety against pullout. 61 . In many cases the required length of bottom layer (i. it may result in misplaced layers at the construction site. It should be pointed out that anchorage length for reasonably spaced continuous reinforcing sheets (i. multiplies the &. or the direct sliding analysis. C d .8.0. F . Typically. Typically. decreases below 0. Its value can be determined from direct shear tests in which the shear strength of the interface between the relevant type of soil and the reinforcement is assessed under various normal loads. depending on the type of soil and reinforcement. is quite small relative to the total required length in the final layout. is about 0. the interaction coefficient may just be conservatively assumed in design. (1 Leshchinsky provides these values for preliminary design.5 and 1. calculated required allowable tensile force of each reinforcement layer. depending on the type of soil and reinforcement.Table 1.0. will vary between 0. the pullout/compound failure analysis. however. The i required anchorage length is calculated based on C .3 since safety is already manifested in the reduced shear strength. see L g in Figure 9) may increase significantly as C d . Preliminary reduction factors. The first option simplifies construction by specifying all layers to have a uniform length.. related to this mechanism. Fspo value is specified as 1. For granular soils.e. The second safe option is to specify L g and L T at the bottom and top. Figure 9. 3. 30 to 60 cm vertical spacing).. This coefficient reflects a mechanism in which the reinforcement is being pulled out from a confining stable soil. This coefficient reflects a mechanism in which soil slides over the reinforcement sheet.. one can use Fsds= 1. Consequently. This length is selected as the longest value obtained from the internal stability analysis. The second coefficient signifies a similar ratio but with respect to the strength of the foundation soil.7. is about 0. With reference to direct sliding. Typically. There are two direct sliding coefficients.0 to 1. This specification is more economical. Anchorage length then is calculated to provided pullout resistance up to this increased tensile force. the typical value of C. where L g is the longest length from all analyses and LT is the longest length obtained from internal stability and compound/pullout analyses. It relates the strength of the interface between the reinforcement and soil to the shear strength of the reinforced soil or foundation soil. Length of layers in between is linearly interpolated.e.8.
This figure is limited to cohesionless slopes. in a sense.Figure 9 shows primary and secondary reinforcing layers. layers spaced too far apart may promote localized instability along the slope face. 4 RESULTS AND CASE HISTORY 4. then go to j = 2 and layer n 1 to find tn1 where H equals D. Notice that for vertical slopes. 1989). Furthermore. Figure 11 show the outermost traces of critical slip surfaces obtained from internal stability analysis. about 10%). The vertical spacing of a secondary reinforcement layer from either another secondary layer or from a primary one should be limited to 30 cm. for practical purposes. typically. the difference in required K as a function of assumed reinforcement force orientation at the slip surface is small. it is presented in this and following figures for instructive purposes unless one uses the chart for a case where $design = $residual = $peak. No charts are shown for required length based on compound stability analysis. The value of each tj can be back calculated from this chart following the rational presented in Figure 3 . is known. it allows for better compaction of the soil at the face of the steep slope. (i. tj would be 20 to 40% larger to account for $residual). This figure is for horizontal inclination of geosynthetic force (for traces when reinforcement is tangential. Also notice that as $peak decreases. In the stability analyses. This difference is the largest for vertical slopes (practically. the slip surfaces become significantly deeper thus implying longer uniform required length of reinforcement. shows the calculated required tensile force from internal stability analysis versus $peak and slope inclination. the surfaces are practically planar inclined at angle of (45"+ +peak/2). Considering the potential for progressive Figure 10. However. Secondary reinforcement creates a 'coherent' mass at the slope face. start with j = 1 and top layer to find tn for which H equals Dn. reproduced from Leshchinsky and Boedeker (1 989). The results in this case will depend on the selected reinforcement strength. Notice that for reasonable range of $peak. Their width should extend at least l m back into the fill and their strength.+DnI and t. is equivalent to Rankine's if horizontal reinforcement and to Coulomb's if the reinforcement is inclined). same as the wrapping primary reinforcement. only primary layers are considered. one can use this chart in an approximate manner. Calculated tensile reaction for cohesionless slopes failure.. This. Alternatively. the values of tj's determined from this chart have to be multiplied by RF.1 Typical results Figure 10. increases the sloughing resistance and prevents surficial failures. a factor important for local stability. is equivalent to K a in lateral earth pressures (K. It should be pointed out that soil possessing low $ such as 15" or 20" is not likely to exhibit peak shear characteristics. in turn. The ordinate K represents the nondimensional value of the calculated tj and. those results are identical to those produced using the scheme presented in this paper. That is. secondary reinforcement layers should be used. see Leshchinsky and Boedeker. Therefore. secondary reinforcement can be used to wrap the slope face as well. That is. may be the same as the adjacent primary reinforcement.e. The interested reader is referred to Leshchinsky et 62 . The impact of this phenomenon should be viewed in the context of the proposed progressive failure approach. If wraparound is specified (necessary in slopes steeper than about 50°). the overburden pressure at the middle of a tributary area of a reinforcing layer can be calculated and then be multiplied by the tributary area and by the coefficient K obtained from the chart. It should be noted that Leshchinsky and Boedeker (1989) used a variational technique to facilitate the generation of results. It should be backfolded then at least I m back into soil. however. and so on.
&. for direct sliding coefficient..2 Case history Fannin and Herman (1990) report the results of a field test of a wellinstrumented fullscale slope. it can be seen that as the slope flattens. compound failure will not control the length in near vertical slopes provided the reinforcement is closely spaced and uniform in strength. this would not necessarily be the case if geosynthetic layers with variable length and/or strength is specified. 63 . however. It is constructed for strength related to peak shear strength. 6 while Figure 12 (bottom) shows the conservative case where 6 = 0. Figure 12 shows the length of reinforcement required to resist direct sliding. (1995) to view some typical surfaces. Generally.e. = + 4. if one uses $design < required length will increase. Figure 12 (top) represents the case where full friction is developed along the interface of the two wedges (i. equals 1. In this case. In general. Notice that for 45" slopes combined with = 45". the length of reinforcement increases.Figure 1 1 . no reinforcethe ment is needed.5. Outermost traces of internal slip surfaces. al. the friction angle and the interwedge angle have significant effects on length. equals one. However. Cds. F. one could use lower Fsdsin lieu of smaller b. and for a factor of safety to resist direct sliding. Also.
The probable range for each layer is between the required force against internal failure and compound failure (i.1 kN/m. however.8 m and its inclination was 1H:2V. the wall was surcharged with soil placed to a depth of 3 m. for 4peak = 4 1". The longterm allowable geogrid strength is not reported. The plane strain residual internal angle of friction is reported to be 38". which is considered equivalent to wraparound face. Only the facing was constructed of a wire mesh.e.2 kN/m whereas the calculated one ($residual = 64 . the corresponding RFr would be 1. The proposed approach in this paper specifies the maximum value of this probable range in design. proach recommends values between 1.0 kN/m. compacted to a unit weight of 17 kn/m3.2 and 1.e. RFr. = 1. Note that the proposed ap Figure 12. The force distribution in each geogrid layer was measured using load cells. the reduction for progressive failure would be RF. The outermost internal failure surfaces using the approach presented in this paper are contained within the reinforced zone (Figure 13) for $residual = 38". Figure 13. Since $peak is unknown. to account for possible progressive failure along a surface determined by $peak. the corresponding slip surface is not plotted. one gets Ctj = 13.4.3 kN/m. to realize whether the values suggested for RF. The layout of the uniformly spaced geogrids is shown in Figure 13. one gets CtJ = 1 1. between the value needed to ensure local stability and global stability).38 ($peak = 43") and RFr = 1. Following construction. it can be verified that its value is much larger than the measured forces. Considering the measured (actual) value of CtJ was 15.53 and 1.. Hence. The total measured and calculated forces can be used. Table 2 shows the comparison between measured values and those predicted using $residual = 38". Since the actual layout is not the same as required in Figure 5 (i. because $peak is larger than $residual.28. however. The agreement exhibited in Table 2 is considered good. retained and foundation soils possess same strength and density).5 and 2. Required length to resist direct sliding as function of peak shear angle and slope inclination (assuming reinforced. not minimum length but rather uniform length). The backfill soil was a uniformly graded medium to fine sand. are reasonable.3 kN/m.0. Assessment of direct sliding reveals that Fsdsfor the layout used is between 1. in an average sense. backanalysis using the presented designoriented analysis can only suggest a probable range of feasible values. The slope height was 4. the critical slip surfaces would be even shallower (i. Since no details are given. all compound slip surfaces are also contained within the reinforced soil.15 (@peak = 4 1"). it is assumed that the slope of the this surcharge fill was 2H:lV. Fannin and Herman report only the total sum of forces for the surcharged case.. The measured value is 22.e.One tested slope in which no intermediate reinforcement layers were used is adequate for comparison with the proposed progressive failure approach. If one considers the calculated value of Ctj = 17. certainly contained within the reinforced zone). Unfortunately the peak angle is not reported. Configuration of Norwegian Wall.. The results of this exercise support the simplified approach of the hybrid approach using a reduction factor. Repeating calculations for the problem for $peak = 43".
1992. 1997. REFERENCES Elias. Leshchinsky.. 87 1897. These analyses ensure that the reinforced mass is internally and externally stable. Calculating RF.e. 1997)..e.0 38") is 21.e. 1994. However. implied by the trace of slip surface shown in Figure 13). Reinforcement forces under selfweight loading. Tatsuoka.R. and Sato. It is recommended to ignore the cohesion value in longterm design of reinforced steep slopes. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Steep Slopes. and Christopher. Editors: Ochiai. C. 65 . the following is recommended. Recognizing the limitations of limit equilibrium analysis. Y. It is comprehensive and economical.. Soils and Foundations. 5 CONCLUSION A procedure for the design of steep slopes reinforced with geosynthetic materials has been presented. F. Superimposing on these critical slip surfaces the residual strength of the soil and solving the limit equilibrium equations provide an estimate of the required reinforcement strength in case progressive failure fully develops. The proposed design procedure can be easily carried out using a computer program (e. Published by Balkema. experience proves it is safe. especially when applied to slopes comprised of materials posing different properties (i.. FHWASA9607 1.. will correct the required reinforcement strength to account for a possible state in which residual strength is attained along that surface. this case history shows that use of $residual is justifiable. will produce similar trend to that of the selfweight case. Design and Construction Guidelines. A physically meaningful definition of factor of safety is introduced. The presented design procedure includes recommendations regarding the selection of soil shear strength parameters and safety factors. Keynote paper: Issues in geosyntheticreinforced soil. held in Nov. the reinforcement layout). Report No. 2740. The peak shear strength parameters of the soil should be used to determine the critical slip surfaces (i. Leshchinsky. this paper provides a conceptual framework for design of reinforced steep slopes. Japan. Hence. Failure mechanisms of reinforced sand slopes loaded with a footing.C. strain measurements by Fannin and Herman indicates the location of maximum force is shallower that that implied by $residual (i. Huang. j I Elevation liml I 110. Layer no... Hayashi and Otani. V. 1992 in Kyushu. Use of $peak will produce shallower surfaces while use of RF. It is applicable only to slopes having their stability hinging on the strength of the reinforcement.Table 2. soil and polymeric materials) and the potential for progressive failure.. Generally. B. The mechanism and analysis used can be replaced with other rigorous stability methods. Proceedings of the Internutionul Symposium on Earth Reinforcement Pructice. Journal of the Japanese Society of Geotechnical Engineering.1 kN/m. The analyses involved in the presented design process are based on limit equilibrium.g. FHWA Demonstration Project 82. D. 34(2).
D. Vol. ASCE.W. 1. 670683. Sitar. No. 1 15(10). D. published by Balkema. Editors: Recent Case Histories of Permanent GeosyntheticReinforced Soil Retaining Walls. 197246. 1995. and Boedeker. and Reinschmidt.. 14591478. Leshchinsky. Tateyama. R. and Leshchinsky. Performance of Geosynthetic Reinforced Slopes at Failure. 124(8). Stability of membrane reinforced slopes.K. Taylor. M. a 66 . N. No. Limit equilibrium as basis for design of geosynthetic reinforced slopes. 845881.. J. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.. 5. and Hanks.F. Balkema. G. 4046. Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineering. 103142. T. 1998. 1994. 1998. Seismic stability against high seismic loads of geosyntheticreinforced soil retainin structures. Tatsuoka. September. Atlanta. Tatsuoka. J. 12851300. Proceedings of the 6 International Conference on Geosynthetics. 1. 1992 in Tokyo. 684698. F. ASCE. D. and Mitchell. N. 1998. Leshchinsky.. N. 1989. Proceedings of SEIKEN Symposium. and Hori. Geosynthetics International. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Sitar.G. Ling.. Geosynthetic reinforced earth structures. Deformation property of shear band in sand subjected to plane strain compression and its relation to particle characteristics.J. Geotechnical Fabrics Report. 1997. Georgia. ASCE 111(1 l).. Keynote lecture. D. 2. Unified Design Approach to GeosyntheticReinforced Slopes and Segmental Walls. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 1985.Leshchinsky. J.. Software to Facilitate Design of GeosyntheticReinforced Steep Slopes. Zornberg. 24(3). held in November. J. Y. Japan. 124(8). 349 pages. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. F. H. Zornberg. ASCE.K. Hamburg. J. A. Leshchinsky. Proceedings of the 141h International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. I. 1937. and Mitchell. Vol. D. D. Koseki. 15. Munaf. and Tatsuoka. Stability of earth slopes.G. H. 237240. Yoshida. 1997. Vol.
Prepurutory causal factors which make the slope susceptible to movement without actually initiating it and thereby tending to place the slope in a marginally stable state. it is better to visualize slopes existing in one of the following three stages: stable.Slope Stability Engineering. earth or debris down a slope" (Cruden 1991). iWurginully stuble slopes are those which will fail at some time in response to the de stabilising forces attaining a certain level of activity. "The processes involved in slope nioveinentc comprise a continuous series of events from cause to effect" (Varnes. As the cliff front is unloaded by the sliding of the material previously fallen in. marginally stable and actively unstable. Back analyses of some slope failures in the iirea performed in order to asses the shear strength parameters mobilized along the sliding surface are presented and the results are compared with laboratory experimental data. Yagi. However. increasing shear stresses are developcd. Stable slopes are those where the margin of stability is sufficiently high to withstand all destabilising forces. causes and remediation of cliff instability on the western coast of the Black Sea Mihail Popescu Depurtnient o Geotechnicul Engineering. from the physical point of view. Only an accurate diagnosis makes it possible to properly understand the landslide mechanisms and thence to propose effectivc remedial measures. analysis of the landslide inventory data is expected to provide valuable information concerning their spatial distribution and their seasonalAong term patterns of behaviour. The successive movements of individual landslides will enable a more precise prediction of sites liable to failure in the future and their timing. The basis of the Inventory is the "Landslide Report". Romuniu f f ABSTRACT: The large landslides along the Romanian shore of the Black Sea are well known instability phenomena. An important feature of these landslides is the presencc of a structured overconsolidated red clay underlying a loess layer at the ground surface. CAUSAL FACTORS AND REMEDIAL MEASURES Within the framework of the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. 1 DEFINITION OF A LANDSLIDE. in time and space. Rotterdam. Buchurest. University o Civil Engineering. of primary importance is the recognition of the conditions which caused the 67 slope to become unstable and the processes which triggered that movement. . Finally. The computed value of the factor of safety is a clear and simple distinction between stable and unstable slopes. causing clay dilatancy and its yielding by intense moistening. the mobilized shear strength of the red clay progressively decreases from its peak value to the residual one. the extent and evolution of the landslide phenomena are discussed. At the national and world centers. aclively zinsluble slopes are those in which destabilising forces produce continuous or internii ttent movement. which includes aspects both of causes and of remediation for landslides. thus a working definition for a landslide is "the movement of a mass of rock. When preparing a Landslide Report for a particular site. the International Union of Geological Sciences has established a Working Group on Landslides (abbreviated IUGS WG/L) which is assisting the creation of a World Landslide Inventory. the remedial works and associated design principles which take into account the causes. The sliding phenomena evinced by the red clay along the cliff of the Black Sea in Romania are developing cyclically. As the displacement of the sliding rnass increases. with periods of attenuation and intensification. The three stability stages provide a useful framework for understanding the causal factors of landslides and classifying them into two groups on the basis of their function: 1 . They are responsible for considerable economic losses each year and the severity of the problcm increased in recent years as increased scarcity of land forced utilization of inherently unstable areas. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 The mechanisms. This has proposed a standard terminology for describing landslides. 1978). The paper reviews the basic mechanisms involved in the instability phenomena of the Romanian shore of Black Sea. Yamagami & Jiang fi 1999 Balkema. Finally.
In order to help including relevant information in Landslide Report. dense material over pldbtic material) 2. to a large extent. The success of each measure depends. and always. piping) (9) Deposition loading of the slope or its crest ( I @)Vegejat5io removal (byerosion. so dependent upon special local circumstances. an explanation of ultimate causes of a landslide invariably involves a number of prcparatory conditions and processes. heavy _ __ machinery1 _ . Triggering causal jucfors which initiate mo\iement. the destabilising processes J V : ~ ~ J be grouped into JIOWchanging (e. The technical solution must be in harmony with the natural system. In fact landslides are so varied in type and size.8) Adversely oriented structural discontinuities (including faults.able 1 A brieflist of landslide Lausal factooz __ 1. are not well known in advance. it is better to put remedial measures in hand on a “design as you go basis”. fore%tfire. erosion) and fusi chcmging processes (e.S) Sheared material . 68 A particular causal factor may perform either or both functions. stormwater drains) (7) Vegetation removal (deforestation) (8) Mining and quarrying (open pits or underground gal er ies) (9) Creation of dumps of very loose waste (10)Artificial vibration (including traffic.g. flexural shears. sediincntary contacts) :9) Contrast in permeability and its effects on ground water ( 1 @)Contrastin stiffness (stiff. GROUNDCSNDITIONS I ) Plastic weak rnatei ial 2) Sensitive material :3) Collapsible material : ) Weathered material 4 . attention is oftcn fbcused on those processes within the slope system which provoke the greatest rate of change. The format of the table lends itself to the creation of simple databases suited to much of the database management software now available for personal computers. the means for stopping niovenieiii must be adapted to the processes which started tlic slide”. Based on their temporal variability. high tides or breaching of natural dams (5) Earthquake (6) Volcanic eruption (7) Breaching of crater lakes (8) Thawing of perinafrost (9) Freeze and thaw weathering (10)Shrink and swell weatherins of exgansLve soils (1) ~   4 MANMADE PROCESSES _ _ _ ( I ) Excavation of the slope or its toe (2) Loading of the slope or its crest (3) Drawdown (ofreservoirs) (4) Irrigation ( 5 ) Defective maintenance of drainage systems (6) Water leakage from services (water supplies. esrihquake. Correction of an existing landslide or the prevention of a pending landslide is a function of a reduction in the driving forces or an increase in the available resisting forces. pile driving. Although it may be possible to identify a single triggering process. As many of the geological features. unconformities. short period rainfall (2) Rapid melt of deep snow (3) Prolonged high precipitation (4) Rapid drawdown following floods. The IUGS WG/L Commission on Causes of‘ Landslides has prepared a short checklist of landslide causal factors arranged in four practical groups according with the tools and procedures necessary for documentation as illustrated in Table 1 . like the sheared discontinuities.g. That is the design has to be flexible enough for changes during or subsequent construction of remedial works. Any remedial measure iiscd must prokide one or both of the above results.6) Jointed or fissured material :7) Adversely oriented mass discontinuities (including bedding. Terzaghi (1 950) has written that “if a slope has started to move. In the search for landslide causes. schistosity.___  ___ __ ____  ___   2. on the degree to which the specific soil and groundwater conditions are correctly recognized in investigation and applied in design. cleavage) . often a fast change can be identilied as haviiig triggered movement. that for a given landslide problem there is more than one method of prevention or correction that can be successfully applied. the IUGS WG/L Comission on .drought) ~ 3 PHYSICAL PROCESSES Intense. GEO M0RP H(0LOC ICAL PROCESSES : I ) Tectonic uplift (2) Volcanic uplift (3) Glacial rebound (4) Fluvial erosion of the slope toe (5) Wave erosion of the slope toe (6) Glacial erosion of the slope toe (7) Erosion of the lateral margins (8) Subterranean erosion (solution. drawdown). The causal factors shift the slope from a marginally stable to an actively unstable state. sewers. depending on its degree of acti\ it> and the margin of stability. otherwise the remedial work will be either short lived or excessively expensive. Although slow changes act over a long period of time to reduce the rcsistancdshear stress ratio. weathering. The information collected can be coinpared with summaries of other landslides and uscd to guide further investigations and mitigative rncususes.
8. retaining structures and internal slope reinforcement (Popescu.1. For example. Reducing general slope angle 2. Environmental considerations have increasingly become an important factor in the choice of suitable remedial measures.6.2.2. 1. Reinforced earth retaining structures with strip/ sheet polymer/metallic reinforcement elements 3.structui*ul solutions including classical methods such as drainage and modification of slope geometry but also some novel methods such as lime/cement stabilization. Drainage by siphoning 2. ‘The western edge of the Black Sea is a major seismic area where slope instability and landslides are common.Prgtec$veLock/concEE. Buttress counterforts of coarsegrained material (mechanical effect) 3. Soil nailing 4 4.INTERNAL SLOPE REINFORCEMENT.3. galleries or adits 2.7.3. DRAINAGE__ _ ~ Surface drains to divert water from flowing onto the slide area (collecting ditches and pipes) 2. The cost of nonsrructural reinedial measures is considerably lower when compared with the cost of structural solutions.ti~n planting<root strength meckankal effect) 2.8. Sarmat deposits are found at the cliff base while loessial collapsible soils form the cliff upper part. 2 SLOPE INSTABILITY MECHANISMS ALONG THE BLACK SEA WESTERN SHORE IN ROMANIA The eastern coast of Romania stretches approximately 2 10 km north from Constantza to south from Mangalia. Castin situ reinforced concrete walls 3. Retention nets for rock slope faces 3. Passive piles. Gravity retaining walls 3. The measures are arranged in four practical groups.2. The large coastal landslides along the Black Sea shore in Romania are well known instability phe69 Landslide Remediation has prepared a short checklist of landslide remedial measures as given in Table 2. This reporl is intending to discuss some problems related to causes and remedial measures of landslides along the Black Sea western shore in Romania as resulted from the work of the IUGS WG/L Commission on Causes of Landslides and the IUGS WG/L Commission on Landslide Remediation respectively. particularly issues such as visual intrusion in scenic areas or the impact on nature or geological conservation interests. The experience shows that while one remedial measure may be dominant. Freezing 4. Starting from Mangalia towards south and continuing to Balcic and Varna in Bulgaria. the use of soil nailing as a nonstructural solulion to strengthen the slope avoids the need to open or al?er the slope from its current condition. Subhorizontal or subvertical boreholes 2. Both these operations increase the risk of failure during construction for oversteeping or increased infiltration from rainfall. Middle and Upper Sarmat (Miocene) sediments with the most spectacular largescale failures tending to be of Neogene age.l~L~eg~.6. Rockfall attenuation or stopping systems (rocktiap ditches. most landslide repairs involve the use of a combhation 01two or more of .8. Gabion walls 3. namely: modification of slope geometry.3.9.2.9.7.. Major landslides tend to occur throughout the Lower. the major categories. I0 Electroosmotic dewatering 2. Adding material to the area maintaining stability (counterweight berm or fill) 1. In some places the Quaternary loess reaches the beach. drainage and modification 01‘ s ! ~ p e geometry.1.7.5 Grouting 4. MODIFICATION OF SLOPE GEOMETRY I.4. benches.6.9. grouting or soil nailing.LVege_etat con plantins (hydrolqg ical eff5cL) . in the framework of the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction ( I 9902000). drainage. Stone or lirne/cement columns 4.3 Buttress counterforts of coarsegrained materials (hydro I og i ca I effect) 2. On the other hand struct~ri~f solutions such as retaining walls involve opeiiing the slope during construction and often require steep temporary cuts. In contrast.~ T R U ~ T U 3 R ES 3. Shallow or deep trench drains filled with freedraining geoinaterials (coarse granular fills and geosynthetics) 2.RETA IN IN G .5. 1996). Cribbloch walls 3. Micropiles 4 3.blocks againsterosion 4. Anchors (prestressed or not) 4. the Sarmat is more frequently found on the beach.4 Vertical (small diameter) boreholes with pumping or self draining 2. Drainage tunnels. Removing material from the area driving the landslide (with possible substitution by lightweight fill) 1. 10 s o x e degree and by nece Lit i l i d . Electroosmotic anchors 4.1!. while restrsint may be the principal measure used to correct a PHIticulx hidslide.4 1 Rock bolts 4. Vacu~im dewatering 2.fences and walls) 3 I O. piers and caissons 3. Heat treatment 4. Vertical (large diameter) wells with gravity draining 2.Table 2 A btief list of landslide [syedjfinieastires : 1. Over the last s e ~ e r a decades there has been a nol table shift towards ‘“softengineering” non.
summer and autumn.nomena that evolve in time and space. Randomly oriented stress release fissures occur as a result of a decrease in loading in red clays. The underground water level is generally located at the base of the loess layer. Each slide leeds to the removal of the lateral support of the main landslide blocks upslope. there did appear to be a close relationship between phases of increased landslide activity and periods of heavy or prolonged rainfall and inferred higher groundwater levels. particularly as these structural features may well be obscured by the weathering of the near surface material. and the continuance of marine erosion at the toe. The investigation of most landslides has shown that the basal slip surface is bedding . The pileup of debris on the rear of the main slide constitutes a loading which together with the generation of undrained porewater pressures. acts to destabilize the main slide. and cause further inovement. Most prominent is the major cycle of a large.controlled and seated in the red clay layer. causing large soil strength variations between spring. fissured.shrinking cyclic events is responsible for many shallow failures that occur seasonally in culting slopes. high plasticity clays. There are many examples when the development of land has led to the reactivation or initiation of coastal landslides which have resulted in damage to property and services. the brittlenes index IB > 0. 'I'he geoinorphology of the landslides along the Romanian shoreline of the Black Sea suggests they comprise broadly a seaward system of compound landslides backed by a landward system of m~lltiple rotational landslides. Reduced stress following natural erosion. but of importance is also the annual climate . Bedding planes and fissures form natural zones of weakness in red clays. Each slope failure causes reduction of the lateral stress in its close vicinit3 which i n turn makes the red clay to meclianically expand and reduce its strength. and consequently varies significantly along a slip surface as illustrated in Figure 2. The cliff retreat follows cycles similar to those reported on the southern coast of England and on the northern coast of France (Hutchinson et al. Due to the slow intermittent nature of ground movement along the Black Sea coast and the lack of precise monitoring information it was not possible to relate landslide activity with rainfall events. mater flows into the area. After a period of time. Field evidence shows that the equilibrium moisture content at the slip surface is gcncr~ally higher than that in the mass above or below it. While mechanical expansion and physical s.ive1ling are always present in the mechanism of cliffrctreat by landsliding. (3) physical swelling due to water flow into thc areas undergoing mechanical expansion or shearing dilatancy. however. Physical swelling is not possible in short term due to the low permeability of the clay. If3 is a function of the effective normal stress and the clay condition (intact or previously sheared). 70 Landslides in stiff fissured red clays are likely to be accompanied by volume increase at the failure surface. In the areas where 113 = 0. However. the cycle of relatively shallow landslides tend to follow an annual.driven cycle. and progressively worsens the stability of the system.. 1991). In contrast to the longer time cycles of deepseated landsliding. They are rigid.time shallow landslides the shearing dilatancy might be a major contributory factor of shear strength reduction by moisture content increase it does not play any important role for deep seated reactivated landslides. l h c volume increase and associated moisture content increase at the failure surface are attributable to fhc folI owi ng factors : (1) mechanical expansion due to unloading by removal of the upslope lateral support. Progressive slaking contributes to material weathering and increases its susceptibility to failure. As with other lithologies. seasonal sequence. 3 PROPERTIES OF THE RED CLAYS The red clays of the Doubrodjean Plateau are some of the most peculiar soils of Southern Romania. Hard dried clods of red clay have been observed to rapidly and completely lose their shape due to slaking on immersion in water (Popescu. The existence of these ctslikensides)) is sometimes ignored by practicing engineers. the clay mechanical behaviour is ductile (contractant). (2) shearing dilatancy where the mechanical behaviour of the red clay is brittle. rapid landslide followed by slow erosion. An important feature of these landslides is the geological sequence including a red overconsolidated fissured clay underlying a loess layer at the ground surface.e. the shearing dilatancy is restricted to the areas where the mechanical behaviour of the red clay is brittle (dilatant). Loss of shear strength associated with swelling . The slickensides act as preferential flow paths often leading to the weathering and softening of material adjacent to the discontinuities. red clays that have been subjected to tectonic stress suffered interbed movement which resulted in smooth. Although for first . The red clay is overlying a hard mar1 clay or limestone. i. Continued erosion of the toe of the slopc results in a series of landslips. 1980). Each slide leaves a steep rear scarp which rapidly degrades to a flattcr slope. reduces the clay shear strength and causes further failure. excavation or . The mechanism of rear scarp retrogression caused by successive landslips is illustrated by the cartoons in Figure 1. sometimes polished structures.
3 I Figure I Possible development and causal factors of landslides on the Romanian Black Sea shore landsliding allows red clays to swell and hydratc.8) wave erosion of the slope toe (2. 4.5) intense.3. Uessication cracks result from summer drying of red clays but these rarely penetrate more than 1 m.10.3) shrink and swell of expansive red clay (3.2.fissured inaterid: red overcoilsolidated clay (1.8.2.2) water leakage froin services (4.9 PREPAIUTOIiY CAUSAL FACTORS 1 TRIGGERING CAUSAL FACTORS 1 1.10) loading of the slope at its crest: urban development (4.6 2.5. 1. thus facilitating further weathering adjacent to the fissures. 4.bedding controlled (1.1. slxort period rainfall (3.3.3.5. Because of their very high plasticity and activity 71 .6) adversely orieiited mass discoritinuities: slip surface .6.1) prolonged high precipitation (3.
Figure 3 summarizes the plasticity characteristics of the red clay in Casagrande plasticity chart. These values compares well wiih studies of overconsolidated clays worldwide based on correlation with plasticity index. In the deep zone of weathering. Drained direct shear tests with stress reversal have been performed to examine the differenccs between peak and residual strength of red clay.and cm .time slides in red clays. Based on the assumption that the fully softened shear strength of the red clay can be represented by the average peak value of a remolded sample. drained direct shear tests on remolded samples haire been performed.2'.Figure 2 Cliff retreat mechanism and shearing dilatancy as well as their liability to volume changes. With the availability of the ring shear apparatus it became possible to undertake relatively quick and accurate residual strength testing enabling to obtain a large number of points through which the residual . Red clay belongs to high plasticity clay CH group that correlates well with the clay fraction percentage (3784 Yo)and high amount of montmorillonite (3664 %) detected by mineralogical analysis of the clay fraction (< 2 p). the red clay is fractured into blocks of the nidomain. Approaching the surface.domain).300 kPa. Under low effective normal stress the progressive preresidual shear displacement is accompanied by soil dilatancy in the failure zone.4' and respectively 20. 'Thus the shearing dilatarlcy cf72 f'ects are important only for first .5" and respectively 18.6 . The difference between the residual and fully softened shear strength is illustrated in Figure 4 for two typical red clays.0. the blocks gradually diminish in size (dm . Shear strength of the overconsolidated red clay varies from an initial peak to a residual value as failure occurs. The measured residual and fully softened strength effective friction angle values are 13.domain) while in the subsurface zone they are reduced to ((crumbs))(mm . red clays exhibit a thick zone of weathering which often is disguised by the loess cover.5' for the red clay with plasticity index 42 % and clay fraction 37 %. and as the complex of discrete minor shears become linked into a smooth failure surface. If the shearing tlilatant zone is put in contact with a source of gravitational water the clay adjacent to this zone hydrates and swells leading to further decrease in soil shear strength. Brittlenss index values as high as 0.7 have been recorded under effective normal stresses ranging between 100 . No shearing dilatancy and assocjated physical swelling are observed after attaining the residual strength state. while the corresponding values for the red clay with plasticity index 58 % and clay fraction 62 % are 11.
Figure 3 Plasticity chart of the red clays Figure 4 Residual and fully softened shear strength of the red clays 73 .
1996): the recession of the coastal cliffs. As the failure envelope is curved it appears that the assumption C'r = 0 is only applicable to tests carried out at very low normal stress and it is unrealistic when C r is D ' obtained from the straight line section of the envelope. the results of the stability back analyses are fairly consistent and agree reasonably well with the laboratory residual shcar strength data. This put into evidence the existence of a curved part of the strength envelope at low effective normal stress. The most important application of back analysis consists in proper design of remedial measures. Landslide causal factors can be separated into two broad groups: preparatory and triggering. the proportion of slip surface involving the upper loess layer is small and thus the back calculated shear strength parameters of the red clay are not very much affected by the values assumed for the loess shear strength parameters.failure envelope can be drawn. @Ir analyses are believed to be reasonable estimates of the average field strength of the red clay which forms the basal slip surface. In many cases. the construction and development activities in the area. resulted from foar investigated landslips. Figure 5 shows the results of a series of ring shear tcsts performed on red clay samples at effective normal stresses less than 120 kPa. As there is no unique it does not seem realistic to correlate the value of residual shear strength with the plasticity index. It is generally assumed that the errors involved in the back analysis of a given slope failure will cancelout by applying the back calculated shear strength in further limit equilibrium analyses of remedial measures and design new slopes in the same area. For example back calculated parameters for a firsttime slide in a stiff overconsolidated clay could not be used to predict subsequent stability of the sliding mass.OPE INSTABILlTY BACK ANALYSIS Postfailure investigation of landslides is potentially the niost fruitful means of advancing our knowledge in slope stability field. sincc the shear strength parameters will have been reduced to their residual values by the failure.. that draw attention on the effectiveness of drainage as a method of stabilization of landslides in red clays. Two dimensional static back analyses in ternis of effective stresses have been carried out for seiw'il sites wliere landslides occurred and relevant i nfbrmation was available. 4 S1.5' for deeper slips (0' = 110 kPa). back analysis is an effective tool. Both shear strength parameters h a w been simultaneously back calculated from the fo!lowing two requirements: (i) the safety factor was equal to unity. A landslide can reasonably be considered as a full scale shear test capable to give a measure of the shear strength mobilized at failure along the slip surface. Figure 6 presents the d a a from a landslide in Constantza city area (Poptscu et al.2°13.5' for shallow slips (0' = 30 kPa). Yaniagami. Despite these uncertainties. However one has to be aware of the many pitfalls of the back analysis approach that involves a number of basic assuniptions regarding soil homogeneity. 1994). was c' = 315 kPa and respectively @'10. From the data presented in Figure 5 it results that the residual strength Parameters are C'r = 0 and @'r = 16. C'r = 3 kPa and @'r = 12.5' for intermediate depth slips (U' = 70 kPa) and C'r = 5 kPa and @'r = 9. In most landslips. A position of total confidence in all these assumptions is rarely if ever achieved. The primary triggering factor iniliating movement has been reported to be prolonged and/or intense rainfall. 1991). and (ii) the safety factor was niiiiimum for the given failure surface and the slope urlder comideration (Popescu. (2) the data con.8". The scale of the landslides occurring along the Black Sea Romanian coast is such that the back 74 5 REMEDIAL MEASURES When designing landslide remedial measures it is of primary importance to recognize the conditions that caused the slope to become unstable. The range of the back calculated shear strength parameters. It is to be noted that the ring shear tests generally resulted in a lower value of the residual friction angle for deep slides corresponding to large effcctive normal stress when compared with the multiple reversal shear box. cerning the pore water pressure on the slip surf'dce are generally few and irnprecisc. slope and slip surface geometry and pore pressure conditions along the failure surface. Three main preparatory factors have been identified for the vast majority of landslides along the Black Sea shore in Romania. for investigating the strength features of a soil deposit. Several factors concerning the investigated lmdslides introduced a degree of approximation into llie performed stability computations namely: (1) the slip surface is almost always known in only few points from its trace 011 ground surface and frnni slickensided surfaces and paleontoligical discoiitinuities found i n the borings. and sometimes the only tool. and water suppiy/sewage network leakage. namely (Popescu. By considering various causal factors it was felt that the following approaches to stabilization are likely to have a positive effect: (1) Prevention of marine erosion by extending and . Back analysis is of use only if the soil conditions at failure are unaffected by the failure.
Groundwater seepage from a . toe protection is rzre.top recession or slope displacernsnt. s (4) Adding stabilizing h r c e to the slope by install75 ing variolis retaining works. ( 3 ) Limiting the unfavourable effect of the groundwatedprecipitation conditions by providing appropriate drainage systems and monitoring the water supply network to identify areas of leakage where pipes need to be either repaired or rep 1aced. so leading to decreased stability. Wave crosion at sea level tends to remove toesupporting laiidslide debris and steepen the slopc: profile. sufficient to prevent further cliff . In order to protect the cliff toe against marine abrasion new sea defences consisting of castinsitu gravity retaining walls and precast reinforced concrete crib walls have been carried out as illustrated in Figure 7. Although very important. (3) Modification of the slope geometry by unloading its active ~ o n t ' and loading the passive 2oncs.Figure 6 Example of a back analysed landslide in Constantza city area upgrading the existing sea defences along the ci iff toe.
the retaining works consist in 46 m high re76 taining walls. In addition the whole slope is protected by planting trees viable in the near proximity of the sea. which is the main cause of clifi retrogression in the area. I n the area of Mangalia. where the apartment houses being located 011 the cliff top usually do not have more than two floors. In the areas of Constantza city and Eforie resort where the cliff height often exceeds 2030 ni and the . or on piled foundation as illustrated in Figure 9 for Mangalia resort area where the sound stiff mar1 layer is well bellow the sea level. where the liniestone bedrock is located near the ground surface.breaking" face inighi be on spread foundation as illustrated 111 Figure 8 for Cosiinesti and Qlinip resorts area. Remediation engineering for the seepage problems of the parts of the coastal slope above wave height consists in a series of longitudinal and transversal open pit drains. They are designed CO undertake the sloping ground thrust as well as to provide protection against marine erosion.Figure 7 Toe protection works against niarine erosion boundary between the permeable loess top layei and the underlying impermeable red clay may cause oversteepening of the cliff top and softening of the lower cliff. Costinesti and Olimp rcsorls. 'The retaining walls provided with a special shaped "wave .
As the systematization plan of the city of Constantza required to place the apartment houses as marginal to the cliff edge as possible. In order to analyse these design options the back calculated shear strength parameters from slope failures in the area have been used to determine the internal horizontal thrust distribution within the sliding mass.the distance being de . 10). Horizontal thrust distribution diagram provides information on the optimum location of the retaining works and the magnitude of the force that these works should undertake The first option was to place the apartment houses far enough from the cliff edge such as to provide the cliff slope with a minimum safety factor against sliding F = 1 3 The minimum distance between the cliff edge and the building front satisfying the requirement F =1 3 was found as large as 68 in (Fig 1 la) This was too large to be considered taking into accounl the city planing restrictions The second option was to level the cliff top by excavating the surfacial 6 m deep loess layer or to move the building front 1012 m landward The hori77 zontal thrust diagrams corresponding to both situations and presented in figure 1 1b put into evidence that the resulting lateral forces are too large to be undertaken by the currently available retaining work systems The third option was to reduce the height of the apartment houses that would result in a corresponding decrease of the horizontal thrust within the sliding mass If the apartment house with groundfoor and 810 floors is taken as a comparison basis. 30 to SO m high slopes and running at an angle of approximately 4S0.Figure 8 Reta~ning nalls in Costinesti and Oliiiip area apartment houses being located on the cliff top might have groundfloor and 810 floors. diff'ereiit options have been considered as illustrated in Figure 11. so a novel stabilization programme was undertaken The process entailed drilling vertical holes at horizontal distances of 5 to 8 m . Smallscale slumping had caused problems to neighbouring housing developments. the retaining works that should undertake large horizontal forces given by both earth thrust and house overload. are composed of loess deposits mainly derived from Sarmatian sediments (shelly calcareous liniestones with a few shales). consist of stabilizing piles bored through the sliding mass to the stable underlying material (Fig. Distinct protection works against wave erosion are provided at the cliff toe. a reduction in the house height by SO YO results in a 20 TOdecrease in the horizontal thrust as shown in Figure 1 l c The three design options presented in figure 11 are assuming that the apartment houses are on raft foundations A forth option was to build the apartment houses on piled foundations leading to a considerable decrease in the horizontal thrust to be undertaken by the retaining works In the 1950's an interesting innovation in slope stabilizing was carried out at the Black Sea coastal resort of Constantza Some 2 to 3 km of the coastal area.
Landslide Reports can be compiled which are independent of language and thus more amenable to digital processing (Popescu. i n o x efficicn?. 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS The causal factors that have contributed to the coastal landslides in the area of Constantza city have been grouped under two main headings: ( 1 ) preparatory and (2) triggering. 78 . There are a number of levels ofei’fectiveness and levels of accepiability that may be applied in the use of these measures. for while one slide may require an iinmediate and absolute longterm correction.over some 2 to 3 km of coast Natural gas mixed with oxygen was then ignited in the holes at a temperature of around 200°C This baked the surrounding sediments. as shown in the table presented within Figure 1. Much progress has been made in developing techniques to minimLe the impact of landslides along the Black Sea shore in Romania. At the toe of the slope a new harbour development.Figure 9 Retaining walls in Mangalia area termined empirically . drainage. 1996). a number of stabilisation approaches have been identified. has been finalised as Constantza is the main import/export harbour in Romania. By considering those factors which have contributed to the coastal land slides. Intensive housing development has occured in and around the slope with no evidence on any structural displacement being displayed. 1963\. another may only require minimal control for a short period. ’The experiment was a “oneoff’ and has not been repeated. rather than words. although new. “hardening” and increasing the strength of the cover The network of holes was then filled in and to date the hill slope has not moved (Stiinculescu. with quays and jetties. Landslides may be corrected or controlled by one or any combination of four principle measures: modification of slope geometry. IJsing numbers selected from the checklists (Tables 1 and 2) provided by the IUGS WWL. retaining structures and internal slope reinforcement. as summarised in Figure 10. quicker and cheaper rnetlmls could well emerge in the future.
2.1.3) liirniting the urdavourable effect of precipitation/growndwater by appropriate drairiage system: surfixe drains (2.7) I lLlOl)lFXCA?'ION OF SLOPE GEOMETRY DRAINAGE RETAINING S T R U C T W S __ INI'Ii=RNAT.3.11 3.2) planting the slope surface (2.4.10 4.2.1) and shallow trench drains (2.1.2.110) atldirig stabihhig force by passive piles (3.4) heat trcatriieIit (4.SLOPE REUVFORCEMENT ^_ _ I I 1. 3.7 I Figure 10 Complex stabilization works i n Constantza city area 79 .3 2.I) a d protective rocMconcrete blocks (3.11) preventing niaririe erosion by extending and upgrading the sea defence works: re t a b k g walls (3.modification of slope geometry by reducing general slope angle (1.
Figure I 1 Design options in building up apartment houses 011 the c!iff in Constantza city 80 .
M.s.. Landslides in overconsolidated clays as encountered in Eastern Europe. J. Yamagami1994.. Behaviour of expamive soils with a crumb structure. M. Denver.M. and whatever the level of effectiveness required. I. P. Berkley Voiume.2000) will no doubt move the field as a whole closer toward the science end ofthe artscience spectrum than it is at present. Proc. M. Stateofthe Art Lecture. A possibility or a challenge ? Proc. M. K.Whatever the measure chosen. N. 1984. 1996.D. & A.. The continual collaboration and sharing of experience by engineers and geologists particularly in the framework of the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster reduction (1 990 . Slope movements and types and processes. & T. Bulletin IAEG. Dragoniir. 34: 7 179 (in Romanian with English and French summaries). In: Landslides Analysis and Control. From landslide causes to land" slide reniediation. 1'363. REFERENCES Cruden.. Popescu. 1 : 1 5 8. Ti. 1950. Popescu. Terzaghi. Chiricii 1991. Catherine's Point. 1 : 83106.. 169179.i~'tion Resecrrch Board Sjxciul Report. Int. Landslides control by means of a row of piles. Hutchinson. the geotechnical engineer and engineering geologist have to combine their talents and energies to solve the problem. Keynote Paper. 7"Internutional IA EG Congress. A simple definition of a landslide. Chiroiu. 361366. 176:1133. Trondheim. Int. Solving landslide related problems is changing from what has been predominantly an art to what may be termed an artscience. Instability phenomena and remedial measures along the North cliff of Constantza city. Investigation of landslides at St. J. Popescu. 1980. Chandler 1991. 7' h i . Varnes. Popescu. Heft 2. D. N. Stanculescu. Isle of Wight. Proc. Proc. Bromhead. N. Symp. C'onf Slope Srahility Engg. 83123. M. Sicherung der Gelanderutschung in Stadtgebiet von Konstantza. Proc. Toronto.unspoi.. Mechanisms of landslides. Back analysis of slope failures. Isle of Wight.~~tn. 1 :7596. 47374744. M. Isle of Wight. 81 . Slope Stability Engg. Popescu. Wisscwschujiliche Zeitschrifi der Universitat Dresden. Special Lecture. 4'" Ini C'017f' Expansive Soils. 1991. Geological Sociery of America. 1991. M. 43 :2729.17 1 .tution Journul. & M. Proc 4'" Int Symp Laiidslides. Lundslides. 1978. ' Popescu. Ti.i?"I. E. c'onf.
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methods of design are by no means wellestablished. Yamagami& Jiang (c) 1999 Balkema. 1 INTRODUCTION One of the options for increasing the safety of potentially unstable slopes is to use stabilizing piles.G. 1984. The main issues are: i) to determine the forces and bending nioinents developed in the pile by moveiiient of the unstable soil to estimate the increase in stability of the ii) slope because of the presence of the stabilizing piles. Finally. Chen et al. involving yield of the soil and/or the piles themselves. 1991. since the increase in slope stability depends on the amount of shear force which can be developed by the pile at the level of the sliding plane and the position of tlie sliding plane will determine tlie shear force developed in the pilc. Sydney & University of Sydney. 1997.Slope Stability Engineering. 1982. despite this work and the widespread use of stabilizing piles. However. 1977. Fukuoka. a series of design charts are given to assist in the assessment of pile resistance. 83 . Broinhead. The mechanics of such pilesoil interaction are discussed and it is shown that there are a number of modes of failure. Such piles have been extensively used in Japan (e. 1981. Europe (e.Austruliu ABSTRACT: This paper discusses a procedure for the design of slope stabilizing piles in which the resistance provided by the piles is assessed via an analysis of their response to lateral ground movements. N. tending to slide over a deep layer of “stable soil”.g. For the ultimate case.W . Rollins and Rollins. and these have helped to elucidate some aspects of pile behaviour. Ito and Matsui (1 975) and Ito et a1 (1979. with “unstable” soil to a depth of z. Their solutions have formed the basis of some suggested methods of design (e. 1997). 1992). Ito and Matsui. Model tests have been carried out in recent years to study more closely the effects of ground moveinents on piles (e. 1995. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Design of slope stabilizing piles H. Guerpillon et al. Yagi. The purposes of this paper may be summarized as follows: 1 to present a relatively simple framework for the design of slopestabilizing piles 2 to describe an analysis which quantifies the response of piles to soil movements arising from slope instability 3 to discuss the mechanics of pilesoil interaction under lateral ground movements 4 to present a series of charts which inay be used for design purposes.g. Rotterdam. and comparisons are made between measured and observed behaviour of slope Stabilizing piles. Morgestern.g. A pile (which may be one of a number of piles) is located within a soil inass in which there is potential instability. the application of the approach to two documented case histories is described.g. Finally. 1988) and North America (e. 1999). 1992. Merriani. Oakland and Chapman. The two issues are interrelated. 1975.g. 2 THE BASIC PROBLEM Figure 1 illustrates the basic problem being considered. 1985. Sommer. Lippoman and Gudehus. and there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanics of pilesoil interaction when soil flows past a pile or row of piles. Viggiani. S. 1960. A conceptual approach for designing piles to limit slope movements is also presented.1982) have presented some solutions which illustrate the influence of various geometric parameters on the shear resistance generated by a pile in moving soil. application to two real cases is described. 1997). Hassiotis et al. Poulos Cofley Geosciences Pty Limited. Popescu. Reese et al. Bandis and Tzaros. 1977. Poulos et al. Ito et a1 1979.
Hull (1993) and Poulos (1995). regardless of the definition of tlie safety factor. the piles must provide an additional resistance AR. there is evidence to suggest that.g. Guidelines for selection of the optimal location of piles in a slope are not wellestablished. However. For example.1. there appear to be no wellestablished methods for estimating the second relationship and it would be necessary to adopt an enipirical approach. Alternative approaches can be used to assess the relationship between safety factor and pile resistance. AR = CF.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR STABILIZING PILES The general design approach adopted follows closely that described by Viggiani (1981). it might be expected that such a relationship would take tlie following form: where CR = sum of resisting forces along the critical failure surface. The first relationship can be established via a pilesoil interaction analysis. the relationship between the factor of safety and tlie stabilizing force developed by the pile can be readily obtained. CFD = sum of disturbing forces along that surface. depending on the capabilities of the slope stability analysis used. Figure 2 shows that tlie intersection of these two relationships gives the values of factor of safety and soil movement. the piles. . and soil slope movement.. in order to be effective. It should be noted that the safety factor can also be defined in terms of the moments along the failure surface. The principle of the method is the same. Tlie consequent factor of safety of . ESTIMATION OF SLOPE MOVEMENTS AFTER STABILIZING PILES INSTALLED In principle. Fo = minimum factor of safety which would result in no (or an acceptably "small") slope movement. per unit width of soil. and involves three main steps: 1 evaluating the total shear force needed to increase the safety factor for the slope (based on an analysis with no piles) to the desired value 2 evaluating the maximum shear force that each pile can provide to resist sliding of the potentially uiistable portion of the slope 3 selecting the type and number of piles. k = an empirical coefficient. as outlined in Section 4 below. and can readily be calculated if CFD is extracted from tlie stability analysis results. Such analyses are discussed in the following section. etc. or in front of. rather than the forces e.may be obtaincd from a pilesoil interaction analysis. and the most suitable location in the slope. Navfac (1986). the smaller will be tlie resulting niovement of the slope. a4 F = 1. ps= movement of slope after stabilization.(F. the larger the pile stabilizing force which can be developed for a particular soil movement. the most satisfactory procedure is to undertake an analysis in which the pile is subjected to soil movements which simulate tlie movement of a sliding mass of soil over a stable mass. it is possible to estimate the movement of tlie slope after stabilization by piles. Tlie relationship betwcen pile shear resistance. there appears to be no systematic data which might enable the empirical coefficient k to be cstiniated. .O)e""$ () 4 where F = factor of safety after stabilizing piles installed.O + (F. Clearly. Step (1) makes use of the detailed results of the stability analysis. tlie strength of which can be related to the shear force developed by the moving soil acting upon the pile.F a ) (3) This represents the stabilizing force. at the intersection of the pile and the critical sliding plane the inclusion of a stronger cohesive "lump" of soil. If the actual safety factor F" is less than the target safety factor. FT. V. These include: tlie inclusion of a lateral concentrated force within the soil. The actual safety factor Fa for the slope can be defined as follows: In both of these cases. Unfortunately. Unfortunately. that must be provided by the piles.) to avoid merely relocating the failure surface behind. For step (2). p5. stabilizing piles must have the following characteristics: they must be of relatively large diameter and relative stiffness they must extend well below the critical failure surface so that the failure surface is not merely shifted downwards below the pile tips with a factor of safety still less than tlie target value they should be located in tlie vicinity of tlie centre of the critical failure circle (or wedge. as described in the following section. so that: From equations (1) and () 2. if the following relationships can be estimated: 1 pile shear resistance (and hence improved factor of safety) versus soil movement 2 slope factor of safety versus soil movement.
Conceptual approach for estimating slope movement after stabilization. Basic problem of a pile in an unstable slope. Figure 3. Model for piles in soil undergoing lateral movement. Figure 2.Figure 1. .
For problems involving slope instability. has been developed to implement this analysis. Allowance has also been made for limiting the bending moment within the pile itself to the yield moment. there will also be a component of vertical ground movement acting on the pile. This assumes that a large volume of soil (the upper portion) moves as a rigid body downslope. [I]" = inverted matrix of soil displacement factors. The basic problem is illustrated in Figure 3. E1 = bending stiffness of pile. as ment. A FORTRAN 77 computer program. although in general. = average Young's modulus of soil along pile shaft. while being extremely valuable. and at those elements where the computed overall pressure exceeds the limiting value. Viggiani (1 98 1) has derived dimensionless solutions for the ultimate lateral resistance of a pile in a twolayer purely cohesive soil profile. and the freefield horizontal soil movements. Hull et a1 (1991) have described an alternative program. and CV = total shear resistance developed by piles per unit width of the soil. the compatibility equation for that element is replaced by the pile bending equation which incorporates the condition that the lateral pressure increment is subsequently zero. are limited in the following respects: 1 they apply only to purely cohesive soils in which tlie cohesion of the unstable and stable soils is assumed constant with depth 2 they apply to the ultimate state only and do not give any indication of the development of pile resistance with soil movement 3 they are confined to a simplified representation of the distribution of soil movement with depth. Below this is a relatively thin zone undergoing intense shearing in the 'drag zone'. the pile is modelled as a simple elastic beam. A limiting lateral pilesoil stress can be specified so that local failure of the soil can be allowed for. the following equation may be derived while the conditions of the pilesoil interface remain elastic: (5) where CR and CFDare defined in equation 1. the basic problem is one of the response of a pile to externallyimposed lateral ground movements. thus allowing nonlinear response to be obtained. The underlying 'stable zone' is stationary. since nonlinear pile bchaviour can have a considerable influence on lateral pilc response (e. which enables the above limitations to be overcome. Poulos and Davis (1980) and Lee et a1 (1991) and makes use of a simplified form of boundary element analysis to obtain a solution. can be obtained. ERCAP. 1988). F. L = embedded length of pile. n =number of elements into which pile is divided. The estimation of lateral soil modulus and limiting lateral pilesoil pressure will be discussed later in this paper. The lateral displacement of the corresponding soil elements are related to the soil modulus or stiffness. Kramer and IIeavey.the stabilized slope. due to a specified slope movement Ps. may be expressed in terms of the displacements. Another alternative but similar analysis has been presented by Chow (1 986). and the soil as an elastic continuum. A somewhat more versatile approach. These values are compared with the specified limiting lateral pressures. Thus. By consideration of the compatibility of the horizontal movements of the pile and soil at each ele86 where [D] = matrix of finite difference coefficients for pile bending. These solutions. E. e. from equation 2. The solution is then recycled until the computed lateral pressures nowhere exceed tlie limiting values. In this case. a distribution of freefield soil movements such as that shown i n Figure 1 appears to be appropriate. . PALLAS (Piles and Lateral Loading Analysis) which uses a different formulation but gives cssentially similar results to ERCAP. can be developed by using a pilesoil interaction analysis in which the effect of soil moving past the pile can be considered at any stage of soil movement. KR= dimensionless pile flexibility factor = EI/EsL4. In addition. After solving the resulting equations for the incremental displacements. {Aps} = incremental freefield lateral movement. the horizontal and moment equilibrium equations.g. the pilesoil interaction stresses. An illustrative example of the utilization of this approach is given in Appendix A. {Ap} = incremental lateral pile displacements. Such an analysis has been described by Poulos (1 973). and added to the existing pressures to obtain the overall pilesoil pressures. and the pile head and tip boundary conditions.g. The lateral response analysis requires a knowledge of the distributions of lateral soil modulus and limiting lateral pilesoil pressure with depth. the incremental pressures may then be evaluated from the equation of bending of the pile. and the freefield horizontal soil movements. The lateral displacement of each element of the pile can be related to the pile bending stiffhess and the horizontal pilesoil interaction stresses. 5 ANALYSIS OF THE PILE RESISTANCE It is assumed here that a pile in a potentially unstable soil mass is subjected primarily to lateral ground movements.
87 . and it can be concluded that there is no benefit to be gained by increasing tlie pile length beyond this depth. for all modes of failure. Three modes of failure within the soil can be identified: 1 the “flow mode”. for slide depths in excess of about 2. the pile strength and tlie geometry of the problem.6./L).5177. and full mobilisation of soil strength in tlie stable layer occurs 3 the “intermediate mode”. Figure 4 illustrates the characteristics of pile behaviour for tlie flow mode./L = 0./L. tlie maximum moment occurs below tlie slide plane. the pile movement continues to increase with increasing soil movement. and tlie pile head movement can exceed the soil movement. the maximum moment occurs well above tlie slide plane in the unstable soil. It is interesting to note that the “critical” or “effective” length of tlie portion of the pile in tlie lower stable soil layer is (using the approach of Poulos and IHulI. tlie pile head movement stabilizes at a maximum value as tlie soil flows past tlie pile. The following observations are made from Figure 4: 1 the maximum shear force in tlie pile is developed at the level of the slide plane 2 for tlie flow mode. For enibednients of more than about 7. and tlie soil and pile movements are similar 4 for tlie intermediate mode. tlie “long pile” mode dominates over a wide range of values of z.5m and a wall thickness of 15mni. However. Figure 6 shows the dcvelopiiieiit of the maximum shear forcc with increasing soil movement.4. this leads to consideration of the “long pile” failure mode in which one or more positions along the pile are found to have attained the yield moment and then developed socalled “plastic hinges”.2).e. and may even exceed the soil movement for some slide depths (e. perhaps not surprisingly. For shallow slide depths.5m). Since failure of tlie pile in shear is unlikely. The results are for a 15ni long steel tube pile with an external diameter of 0. the sliding soil carries tlie pile through the stable soil layer. of 7. For a slide depth z. Figure 9 illustrates the dependence of the niaximum shear force versus depth of slide relationship on tlie lateral soil movement p. and tlie maxiinuin shear resistance is developed when z. and tlie intermediate mode. does not yield). tlie shortpile mode. tlic bcliaviour of tlie pile (flow mode) does not change. the pile length in tlie stable layer should not exceed tlie elastic critical length of tlie pile in that layer.5111. It can be seen that tlie numerical solutions tend to Viggiani’s solution as the lateral soil movement increases. When the pile is elastic (i. the undraiiied shear strength is 60 kPa. (perhaps without fully mobilising the soil resistance) is possibly a more important practical consideration than the ultimate state of full mobilisation of pile strength. for a yield moment of 0. tlie soil strength. Tlie soil movement in tlie slide zone is assumed to be constant and with depth and equal to 0. tlie ultimate condition develops at relatively small values of p5. while in tlie lower “stable” zone.6 MECHANICS OF PILESOIL INTERACTION Failure of a pile in a pilereinforced slope will result from tlie interactions between tlie tliree components of tlie problem. a soil movement of only about 20% of tlie pile diameter is sufficient to develop tlie maximum shear force. no “drag” zone has been considered. In the upper sliding zone./L is about 0./L. large moments are developed both above and below the slide zone. Also shown is tlie tlieoretical solution for tlie ultimate condition. 1989) about 7.5ni. with tlie “interniediatc” mode being operative. Figure 8 shows tlie computed pile head movement as a function of tlie soil movement. My. Thus. tlie soil is a clay with an uiidrained shear strength of 30 kPa. Superimposed upon these three modes of soil failure is tlie consideration of tlie finite strength of tlie pile..g. in tlie stable soil. For tlie flow mode of failure (z. Figure 7 shows the effect of tlie embedment of tlie pile in tlie stable soil on tlie pile response. 6 to 9111). or less. Tlie pile response is essentially linear for ground movements of up to about 5 to 10% ofthe pile diameter. where the flow mode is operative. and will be considered here as the criterion for failure of tlie pile. tlie niaxiniuni shear is developed for a soil movement of about 60% of tlie pile diameter. larger movements are required to develop ultimate conditions for tlie intermediate failure mode. 2 13.41~1.4111. If tlie piles are also loaded by some external forces these too must be considered. the maximum shear force is developed when z.94 MNm (representing a steel yield stress of 350 MPa). However. for economical design. However. Tlie first attainment of tlie yield moment. when tlie slide is shallow and tlie unstable soil becomes plastic and flows around tlie stationary pile 2 tlie “shortpile mode”. More load could be taken by tlie piles but tlie pile itself is permanently damaged. Figure 5 shows tlie dependence of tlie maximum shear force and bending moments (positive and negative) on tlie relative depth of tlie sliding unstable soil along tlie pile (z. For three values of z. 5 3111) and the shortpile mode (2. and the pile movement is considerably less than the soil movement 3 for tlie shortpile mode./L is about 0. For tlie flow mode (z. In this case. when the slide is relatively deep and the length of tlie pile in tlie stable soil is relatively shallow. when tlie soil strength in both tlie unstable and stable soil is mobilised along tlie pile length. derived from tlie equations of Viggiani (198 1). for various depths of sliding soil.
Pile behaviour characteristics for various modes.Figure 4. 88 .
for the intermediate failure mode. soil movements in excess of 60% of the pile diameter may be required to develop ultimate conditions. . In general. Ultimate conditions are developed in the flow and short pile failure modes when the soil 89 movement exceeds about 20% of the pile diameter. it is found that the pile response is essentially linear for soil movements up to about 5% of the pile diameter. However.Figure 6. Effect of soil movement on maximum shear force developed on pile.
especially for slide depths between about 0.9 times the pile length .Figure 8.25 and 0. Three important practical implications may be drawn from Figures 5 to 9: 1 the largest shear force occurs when the soil slide depth is between about 0.5 and 0. The effect of yielding of the pile is to reduce the maximum shear force. Pile head movement for different depths of soil movement.6 times the pile 90 length.
via the pressuremeter of the dilatoineter) 4 interpretation of lateral pile load test data. they should be designed so that tlie intermediate mode of behaviour occurs. to SPT value N as follows: E. = N . For sands./L increases (however. until a maximum value of shear force is found. 8. and pU is made below.5 MPdm respectively (Decourt.g. .. Young’s modulus E. limiting lateral pilesoil pressure pu Assessment of these parameters is usually made on the basis of: 1 correlation with strength properties of soil 2 correlation with insitu test data (e. The estimation of the ultimate lateral pilesoil pressure is discussed in the following section. 1980. The following characteristics can be noted from Figures 10 to 12: 1 as would be expected. hence.I V P 1 dz . A brief review of some correlations for E. efforts should be made to promote this mode of behaviour 3 the intermediate mode develops the largest shear force and bending moment in the pile. / L Dimensionless yield moment of pile section:  M y = My P I. These solutions give the maximum shear force which can be developed by a stabilizing pile./L between about 0. the strength and deformation properties of the pile material. the following dimensionless quantities are given: Dimensionless pile shear resistance:  where My = yield moment of pile section. if problems involving protection of the piles are encountered.2 the flow mode creates the least damaging effect of the soil movement on the pile. so that E.g. is usually related o the undrained shear strength c. 1991). 8 ESTIMATION OF SOIL PARAMETERS The key parameters required for a complete analysis of the lateral response analysis of a pile are: Young’s modulus of the soil E. This can be done by varying the depth of embedment of the pile in the stable zone in tlie analysis. The soil failure mode will depend on the length. as follows: (7) Assuming a nonlinear analysis is to be used. Kishida and Nakai (1977) relate E. regardless of the ground movements which act on the pile. represents a secant modulus for relatively low load levels.4 and 0. when it is not possible to carry out a complete sitespecific analysis. as described below. SPT) 3 insitu test measurements (e. 7 DESIGN CHARTS FOR STABILIZING PILES The numerical analyses using ERCAP indicate that an ultimate condition is reached for ground movements in excess of about 60% of the pile diameter. 1991). = 1. and the spacing between adjacent piles. if the piles are being used to stabilise tlie slope. Figures 10 to 12 give diinensionless curves for the maximum shear resistance V.5. In each case. Viggiani’s analysis considers a twolayer soil system in which the upper unstable soil layer can develop on ultimate lateral pressure (pUl)which is different from the value (pL. for saturated loose. Banerjee and Davies 1978.6). medium and dense sands are 1. For clays. the strength properties of the soils in the unstable and stable regions. As a design expedient. the actual value of V will generally reach a inaxiiiiuiii value for z.0 and 12. = 2 N (MPa) (8) V=. For overconsolidated clays. it is customary to assume that the modulus varies linearly with depth. z (9) Dimensionless depth of sliding surface: z. diameter and section of the pile. the maximum shear resistance provided by the pile reduces as the pile yield inoinent reduces 2 the dimensionless pile shear resistance ( V ) decreases as z. Typical values of NI. Dccourt (1 99 1) suggests the following correlation with SPT value N: E. It is possible to develop design charts which relate the resistance developed by piles to the above variables. so that E.1 Young’s modulus E. the relative lengths of the pile in the unstable and stable regions.~) developed by the pile in the lower (stable) layer. 2 dz: where z = depth below ground surface. Decourt. 5. CPT. An illustrative example of the use of the design charts is given in tlie Appendix. useful design charts can be derived for the ultimate pile response to lateral moveiiieiits using the solutions of Viggiani (1 98 1).6N (MPa) 91 (10) . the value of a1 typically lies between 150 and 400 (Poulos and Davies. for three values of pul/puz.
the mechaIto and nism Of flow through the Piles Postulated is not the mode.only valid over a limited range of spacings.Figure 9. Their equations are meant to apply for the portion of the piles in the unstable or moving soil. Influence of soil movement on shear development in a stabilizing pile. N. since at 92 large spacings or at very close spacings. the equations are . However.pu2 0. The equations they have developed show that the limiting pressure py developed on a pile by the flowing soil depends on the strength properties of the soil. Figure 10. = 8. = lateral capacity factor.5. and the spacing between the piles relative to their diameter.2 Ultimate lateral pressure p.. For a single pile. In clay Soils. Design curves for piles in twolayer laterally moving soil ultimate case: pu. it usual to adopt a tota1 stress aPpoach in which pu is related to undrained shear strength as follOws: pit = N~)Cil (1 1) where N. the overburden pressure. may be assumed to increase linearly from 2 at the . It0 and Matsui (1975) have developed a theory for the flow of soil through a row of piles.
. Design curves for piles in twolayer laterally moving soil ultimate case: p .e. For piles arranged parallel to the direction of soil movement the value of pu for the leading piles can be increased by up to about 40%. . N.Jpu2= 1. ground surface to a limiting value of N. d = pile diameter or width. (13) 93 . For piles in sands.O. Such effects may reduce N.5. Design curves for piles in twolayer laterally moving soil ultimate case: pl. Theoretical studies by Chen and Poulos (1993) provide some indications of the influence of group effects on N. = ~ Figure 12.Figure 1 1 . = a K % . the simplest approach is to use the suggestion of Broms (1 964) in which I P. whereas “trailing” piles may have reduced pu values. / ~ ~1’. Model tests by Guerpilon et a1 (1999) also imply that group effects may cause an increase in pile bending moments (compared to an isolated pile) and therefore (by iniplication) an increase in ultimate lateral pilesoil pressure. = 9 at a depth of 3. if the piles are arranged in a line perpendicular to the direction of soil movement (typically by about 25% for piles spaced at 3 diameters centretocentre. .5 pile diameters or widths and beyond i. = 2(1+z/d) P 9 (12) where z = depth below ground surface..
Figure 15. the val . = Rankine passive pressure coefficient = tan2 (45 + $ 2 . a = coefficient ranging between 3 and 5. $ = angle of internal friction of soil.Figure 13. Displacement of pile with time. Typically. /) ova. Shear resistance of piles. = effective overburden pressure. Crosssection showing ground movements and location of shear plane. where K. 94 It is noted by De Beer (1 977) and Viggiani (1 98 1) that different values of the coefficients N. and a in Equations 11 and 13 may apply for the sliding and stable portions of the soil profile. Figure 14.
It was deduced that such an increase in safety factor would require an additional shear resistance of 2. Hence there are strong indications that the installation of the piles has been effective in improving the overall stability of the slope.38 million. increases linearly from zero at the surface to 16 MPa at the level of the pile tip (see Poulos and Davis. causing ground movements of up to 5111. Thus. The design process involved the three stages set out in Section 3. 9 APPLICATION TO CASE HISTORIES Beatton River Highway. the average value of N. and movement occurred at a depth of 152oni. The slip was essentially planar and was concentrated at a depth of about 1 1in.m’. and reaches a maximum value for a length of about 24 to 26m. The slope consisted mainly of clay and the upper layer of 7. The test pile was 30m long. It was decided that the stability of the upper portion of the slide was to be increased by 30% i. above the sliding surface (using Equation 12) would be about 5 . Young’s modulus of the soils was estimated via correlations with SPT values (Equation 8). and wall thicknesses of 19 to 25mm.e. For example. might be 40 kPa. whereas below the sliding surface it would be 9. about 45% compared to the case of deep emof bedment. and the values of lateral ultimate soil pressure coefficient N. The method envisaged to stabilize the upper part of the slide mass and the highway fill was a pile wall. An inclinometer was also installed inside the pile at the centre to measure the pile inclination and deflection. and the second at 4m spacing. The ERCAP analysis was used by tlie author to analyze four types of steel pipe piles. the first row at a centretospacing of 2m. A deflection of about 140m had occurred by the end of construction. Figure 13 shows a cross section through the middle portion of the slide. while the values in the sliding soil have been taken to be about half of those values. The total cost of the remedial works was about C$2. with an additional deflection of about 30min in the ensuing year. 3 times the Rankine passive pressure for the gravel layer. The final design involved the use of two rows of 1. if the sliding layer in a homogeneous clay soil is at a depth of 3 pile diameters. Canada. However. to raise the factor of safety to 1.5m diameter piles with 13mm wall thickness. Construction of a highway remobilized a prehistoric landslide. and 20 MPa for the shale. there appears to be no reason why such differences should exist. 10 and 15ni below the ground surface and they were located on both the upstream face and the downstream face. Since their theoretical results compared fairly well with the measured results.5m thick underwent lateral niovement. Plots of deflection versus time for one of these piles are shown in Figure 15. 1980) 95 . two further assumptions regarding the soils were made in the present analysis: 1 the soil Young’s modulus E.9 MN/m depth of wall. there has been less than 20mm of displacement at the ground surface. while the ultimate pilesoil lateral pressures were taken as 9 times undrained shear strength for the clayey soils. four slope indicators were installed in selected piles in the wall. Figure 14 plots the computed pile shear resistance versus pile length. Together with the slip surface deduced from slope indicator data and drill holes. corresponding to the base of the presheared very stiff clay with slicken sided shear surface. In the slide mass downhill of the pile wall. However.ues in the stable soil have been taken to be those given in Equations 12 and 13 above. despite the development of a substantial force in the anchor. Canada Polysou et a1 (1998) describe an example of the successful use of piles to stabilize a landslide 011 a section of highway in British Columbia. There was no information about the undrained shear strength and the ultimate soil pressure for the clay deposits. The maximum shear resistance increases as the pile diameter and yield moment increases.. Maugeri and Motta (1991) analyzed tlie case and suggested that the undrained shear strength c. these values were also adopted in the present analysis. for the four pile types considered. could be 3 and 8 for the upper moving soil layer and the lower stable soil layer respectively. The measurements were carried out over a period of 8 months and the results showed that the stresses acting on tlie pile had increased gradually until the pile developed a plastic hinge at 1 lni below the ground surface. To match the measured bending moment profile. The sliding mass was 14oni wide by 2001n long. The pile was instruinented with pressure cells along its shaft at depths of 5. 0. Anchors were therefore not used in the pile wall design. with diameters of 1 to l S m . Concrete pile in unstable slope Esu and D’Elia (1974) described a field test where a reinforced concrete pile was installed into a sliding slope. After construction. the nearsurface effect would cause a reduction in pL.3 on the weakest slip surface. of which almost half was for the supply of the steel piles. An analysis was also performed with inclined anchors located near the pile head. coilsisting of closelyspaced large diameter piles extending from ground surface at tlie toe of the highway fill to some depth below tlie shear toe. It was found that there was very little improvement in the shear resistance of the pile.79m in diameter and the bending stiffness (EI) was 360 MN. other than for the nearsurface effects.
a uniform distribution of lateral soil displacement of 1 1Omm. Comparisons between the predicted and measured pile responses for test of Esu and D’Elia (1 974).Figure 16. 2 since the soil movement profile to cause the pile to yield was not reported. was assumed. The predicted and measured results are presented .51~1 below the ground surface). from the 96 ground surface down to the sliding surface (7.
Analysis of laterally loaded 10 CONCLUSIONS Piles provide a possible option for improving the stability of soil slopes. . crnd Geoenvir. 10’‘’ Spec. Rotterdam. this interaction can be analyzed via a computer analysis such as ERCAP or that developed by Chow (1996). The maximum shear force developed in a pile is governed by a number of factors. (4): 314323. Proc. L. L. Y.J.. lnt. & Ilong. Nuin. H. Geol. 9’’’ 1111. the solution of Viggiani ( I 98 1) can be utilized. Civ. 1997. M. 20: 635646. the approach presented herein provides a reasonable method of designing slope stabilizing piles. Soils and Foundations. and design charts based on these solutions are presented in the paper. Proc.s L U I ~ Foundations. Soils and Foundations. 1979.K.13. however.G.Y. Chaineau. I . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author acknowledges the contributions to research in this area made by his colleagues and former colleagues at the University of Sydney.G. Sess. the depth of the slide relative to the pile length. 1988. Session. T. 1993. Viggiani kindly provided updated information on his equations. and Hist. Dr T. W. Banerjee.Singapore. Ito. stabilizing piles need to be of relatively large diameter and to have a high yield moment. made of the ultimate lateral pilesoil pressure and the soil movement profile. Modelisation physique et numerique de I’interaction d’un obstacle et d’un glesseineiit d’ epaisseur limitee.. C. Chow. Chen.. REFERENCES Bandis. Extended design method for multirow stabilising piles against landslide. Tokyo: 2742.L. as can be seen from Figures 16d and 16e. primarily the shear strength of the soil above and below the potential slide plane. 1977. Piles subjected to lateral loads. 9‘” lnt. 1993. & Davies. April: 8596. Hull. I I r i 1Asian Geol. 1977.S. Lee and Dr L. Loaddeflection prediction for laterally loaded piles based on NSPT values. T.L. Eng. E.P. Soi1.G. T. Professor C. 22 ( 1 ): 1 . 1997. Chen. 639643. Geofech. O. Fouridti. No.T. Soils and Foundations. Eng. in which the shear force developed by each pile is calculated via consideration of the interaction between the pile and the moving soil. 1997. Analysis of pilesoil interaction under lateral loading using infinite and finite elements.P. Analysis of piles used for slope stabilization. & Gunaratne. and Tzaros. 1975. Ito. Engrs. The interaction between the moving soil mass and the piles generates a shear force in the piles which tends to increase the factor of safety against failure. T. Sobkowitz provided detailed information on the Beatton River Highway case. The dependence of the shear force on the soil movement can be computed from these analyses. Hassiotis. and the value as well as the position of the maximum shear force is also in very good agreement (Figure 16c). Anal. Matsui.C. Matsui. Eng. Conj. The behaviour of axially and laterally loaded single piles embedded in nonhomogeneous soils. A X E .G. Ito.. 1996.C. & Hull. 1999. Fukuska. Balkeina. 15: 189220. For general soil profiles. Decourt. Foiindn. H. E. Design method for stabilization of slopes with piles. To be effective. Eng. Greece. 18 (4): 4349. 123. The paper sets out a systematic approaih to the design of slope stabilizing piles. T.N. ~nsh?. Con[ Soil Mechs.S. 37 ( I ) : 112. Ed. and the structural strength (yield moment) of the pile.. De Beer. Foray. J d Geol.. Meths. 1991. IHe obtained a similar measure of agreement with the measurements to that shown in Figure 16. E. M. Enging. Design of retaining concrete piles for stabilization of a slope at the Koutloumousi Monastery.. 12‘’’ Eur. For relatively simple twolayer soil profiles and ultimate conditions. Proc. S. & Ifong. Conf Soil Mechs. although the position of the maximum bending moment is predicted to be slightly higher than the measured. P. Broinhead. Design method for the stability analysis of the slope with landing pier. Proc. Proc. Guerpillon. S. .in Figure 16. Mount Athos. the lower portion of the pile remained essentially unmoved. The shape of the shear force profile is seen to be very similar for both the predicted and the measured. The treatment of landslides. 1978. Hull. 1982. E. It can be seen that the measured bending moment profile is reasonably well predicted along the whole pile shaft. T. Geotechnique. Dr. 10. Chow (1996) analyzed the same case using a method of analysis that is similar in principle to that employed herein. J. 19(4): 4357. The pile portion above the position of the plastic hinge is seen to be affected significantly by the moving soil. S. in Geoinechs. Chow used similar assumptions to those described above except that the Young’s modulus was taken to be 200 times the undrained shear strength. Amsterdam. Boutonnier. Marinos and G. Foundn.C. o Ancient f Works. 1988. Coniputers and Geotechnics. Model tests on pile groups subjected to lateral soil movement. S.& Poulos. Jnl. Tohyo: 114. Foirndn. W. 125. Proc. Methods to estimate lateral force acting on stabilising piles. Y .K. Kramer. & Matsui. 9’’’ PunAmerican Conf: Soil Mechs. provided reasonable estimates can be 97 . Spec. Chen. Cot$ Soil Mechs. 193189. The effects of horizontal loads on piles due to landslides.‘. Analysis of the stability of slopes with piles. Mons. Both the pile inclination and pile deflection profiles are in very good agreement between the predicted and the measured. & Flavigny.S. T. T. Sites. Koukis. Gay.. L. Eng. with the pile head deflection greater than the soil movement at the surface. Poulos. while Mr J. T.. & Heavey. and these indicate that. The Eng. 28 (3): 309326. Comparisons between measured and predicted pile behaviour show reasonable agreement. P. L. P.
c = cohesion of clay semi = 5 kPa. tan $ + cF 30 (where $ 5 = angle of 0) friction of clay seam = 2 ' . ut7d vol. Record 1/69.Jiil. For simplicity.C.0 I . Proc. Conf Soil Adechs.070 This is less than the value of 1. use is made of Equation 12. Applicutioti qf Walls to Latidslide Coiitrol Probletns. Balkema.C. M. 1992. Proc. Fouiidti. T. 198I .H. Landslide control by means of a sow of piles.ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE The problem is shown in Figure AI. ~ l is approximately 0.7 (1. W. Vol. Poulos. Thus. S. Coulter.T. with N. Maugeri.q: Cin. taken as 5 in Clay 1 and 9 in Clay 2. R = 797. Dowelled clay slopes: recent examples. K. Here. 0. and if this is not achieved. & Davis. is W = 5 e 17030ecos22 = 2364. An overall factor of safety of 1. cos 22.L. If piles are needed.I . 1980. Ed. The yield moment of each of these piles is 942 kNm. Session No. Design. Palos. 1973. Pilefozmda/ioii ~1ti~1y. & Rollins. the weight of the sliding mass. Design Manual 7. H. & Fouse.si. J. T.. then it will be stabilized by steel tube piles 10m long.40 . Stockholm. CoiIf Soil Meclis. F. l / p . 1998. Coi?f Soil Adech. Ca17. & Motta.John Wilcy and Sons.L. Poulos. It is assumed that sliding of Clay 1 on the weak clay seam may occur over a length of 30m. 1982. London: 755770. M. Use of drilled shafts in stabilising a slope. The factor of safety is therefore F R/FD = 1./L = 5/10 = 0..40 required.L. Analysis of piles in soil undergoing lateral movement. & Gudelius. Rollins. the shear resistance AR required (per metre width of slope) is given from Equation 3 as AR = Fr. 2: 13181332. . Using the parameters shown in Figure AI.S.Jtil..G. Verdes Hills.5. Foiindti. ASCE: 6 167. 1991. Ground A4ovet?zt~ts S/ructzu~es.5. ASCE: 1929. 1982.0.S. Kulhawy. 1977. APPENDIX A . Bell. 1989. The disturbing force along the slide plane is FD= Wesin 22 = 885.M. SM5: 391406. Proc. Command. 1992. 9'" In/. Lippoman. The role of analytical geoniech an i cs in found at i on e i i g i n ee r i ng . R. Vol. E. Viggiani.iti.M. Ultimate lateral load on piles used to stabilise landslides. L. Portuguese bend landslides. California. If a factor of safety of 2 is applied to this shear resistance. N. R. Proc. 1991. with a thin weak clay seam between them.B. 1985. Res. B. Fo zmia/ioti Etigitieet.60 x 200 x 0. it is required to calculate the required spacing of the piles. 1960. Poulos. 10. Chen.9kNlm. US Naval Facilities Eng. Poulos.11. London : 38 9 . Virginia.G. From Figure 10. Oakland. NAVFAC 1986..G. Soils i i i d FOZiiiduliot7. Somnier. Poulos. In Luiidslides. Can. Thoinas Tel ford. Design of reinforcing piles to increase slope stability. Slope S/uhi/ily Etigitiecriiig.Geo. 32: 80881 8. M. ASCE. Popescu.4 is required for the slope. use can be made of the design charts in Figures 10 to 12. 3: 12691271. ASTM. 35 () 8592. Stabili/y ~ i i i d Pet:fi)riiiutice of Slopes atid Eiiibankinents . *JtiI. Ceol. following cutting of a vertical 98 face in Clay I .s mid desigt?.ret71 Priiiciples uiid Pimlice.R. H. Morgenstern.W. Lee. & Hull.5.3 kN/m width of slope. To estimate the ultimate lateral pilesoil pressures. To/CJW: 1131 18. I I"' It?/. .ol Proliletiis. Sun Francisco.07) = 292. R. Model tests on single piles subjectcd to lateral soil movement. V = 0. C.slide Coti/i. T. and Hull T. 10"' In/. 68 (2): 1401 53. 1991. Vol. Nethero. H. 4. Jtd. M. & Sobkowicz. With pile stabilization.F") = 886. Merriam. 1984. and Fsure 10 can be used. Ed R. & Null. C. G. Y . J. . 1995. 1995.IdzF2 =942/200.B.7 kN/m The resisting force is: R = W.F.. Tramp. and M y = My/p. & Chameau. (FT . Rotterdam: 785790. 7074. 4: Reese.s. Ceot.8 + 150 = 947. Boulanger.T. and pr12= 9 x 45 = 405 kPa in Clay 2. ASCE.C. Finite element analysis of drilled piers used for slope stabilization. o Reeves. Creeping slope in a stiff clay. D.D. lH.60. Applicatioti of Walls f Latid. . For tlie calculation of the pile requirements to achieve the desired factor of safety. then tlie design pile shear resistance is 150 kN/pile.G. R. construction and performance of a pile wall stabilizing a landslide.G. E. Seed and R. Div.377. N.S. Soil Mechs. Slide control by drilled pier walls.. The ultiiiiate lateral pressures are therefore pk.G. L. New York. The factor of safety of the cut slope is computed first.piles with nonlinear bending behaviour. cfGeology. 28 (5): 729737. Reeves. H. Foioidtis. z. STP 835: 1821 93. Stresses on piles used to stabilize landslides. Cat?. Soil mechanics. Et7g.. Polysou. Etig. J. H. Etigs.5 x 5 = 300 kN/pile. Con6 Edmonton. Poulos. and involves a 22" slope consisting of a stiff clay layer (Clay I ) overlying another stiff clay layer (Clay 2). Ed. It is also required to make an estimate of the movement of the stabilized slope.S. Ed. it will be assumed that: 1 failure along the weak seam is governed by the effective stress strength parameters of the seam 2 failure in thin Clay 1 and Clay 2 will occur under undrained conditions 3 tlie water table is at the surface of Clay 2.6 kN/m (per metric width of the 30m length of slope.1= 5 x 40 = 200 kPa in Clay 1. Foundti. The analysis of wall supports to stabilise slopes. 3: 555560. Pentech Press. and the inaxiniuni ultimate shear resistance which can be developed in the pile is V = V purd zs = 0. and therefore stabilization with piles is required. Geddes. with a 15mm wall thickness. 99. ~ ~ . New York. 1: 485499.5m diameter.5' = 0. Spec. J. Ed.W. using a simple planar failure mechanism along the weak clay seam. ASCE. Landslide stabilisation LISing drilled shaft walls. Effect of seafloor instability on offshore pile foundations. R. Wang.E. H.9 4 . Ed.
5 kN Since there are 3 rows of piles along the 30m long slope. Ignoring group effects is therefore conservative from the viewpoint of slope stability. it is now required to estimate the slope movement that could be expected after stabilization of tlie slope.5 x R = 1.32 100 246. CFv and CV are computed for a 1. = 1. as illustrated in Figure A2. then each row must contribute 292.070 + 442.14 200 28 I .8kN CFD = 1. Tlie pile shear resistance versus slope movement relationship is shown in Figure A3. 1328.3 1. = 1.05. CR = 1. The first relationship has been computed via the program ERCAP. Following the procedure outlined in Section 4.5 x 947.49 1. it will be assumed (arbitrarily) that there is zero movement of the slope for factors of safety of 1. CV = 3V1.8 1. Calculation of slope movement versus factor of safety for piles and for slope Factor of Slope movePile shear Factors of merit pS resistance safety (from safety (for MM kN pile viewslope) point) 0 0 1.21.08 250 286.25m.5m centretocentre.07 I . As indicated previously. Arrangement of stabilising piles.50 and tlie exponent k is found to be 9. from the viewpoint of the slope. CR.5 x F.5 kNlm.If 3 equallyspaced rows of piles are used.6 1. Thus. The required spacing sy across tlie slope is then It is assumed in the above analysis that group effects are negligible. Thus.9 = 1421. factor of safety of the slope versus slope movement from the viewpoint of the piles 2 tlie relationship between slope factor of safety and slope movement. the slope movement would be 0.48 10 44. Tlie factor of safety with piles is given from Equation (5) as: Table A l . is shown as Curve 2 in Figure 99 Figure A2.62 1. F. This is plotted as Curve 1 in Figure A4.42 50 186.4 1.8+3V.5. it is necessary to estimate: 1 the relationship between pile shear resistance and slope movement.613 = 97. The resulting relationship between factor of safety and soil slope movement. from the viewpoint of the slope.5m wide “strip” of slope. Having computed the required pile spacing. in Equation (4).50 5 22.8 1. For the slope. and from this.27 1. for example from Equation (4).67 1.5 1.8 Table A1 tabulates the computed values of V1 for various slope movements and the consequent relationship between factor of safety and slope movement.1 1. from the point of view of the piles. Thus. F E 1421.05 Since the piles are spaced across the slope at 1.46 20 89.5 1.71 I .12 I .5  Vl 1. group effects tend to increase the ultimate lateral pressure and hence the pile shear resistance.70 I .. and that for a factor of safety of 1.20 140 266. .7 = 1328.17 1.5 x 885. where Vl is the shear resistance of a single pile.
It should be noted that. and this would be the estimated slope movement for this configuration of piles. This occurs because of the safety factor of 2 imposed on the computed ultimate shear resistance of the piles. Curves 1 and 2 intersect at a slope movement of about 32mn1.Figure A3.40.70. 100 . Estiniation of movement of stabilised slope A4. Figure A4. which exceeds the design value of 1. from Figure A4. the computed factor of safety if the ultimate shear resistance of the piles is developed in excess of 1. Computed relationship between maximum pile shear resistance and slope movement (from ERCAP Analysis).
1 Geological and geotechnical site investigations .
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an effort was made to assess the gcoeiiviroiiineiital factors that weaken and looscn the rock inass at the edges and trigger the rockhlls in order to suggest the most suitable rchabhtatioii scheines aiid preventive measures. Many gcoeiiviroiiineiital factors have led to rock deterioration and created unsafe condition for the traffic and structures in the vicinity of the cliff edge.Slope Stability Engineering. M. These failures had iieptivc impact on the public. Banha University. The debate over the proposed solutioiis has delayed the execution of' any of them. Yagi. Elleboudy Civil Engineering Department. Egypt ABSTRACT : Rockfalls have been reported at the southwestern cliff of Mokattain plateau in the recent decades which endangered several buildings and damaged the main roadway bordering the western edge. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Geoenvironrnental factors influencing the deterioration of shale in a rockslope A. An effort was inade to assess the factors that weaken and looseii the rock formation which is composed of lunestone interlayered with shale. Figure 1. Many geoeiiviroiiinental Factors contributed to rock deterioration aiid created an instability problem. and its closcllcss to Cairo down town. aiid thc urban devclopmciit of this special area which is privileged with its high altitude. N o satispactory solution has been iinplcineiitcd till now. local iiivcstois. land owners. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. Rotterdam. open air. 1 INTRODUCTION The author was involved in the gcotechnical Mokattaiii plateau since 1979 problems of (Ellebo~idy 1985) when a iiiajor rockslide took place iiilioiit of' an iinportaiit hotel in the area and put it out of work (Fig. Rehabhtatioii scheines for the damaged road and the affected structures near the cliff edge are demonstrated. 1). This failure was l'ollowcd by several rockfalls at the western aiid southwestern cMfs that eiidaiigered several buildings aiid damaged the main roadway bordering the western edge. Rockfall at the hotel locatioii 103 . Cairo. Proposals for stabihzatioii of the rock slope through a iiuinber of feasible geotechnical solutions are discussed. This situation devaluated the properties aiid discouraged land owiiers aiid investors froin exteiidiiig their activities aiid dcvclopinciit projects. moderate weather. Thus.
The input parameters of the rockslope was taken from previous research dolie by the author (Abouleid & Elleboudy & Hafez 1989) aiid applied to this criteria. the designers did iio t visuahze the geoeiivuonmental factors which should be taken mto consideration to achieve a safe and stable design for the long r~iii They thought that rocks with its high bearing capacity . Jolliting is an important characteristic of the plateau. At least four successive inajor rockfalls have occurred since 1960. However. They :ire subjected to diflkrciitial weathering leading to collapse of’overhangs with associated blockfall aiid occasional rockfall. and discontinuity aperture. inaterial weathering grade. The iiitersectioiis between sets of joints occasionally give a blocky appearance foi. limestone exists and servers as a cap. A major rockfall occurred in 1979. The entire rock inass infront of‘ a fjvestory hotel building has slipped taking with it a 50in wide lawn. Near the top of this formation. Moreover. It was recently noticed after the urbaii developineiit of this area took place. and leaving the footing of the corner coluinii haiiging in the air.It is true that the bcaruig capacity 104 . The stratigraphic section is then coinposed of successive layers of hnestoiie and shale (ElSohby & Elleboudy 1988). they represent weak zoiies aloiig which inoveineiits caii be rejuvenated. discontinuity spacing. Morcovcr. The lithostructural group was composite since the rock type was strong aiid weak strata represented by liinestoiie and shale respectively. 3 THEPROBLEM Significant progressive deterioration of the rockslope has happened to the Mokattain plateau over the years. aiid enviroiiineiital conditions. These include clayey inarl and shale layers interlayered with the basic limestone ineinbers. It is underlain by a thick shale member. Some of the joint sets are closely spaced I a way that accentuates slumping aloiig the n southern escarpineiit aiid in the vicinity of’ the faults. This layer is severely jointed and subjected to sluinpiiig aloiig cliffs.uid iicgligiblc compression would cause i i o problcin for lowrise structures even iicx the edge of the chff. 2. In a trial to assess the deterioration potential of the existing slope. stress. The layers of lunestone aiid shale show regional bedding direction slightly dipping towards the slope f x e . the local experience with building on rocks is iiot as much since we don’t often have to build on inouiitainous areas. Aiier this incident the inaiii road bordering the western cliff started to deteriorate. Many parts of the road cracked and fell down the slope (Figs. The initiation and propagation o f fractures was of particular sigiiificaiice in the road surface breakdown and eventually led to major rockfalls along the edge of’ the slope. The ciigiiieering classification of the rockslope deterioration inode was both blockfall and rockfall which preseiit a signilicant threat due to uiipredic t a b h t y aiid suddeii hill of large volume of materials. Then it was converted to a rockslope susceptibility class after iiuinerical adjustments relating to adverse engineering. thus it was closed waiting for a pragmatic solutioii to the problem. The rate of slope deterioratioii and timing of consequent detachineiit of rock blocks and their separation froin the rock inass was difficult to predict quaiititavely.3). They inaiiifcst vertical aiid horizontal displaceineiits. The rockfalls created a significant hazard to the road users aiid for pedestrians.soine hnestoiie beds outcropping at Mokattain plateau. The alternation in the physical and chemical properties of the rock inaterial due to exposure to uiiexpected geoeiiviroiiineiital factors that accelerated the dctc ri o rati o n was ii o t taken i i i to CO 11sidcr at io 11in the urban planning ofthe whole area. It included input parameters such as iiitact rock strength. 4 GEOENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Most gcotechnical engiiiecrs 111 this country are used to build on sods and successf‘dly face the probleins encountered with different types of saturated and arid soils. It is coinposed of thick succession of sedimentary ciirboiiates and argfiaceous rocks that belong mainly to middle aiid late Eoceiie. when the urban developinclit ol Mokattaiii plateau has started decades ago.2 GEOLOGICAL SETTING Mokattain Mountain represents a notable plateau bounding Cairo southeastwards with its highest point at an elevation of 2 131n above sea level. This deterioration was not given much attention at the design stage. It gave a deterioration rating of ahiiost 60% which indicates a class of high susceptibility to Failure. the rating inethod suggested by 1 Nicholson aiid Hencher 11 1997 was used. 1 Faults have an important role 11 the developineiit of the present coiiliguration of the plateau.
or inore severely into separate blocks with random shapes (Fig. However. Moreover. This process aloiig with the orientation of bedding planes when dipping towards the cliffs.Figure 2. Failure of the roadway pavement due to rockfdl of inost rocks with iniiiiin~un degree of induratioii varies between I400 kN/m’ and 7000 kN/m’ (Sowers 1976). silt. and gypsum. 4). Vertical crack in hnestoiie top layer . aiid suliltes and salts liom defective sewer system percolates through the limestone cracks and joints to the uiidcrlyiiig shale. The intersections of set of joints turned the top hnestoiic layer into a layer full of cracks aiid structural defects. and softens the shale. the expansive nature of the shale layers 105 Figure 3. It reduces the shearing strength of both inarl and shale. those on rock L ~ S L I present few difficulties if we L ~ ~ exclude certain shalcs. The sewers and water supply networks were originally designed jli a primitive way relying on the low population of the area. Water loaded with carbonates from the dissolution of the liinestone itself.” The dark gray fissile shale of Mokattain plateau consists of laminated heavily overconsolidated clay layers with seeins of sand. Moreover Peck (1976) stated that : “In coinparison to foundations o i i soil. inost surfdce rocks exhibit fdbric weaknesses and defects due to the destruction by weathering which reduces their strength (Hudson 1993). create slip surfaces at the base of the lunestoiie blocks.
On the other hand. the increase of surcliargc load on the cliff edge due to construction of the road and tlie adjacent buildings enhances the inoveiiieiit i the horizontal direction n towards the slope.Using rock bolts to preveiit the inoveineiit of the blocks that potentially would fail.Removing the debris aiid scaling the cliff face froin loose rocks. 5 REHABILITATION SCHEMES At the beginning. aiid the settlenient or tlie hotel continued. Detached lllnestoiic blocks at cliff edge is another important geoenvironinental factor that contributes to the problem. the . pipes. The high altitude and the steep angle contributed to the instabhty of the slope.Exposing the surface of the hnestone aiid disclosing the pattern ofjointing. When rockfalls continued along the cM’f edge and endangered the main roadway and other buildings. Also. it is obvious that the inost influential geoeiiviroiiineiital factor is the reinarkable change in moisture regime 11 such arid rocks. which includes progressive physical aiid chemical alternation of rock material. added to the severity of the problem. Reviewing the above inentioiied Factors. The rock prolilc was raised by adding sand aiid boulders to bring it back up to grade. The structural members of the building were strengthened aiid rigidly tied together. the urban planning lacked the necessary precautions against the adverse geoenvironinental n conditions aiid resulted i Pacing this challenging pro blem . deterioration of shale. Thus. The growth of gypsum crystals inay also add to the s w e h i g potential of shale. has the most adverse effect on the stability of the slope. It was thought that replacing the f’alleii rocks by artificial enibanknient would substitute the lost lateral support. The wire net should be anchored by grouted rods. a stress factor. a variety 01’ remedial ineasures were introduced to control the effect of the progressive deterioration aiid coinply with the eiiviroiinieiital planning requirements. Hence. The reinoval of the lateral confinement as a result of the preceding rockf:all encourages the expansion of shale in the lateral direction toward the cliff. This fact was iiot clear at the design stagc.Treating the slots with grout injection. aiid sewer system to maintain the internal integrity of the shale layers aiid stop the seepage of water through the liinestoiie cracks. Figure 4. the seeping water inay dissolve the gypsum crystals aiid weaken the fabric of the shale strata. . represented by the dyiiainic stresses imposed by blasting Ui limestone quarries 106 . The repair strategy involved the following steps: . The seeping of water through 1 shale layers towards the cliff greatly affected the integrity of the rock inass aiid altered the engineering properties of these watersensitive layers. when the hotel rockfall occurred. Thus.Placing a wire iiet above the surface of the roadway to restrict rockfall.in close proximity of the slope area. . . . a simple Llninediate solution was adopted. leakageproof tanks. It was clear that any solution should start with constructing a water tight. The shale exerts a rather high swehig pressure on the limestone bloclts upon the increase in inoisturc content (Ellcboudy 1985). this solution failed to save the hotel or to stop further rockfall.Filli~ig cracks aiid joints with cement mortar. Also. Another important factor was the slope geometry. This solutioii did iiot improve stabhty. and the hotel was abandoned.
USA. and seekuig f o r government funds. Instability of' iiatiiral slope i intcrbeddcd n linestone and shale. 2 . 1 eiiif orcement.9 1 19 16. 2 . Ellcboudy 1988. 1976. Hopefully it will end the controversy over the best solution to the problem uid piovide a safe aiid reliable treatment for the 1 ockf'lll REFERENCES Aboulcid.Reducmg the slope angle by introducing benches and intermediate berms. Rock foundation for. M. J O L ~ ~ I I U ~ thr F u c i t l ~ ~ of' Engineering. aiid the treatinclit and iiiaiiiteiiaiice reyulreinents arc very costly. and protection. the cldf edge is long. A. Lausaniic. The p 1'00 scd 1chd billt at10 11 pro lett 1s s t 11 p 1 under iiivcstigatioii by the authorities. 121. USA. Colorado. on Lrii7dslitle. A. Conj: on SMFE. The proposed incasurcs will help i n controlhng the coiisequeiiccs oi deterioration of the 1ockslopc by containment. I I tli lnt. Int. Yroc. Athens.striictures. 1976. Pioc.Coiistructuig a proper drainage system for the surface water to direct it away from the face of the slope. Colif: on Rock Engineering jbr 107 . 11r~ c tice Ce 11 je cts . Foundation Bearing in weathered rock. Peck.123. 1 .A. 11rin cip les. Proc.B. Pioc. .. USA. Con$ on Rock Engineering for Foundutions und Slopes. G. 5th lilt. & A. R. Foundations and slopes. . M. New York: Pcrganion Press. ElSoliby. Colorado. Nicliolsoii. Heiicher 1997. Hal'cz 1989. Ellcboudy 8L H.Containing the upper loin of the cliff face with a wire mesh to reinforce the slope. & S.. oii Enginec~riiig Ceolog?~ aiid the Eiivirontneiit. 6 CONCLUSIONS The deinoiistrated rockfall problem is very challenging m inany ways. D. Greece.F. Coiiiprelieiisive rock ciig in e e ring.s. Proc. San Francisco. SJviip. Analysis 01' Mokattain 1ockl'alls.M. It was miportant to outliiie the most adverse gcociiv~oiiinental factors that threaten the stability of the slope in order to adopt the appropriate preventive measures. Sowers. Iinportmt aspects of Mokattam shale shearing of' strength.T. 4 : 232 12324.A. A. 3242.M. 1993. Cniro Un Ellcboudy. Assessing the potential for dctc ri o rat io 11 o 1' engineered rockslopes. Syinp. The plateau is high and steep. 12 1 . 1985. J. Switzerland. Hudson.
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1 INTRODUCTION Studies of decomposed rocks are important to prevent the disasters such as the landslide and slope failures. in particular in the decomposed parts. 1989). These clay veins seem to have been formed by filling fissures and /or fractures developed in granitic rocks.Slope Stability Engineering. 2 MODES OF OCCURRENCE OF CLAY VEINS 2. On the other hand. It is to be noted that some clay minerals of the alteration mineralogical characteristics such as mineral species and their paragenesis (Kitagawa. a systematic examination for the effect of hydrothermal activity on decomposition process of granitic rocks. Hiroshimu Universig. Therefore. and also indicate that the existence of clay veins have the significant effect upon occurrence of slope failures in the granite regions. Yagi. hydrothermal activities (Kakitani and Kitagawa. The width of veins varies from one millimeter to one meter. In the inner zone of southwest Japan. Based on the mineralogical and geochemical studies of clay veins and clay minerals altered from plagioclase and geometrical analysis of fractures developed in the granitic rocks of Chugoku district. detailed constituent clay minerals and distribution of these clay minerals have revealed that clay veins are intimately associated with the postmagmatic activities. many slope failures have been occurring in the granitic rocks during every rain and/or typhoon season. In addition. Rotterdam. Kitagawa Faculty of Science. Decomposed granitic rocks have been strongly fractures and characterized by remarkable alteration to clay minerals at hydrothermal stage before weathering. the mechanism or process of the decomposition of granitic rocks have not been systematically explained yet. Clay veins develop considerably at the relatively more decomposed parts of the respective granitic rocks. granitic rocks of Cretaceous to Palaeogene age are distributed widely and the rocks are characterized.Effect of hydrothermal activities R. Some clay veins are often observed on the failured slopes of granitic rocks. in general. geomorphology and civil engineering as well as in the fields of geological sciences. 1983). In addition to the clay veins minerals.e. The existence of clay veins has significant effect upon occurrence of slope failures. aggregates of clay minerals of replacement 109 .1 Distribution of clay veins The degree of the decomposition were roughly measured by the alteration degree of plagioclase in the granitic rocks. Japan ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the genetical relationship between the mechanism of decomposition of granitic rocks and occurrence of the slope failures distributed in Hiroshima and Shimane Prefecture with special reference to the effects of hydrothermal activities on the decomposition process of the granitic rocks. altered to clay minerals.. These facts suggest that the hydrothermal activities may play an important role on the decomposition. Yamagami& Jiang @ 1999 Balkema. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Weathering mechanism and slope failures of granitic rocks in Southwest Japan . HigashiHiroshima. will be described in the present. The decomposition extends usually to the depth reaches more than hundred meters. Nevertheless. The slope failures were often occurred in some areas where smectite formed by hydrothermal activity is formed remarkably in granitic rocks. The constituent minerals of the host granitic rocks are. i. the author has found that clay veins or veinlets are commonly observed in the decomposed rocks (Kakitani and Kitagawa. 1977. more or less. Subsequent studies on the mode of occurrence. b) .the decomposition of granitic rocks have been studied in various field such as pedology. preferred orientations of fractures were formed under the regional stress field (Kitagawa and Okuno. Kitagawa and Kakitani 1978a. The clay veins are generally developed in the granitic rocks. While conducting the mineralogical study on the alteration mechanism of plagioclase in the granitic rocks. by common development of fractures and extensive alteration. 1977).
origin which are aligned in certain directions resulting veinlike appearance will be also found. are found mainly at the higher level.2 Fractures developed in granitic rocks Common developments of the clay veins in the granitic rocks may suggest that these fractures were formed in relation to the stress fields during the geological age as well as cooling process of the granitic rocks. Each district is characterized by two or three preferred orientations of the fractures (Figure la). Hiroshima prefecture. Quartz is commonly associated with clay minerals and calcite and/or zeolite (laumontite. plagioclase is easily altered to clay minerals as well as biotite.3 Constituent minerals of veins Figure 2 Stereo diagram showing the prefered orientation of clay veins and microcracks in granitic rocks at one district. Figure 1 Schematic diagrams of clay veins classified based on the characteristics of fractures. the main constituent mineral of the veins varies from illite to interstratified mineral of mica and smectite. smectite and interstratified mineral together with or without kaolin minerals. whereas illite and smectite at the lower level. The poles of the orientation of the microcracks were measured on both planes and results were plotted on the equalarea stereographic nets. in general. 2. As seen in Figure. plagioclase alters to kaolin minerals under the weathering conditions in Japan (Nagasawa and Kunieda. smectite. kaolin minerals associated with small amount of chlorite. 1985). stilbite and heulandite) are occasionally found in the clay veins.(Lower I pari I I I upper Pt* I I I I I Figure 3 Schematic diagram showing variation of constituent clay minerals of clay vein plane are caused by the unloading (Hashikawa.( 1989). 1970.b) and Kitagawa. interstratified mineral of mica and smectite. These clay veins can be also pursued more than hundred meters in the vertical direction. 1978). It is to be noted that constituent minerals commonly change from the lower to the upper parts in the vertical direction of the veins. smectite and kaolin minerals from the lower to the higher altitudes in the range between 400m and 800m (Figure 2). Microscopicmicrocracks developed in the constituent minerals of the host granitic rocks were measured on the oriented thin sections of parallel and perpendicular to the ground surface using an universal accepted that the microcracks developed on the vertical 110 CLAY MINERALS DERIVE FROM PLAGIOCLASE Among the constituent minerals of the host granitic rocks. two district dominant directions have been confirmed. Nagasawa. plagioclase in the granitic rocks of the district of the present study is often altered to illite. In general. The clay veins consist mainly of illite. These directions are almost coincide with those of clay veins developed in the respective district. 3 2. . Kaolin minerals. According to Kitagawa and Kakitani (1978a. As one example is shown in Figure lb. Most of the clay minerals are composed of more than two kinds of clay minerals. However. Orientation of the fractures (clay veins) show in general certain preferred directions if the area is limited. A continuous development of veins can be pursued more than several kilometers at least.
1%. Type 1 Total%. Moreover. a systematic fracturing pattern within error.gnatic activity. it may reasonably be assumed that the clay of the host granitic rocks are also available (Kawano veins developed in the granitic rocks represent the and Ueda. some districts where many slope failures were occurred are chosen to compare genetically the directions (strikes) between failured slopes and clay veins observed on the slope surfaces and/or their near outcrops. smectite and kaolin minerals were formed in the failured materials (soils). the post magmatic activities of the host granitic rocks The fractures patterns of clay veins developed in of the respective districts. shown in the figure. fractures were the granitic rocks in Hiroshima and Shimane also formed just after the solidification of granitic Prefectures will be analyzed. Total:133.4% Type 5 Total:48. Max:45. fracturing system related to the paleostress fields and clay mineralogy in relation to the formation conditions. Max:22.8% Figure 4 Strikes of the failured slopes and clay veins in the one district. the results of the orientation (strike) 111 . The data are taken from Ishihara et al. 5. rocks are identical with each other within the analytical Furthermore. 5 DISCUSSION One of the main purpose of this studies is to establish the significance’s of the hydrothermal activities on the decomposition of the granitic rocks. The complicated mechanisms of the decomposition process of the granitic rocks will be discussed from the two important view points. KAr ages of illite obtained from clay veins will be 5. The concordance in the ages indicates that the granitic rocks have been controlled by the stress fields clay minerals in the clay veins have been formed by of the representative district. Mite. The KAr ages First of all. In this district. in particular the dominant clay minerals is usually smectite. As is fractures which have been formed after the evident. Comparing fractures of clay veins with microscopicfractures. it is to be noted that one direction indicates bisectional direction of the other two. The typical example of rocks. Max:59. Hiroshima Prefecture. Shibata and Ishihara. Each direction (strike) of clay vein and the strike of failured slope is indicated in Figure 3. Therefore. it is suggested that both directions have been formed under the same stress field of the district. the analysis of the stress field is shown in Figure 2. (1980) and Kitagawa and Kakitani (1981). both directions are similar to each other. As seen figure. 1974).2 Age of fractures Concerning the formation ages of these fractures.1 Fomtion mechanism of fractures useful. the ages of clay minerals and those of granitic solidification stage subsequent to the ma.4 SLOPE FAILURES As typical examples. the veins have characteristic conjugated features and accompanying slickensides occasionally.5 Histgram of strike of clay veins classified based on the mode of occurrence in one district.6% Figure . These facts strongly suggest that the veins are the shear fractures formed under the regional stress field of the district. The clay veins observed in the decomposed granitic rocks have been distributed widely in Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures.
it is inferred that decomposed materials may easily separate from the clay veins and/or the boundary between decomposed materials and weakly or almost fresh rock.( 1985) Studies on the planer fracturing of structures developed in the suficial part granite mass.25. Kitagawa. The slope failures often occurred where smectite is mainly formed in the granitic rocks andor clay veins are composed mainly of smectite.. the most possible decomposition process of the granitic rocks of the district will be explained: First. the rain water saturate in the decomposed rock and expansion of smectite formed in both decomposed granite and veins with the water.3 Formation condition of clay minerals The physicchemical condition of the formation stage of clay minerals will be discussed based on the available data such as temperatures and sequence of mineral assemblages. according to their geographical vertical positions. That is.( 1980)KAr ages of sericites from Based on the results obtained in this study. Shibata. K. as shown in Figure S. It may be concluded that the decomposition of the granitic rocks is mainly the results of hydrothermal activities subsequent to the granitic activity as well as the weathering during the geological ages. The typical profile of the slope occurred failure is schematically indicated in Figure 5. Consequently. and Kakitani. The clay mineral species have been gradually changed 112 . the directions (strike) of slopes failured are almost same directions to the clay veins in each district. nearly vertical fractures and microcracks have been developed within the granitic rocks under the regional paleostress field of the respective districts after the solidification stage of the granite. present results strongly indicated the hydrothermal origin of the clay minerals. rep. Therefore.5. As shown in figure 4. both directions are almost same each other. Hiroshima Univ. the mineral sequence of illiteinterstratified mineralsmectitekaolin minerals from the depth geological ages.4 Relationship between slope falures and clay veins As shown in Figure 4.S. Smectite was mainly and characteristically formed in the decomposed materials on the slope. 137.K. Smectite is mainly composed clay mineral in the veins developed in these districts. Ishihara. it is inferred that the hydrothermal activity has significant effect upon occurrence of slope failures. The decomposition of the granitic rocks can be represented by the amounts of clay mineral formation. R. 5. In these districts. To be noted that the clay minerals found in the host granitic rocks were formed during the same hydrothermal activity in more or less extend. Under the geological condition like this. These results strongly suggest that clay veins developed on the slope are one of the significance factors as to occurrence of slope failures.S. strongly decomposed granitic materials (soils) are formed on the weakly decomposed or almost fresh rocks. On the slope some clay veins are developed as shown in Figure 5. No. REFERENCES Hashikawa.. The clay veins were formed filling the fractures by clay minerals from hydrothermal solution. in spite of the previous researches on the formation of clay minerals under the weathering condition. Geol. 6 CONCLUSION Figure 6 Schematical profiles of granite slope before and after slope failure. Based on the results obtained by Kitagawa (1989).
Bull. Japan Assoc. Japan.R. Clay Sci. T.( 1964) KAr dating on the igneous rocks in Japan (I). Shizuoka Univ. Nagasawa.. 113 . Kakitani. Jour. Geol. Shibata. Geol. Soc. 3 139. Kitagawa. Jour. 3.. R. 176179. Pet. Clay Sci. southwest Japan. Hiroshima Prefecture. Jour. Hiroshima Prefecture. 23.S. Japan.the Chugoku district. 51. Jour. 1 8 . Spec. Hiroshima Univ. Geol. and Kitagawa. and Okuno. Soc. Econ.( 1974) KAr ages of biotites across the central part of the Hiroshima granite. Surv. Clay Sci. Ser. Nagasawa. and Kunieda. 187196. Jour Sci. 18. Econ. Geol.( 1989) Clay veins and clay minerals in the granitic rocks in Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures. 4780. and Ueda. Hiroshima Prefecture. Effect of the hydrothermal activities on the decomposition of the granitic rocks..( 1983) Formation mechanism of clay veins found in granitic rock in Hi sashihi roshima district. 76.( 1978a) The palegreen clay vein in the granitic rock at the Ondocho district.R. 361377. 80. Japan. 1733. Kawano.R. Soc. and Kakitani.( 1978b) The white clay vein in the granitic rock at the Hachihonmatsu district.C. 3 1. K. Mineralogical society of Japan. Japan. Jour.4560.Y. and Kakitani.S. 8. Kitagawa. Gifu Prefecture. Kitagawa. 20. 127148.( 1981) KAr ages of mica clay minerals in clay veins found in granitic and rhyolitic rocks of Hiroshima Prefecture.K.K and Ishihara.Y . Japan Assoc. 110. Japan. Japan. R. Miner.R and Kakitani. Japan.( 1978) A study on the formation and transformation of kaolin minerals.K..S. S. Petr. Kitagawa. 13.( 1970) Geology and mineralogy of clay deposits in the Naegi district. Soc.43 1433. Miner. Jour..( 1977) Clay minerals in the veins and veinlets found in the granitic rocks of Hiroshima Prefecture. Mining Geol. Earth Sci. Kitagawa. S.221224. Rep.
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remediation and improvement. i i Fj ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of a literature review and site investigations from Trinidad. considerable attention has been given to these material in the engineering literature. 1 INTRODUCTION Mudrocks are common in the rock record and are frequently encountered in almost all civil engineering projects. clay activity up to 1. and can significantly impair financial allocations for developing projects within the domestic economy. they are susceptible to high volume changes in response to wetting and drying (Taylor and Cripps. West Indies. pH pf 67. Maharaj Commonwealth Secretariat1 CFTC Expert. 1834% montmorillonite. The precipitation of expansive gypsum cause potential soil heave and slope instability on these slopes. contains gypsum. Weathered carbonate rich mudrocks are fat clays. In Trinidad and Tobago. 5292% clay. larger macropores and higher. 1987). In addition. The performance of mudrocks slopes decreases with weathering. free swell >10% and pH of 47. In this paper. frequently resulting in landslides. These increase potential groundwater infiltration during antecedent rainfall. ground engineering problems often associated with these lithologies include soil and foundation expansion and shrinkage. Suva. liquid limit up to 106%. have shown that gypsum is commonly precipitated at geological contacts of intercalated and tectonically sheared pyritic and carbonate bearing mudrocks. weathering produces acidic groundwater. with insitu densities of 16471900kg/m3. negative soil suction. Rotterdam. which can lead to the precipitation of gypsum. plasticity index of 2224%. Yagi. These all lead to failure of constructed and engineered facilities. the characterization of these lithologies is very important during site investigations and selection and is useful for optimum ground control. with <40% clay. The geotechnical implications 115 . ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Site investigation of weathered expansive mudrock slopes: Implications for slope instability and slope stabilization Russell J. weathering of these rocks produce expansive clays and cause the development of hazardous ground conditions on shallow soils slopes. from Trinidad.5 and activity <0. it is first necessary to characterise their geotechnical characteristics and engineering behaviour. Deccication of these soils is also significantly greater. remediation and improvement. This will assist in site selection for engineered facilities and guide the choice of methods for optimum ground control. the weathering characteristics and geotechnical behaviour of pyritidblack and glauconitic mudrocks are reviewed from significant publications in the geotechnical literature. these costs are high. For a developing country. poor induration and sometimes overconsolidated nature. through engineering time. on the effects of weathering on slope instability in mudrocks and its implications for slope stabilization. classified as CH. Due to their high clay content.Slope Stability Engineering. In pyritic mudrocks. through engineering time. Due to the variety of geotechnical problems frequently encountered in weathered mudrocks. up to 88% montmorillonite. especially smectites. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema. South Pacijc Applied Geoscience Commission. due to landslides exceeds TT $ l M each year.51. Weathered pyritic mudrocks are lean clays. incurring millions of dollars each year in damage repair costs. Site investigations on slopes of these lithologies. damage repair costs. classified as CL. In construction projects. As a result. lead to greater shrinkage. liquid limit of 4050%. To reduce the financial costs associated with landslides in weathered mudrocks.8. and increase the susceptibility of these slopes and engineered facilities founded on them. to instability and failure. It is a well known that the performance of mudrocks slopes decreases with weathering.80.
3 GEOLOGY The study area is located on the Southern Lowlands and on the south flank of the Central Range and the north flank of the Southern Range Uplifts. from the late Miocene to Pliocene. Temperature varies from 1735'C. Location of the study area. clacareous and glauconitic mudrocks from Trinidad. vegetation. sealed to prevent moisture loss and taken to the laboratory for testing. presence of gypsum crystals and bedrock were noted. The Central Range is a Late Cretaceous to Tertiary clastic and carbonate terrain. Granulometry. surface elevation. West Indies. 1990a). with a mean daily range from 71 I'C.Thorntwaite soil moisture distribution index of weathering are discussed based on site investigations in weathered Tertiary pyritic. The rocks of the study area are extremely diverse. 109 samples were collected from the 23 sites. with a JanuaryJune dry season and a JulyDecember rainy season. The Southern Range is a northeast trending line of upthrusted Miocene anticlines. Contemporaneous southeast directed contractile deformation. varying from Lower Cretaceous mark and calcareous mudrocks. It has a warm tropical climate. Implications for slope instability and slope stabilization are presented. Site investigation and laboratory data were then analysed in relation to mudrock weathering and slope instability. Sample location. 1959). between 10' and 10' 22' N and 61' and 61' 22' W. clay content. depth. while the Southern Lowlands is of late Tertiary to Pleistocene age. Black pyritic and 2 METHODS Data were first obtained from a literature review. with an area of about 502 kmL(Figure la). overturned folding and thrust deformation. slope. 23 handdug test pits were excavated to 3. tectonic transport and thrust deformation led to overturn folding and the development of a macroscopic asymmetrical synform in this part of the island (Kugler. varies between 12 m for zones 1 and 2 and 13m for zone 3 (Figure lc). 116 . In addition. the strong geological control of mudrock properties and weathering are discussed.Figure 1A. located in southeast Trinidad. The study area has mean annual rainfall varying between 15002500 mm and variable soil mositure indices (Figure Ib and Ic). These rocks suffered intensive high angle normal faulting.rainfall distribution and C. The depth to active deccication and heaving/active soil layers. This was followed by site investigations of weathered mudrocks slopes. B. free swell and compaction were determined using Soiltest apparatus. The study area is the PooleOrtoire watershed/drainage basin. to Holocene alluvium. Soils were tested following guidelines of the ASTM (1 988). liquid limit and shrinkage limits. plastic.5m deep and soils were described according to the Geological Society Working Party on Tropical Residual Soils (Anon. natural moisture.
They show low slake durability. These are common along shallow seepage zones. These stains suggest a high ferrous oxide content. carbonaceous and calcareous shales and marls. These mudrocks are highly weathered to produce stiff. Brasso. Seepage cause intense redbrown hematite staining of lower slopes. Formations with calcareous shales and marls include Cuche. calcareous mudrocks are the most common lithologies. Mudrocks contains numerous discontinuities. seen at landslide scarps. interflow and facilitate deep weathering. The oxidation of pyrite is a complicated process. Together. Brasso. Geology of the study area. especially in the northern parts of the watershed. Typically greyblack calcareous and pyritic mudrocks. as they disintegrate rapidly in the presence . Mudrocks are generally very soft when weathered. acidic and expansive calcareous clays. Cipero. including graphite and lignite. Figure 2 shown the general geology of the study area. Ivarson (1973) notes that pyrite is oxidised in the presence of moisture to produce ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid. including joints. Navet. Stress relief cracks are > 0. Ferrous sulphate may also combine with sulphuric acid and oxygen in soil air to produce ferric sulphate. Glauconite is found in the Cuche. which from these black mudrocks are derived from oxidised pyrite.5 mm wide. Tamana and Lengua. Karamat. containing limonite and haematite. Haematite is very abundant in weathered pyritic 117 4 MUDROCK WEATHERING Table 1 presents the geotechnical properties of pyritic and calcareous mudrocks. these formations also contain carbonaceous materials. Brasso and Lengua formations are the only ones with pyrite.Figure 2. Black mudrocks containing pyrite include the Nariva. bedding and lamination surfaces. but stiff and indurated in less weathered sections. such as from Brasso and Moruga formations show yellowredbrown limonite staining. These channel seepage. In addition. Lengua and Morne L'Enfer formations. They are usually iron stained. these formations occupy more than 65% of the watershed area. of water and on continual surface exposure at landslide sites. Moruga. Brasso. which may oxidize to haematite. faults. Iron staining is pronounced along stress relief cracks and discontinuities. Ferrous sulphate may become hydrated and react with water to produce limonite. derived from the weathering of constitutent pyrite and glauconite. Lengua and Morne L'Enfer formations. Lengua formation is the only one with known gypsum.
80 12xIO. % Montmorillonite.88 4 .19 0. pyritic mudrocks have pH’s between 4. % Optimum moisture.% 1 Unconfined compressive strength.5 < 0. Sulphuric acid produced by these reactions may enter seepage and react with other lithologies downslope. weathered from calcareous marls. c d s e c 1020 2030 1834 6.Table 1. Evidence of gypsum precipitation was found at two excavated sites.71 12 .5 m deep. At both sites.CH 0 5 22 1 0 . Brasso formation. Pyrite oxidation requires free air and water and therefore. Evidence of carbonate loss was noted in these soils. % Liquid limit. in the watershed. % O O Shrinkage limit. Therefore. niilliequivalents/iOOg dry soil Saturated hydraulic conductivity. at a contact between acidic soils.7.5. haematite develops rapidly in excavations on exposure of limonitic soils with free air.3% in more shallow horizons. is limited to shallow.02. % O Silt. Further.1.25 20 .3. within the Upper Cipero formation.04. then soils weathered from strongly pyritic mudrocks should show strong acidity. In the watershed.g. PI.4 (Table 1).10 0. YO Iliite. with pyrite. LOI reprsents free organic matter. 1990). kg/m Rainv season moisture. Limonite staining is found in all weathered pyritic mudrocks. Such reactions in calcareous mudrocks with pyrite can cause a reduction in soil acidity due to the buffering action of calcite against sulphuric acid. which show that the percentage of CaCO.92 65 .2m deep to less than 3. % Sand.06. % Dry season moisture. decreases rapidly from 10% at 1. Wet chemical data from Ahmad and Jones (1969) and Government of Trinidad and Tobago (197 1) support these results. SI. on unstable slopes.2010 31 . to produce sulphur and ferrous sulphate.57.5.57. g. e. pH 45.251.51 1647 .4 3 1 2 . e. % Kaolinite. Properties of weathered calcareous and pyritic clays. % PH Calcium carbonate content. % Plasticity index. diagenetic sulphur is abundant in Moruga and Morne L’Enfer mudrocks. Ferric suphate may be reduced further. evident from intense redbrown staining and also noted by Chenery (1952). Seepage zones and discontinuity surfaces are the most common sites. Deeper layers will be oxygen deprived and possibly anoxic. pH 78.06.8 0.18 2331 19 13 20 . 1960 and Pye and Miller. Since the above reactions lead to the formation of sulfuric acid. % O Free swell. but in deeper.” 1 x10’7to i X io* mudrocks in the watershed.5 m deep excavations of the weathering profiles in small hills cut during the beginning of the dry 118 .80 2533 1013 Insitu density.07. with between 516% of the soil mineral content.2 . which is usually less than 34 m and particularly intense between 2. which in these samples is largely derived from organic carbonates. Sulphur produced may be oxidized to produce more ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid (Garrels and Thompson. more pervious weathered horizons.50 Weathered Marls and Calcareous Mudrocks CI . Inclusive of these are carbonate dissolution and gypsum formation within calcareous shales and marls.01. kg/cm Cation exchange capacity (CEC). 3. while calcareous equivalents have pH‘s fiom 6.18 52 .35 835 20 .679 . In the study area this is evident from the depth of soil staining and mottling. These reaction may be more common and aggressive at faulted contacts and within intercalated pyritic and calcareous shales where acidic leachates can easily enter. weathered soils in these mudrocks should be very acidic.12 1. more saturated soil horizons. Soil Properties Unified Classification Gravel. Insitu measurements and wet chemical data show that the pH of these soils range from 4. WI. % Amorphous silica. % Skempton’s clay activity 3 Weathered BlacWyritic Mudrocks CL 110 2060 1015 <40 4050 2224 < 0. weathered from pyritic black shales and slighlty alkaline soils. % Clay.4 was measured in weathered calcareous and pyritic mudrocks of Brasso formation. a pH of 6. confirmed by insitu soil pH measurements (using a portable Soiltest pH meter) which show that weathered noncalcareous.25 . although they never gave reasons for such high acidity. CaO and LOI (loss on ignition) percentage also show a similar trend.106 46 .
2. The occurrence of gypsum in relation to the above chemical processes have not been previously reported by former workers in Trinidad. increasing the susceptibility of weathered mudrock slopes to failure during rainfall. 3. Are affected by significant deccication and shrinkage. It is unlikely that this gypsum is the result of other processes. While reasons for their occurrence was not given. If both calcareous and pyritic mudrocks are present in adjacent areas.51. Since gypsum has a much higher swell potential than the original soil constituents. Precipitated gypsum can increase potential soil heave and expansion by up to 103% (Taylor. with gypsum. which are also highly weathered. Suffer high seasonal soil moisture fluxes 6 CONCLUSIONS The weathering of pyritic mucrocks and the reaction. These include slopes which : 1. of derivative acidic leachates. then gypsum can be easily porecipitated. Based on the foregoing discussions. Have suffered intense tectonic shearing. while the intense weathering of the shallow soil and bedrock horizons do not suggest that such crystals are of primary/bedrock origin. a programme of insitu measurements of soil heave and shrinkage is also planned. then the potential for long term slope instability is considerable. 1988). with calcareous lithologies can cause the precipitation of gypsum. Contain intercalated pyritic and clacareous mudrocks. 5. rainfall was low which caused extensive development of deccication cracks on the cut surfaces. 4. The precipitation of gypsum can increase potential soil heave. examination of the distribution of sites with reported gypsum and unstable slopes have shown that these sites have suffered intense tectonic shearing and contain intercalated pyritic and clacareous mudrocks. Nariva and Moruga mudrocks. it is 119 . show that they are found at tectonically shearedthrust fault contacts.0 cm wide and 1 mm thick. Careful removal of the outer 10 cm of soil from the cut surfaces revealed gypsum crystals.5 cm long. 0. Lengua. Immediately before and during the time of the study. Mudrock slopes which show all of the following combination of characteristics are the ones most likely to be affected by recurrent and long term slope instability. In addition. Are affected by seepage and interflow. Are deeply weathered. 1971) has aiso shown that slopes reported to have gypsum and also with a high landslide frequency and distribution are found within tectonically sheared and intercalated pyritic and calcareous mudrocks. Site investigations have shown that the precipitation of this expansive sulphate in Trinidad is largely controlled by the presence and distribution of tectonic and geological contacts.5 m deep. of pyritic and calcareous mudrocks. for determination of the effective soil volume changes associated with seasonal moisture fluxes. Highly sheared lithologies. This suggests a strong geological control on the precipitation of this expansive sulphate. analysis of the lithostratigraphy of their soil sample sites.52. These were found at 1. such as in faulted and sheared lithologies. 1952 and Government of Trinidad and Tobago. Analysis of soil survey data from previous land capability studies (Chenery.season revealed euhedral crystals of gypsum. Site investigations at excavated landslide sites. Government of Trinidad and Tobago (1971) reports gypsum in soils weathered from noncalcareous clay shales (largely pyritic) in this and adjacent watersheds. 6. These further investigations will assist in determination of insitu behaviour of these weathered mudrock in this part of the island. are the most likely and favourable sites. This further supports the hypothesis that the precipitation of gypsum is geologically controlled. these data will be useful in selection of suitable slope 5 IMPLICATIONS FOR SLOPE INSTABILITY The precipitation of gypsum in tectonically sheared and intercalated mudrocks can lead to an increase in potential soil heave and increase the likelihood of slope instability under rainfall conditions. 1. 7. Adjacent weathering profiles also contained similar deposits. Ground heaving and landslides due the presence of gypsum is common at many roadsites in Brasso. Contain many discontinuities. These site investigations will be suplemented by insitu and laboratory wet chemical analysis of soil constituents to determine soil chemistry and further geotechnical parameters. Further site investigations are planned for unstable slopes in similar weathered mudrocks. Further. plausible to infer the following regarding the identification of problematic slopes and unstable ground. Receive high rainfall and 8.
Q. 1960. S. 20: 4157. Soil Sci. A. G.. Maharaj is gratefully acknowledged. ASTM. New York. Richards (eds). Chenery. C. Cardiffa case study of ground floor heave due to gypsum growth.. consolidated clays.stabilization and remediation technologies for these and geologically similar areas. 1988.101. Trinidad and Tobago. Hawkins. B. A. 1988. 1973. Geotextiles. 16. G. Government Printing Office. C. 158A: 5767. Anon. Chemical and biochemical weathering of pyritic mudrocks in a shale embankment. 21 : 8589. Philadelphia. 1969. 1990a. Tropical residual soils. 107: 166174. Q. Eng. J Eng. Writing of this paper was facilitaed by resources secured during tenure as a Commonwealth SecretariaVCFTC Expert at SOPAC. Annual Book ofASTMStandards. J. Building Stones. Geol. and Cripps. Soil Sci. and Thompson. Genesis. 23: 1 . Geological map of Trinidad and geological sections. Q. Penella C. Pye. f Trinidad. J. Cause and significance of heave at Llandough Hospital. Soils o central Trinidad. Weathering effects: slopes in mudrocks and over120 . Fiji. Sci. Trinidad. chemical properties and mineralogy of Caribbean grumusols. Government of Trinidad and Tobago. Geol.. R K. classification and weathering processes. In: M. M. 2 Sheets. REFERENCES W a d . Government Printing Office. R. Taylor. Field assistance by Peter Joseph and Hayden Chung are gratefully acknowledged. M.000. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by a Fellowship to the author funded by the Government of Japan and from research conducted at the Institute of Marine Affairs. J. Petroleum Association of Trinidad. M. B. 1959. R. K. R. Jour.and Jones. 53: 3 15323. Soil and Rock. Can. The careful editing of the manuscript by Mrs. 1990. Geol. J Eng. L. K and Miller. John Wiley. Slope Stability : 405445. I : 100. 1987. 1971. and Pinches. Geol. J. Eng. Amer. E. Jour. Q. N. Anderson and K. Microbial formation of basic ferric sulphates. Garrels. Vol. Soil and Land Capability Study of Trinidad: Vols. H. ASTM. M. 1987.08. Oxidation of pyrite in ferric sulphate solution. Kugler. K. 04. 1952. E. Ivarson. Coal measures mudrocks: composition. Taylor. 23: 365381.
Namely. Suou. M. Yagi. Yumuguchi. cut slopes consisting of Sangun metamorphic in Yamaguchi prefecture have easily failed at not only very nearly this site but also other sites. but also elastic prospecting. Bore hole ring shear tests and direct shear tests were performed as well in order to evaluate the strength parameters of the weathered soils of both rocks. These serpentinite and schist are subjected to a penetration of granite and have hornfels structure. Rotterdam. Shirzshu UrziverJih. Uhe. The strength parameters of weathered soils used for a design of slope stability analysis are also proposed. a method of determining the relationship between rock class and Pwave velocity is suggested and a mode of estimating rock class of a slope is illustrated. The third author et al.Umez& Department of'Ci\il Engineering. and bore hole velocity logging were performed. Japan. The strength parameters of weathered soils used for a design of slope stability analysis was also proposed. Jupur2 T. 1 INTRODUCTION In a hill consisting of Sangun metamorphic rocks in the north of Ubeshi in Yamaguchi prefecture. Japan.Slope Stability Engineering. 1997 & 1998). In the narrow sense. The Sangun metamorphic rock at this site is of Suou type. Japun ABSTRACT A plan for the improvement of a public road was made regarding a hill which included slopes consisting of serpentinite and schist in the north of Ubeshi of Yamaguchi prefecture. and Chizu metamorphic rocks according to formative year and process (Nishimura & Matsusato 1991).Aoki & T. it became very important to examine the stability of the cut slopes. In order to classify rock class for the stability analysis of these cut slopes. Kitamura. Ymmguchi Uniwr yity. electric prospecting. Suzuki Depurtment of Civil Erigineeririg . Serpentinite e x i s t s only at the wedge of granite. a plan for the improvement of a public road was made.Yamamoto & M. Based on these tests. electric prospecting. Furthermore. not only standard penetration tests but also elastic prospecting. some serpentine have altered to olivine. the geology is composed of Sangun metamorphic rock consisting of serpentinite and schist which were formed during the Triassic period in Mesozoic (about 200 Ma year). N u p n o . From the view point of the above. and disappears in the north to the south direction in which schist is excelled. Yamagami& Jiang (51 1999 Balkema.Jupun T. and 2) determination the strength parameters of the weathered soils of serpentinite and schist. In order to address the second issue. both insitu ring shear tests and 121 direct shear tests were performed on the weathered soils of both rocks. in the case of the schist shown in Photograph 1. In the case of the serpentinite shown in Photograph 2. Nishikawa I l b k m Geotech Company Limited. Due to the cutting of the slopes consisting of serpentinite and pelitic schist (hereafter called schist) in four steps. In order to address the first issue. On the basis of these test results. and bore hole velocity logging were performed. Areas of serpentinite and schist from a few meters to 10 meters wide are distributed alternatively in the . Sangun metamorphic rocks are classified into SangunRenge. a lot of biotite is observed.1996 a & b. an estimated classification of rock class of a cut slope was illustrated. the examination of the following two issues in the cutting of slopes at the this site became necessary: 1) estimation the rock class of serpentinite and schist relating to the difference of the degree of weathering. Thus the weathered soils of Sangun metamorphic rocks have historically considered problematic. due to heavy rainfall during and at the end of the rainy seasons. not only standard penetration tests. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Investigation of cut slope consisting of serpentinite and schist H. 2 INSITU GEOLOGY As shown in Figure 1. have investigated the failed slopes and have described many properties of soils which were formed by the weathering of both rocks (Yamamoto et a1.
Photograph I . weathered soil with a schistosity of 70 O in the northern direction. since this site has a very complex geology consisting of serpentinite and . biotite.Figure 1. plagioclase). quartz. east . Serpentinite with a distinguishable foliated structure exists only at the edges of schist and ranges from about 10 meters to about 1 m width. The boundary between both rocks inclines steeply in a northern direction. Schist at the outcrop is altered to 122 Photograph 2. pl. Polarization . Polarization . 3 INVESTIGATED ITEMS As mentioned above.microscope photograph of schist under crossed nicols (qz.microscope photograph of serpentinite under crossed nicols (ser. 01.west direction in a belt or a lenslike rock body. Most serpentinite observed at the outcrop is composed of hard massive rock. bt. Investigated place and its geology. olivine). serpentine.
show the (V. 4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROCK CLASS AND V. the following four insitu tests were vigorously performed: 1)Standard penetration test (16 points) 2) Elastic prospecting (Total length:850 m) 3) Electric prospecting (Total length:850m) 4) Bore hole velocity logging (4 points) In order to obtain the strength parameters of the weathered soils. no distinct relationship was observed between both velocities of both rocks’ Pwaves because the test data are considerably scattered. Rock class. and the Pwave velocity obtained by bore hole velocity logging (V. average Nvalue and unit weight of weathered soil and soft rock. it was thought impossible to understand its entire geology only by means of boring data. and 123 . Figures 2 (a) and (b) show the distributions of Nvalues in depth on C line and E line shown in Figure 1. respectively.respectively. The distribution of Nvalue in depth on E line shown in Figure 1.). As can be seen in Figure 3.. the following two shear tests were performed. sand. D. 1)Bore hole ring shear test 2) Direct shear test Bore hole ring shear tests are said to be applicable to many soils and rocks such as clay. Table 1. schist. respectively. serpentinite and schist. and their weathered soils. Figures 4 and 5. So. for serpentinite and schist. and D. Figure 2 (b). were classified into C.). classes according to Nvalue. and soft rock The details of the test apparatus and method have been described elsewhere (Yunoki et al.2 As shown in Table 1. The distribution of Nvalue in depth on C line shown in Figure 1. and their weathered soils.Figure 2 (a).4 23.). unit Serpentinit 207 100 241 21. Figure 3 represents the relationship between the Pwave velocity obtained by elastic prospecting (V. 1995 a & b).
Variation of (V. serpentinite is smaller than the (V.).Figure 3.CL. of schist. It is seen in Figure 4 that the (V. with geology and rock class.. when the rock class becomes more conducive to slope stability.). Furthermore. Variation of resistivity with geology and rock class.). Comparison of (V. of the C. with (V.). Figure 5. Figure 4.). Variation of (V. In contrast. 124 .. no distinct difference was dxerved between the (V.DD. namely.).). of both rocks and weathered soils increases when the rock class change in the order of D. (v. it is found from Figure 5 that since the (V. in case that the same rock class the (VJe of Figure 6. and their weathered soils according to rock class. with geology and rock class. of the C. Bore hole velocity logging is Figure 7. The distribution of estimated rock class for cut slope. class has become small. of serpentinite and schist.).). and DH chsses.
classes. D.0 7.14 is remarkably small as compared to other values. In the case of weathered soils of schist. In the case of weathered soils of schist.0 km/s is a boundary value for the distinction between the D. Table 3. Their Nvalues are also shown in this table. l4 ' 'eO 14. Rock class D.0 kN/m2. Strength parameters for a design.1 . (b ' values of weathered soils of serpentinite and schist existed within a comparatively small scattering..0 kN/m2. bore hole ring shear tests could be applicable for various soils.8 (kN/m2) 7. As seen in the above results.No. In the case of weathered soils of serpentinite. both average values were 27. average values of @ ' and c' were 24.7" .=l. 0 '=17. Results of direct shear tests.7 6.0 3. Results of bore hole ring shear tests. On the basis of this.@' ranged between 17. respectively.0 26. and their weathered soils.6" and 6. This insitu soil corresponds to the D. the resistivity of both rocks and their weathered soils was very low. 0 of weathered soils of 125 .!I' and cohesion c' of weathered soils obtained by the bore hole ring shear tests carried out at each bore hole.5 .0 " . D. the classifications of geology and rock class in areas with no boring data were determined as follows: 1) Because there exists no distinct difference of The (V.25. (V. and the relationship of resistivity and rock class.11.5 25. an estimated rock class classification of the cut slope (B line in Figure 1) was determined as shown in Figure 7.30.1 m of Bor.. and this may affect test results.25.Table 2. 10 35 50 13 25. between serpentinite and schist. is not so distinguishable as compared with that for serpentinite.0 1 5 STRENGTH PARAMETERS WEATHERED SOILS OF Table 4. 1 I cd 1 2 Serpentinite Schist 28. and D. As can be seen in Table 3. Except for this (b '=17. D. Relationship between cohension and depth for weathered soils obtained from bore hole ring shear tests.0 13. Figure 6 shows the relationship between the resistivity obtained by electric prospecting and rock class. classes.5 c'=D(Depth) carried out by packing loose sand around the pipe.5 km/s is a boundary value for Table 2 shows the internal friction angle (. class. As seen in this figure.O . both rocks were treated as the same rock class.0 (kN/m2)  25'0 29. In contrast.0 . c' values of both weathered soils existed over a wide range.0 . and C. As can be seen in Table 2. for schist.0 Serpentinite Schist Schist Serpentinite Serpen D.0 kN/m2.0 Figure 8. 1 : i \ ... the distinction between the D.0 11.).0 19.1.8 17. D.0 25. 7 0' () C' (kN/m3) 18. @ ' ranged between 22.2 29.0" of weathered soil of schist at a depth=14. 2) (V.2" and 9. respectively.). in the case of weathered soils of serpentinite.0 kN/m2. As mentioned before. and c' ranged between 3. Table 3 shows the strength parameters of block sampled specimens of weathered soils obtained by the direct shear tests under submerged conditions.0 .& =2. 18.2" and c' ranged between 1.
and D. Yunoki.1996b. T.2 and 29. Sehara.1995a Study on residual strength tests by direct ring shear test. 1998. the strength parameters of both rocks’ weathered soils used for a design of stability analysis were measured. Yamaguchi prefecture. M. REFERENCES Nishimura. h illustrated Book of rocks in Yamaguchi prefecture. Symposium on method and application of direct type shear test.. M. It is noticed in Figure 8 that 5 data among 9 data exist on or near this straight line irrespective of the kind of rock. (Vp)e.1997. Takano.pressure transition in soilsampled by direct ring shear test. 4150 (in Japanese). 36(1). respectively. T. Journal of Japan Landslide Society. respectively. ..). the internal friction angles of weathered soils of the D. & Morioka. Nishimura. 1996a. Y. Thus these internal friction angles of both weathered soils obtained by direct shear tests are 2 . respectively. 44( 11)’ 912 (in Japanese). Rempo. & Yagisawa. Y.5 . Y. (V. Also. Takano..) were investigated in the cut slopes in the Sangun metamorphic region in which serpentinite and pelitic schist are distributed in a complex way and show different degree of weathering. ISTOHOKU ’98. 2122 (in Japanese). Yamamoto. H. Y. 34(3).but not with the velocity of Pwave obtained by bore hole velocity logging. M.. The cohesion (kN/m2) was given as the sampled depth (m). Yamamoto. 126 .. Nakamori. Nishimura. Yamamoto. The straight line in this figure shows the relationship of c’(kN/m2) = z (m). No distinguishable difference between the strength parameters of weathered serpentinite and schist soils were obtained by bore hole ring shear tests and direct shear tests.5” for D. since no distinct difference was observed between the strength parameters of weathered soils of serpentinite and schist obtained by insitu and laboratory tests. & Sehara.. Yunoki.8 . classes were determined as 25. TsuchitoKiso (the Japanese Geotechnical Society). 713716 (in Japanese).4 ” larger than those obtained by the bore hole ring shear tests. Daiichi Gakusyusya Ltd. Domestic Edition of Soils and Foundations. Sawtype slope failure in the Sangun metamorphic region. 283290 ( i n Japanese). 6 ’is 25. Also. CONCLUSIONS The relationships between rock class anf Pwaqve velocity (V. Y. 1 9 9 1 . K. Figure 8 represents the relationship between c’ obtained by the bore hole ring tests and the tested depth z. the levels cohesion of weathered soils obtained by direct shear tests range between those obtained by bore hole ring tests. Takamoto. T.serpentinite and schist are 28.T.Ohara. it will be necessary to examine the reason why the data fit or not fit the relationship of c’(kN/m2) = z (m). This relationship has often been adopted in cases of determining c’ in the simple inverse analysis of a landslide. M. K. Namely.0 and 29.S. the strength parameters used for the stability analysis of the cut slopes were proposed according to D. & Sehara.. Landslide at the Sangun metamorphic Region the case of Ube . As mentioned above. Some geotechnical engineering properties of weathered soils on failed slope in the Sangun metamorphic region. and DH classes as summarized in Table 4.shi. Hereafter. and D classes. 1995b. M. 6. Proceedings of the international symposium on problematic soils. 123132 (in Japanese). Characteristics cut slopes consisting of Sangun metamorphic rocks which have failed due to heavy rainfall in Yamaguchi prefecture. T. & Matsusato.. M. N.537540.0 and 29. Inspection tests of pore . Proceedings of 30th Japan National Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering. The results are summarized as follow: Classification of rock class has a good correlation with the velocity of Pwave obtained by elastic prospecting. Yamamoto. H c’ (kN/m2) for both classes is given as the sampled depth (m). Y. On the basis of this result. & Rempo..
Yagi. Canada J. J. Gal$. Prior 1993. producing a fan of 60 sensors with 2. This technique couples various tools including the swath mapping system itself and differential GPS. Hughes Clarke et al. Urgeles et al. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Using multibeam sonar surveys for submarine landslide investigations J. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. taken from various locations around the world. University of New Brunswick. can provide precise bathymetric information at such a density that a detailed map of the seafloor can be produced (Bellaiche 1993. 1991) For nearly a decade now. this system is at its best for water depths between about 10 to 600m.. most of the analyses had to rely on sidescan sonar and seismic surveys. Bathymetry data from multiple sources can also be merged (Orange 1999). E. Hughes Clarke & E. not withstanding the mechanical properties and pore water conditions. Schwab et al. 2. Locat Department of Geology and Geological Engineering. While the sonar can operate in water depths ranging from as little as 3m to up to 1000m. The sonar is capable of resolving a water depth at an accuracy as little as 0. The greater the number of transmitters and higher frequencies will provide more precise bathymetric information. The EMlOOO works at a frequency of 95 kHz. A major limitation of these techniques was the complexity of integrating them into a homogeneous system whereby the inherent morphological distortions due to the data acquisition process would be corrected. The data is collected along a path (Figure lc) in order to cover all the survey area with an overlap percentage depending on the accuracy required. Canada ABSTRACT: Multibeam sonar surveys have been carried out in areas where submarine mass movements have been identified. This was particularily true for large landslides (Moore and Normark 1994. At the same time. USA L. For submarine landslides. Menlo Park. This paper will focus on illustrating the use of such a technique for the geomorphological analysis of submarine slides. 1997). 1. The ship speed can be as high as 14 127 . can be used for water depths of less than 100m. Mayer.3" beam widths over a total angular swath sector of 150". a more portable and recent version of the EMlOOO system. Lava1 University.Slope Stability Engineering. Mitchell 1991. Lee United States Geological Survey. More attention will be given to the Saguenay Fjord where two surveys (1993 and 1997) were conducted over the same area of the fjord.YGardner & H. In most cases. MULTIBEAM SONAR SURVEY TECHNIQUE Multibeam techniques use an acoustic signal emitted from a series of transmitters mounted on the hull of a vessel (Figure 1). The analysis of Saguenay fjord data will also show that this methodology can be use to precisely monitor landslide prone areas. and until recently.4" by 3. some examples. The overlap assures a minimum of redundancy in the data and helps increase the precision of the measurements. Rotterdam. an overlap of 150% is correct. will be presented to illustrate the diversity and scale of subaquatic mass movements. the resulting images provide a airphotographlike picture of the sea floor which enable a detailed morphological analysis.. 1991. when coupled with differential positioning. The EM3000. Que.25%. Kammerer Ocean Mapping Group. N B. INTRODUCTION The analysis of subaerial landslides must be done with an adequate knowledge of the morphology and stratigraphy. After corrections for ship movement and tide. Since most of the examples provided herewith were obtained by means of EM1000. 1996) and. 1996). multibeam techniques have been developed (Lee et al. The EM1000 can be mounted on a vessel a small as 8 m (Figure lb). we will focus on this technique to illustrate the methodology (Hughes Clarke et al. Li and Clark 1991. Fredericton.
At the same time.knots without loss of accuracy. Schematic deployement of a multibeam sonar survey with vessel types (a and b) and track pattern (c). If space permits. The same area was also revisited in 1997 after a major flood event (Kammerer et al. Jean Vianney slide. 1993). i. Canada. Results of the 1997 survey are used to detail the geomorphology of the fan complex. a sonic velocity profile of the water column was obtained for the first 75 m to take into account changes in tides and currents.e. many seismic and sonar surveys had revealed the presence of other major submarine slide features (Locat and Bergeron 1988. the acoustic velocity is corrected by a series of acoustic profiles taken during the survey. 3. ship movement and position (S) with differential GPS. 1996). MULTIBEAM SURVEYS: EXAMPLES The following examples are taken from various places around the world. The overall aspect of data reduction and analysis has been presented by Hughes Clarke (1997). Between 1984 and 1993.g.e. From seismic and coring data. al. The water column is stratified with a surface freshwater layer of about 5m in thickness. The Saguenay Fjord survey covers the upper part of the fjord at water depths ranging from 0 to 225 m Figure 2). the largest subaerial one being the St. slides and debris flows. Jean Vianney slide totaling a volume of more than 200 millions cubic metres. major submarine landslides took place in the upper reaches of the fjord so that a complex fan was constructed at the mouth of the Bras Nord (Figure 2b). The area provides a fairly quiet environment so that sea conditions are nearly perfect so as to ensure the best results. the depth of the failure plane would be at about 1520 m. 1998). The Saguenay Fjord region has frequent major earthquakes (e. The fan itself is cut by two channels a few Figure 1. It is believed that this earthquake triggered a series of major land and submarine slides. Locat and Bergeron 1988. It is located 200 km northeast of QuCbec City. retrogressive slide. movement illustrated hereafter are: rock avalanches. Hampton et al. onboard post treatment can be completed for a quick production of the various maps. 1993. the fan appears composed of clayey debris flow deposits mantled by a thin layer (less than 2 m) of turbidite (with a typical sandy layer at its base) sediments derived mostly from the onland St. 6. The type of mass 128 . In addition.1 Saguenay Fjord landslides and debris flows The Saguenay Fjord was one of the first sites where a multibeam sonar survey was carried out to map submarine landslides (Couture et al. A major retrogressive slide is also visible which extends on almost the total length of this part of the fjord. At regular intervals. the largest historic one occurring in 1663 (Locat and Leroueil 1988. Figure 2d). Indications are given for major component. On the lower part of the Bras Nord we could map few slides as evidenced by compressive deformation at their base. i. over about 6 km (Figure 2c).3 in 1988). Syvitski and Schafer 1996) for which an equivalent Richter Scale of nearly 8 was given. Pelletier and Locat 1993) but a clear picture could only be assembled after a multibeam survey conducted in 1993 (Couture et. Precise differential positioning. tide data and data correction related to ship movement are essential. From seismic surveys. 3.
Figure 2. illustrating the use of sunilluminated (from the east) multibeam sonar bathymetry from the 1997 survey. as circular type failure while the centre of the Bras Nord shows retrogressive failures extending over few kilometres towards the north. Failures are clearly seen along the edge of the fjord. Morphological analysis of the upper part of the Saguenay Fjord. QuCbec. “a” refers to Figure 3.5 kHz seismic surveys of some landslide features. S1 and S2 are SEISTEK and 3. Insert in b shows details of the fan complex. Canada. 129 .
hundred metres in width and flanked by escarpments which are about 10 m high. 1998). “a”: plane view. any future movements could be detected and calculated. Evaluating 1996 Saguenay Fjord catastrophic flood deposit by comparing the two multibeam sonar surveys of 1993 and 1997 (Kammerer et al. 1996) the thickness of the debris deposit varies from about 20 m in the lower part of the slope to less than lm. From seismic records (Hampton et al. the variation in the thickness of the flood layer at about 5m.Figure 4. As indicated above. California The Palos Verdes slide (Figure 4). The head scarp is about 500m high and the slope varies between 1520’. In “a” the white color represent the 1997 bathymetry above the 1993. This example illustrates well the potential of this technology to make accurate pre and post measurements. In “b” we show the three cross sections where both 1993 and 1997 depth profiles are compared. had long been recognized on reflection seismic logs (Hampton et al. As shown in Figure 3b. the 1997 survey was able to estimate 130 . the second (1997) multibeam sonar survey provided an opportunity to test the reliability of the system (Kammerer et al. The vertical resolution of the system is about 25 cm for a depth of lOOm which corresponds to the maximum water depth in the area shown in Figure 3. The slide took place along a steep escarpment and traveled a distance of about 10 km on the sea floor.2 Palos Verdes slide. If used in an active landslide area or a potentially unstable area. The “x” points at the northwest extent of the detachment area (Source USGS). “b” 3D view. off Los Angeles. 1996). 3. Palos Verdes slide. The debris were dispersed over a wide area shown in figure 4b. 10 Figure 3. 1998).
Most rocks in the area were produced by volcanic activity. 5b. These large scale mass movements involve very large volumes Figure 5. The headscarp of the slide is about 5 km wide and the debris reached a distance of up to about 10 km near the centre of the lake. the material should be made of stiff sediments. is located between two major faults. According to the slope geometry and the blocky morphology still observable in the runout zone. one of the deepest lakes in the United States. The 3D bathymetry picture shown in Figure 5a represents the study area which can be divided into two parts. Spain The Canary Islands submarine slides (Urgeles et al. 1999) or a large deep seated submarine failure (Lee et al. The water depth range in this image is from zero to about 200 m near the shelf break and about 500m near the base of the slope. 1997) were initiated along the flanks of the islands (Figure 7). km away from the base of the slope. Eel River Margin. In such a case. 1999). The multibeam sonar survey of the lake was carried out in 1998 (Gardner et al. the detailed description of the morphology is an essential part of the analysis (Goff et al. The lake is at an elevation of 1900m. a: swath bathymetry sun illuminated 3D map.preserved in the stratigraphic record (Nitttrouer 1999). Fig. 1999). The northern part. 1981.5 Canary Islands rock avalanches. Lake Tahoe. b: Huntec seismic section with the location shown in "a".3 Humboldt slide. 3. The image shown in Figure 4 appears to illustrate a process of continuing instability development towards the northeast. The La Palma rock avalanche is also partly visible on the left side of the Figure 7. Orange 1999). 1999.4 Lake Tahoe rock avalanche Lake Tahoe is located at the boundary between California and Nevada. The landscape itself has been localy modified by glaciers. 1998). The north flank in the starting zone appears to be limited by strong lineament systems intersecting at an angle of about 130" (see arrows in Figure 6a). The avalanche spreads from an elevation of about lOOOm above sea level to a depth between 3000 and 4000m with a run out distance at about 50 km. Lee et al. The nature of the material involved in the slide remains to be determined. One component of this study is to understand sediment stability and transport (Lee et al. California The Eel River Margin example was obtained as part of a study related to a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the process by which sedimentary strata are deposited. For this work. the EM1000 was mounted on a small vessel (8 m long. Gardner et al. 1999 for discussion). The slope itself is at an angle of about 3" to 6" and the slope break is at about 20 km from the shoreline. 3. Humboldt Slide. lb). modified and ultimately 131 . The southern sector is characterized by a semicircular feature which may represent the amphitheatre of a large sheardominated retrogressive failure (Fig. 3. Some lumps of isolated debris are of the order of 100 m in length. California (see Gardner et al. which present a regular slope with more or less regularly spaced gullies. Eel River margin. with an average thickness of 5 to 1Om. located to the north of the anticline (a small sea mount in the middle on the slope). including the Sierra Nevada fault which is located about two kilometers west of the lake. 1999 and Lee et al.
the work carried out in Lake Tahoe has demonstrated that the system can be efficiently mounted on a small vessel thus showing that multibeam sonar surveys can be carried out in more restricted areas. as it now provides information nearly equivalent to aerial photography or radar images. a: plan view of the debris avalanche area.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Recent multibeam sonar survey systems and their required software for data analysis now provide the engineering community with a powerful and reliable tool to map the sea floor with very high precision. El Golfo debris avalanches off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands. In addition. Urgeles et al. These results illustrate the monitoring Figure 6 . were able to show morphological changes associated with flood deposits. 1997) 132 . conducted at a four year interval. 1998 for details). minute features revealed in 1993 were also observed in 1997. This example also illustrates the coupling of land and marine elevation data. Figure 7. This type of mass movement is very similar to those reported by Moore and Normark (1994) for the Hawaiian Islands. Lake Tahoe debris avalanche (see Gardner et al.(few cubic kilometres) and cover large areas of the sea floor (up to 2600 km2). Spain. The recently developed EM3000 is a portable system which will provide nearly a tenfold improvement in bottom morphology definition for water depths less than 100m. At the same time.and runouts reaching 70 km (Urgeles et al. b: 3D view looking towards the west. With this technique. The experience of the Saguenay Fjord has shown that two surveys. 1997). we can now really talk in terms of “submarine remote sensing”. with the arrows pointing at lineament intersections. 4.
Israel.. Data thinning for chart production purposes. Lee. L.A. B. Marine Geology. Expedition B bord du F. SeaMarc I1 study of a giant submarine slump on the Northern Chile Continental Slope. Dartnell.. California. 1991. A.. Giant Hawaiian landslides. East Sea (Sea of Japan). J. J. Canada. 1999. and Godin.. S. and Field. Canadian Geotechnical Journal... J.D. R. Improving GLORIA images using SeaBeam data...A. Proceedings o the 13‘h Annual f OfLshore Technology Conference. N.A. C. Marine Geology. Etude B rebours de glissements sousmarins..S.. Kammerer.G.. 1999. northern California. Mayer. STRATAFORM: overview of its design and synthesis of its results. 26 pp. A. Mitchell.K. L. Prior. Hughes Clarke.. 1988.E.J. 18: 607629. Relevks bathymetriques au fjord du Saguenay B l’aide de 1’Cchosondeurmultifaisceaux SIMRAD EM. J. 97: 363377. Marine Geology.S. REFERENCES Bellaiche. Sansfaqon and N. M... H.1000.. fjord du Saguenay. Geological Survey.. Marine Geology.a large sheardominated retrogressive slope failure. Laval University. S. 1997.. A. and Leroueil. 1999. J. as revealed by comprehensive bathymetric and seismic surveys. and Wells. QuCbec. and Bergeron.A.. M.... 1999. 1988. Doucet. and Hughes Clarke J.. 154: 312. Reviews o Geophysics.V. Lee. Brian.. Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Sciences.. 1993. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank our supporting organizations including the U. and HughesClarke. Tectonics. Houston.. we like to thank Dr.. California.. and Field. Gardner. M. 34:3359. Li.. J.. 1998. S. f Submarine landslides. and Normark.A. Quebec). Hughes Clarke. and Locat. Report GREGI 93.. 1991. Marine Geophysical Research. Urgeles (University of Barcelona) for providing the example from the Canary Islands.. 1998. and erosion in northern California: submarine 133 . J.. University of New Brunswick. Mayer..A. J. Journal of Geophysical Research.C.C. Physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of recent Saguenay Fjord sediments.J. J. Canals and Dr. 10: 257268. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Hydraugraphic conference...: 338346.. Nittrouer. the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Fonds F.. Sedimentary mechanisms and underlying tectonic structures of the nortwestern Mediterranean margin.. Ocean Mapping Group. Geotechnical analysis of a submarine slump.G. 25: 382388. Detailed investigation of continental shelf morphology using a highresolution swath sonar survey: the Eel river margin.J. S. Marine Geotechnology. and Wong. 1993. Fredericton. L. Finally.. Edwards. Victoria.. 154: 323338. N. graduate student at Laval. H. Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering.. Moore. Chough. D. Orange. H.E.. Locat. pp. Quebec and P. J. Orange. 1lp. (1996). J.E. 154: 255269.. United geological Survey OpenFile Report 98509... L. this limited compilation has also provided an opportunity to showcase the diversity and scale of subaquatic landslides and related mass movements. 5. 17 p. In: Proceeedings of the 41”‘ Canadian Geotechnical Conference. Godin. Regional variability of slope stability: application to the Eel margin.E. Marine Geology. M.E.L. Monitoring temporal changes in seabed morphology and composition using multibeam sonars: a case study of the 1996 Saguenay rivers floods. Quebec. 1996. 1999. Lee. S. J.E. C. Doucet of the Institut Maurice Lamontagne at MontJoli. W. Humboldt Slide . E. H. Waterloo. 22: 119144. In addition. Shallowwater imaging multibeam sonars: A new tool for investigating seafloor processes in the coastal zone and on the continental shelf. and Clark. Couture. Hughes Clarke... and Han. We would also like to thank R.E. Chun. F. P. Locat. S. G. Gardner. 1991. A.E. the Office of Naval Research (STRATAFORM project). Hampton. Locat. Eureka.R. CalifroniaNevada.R. D. 154: 305321... (Ministry of Education. 112: 89108.. Mayer.B. Marine Geology. : 5365.J.potential of this technique in submarine landslide prone areas. The bathymetry of Lake Tahoe. Ont.16. pp. Messager. P. In: Coastal Multibeam Training Course. Lee. Locat. Creed.. D.V. Goff. sedimentation. 1994. and Babineau. Locat. Department of Geology and Geological Engineering. J. J. 96: 337351.. D. Therrien. M. Sediment failure on the Korean Plateau Slope. 1981. C8t6. R.
C. 1991. Urgeles. Alonso. W. Marine Geology. 2: 555581... W... John's.B. M. and Locat. (1997)....W. D. Prior. R. Pelletier.: 6782.pp. Submarine landslides: the value of high resolution geophysical survey for engineering. Newfoundland..C. St. Syvitski.G.. D. 96: 237246. J. Scanlon. K.. 134 .M.. 1996. Les glissements sousmarins dans la Bras Nord du fjord du Saguenay. and Masson.P. 1993.. West Hierro Island Journal o Geophysical Research.geomorphology and sediment preservation potential as a result of three competing processes. Sedimentary Geology. and Schafer. D. Canals.305 20. Pages 127153. Schwab. Canada. 154: 369382.The most recent megaslides on the Canary islands: The El Golfo debris avalanche and the Canary debris flow. A giant submarine slope failure on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico. 102 (B9): f 20.T. B. Evidence for an earthquaketriggered basin collapse in Saguenay Fjord. Masson. J. 1993.323.M. 14. M.. In: Proceedings of the 4'h Canadian Conference on Marine Geotechnical Engineering.. Marine Geology. Baraza. J. 104. Danforth. In: The royal Academy of Engineering Conference on: Landslides Hazard Mitigation with Particular Reference to Developing Countries.
Tamura & S.(1994) measured the pore water pressure at sliding surfaces and ascertained that landslides became active following rises in the pore water pressure. the groundwater levels. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Automatic measurement of pore water pressure in the hardrock slope and the sliding weatheredrock slope . Jupun ABSTRACT: It has been shown in general researches that one of the causes of the landslide is the rise of the pore water pressure.3. R i f l i anal s heavy in the rainy season and the typhoon season from July to September. However. The area around the slopes surveyed 135 . Underlying the strata was hard rock. Higaki. we examined the start time and the disappearance time of the rise of the pore water pressure.. 2. The slope was 280480 m above sea level and in a convex shape 2oom high (Fig. and the relation between the fluctuation of pore water pressure and the time elapsed was studied from a disasterpreventivepoint of view.K.Field survey in mountainous region in Shikoku Island. and each bore was clogged above the gauge with bentonite and cement milk to isolate the groundwater(Fig. In the initial phase of rockslides and rock€& in particular. in the Sanbagawa Belt. which was 55 m deep in the upper part of the slope and 12 m deep in the lower part. The rock slope surveyed was located in the Chichibu Belt. there were performed not many studies in which the fluctuation of pore water pressure was observed in sites in relation to the occurrence of landslides. has an annual rainfall of 2. The rise of the pore water pressure causes initial rockslides and rockfalls in particular. Rotterdam.ooOm high.D. The horizontal bore was divided into three chambers with airpackers to measure the spoutingwater pressure. The measured pore water pressures were converted into groundwater levels. OF SLOPES AND The geology of the central mountainous region in Shikoku Island is characterized by metamorphic rocks of the Sanbagawa Belt and sedimentary rocks of the Chichiiu Belt. concluding that rises in pore water pressure cause landslides. The groundwater levels in the vertical bores were measured with waterpressure gauges. Matsuka Yonden Consultunts Compuny Incorporated. sandstone. The groundwater level was around the upper surface of the hard rock Vertical bores Al. 1). In this study. 1). et al. Landslides occurs frequently in these geologicalbelts. pore water pressure in the rock slope and the sliding weatheredrock slope on a mountainous region in Shikoku Island were continuously measured. With regard to the disaster prevention of the landslide and the rockfall. These strata slanted downward by 15" and ran along the slope. and 5 and a horizontal bore B1of a 76mm diameter were made in the slope (Fig. 1965).Slope Stability Engineering. the gradually sliding weatheredrock slope. there were differencesof 16m between the converted water levels 2 GEOLOGICAL RAINF.75Omm. as shown in Fig. In the same bore.To measure the pore water pressure in the bedrock. 3 MEASUREMENT OF PORE WATER PRESSURE I N HARD ROCK SLOPE The hardrock slope rested on the end of a ridge of a mountain range 1.2. We continuously measured the groundwater level and the pore water pressure in the slope of the rock and the slope of the weatheredrock slide in the mountain range in Shikoku which has an annual amount of rainfall from 2000mm to 3000mm. The result of our research clearly shows the start time of the rise of the pore water pressure in heavy rain. 3). a porewaterpressuregauge was set at the bottom of each vertical bore. 1INTRODUCTION The rise of pore water pressure is regarded as a cause of landslides oaniguchi and Fujiwara. Yagi. slate.and chert of the Chichibu Belt. Kugawa. The geology of the slope consisted of the strata of greenstone. Warning time of landslide is half a day or one and a half days after the stream flow had begun to increase or the beginning of the heavy rain.2502. Yamagami & Jiang (01999 Balkema. its involvement seems significant. Japan E. (1991) and Shiraishi. Personal computers were used and data were collected Continuously.
Geological profile of hard rock slope.Figure 2. 136 .
(i) the stream flow already began to increase long before. the latter tending to be higher. while it was rainingcontinuously. The pore water pressure and the water levels in the bores changed under daily rainfall of 50 mm or more. although data are somewhat dispersed depending on the raining patterns and the watersaturated condition of the ground before the rains. and (iii) it i 10hours or so before the pore water pressure s reaches a peak.and the measured water levels. The time Werence between the first event (for the surface water) and the second event (for the upperstratum water) was 12 hours or so. (ii) the pore water pressure also began to rise a short while before. According to the data of the table. This suggests that the appropriate time zone to be wamed of landslides and m Ms is fiom the k l point of half a day after the stream flow’s increaseto the point of one and a half day after the same. Besides. 1993. then the water levels in the vertical bores and the spoutingwaterpressure in the portion of the horizontal bore with the shallow section. and the time difTerencebetween the second event (for the upperstratum water) and the tid event (for the lowerstratum water) hr was 45 hours (Fig. 5). 9. the stream flow increased first. T f i c on National Highway running by the survey area is regulated when continuous rainfall reaches 250 m.Under the rainfallof 671 mm during the period of July 2630. the relation between the starting times of increase in the stream flow and the pore water pressure in the bedrock was studied. presenting larger changes in the upper and middle parts of the slope and smaller changes in the lower part. and the increase of the groundwater levels and the rise of the pore water pressure in the bores in the middle part of the slope. the pore water pressure began to increase about 10 hours. Data were collected fiom the stream and the bore A2 in six cases of continuous rainfall of 50600 mm (Table 1). and reached its peak 2030 hours. There were observed time differences among the increase of the stream flow below the slope.and thereafter the pore water pressure in the vertical bores and the spouting water pressure in the portion of the horizontal bore wt ih the deep d o n . after the stream flow had begun to increase (Table 1 and Fig. 137 . A tendency can be read from Table 1: at the point in time when rainfall reaches the level of 250 mm.
Automatic measurement of pore water pressure and groundwater levels in bores on rock slope. 138 .Figure 5.
Figure 7. n 139 . Automatic measurement of pore water pressure in bed bedrock. Automatic measurement of pore water pressure i sliding weatheredrock slope.Figure 6.
Tie ous rainfall Hourly Jul.OOO m high. proceedings of ChugokuShikoku Branch of Japanese Society of Applied Geology.7 typhoon No. A vinyl chloride pipe was provided at the bottom of the bore and the upper portion of the bore was cemented so that underground water would enter the bore only from the clay of the slip surface. Observation ofpore waterpressure on slipsu$ace for landslide control works. & Yoshimatsu. 140 . Observation of groundwater levels with selfrecording water level meter. and took seven days or so to decrease to the prerain level (Fig. 1993 Jul. 1993 Nov. it can be said that the time when the pore water pressure increases coincides generally with the time when the sliding displacement (XXLlrs. H. & Kawamura. 78. 1997. taking Owcita Landslide as example. Nishimura. the pore water pressure increased at a time from half a day after the beginning of rainfall to one and a half days after the same. 2527. Proceedings of Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Symposium. 2. 2328. The pore water pressure in the clay forming the slip surface was measured in the center of the sliding block A bore was made down to the slip surface. 1965. Taniguchi. (mm) 671 (mm/h) (mm/d) 36 288 5 17 29 Oct. Porewater pressure fluctuations in some landslide areas. 1994. 13 typhoon _ _ 100 89" "*" Mark are the time period that each raintook to reach a rainfallof 250 mm. k et al. Although the slope of the present study was not in ~ t u r a state due to the measures l taken to reduce the sliding displacement. 283 : 916. after the stream flow had begun to increase. 1994 43 126 461 342 6 12 42 27 28 88 281 119 41 7 16 55 ~ Almost no change A low 68 ~  14 _ 27 29 84 18 74 36 22" 1 1 58 area and a front _ No. 1213. & Fujiwara. the pore water pressure began to rise about 10 hours. Investigation and analysk of landslides. 7). S. 1994 Aug. 1997). K. & Yoshida. Shiraishi. and 57 m deep. 4 MEASUREMENT OF PORE W m R PRESSURE IN SLIDING WEATHEREDROCK SLOPE The sliding weatheredrock slope was composed of pelitic schist in the Sanbagawa Belt and located on the end of a ridge of a mountain range 1. 1015. Under daily rainfall of 101)300 mm. M. In the sliding weatheredrock slope. REFERENCES Higaki. & Sakamoto. 4). & Maruyama. K. M.. K. D. 1991. A water pressure gauge was set at the bottom of the bore to measure the water level in the bore continuously and determine the pore water pressure (Fig. A similar phenomenon was observed in the study performed to measure continuously the ground water levels in a landslide area in Sanbagawa Belt in Tokushima Prefecture (Nishimura. Rikohtosho. and the pressure took a week or so to retum to its normal level. 70 m long. K. The landslide was 40 m wide. Journal of Japan Landslide Society. the pore water pressure increased rapidly at a time in the period from the point of half a day after the beginning of rainfall to the point of one and a halfdays after the same. T. 5 CONCLUSIONS The main finding of the present study about the pore water pressure under heavy daily rainfalls of 100 mm or more are as follows: 1. and reached a peak 2030 hours. In the nonsliding hardrock slope.
It is qualitatively wellknown that these slope failures occur due to the seepage of rainwater into unsaturated soil and the increase in water content. and then some measuring results are presented and discussed* Fig. Shirasu in Japanese. The surface ground in Kagoshima Prefecture is almost covered with the volcanic products such as pyloclastic flow deposits including pumice and falling ash. Kitamura. The change in suction and rainfall are shown with time. When heavy rains fall every rainy season. In this paper the field measuring system is introduced. Jomoto. Japan. 1999). In order to prevent natural disasters due to slope failures our laboratory has started to measure the suction and rainfall at several points in Kagoshima Prefecture. dairy and monthly change in suction with time is discussed to predict the slope failure.Terachi Kugoshirna UniversiQ Japctn H. weathered igneous rock and so on. Our laboratory started to measure the suction and rainfall in the field to make the seepage behavior of rainwater into surface ground clear (Kitamura et al. In this paper the field measurement system of the suction in soil and the amount of rainfall are firstly introduced. which brings the increase in selfweight of soil mass and the decrease in suction.Abe Chubu Chishitsu Company Limited. the slope failures often occur on the slopes composed of Shirasu on which thin surface humus layer is laid. The hourly.. 1 INTRODUCTION Kagoshima Prefecture is located in the southern part of Kyushu Island. which is classified into sandy soil. Ont. as shown in Fig. The tensiometer is used to measure the suction in unsaturated soil. K.Slope Stability Engineering. Canada f ABSTRACT: In Kagoshima Prefecture a nonwelded part of pyroclastic flow deposits. Yamagami & Jiang ((1 1999 Balkema. The density of Shirasu is smaller than popular silica sand because the particle is porous.. is widely distributed on the surface ground. Rotterdam. The nonwelded part of pyloclastic flow deposits is locally called Shirasu in Japanese. But it is difficult to estimate the changes in water content and suction quantitative1y. Yagi.1 Location of Kagoshima Prefecture 141 . Japan T. Iryo University o Western Ontario.Yamamoto & T.1. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Field measurement of suction in soil and rainfall in Kagoshima Prefecture R. The slopes composed of Shirasu and other volcanic products often fail due to the heavy rain in the rainy season every year. Consequently Shirasu is easy to be eroded by the surface flow of rainwater. The data obtained at several measuring points are automatically filed in the data loggers and acquired by the personal computer in the laboratory by means of cellular phones. K.
where the suction is represented as the head of negative water pressure. where the sampling interval can remotely be controlled by the personal computer in the laboratory. acrylic pipe filled with deaired water and pressure transducer at the top of acrylic pipe. The measuring data are filed in the data loggers and acquired by the personal computer. In Fig.3. 7 and 8. Figure 8 shows the measured data obtained at Tarumizucity where the falling volcanic ash derived from Mt. Near this point the river is located and the ground water level is shallow.2 FIELD MEASURING MEASURING POINTS SYSTEM AND 3 MEASURING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 2 shows the schematic field measuring system of suction and rainfall. which means that the data for more than 2 months can be filed. which is now set to be 60 minutes for tensiometer and 10 minutes for rain gauge respectively. Figure 6 shows the change in suction and the amount of hourly rainfall with time obtained at the measuring point of Ijuintwon in June 1996. The surface ground at this point is covered with the primary Shirasu layer of more than 10 m in thickness. Four sets of tensiometer are installed into the ground of 20 cm. 60 cm and 80 cm in depth. 60 cm and 80 cm in order. In the latest system the cellular phone is used to transmit the data filed in the data loggers as shown in Fig.60 and 80 cm in depth in this case that the ground is uniform and the ground water level is deep. The change in suction due to rainfall was initiated at 20 cm in depth followed by the change in suction of 40. Figure 9 shows the measured data obtained at Yoshidatown. Figure 5 shows the measuring points in Kagoshima Prefecture. Matsumototown and Izumicity. Figure 7 shows the measured data obtained at Kokubucity where the talus was formed by the slope failure of Shirasu.6 the absolute value of negative pressure (suction) is the largest at 20 cm in depth followed by those of 40 cm. Figure 4 shows the tensiometer which is composed of porous cup made of ceramic whose air entry value is about 250 kPa.9 that the head of water pressure of 80 cm in depth is always positive Fig. About 60000 data can be filed in the data loggers. The sampling interval can arbitrarily be selected from lsecond to 60 minutes. It is found out from Fig. The suction in unsaturated soil is measured by the tensiometer and the amount of rainfall is measured by the tipping bucket rain gauge. where the remote measuring system is adopted in Kiiretown. which means that the water content increases with depth.2 Field measuring system 142 . Sakurajima deeply covers the surface ground with more than 1m in depth. 40 cm. The same behavior was obtained at some measuring points as shown in Figs.
3 Remote system for data transmission 143 .Fig.
which means that the ground water level is easy to rise to be same as the ground surface in the rainy condition. 4 CONCLUSIONS The field measurement system for suction and rainfall is shown to investigate the seepage behavior of rainwater into ground in Kagoshima Prefecture. The water pressure of 20 cm is also positive when a rain falls.4 Tensiometer Fig. Fig.Fig.7 Measured data obtained at Kokubucity in April 1997 144 .6 Measured data obtained at Ijuintown in June 1996 Fig.5 Measuring points in Kagoshima Prefecture because the ground water level is shallow.
The measured data obtained at some measuring points are presented and discussed. Kitamura. H. It is found out that the suction is one of the basic informations for the water content in the ground and reflects the seepage characteristics of ground. 09555153) of the Ministry of Education. Abe and H.9 Measured data obtained at Yoshidatown in April and May 1996 145 . Fig. Yakabe: Field measurement of suction on Shirasu ground. Therefore the change in suction with rainfall should be continuously measured to analyze the mechanism of slope failure and prevent the natural disaster due to slope failure caused by the rainfall. Proc. 1st AsianPacific Conference and Trade Exhibition on Ground and Water Bioengineering for Erosion Control and Slope Stabilization.8 Measured data obtained at Tarumizucity in May 1997 Fig. This research was supported by the grantin aid of scientific research (B) (Project No. T. 1999 ( to be appeared). Iryo. REFERENCES R.
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1 Death by Slope Disasters in the past Syears Slope Failures and Preventive Measures 147 . Consequences are the increasing slope failures accounting for heavy losses to life and property. It has become very important to predict these disasters. Fujiwara & A. slope failures account for more than 60% of total destruction during the period mentioned above. Even though there are quite large number of places are recognized for quick action for appropriate counter measures.000 areas are legally designated as landslide prone areas of which 70% are further identified and categorized as high priority areas that require quick attention for proper preventive measures. When compared to death toll with other types of slope tragedies. Rotterdam. Japan K. Ministry of Construction launched a program for improvement in warning systems that could prevent loss of life if sufficient. 1. During the period between 1992 to 96 there were 2392 slope failures recorded killing 156 people. R&D Center. Government of Japan. Fig.Slope Sfabihty Engineering. Monma Public Works Research Institute. INTRODUCTION Inherited nature of the topography. In Shirasu area. and Shirasu slope failures caused some deaths every year. characterized by gray soft rock derived from Pyroclastic flow sediment.2 Fig. there are about 86. As at today. accurate and timely information could be provided to people who are living in questionable areas. Due to the poor progress in the construction of antilandslide facility. This is further accelerated with growth of urban fringe expanding into sensitive areas demolishing the natural balance of the mountainous and hilly region. the response from responsible agencies is not sufficient. Ibaruki. Figure 2. complicated geological structure and the relatively extensive rainfall makes Japan highly susceptible for slope failures. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 . slope stability is frequently disturbed by heavy rain. that is widely covered on southern Kyusyu. Ministry of Construction. Ishibashi Nippon Koei Company Limited. Figure 1. This paper on application of Acoustic Emission (AE)technique in the field of Shirasu slope failure prediction presents the findings on the real scale slope experiment. Jupan ABSTRACT: The Shirasu . Yagi. Application of acoustic emission method to Shirasu slope monitoring T. Yamagami& Jiang c' 1999 Balkema.
an extensonicter and a tiltmeter was installed on the slope. Apart from AE sensor more equipment. The whole experiment was recorded in a video camera. third AE sensor was placed on a stable slope. application of AE is considered questionable as not enough research works have been conducted on this aspect. Fig. they face difficulties in applying to realworld situations. Two AE sensors were mounted on wave guides. experiments are mainly conducted in laboratories using models. The prepared slope was 5 meters wide and 6 meters in height. Hence. For comparison. 2. Three and halfhours were taken to the collapse from the time the excavation started. TEST SITE AND EXPERIMENT Slope failures that are occurring in Japan break out much higher speed when compared to other slope destruction. In order to conduct the experiments the slope was made unstable by excavating at the bottom of the slope. and AE mcasurernents for the whole period were recorded. Subsequently. They were placed at upper and lower parts of the slope. The frequency of the AE sensor was 6OkHz. This is one of the most vulnerable soil type for slope failures.1 Test Site To investigate the AE occurrence during a slope failure an experimental scale cutting slope was constructed in a Shirasu slope.AE is longawaited technology that could be combined with warning system to inform people living in a vulnerable area well in advance to reduce losses to a minimum. AE measurements were started with the excavation and continued until the slope was collapsed. figure4. two meters long with a diameter of 2 cm. For this reason. results are combined with few filed measurements to extrapolate experimental results to realworld situations. The material found in the slope is belonged to weathered Shirasu. there are very few reports on real application of AE on realworld slope failure studies. 2. Further. and an experiment was carried out. Shirasu is a stratum widely found in southern part of Kyushu Island consists of sediments with the origin of pyroclastic deposits. The prepared experiment site is shown in Figure 3.2 Equipment A PAC SPARTAN AT system was used for AE measurement. 2. However.4 Shirasu Slope Failure Experiment 148 .
During the excavations. there was some AE activity.1 Behavior of AE between Slope Failure Figure 5 shows AE measurements from the time of excavation until the moment of the slope failure. and exponentiaIIy decreased to zero once the excavation stopped except for the last one. and this was rapidly increased 15 minutes before the collapse. high AE activity was detected.3 . Among the two sensor of the collapsed slope. there was no A activity observed on the reference slope. This suggest that sensor be installed on a wave guide and placed at the bottom or lower part o f a slope for easy detection of sensor activities. In contrast to this. The two graphs of the collapsed slope clearly showed that AE activity increased with E the excavation. This shows that significant amount of energy was concentrated at the lower part of the slope. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3. the one placed at the lower part detected more AE activity than the one placed at the top of the slope. Figure 6 shows AE occurrence of AE activities of the three sensors. Fig.6 A E Bchavior by Location 149 . Upper two graphs are for the collapsed slope and the lower one is for the reference sensor. After the 5th excavation. Altogether five excavations were carried out before the slope failure. Black arrows pointed downward indicate excavations. White arrow represents the AE observation of slope failure.
failure time can be predicted more precisely by AE count rate than the strain velocity method. (Japanese) : 302303 Fig. some attempt was made to formulate a methodology to predict the failure time during tertiary creep stage.7 Comparison AE Behavior and Displacement A reciprocal of AF.T.8 Collapse Time Prcdiction by AE 3. The applicability of AE was tested on a real slope and it was found that AE technology can satisfactorily be uscd in realworld slope failure monitoring. In the case of AE observation. 1. larger number of data can be obtained when the slope failure is beginning to start. He has shown that reciprocal number of strain per unit time converges to zero at the tertiary creep stage. Method to estimate slope failure time was proposed and the applicability of high accuracy was confirmed with obtained experiment results. Proceedings of 34'h Japan Landslide Society Conference (Japanese) :245248 Fukuzono. the strain data would shows a creep curve during a Failure. This shows that the failure time can be predicted accurately using AE count rate.2 Collapse Time Prediction by AE If extensometcr observations are carried out during a slope failure. it was investigated whether failure time can be predicted using AE count. CONCLUSION Findings and the conclusion of the present experiment can be summarized as below. During this study. Figure 8 shows the failure time prediction by applying strain velocity to AE count rate. 1995 Evaluation of Soil Displacement by AE Parameter. Fig.K. Figure 7 compares changes of extensometcr observation with changes in the accumulated count of A during the present experiment. 3. This could provide finer information at the time of the failure. REFERENCES Sasahara. Placement of sensors was experimented and it was found that for accurate and easy AE interpretation the sensors should place closer to the bottom of a slope. Therefore. In this study. Fukuzono have proposed a method to predict slope failure time using the strain per unit time at the tertiary creep stage. 1981 Surface displaccmcnt velocity and acceleration in the slope failure. counts per sec 4.AE Count Primary Secondary Tertiary resembles each other and obviously shows similar behavior to that of a creep curve. 2. Proceedings of 36'h Japan Society of Civil Eng. Cod. These two E 150 .
and the method of waveguide construction. the type of the backfill soil placed around the waveguide. The implication is that the smallest possible movements should be measured at the earliest possible time. UK J. provide information about the location of sliding surface. Quantitative assessment of AE at an early stage of slope failure is still basic. ii) even in “quite” material. Hill Department of Chemistry and Physics. Kousteni .Transport Research Laboratory. is portable for monitoring slope stability continuously. and 4. AE levels can be related to deformation rates and iii) the choice of waveguide system is of fundamental importance (e. Kavanagh .1.g. Successful applications on field and laboratory studies are described. since the 1970’s has been increasingly employed to monitor the stability of soil bodies. such as clays. Such a system could provide an early warning of slope instability. This paper presents recent developments and considers issues related to instrumentation design. 1. extensometers.Slope Stability Engineering. there is a need of an instrumentation system which: 1 . The results of laboratory and field studies are discussed. conventional surface survey markers. At present.Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. and which will lead to a better quantitative assessment of field AE. 3. Nottingham Trent University. can detect changes in the rate of movement. Crowthorne. UK N. is often of the same order as the accuracy of the above monitoring methods. UK R. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. 2. The standard method for assessing the stability of slopes is by measuring ground deformations. is sensitive to small prefailure slope deformations. Both field and laboratory studies. Unfortunately the magnitude of the prefailure movements which is of interest. it would be more accurate to say that the observers failed to detect the phenomena which proceeded the slide”. Dixon Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring techniques have the potential to meet the above requirements. or inclinometer tubes installed through the potentially unstable soil/rock are used to define the area of movement. undertaken by the authors. Nottingham Trent University. Nottingham Trent Universizj. The work and results of the current research are discussed with the aim of quantifying the AE response of a wave guide and developing a reliable early warning monitoring system. These factors include waveguide material type. Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Acoustic emission technique for monitoring soil and rock slope instability A. UK ABSTRACT: This paper presents our recent research in Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring used to assess slope instability and the factors controlling instrumentation design. The main body of research into AE applications for soil 151 . indicate that: i) the AE monitoring technique provides an early indication that small deformations are taking place during progressive failure. Yagi. Data is provided on the performance of waveguide systems. Background information Acoustic emission is a nondestructive technique which. INTRODUCTION Terzaghi. (1950) stated: “If a landslide comes as a surprise to the eyewitness. thus enabling the certainty of ground movement to be established. active waveguides are best suited for the study of slopes formed in clay soils). These methods often require measurements taken many times and over a period of time to obtain trends. 1. Therefore.
aluminium iiiclinometer tubes) or construction units (e.2. Naltajima et al. This is the main principle of the AE monitoring technique.. anchors. tiebacks. Main Amplifier: The system can amplify the signal between 50 and 108dB. Chichibu et al. AE field instrumentation 2.g. via the digital ports. The choice of the steel tube AE waveguide has the advantage that it can be easily fabricated to the required crosssection and length. The attenuation of AE energy in soil is highly frequency dependent. Waveguide: Metal waveguides can take the form of steel reinforcing rods. According to Koerner (198 1) the attenuation coefficient (in dB/distance) in dry sands varies from 0. 60 mm diameter and 6 mm wall thickness has been used. This ensured that any low frequency background noise is not included in the recorded signal. I . various metal instrumentation pipes. When any material is stressed. Japan (e. The signal is filtered by a band pass filter with a bandwidth of 15 .09 dB/cm at 500 Hz to 10 dB/cm at l6kHz. The maximum sampling rate used is 1 MHz. the use waveguides to monitor AE in soils. Hence the output signal consisted of waves with frequencies between 15 kHz and 45 kHz. it generates microseismic activity at locations of local instability. These microseismic stress waves. Data capture: An AtoD board converts the analogue voltage to a digital value. 1991) and more recently at Nottingham Trent University (Dixon et al. 1997). and has a low ultrasonic attenuation coefficient... to avoid high levels of attenuation. Therefore. a metal waveguide has been found very useful in conducting the signals from within the soil mass to the receiving AE sensor. AE captured data are saved into binary files which can then be analysed. (e. which enables the detection of the occurrence of distress in soil before the development of significant movements. Steel threaded rings are used for connecting sections of the waveguide. Data processing: A highlevel programming language for data acquisition and processing was used. Components o monitoring system f Preamplifiier and Filter: A preamplifier is used to amplify the low level signals from the sensor by 40 dB. When soil is stressed. Figure 1. it is possible to set the default to capture a stream of data including data points before any trigger time or voltage set by the operator. AE MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION The AE instrumentation components used for field monitoring and laboratory testing at NTU are shown in Figure 1. 2. The associated stress waves propagate from the source of instability through the surrounding material and can be detected by suitable high sensitivity transducers. The choice of 30 kHz resonant frequency is due to the need to minimise low frequency environmental noise and at the same time keep the frequency of the system as low as possible. piles or soil reinforcement units). Since metals have a three to four orders of magnitude lower attenuation than soils.g. However..g.g. It is possible for the length of a waveguide to be in excess of 30 m when used in field monitoring. monitoring soils by using high frequency AE techniques. are referred to as acoustic emission. 1981). it responds by reorganising its constituent particles and changing their relative positions with the consequent frictional generation of stress waves. 2. Koerner et nl. 1989. In the present study a steel tube of 1.60 m length. By directly writing to the board. has became standard.assessment has been carried out in the USA (e. the extension to a multichannel system can be easily achieved. This waveguide system transmits the emission generated by the frictional motion of the 152 . It is shown as a single channel system.45 kHz. is affected by the high attenuation in soils. Design o Waveguide systems f Sensor: An AE Technology piezoelectric transducer with a resonant frequency of a 30 kHz has been used.
it is likely that much deformationrelated AE was not captured because no operator was present when it was generated. Unfortunately. One of the case study areas was located on the north eastern coast of England at Cowden. gravel appeared to be the next active and the sand backfill clearly produced the highest levels of AE (Figure 3b). which is accompanied by a reduction in the rate of increase of displacement recorded by the inclinometer. Depending on the backfill material two possible systems are formed: Passive and Active waveguide systems. Therefore. it may be possible to calibrate the system. propagating through a free surface wave 153 . so the installation does not introduce additional sources of AE into the waveguide. 4.soil particles which are in contact with or close to the waveguide. CURRENT LABORATORY STUDIES Results from recent field studies are reported by Dixon et. and Kavanagh (1996. FIELD AE MONITORING Figure 2. It is this type of system which has been studied by the authors. The grout backfill produced the least AE. Therefore. waveguides 2. The monitoring method wasn’t continuous. At this location 20 meters high cliffs are formed of stiff cohesive glacial till. 5 and 12 were backfilled with sand. Cowden instrumentation array It can be seen that there is a reduction in AE mean signal value between days 149 and 163 recorded by all waveguides. as a result of the waveguide being in direct contact with the insitu material. and proved the good qualitative status of the AE monitoring technique. As the emission levels generated are low. slippage would occur over a shorter period of time. the annulus can be backfilled with granular soils such as sand or gravel which produce high AE levels. under these conditions the correlation of displacement rates with AE was encouraging. at this stage. It is possible to drive the waveguide into the host soil for short distance.al. but based upon periodic site visits and acquisition of AE data. For passive systems the annulus around the waveguide has to be backfilled with low AE activity material (i. This method requires a backfill material to improve the contact between the host soil and waveguide. the signal could not be quantified to provide an independent measure of slope instability. but AE would be of much greater amplitude than for sand particles. Any recorded AE signal is assumed to emanate from the deforming host soil. such that the recorded AE signal can be related to the magnitude of the general ground deformations. For larger slopes it is necessary to install the waveguide in predrilled boreholes. the waveforms of the AE signals. clay). Part of the results that were obtained from a monitoring period of almost one year are shown in Figure 3. For the first stage of this work. Although the recorded AE data will not relate directly to the stress state of the host soil. 6 with gravel and the rest of them with grout.e. The poor response of gravel backfilled waveguides was a result of the gravel particles requiring greater displacements of the host soil to cause them slip. it is difficult to obtain quality AE data. The failure mechanism of the cliffs was a rotational sliding which is triggered by marine erosion of the toe. 1997). However. In this figure a comparison of the AE recorded data from 4 different waveguides is made with displacement rates recorded by inclinometer 11. 3. Driven systems can also be defined as passive. One of the waveguide design parameters was backfill type. The aim of recent laboratory work has been to investigate the AE waveguide response and quantify the AE levels with displacement. Active waveguide systems are installed when the monitoring site consists of cohesive material. Waveguides 1. Figure 2 shows the instrumentation array arrangement at November 1993. Twelve steel tubing waveguides and two inclinometer casings were installed into the coastal cliff section. In addition.
The signal was generated in the form of a transient step force function by carrying out pencil lead 154 Figure 5 . This was to provide a free surface around the wave. at the five different locations. of 3 mm length was broken at a constant angle. 0. This method was used because the generated signal mainly consisted of one event with short duration and was reproducible and consistent. Arrival time of the 1st peak versus distance between source and sensor Analysis was focused only on the first part of each captured event.08 m away from the sensor. guide.72 m. The whole waveguide body (two sections with the collar) was lifted from the ground and supported by three wooden blocks (Figure 4). Experimental setup Figure 3 Displacement rate inclinometer 1 and AE mean signal value of four WG’s. This identification is essential to locate the AE source. The arrival time of the first peak was plotted on a graph with respect to the distance between source and sensor. 0.guide were investigated to locate the AE source.54 m. Figure 4.36 m. For the second part the AE investigation of two granular backfills (gravel and sand) surrounding the waveguide were investigated. Different wave modes with different propagating velocities were identified in the signal.. 0. 4. and 1. breaks. The 0. This is an indication of a constant velocity . The reason being to identify the first two fastest modes. A E source locution In this study the histograms (waveforms in time domain) of the recorded signal were investigated.3 mm pencil lead. Figure 5 shows a linear relationship between propagating distance and arrival times of the first peak. The signals were sensed and processed by the instrumentation described in section 2. and not to complicate the study with other flexural modes or reflections. At each distance ten values of arrival time for the first peak from different pencil lead break records were plotted. multiple times. 0.1.90 m. The AtoD board was set to capture a stream of 400 data points including 50 pretrigger points at a frequency of 237 kHz. Two sections of 1.63 m length (6 mm wall thickness) steel tubes connected by a steel collar were used. The main amplifier was set to 50 dB.
e. There is a general trend of increase in the AE mean amplitude with displacement. The recorded AE events were assessed.40 m).difference between the fastest mode. The recognition of the two fastest wave modes can be achieved. . by carrying out simple statistical analyses. The transducer was fixed to the exposed top section of the tube. The sand backfill behaviour seems to consists of sporadic releases of energy which results in the AE level dropping temporarily and then rising again to a new maximum value with increasing displacement. The AE instrumentation components were the same as in the previous experiment. 4. It has to be noted that the above findings are at present only applicable for propagating distances less than 2 meters. Before filling the sleeve with the soil. changes in diameter). This phenomenon is the “Kaiser effect” in which AE levels are low until the material is stressed beyond that which it has experienced in the past. The soil column was supported vertically by a steel frame. one section of 1. The pencil breaks were repeated with the transducer moved further away from the edge of the waveguide to position B (0. which triggers the AtoD board. The only difference was that AtoD frequency was reduced to 150 kHz. The clamp was calibrated to produce controlled displacements of the soil cylinder surrounding the waveguide (i. and that the results are consistent. The results of these tests show that it is possible to locate the AE source without using a second transducer. and the flexural mode which arrives with higher amplitude. (b) for sand backfill. The backfill soil then was placed between the waveguide and sleeve. and 1000 data were captured including the 100 pretrigger points when a preset threshold was exceeded. Measurements indicate that exact AE repeatability is difficult to obtain. Kavanagh (1997) demonstrated this effect on sand in an isotropic compression tests. This is Figure 6. The compression was applied at two different heights. The AE events were generated by a compression action. This remains a topic for further research. This was to investigate whether reflections from the edge of the waveguide would be included in the waveform.2. It is obvious that the deformation of the gravel emits higher AE levels than the sand. AE versus cumulative displacement of gravel backfill at propagating distance of (a) 565 mm (b) 1170 mm shown in Figure 6(a). This indicates that there is no interference of reflections in the first part of the waveform section that is under investigation. achieved by using a Gclamp. and lenght of 1650 mm was used to contain the backfill material. A thick polythene sleeve with a diameter of 195 mm. on the soil surrounding the waveguide. The mean and standard deviation of the AE voltage response were plotted against cumulative displacements.65 m (steel tube) waveguide was inserted in the centre of the polythene sleeve (i. and hence the difference in their arrival times and the location of the source can be measured. (b) for gravel backfill and 7(a). Active waveguide system Two types of backfill soil were investigated: i) well graded sand and ii) medium size rounded gravel. representing a waveguide in a borehole filled with the backfill soil).e. It was found that the slope of the line was similar to the above plot.
301327. Acoustic emission characteristics of unstable slopes. 505520. Nakamura M. 83123. Journal o Acoustic Emission. Proc. Nakajima I.G. gravel and sand. 1989. CONCLUSIONS Results from field studies suggest that the AE technique can be used to detect and monitor prefailure deformations in soil slopes. McCabe W. Special Publication o the Proc. 1981... The relationship between displacement and statistical mean and standard deviation values of AE was as expected (the statistical values increase with displacement).. Goto T. Thesis. & Lord A. Engineering Practice. Paige. Berkey. The use of acoustic emission to monitor of a solid body. The two fastest guidedwave modes in the first part of the captured signal can be identified. The sand backfill appears to generate low magnitude emission over a long time scale whereas gravel backfill 156 . However. Pennsylvania State University.141. f 4. Koerner R.K. The pencil lead break studies suggest that it is possible to locate the AE source using only one transducer... 1991.P. Geological Society of America.M.. Acoustic emission behaviour and monitoring Acoustic Emissions Geotechnical soils.. S. V . The study of the two backfill types. The most promising area of research relates to the use of active waveguide systems with the assessment of AE signal characteristics. 93.. Journal o Geological Society f of China. Nottingham Trent University. Terzaghi K.. REFERENCES Chichibu A. Ed.E. Application of Engineering Practice. & Kamata M. 3”d f SinoBritish Geological Conference. Drnevich and R. Ujihara M.M. Negilshi M.. 1997.generates high magnitude emission over a short time scale. Application of the acoustic emission monitoring rod to landslide measurement. 8. additional studies are required in order to relate the displacement rate with the AE response. Dixon N.Jr. Monitoring landslide activity and hazard by acoustic emission. 4. 39. Mechanism of landslides.E. showed that the former backfill was “noisier” under small displacements than the latter. and therefore the difference in their arrival times and hence the propagating distance of the signal can be estimated.. Kavanagh J. 1950. American Society for Testing and Materials. 1997. Taiwan. ASTM STP 750. Gray.G. 5th Conference on Acoustic EmissiodMicroseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials... PhD. 107112. Eds. Kavanagh J. Figure 7 AE versus cumulative displacement of sand backfill at propagating distance of (a) 565 mm (b) 1170 nini 5. & Tanabe T. & Hill R.
the MTL is marked by striking contrast in topography between the northern Sanuki Range and the southern Yoshino River basin. numerous landslides caused by earthquakes have been reported. The hill is underlain by the alternated beds of brecciated sandstone and mudstone of the Izumi Group. It consists of sandstone fragments with black clayrich matrix and attains 20 30cm in thickness. It forms a active fault system with predominantly rightlateral displacement in the Quaternary in Shikoku and western Ki. 3. ISBN 90 5809 0795 Hydraulic fracturing as a mechanism of rapid rock mass slides Shuichi Hasegawa Shikoku Research Institute Incorporaarect. The Shinyama hill is an isolated hill on the south of the Ikeda fault (Fig. then disscusses a possible mechanism of rapid rock mass slide by hydraulic fracturing. 1.4). the southern foot of the Shikoku mountains (Fig. Jupan Tomihiro Sawada Suwu Soft Science Incorporated. Jupan ABSTRACT: This paper presents a possible mechanism of rapid rock mass slides by hydraulic facturing of bedrocks.1980).3). Largescale rock slides occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene along the fault scarps of the Median Tectonic Line in Shikoku (Hasegawa.1 Shinyama rock mass slide In the northeastern part of Shikoku. As the Japanese islands are located in the CircumPacific seismic zone. Southwest Japan (Osaka. dipping north. which is a largescale sliding rock mass with about 1. 3. No distinct shear plane is observed in the matrix. 1992). This paper describes the geological characteristics on sliding surface of a typical rock slide masses in northern Shikoku. At Loc. The Ikeda fault runs ENE along the southern foot of the Sanuki Range (Okada. The active faults of the MTL are inferred to cause magnitude 7 t o 8 class earthquakes on the basis of the fault lengths and the amount of displacement (Okada.Slope Stability Engineering.1. The rate of rightlateral slip of the fault during the late Quaternary is estimated to be several meters per lOOOyears in Shikoku (Okada.1968). 1. The MTL have made the linear topographical boundary between the mountain and the plain in Shikoku. Past big earthquakes by the MTL might have trigged the rapid rock mass slides. The active fault planes are usually higtangled.INTRODUCTION The earthquakes are one of the most important landslidesinducing agents in seismic regions. Yagi.5km and 0. the sliding rock mass composed of the Izumi Group overlies on the debris flow deposits A (Fig.5km in width.l991). based on texture of sliding layers. Clayrich matrix brecciated layer is formed beneath the sliding mass. EXAMPLE OF ROCK MASS SLIDES 2. The sliding surface is undulated and gently dipping north. The sliding surface is observed at Loc. and about 150m in thickness (Okada. Rotterdam.1968 : Hasegawa.2) . rOkyo. or the bountary between the 157 .2. Largescale rock mass slides along the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) in Southwest Japan are inferred to have been caused by hydaulic fracturing. Takamatsu. The Median Tectonic Line (MTL) contains highly active faults that have a potential danger of earthquakes in Shikoku. Geology along the MTL in Shikoku is shown in Fig.1. GEOLOGICAL SE'TTING The MTL separates the Ryoke granites and the Izumi Group from the Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks. 1980).2) .1993 : Fig. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema.
158 .
1:Izumi Cp.6). and over 180min thickness (Hasegawa.2 Miaki rock mass slide At the westernmost part of the MTL active fault system in Shikoku. The sliding rock mass consists of alternated beds of brecciated sandstone and mudstone.1962). the Iyo fault is marked by remarkable contrast in topography between the southern Shikoku mountains and the northern Matsuyama Plain. topography and slip rate of the Ikeda fault (Fig. which strike 80" E and dips40" S. The Shinyama mass can be restored on the open space at the mouth of the Aikurushi River about 45 km east of Shinyama.2. and steeply dipping north. 159 . which strikes N80" W and dips 3 2 " N.) ovelying mass and underlying debris flow deposits. The Gunchu Formation consists of harfconsolidated gravel and silt layes. This indicates that the overlying Izumi Group is rootless. becoming horizontal at the seashore. the sliding rockmass composed of the Izumi Group overlies on the PlioPleistocen Gunchu Formation (Fig. This restoration suggests that the original sliding surface of the Shinyarna mass was very gently dipping less than 10" .5. 1993. which is a largescale sliding rock mass with over 4km and about lkm in width.1962 : Okada. trending N50" E (Saito. The hill is underlain by the alternated beds of brecciated sandstone and mudstone of the Izumi Group.80" E and dipping 5060" S at the front. 2 .7). Sliding surface of the Shinyama rock mass slide. The sliding surface A is undulated.).1972). The sliding surface B cuts the reverse fault (probably sliding) plane C.Figure 4.3).Fig.6). The sliding surface is obseved at LOc. CBL:claymatrix brecciated layer. The sliding surface A can be traced to the sliding surface B. The Miaki mass is an isolated hill on the north of the Iyo fault (Fig. striking N70" . SS:Sliding surface. where the type outcrop of the Gunchu fault was reported (Saito. (D:Debris flow depA (Dochu Fm. At h c . based on lithology. which is similar to those of Shinyama. 3.2.
boundarys between the overlying mass and the The Miaki sliding rock mass can be restored on the open space at Konokawa about lkm southwest of the mass.1 Sliding rock ~ x S Characteristics of the rock slide masses of the Izumi Group are as follows: 1) Original stratifications are roughly preserved.) Figure 6. Geologic Profile of the Miaki rock mass slide.) Mdstcne predcmimnt a l t e r m t i m (Izuni Gr. Geological map of the Miaki rock mass slide. This claymatrix brecciated layer is quite similar to that of the Shinyama mass. 2) Sandstone beds have many open fractures. some of which are filled with soils from the groundsurfaceand unconsolidated pebble bearing muddy materials.CHACTERISTISS ROCKMASS OF THE SLIDING 4. Although destinct shear plane is obseved in the zone. Earrfiiddle Pleistccene deposits (Miaki Fm) P I i o f l e i s t c c e n e deposits (Gcmcho Fin Andesite & Rhyol i t e (Ishizuchi Gr. derived from the sediments of footwalls. The sliding surface A and B have accompanied black claymatrix brecciated layer which attains 40 50cm in thickness.) @ Acidic tuff (Izuni Gr.) 0Sandstcne predaninant a l t e r n a t i m (Izuni Gr. It consists of sandstone fragments with black clayrich matrix derived from the Izumi Group.Figure 5. This restoration suggests that the original sliding surface of the Miaki mass was also very gentle dipping less than 10" (Fig. but sandstone beds are disrupted by fracturing to form polygonalshaped fragments and mudstone beds are sheared parallel to the bedding. 3 ) Beds beneath the footwalls have few fractures or 160 .6). 4.
6) The masses are highly disected by erosion and are more displaced by the active fault.2 Sliding layer The sliding layers on the Quatenary sediments are composed of claymatrix. 4. 3) Shear plains are seldom obseverd in the matrix. Sandstone layers have brecciated into fragments which are surrounded by clay material derived from mudstone.Figure 7. Sliding surface of the Miaki rock mass slide. 1) Sandstone fragments are scatterd in clayrich matrix. 161 . CBL:claymatrix brecciated layer. (G:Gunchu Fm. 5 ) The masses have been displaced rightlaterally by active fault of the MTL. SS:Sliding surface. and have ramdom fabric.. 4) Sliding surfaces are usually lowangled. 5 ) Some claymatrix breccias have injucted into open cracks of the overliying sliding rockmasses. 4) The surface layer of a rockslide mass has a texture similar to debris. This sliding zone material named “claymatrix brecciated layer (CBL)” has following characteristics. These evidence indicates that the rockmass had slid rapidly by this clayrich brecciated layer as lubricant layer and have not moved since having settled. judging from the sililarity of the texture. This texture resembles those of debis flow deposits. This claymatrix layers can be interred to be caused by hydraulic fracturing of the Izumi Group.) shear planes. in case that the formative ages are older. showing remarkable contrast with beds on hanging walls. brecciated layer. 1:Izumi Gp. 2) h o s t fragments are matrixsupported.
Okada. Geol. Shikoku. the hydraulic fracturing is important agent of rapid rock mass slides.distance sliding. Fac. 4)The hydraulic fracturing is important agent of rapid rock mass slides. Mem. Largescale rock mass slides and Quaternary faulting along the Median Tectonic Line on the southern foot of the Sanuki Range in Shikoku. theoretical and experimental study are needed. Agri. 2) The texture of the claymatrix brecciated layers is inferred to have been formed by hydraulic fracturing of the bedrock.. 174. Soc. (a). MECHANISM OF ROCK MASS SLIDE These rockslides have occurred at the fault scarp of the active fault of the MTL. 1991. Tokyo: 219 Okada. Mem. Japan. Bull. in case of earthquakes. Aichi Pref: Univ.Bell (ed. Southwest Japan.. 23. Litel:. REFERENCES Hasegawa. SW Japan. We propose the dynamic formative process of the claymatrix brecciated layer by hydraulic fracturing. Landslides. where the bedding planes of the Izumi Group at the source area dip opposite to the slopes. using the claymatrix brecciated layers as lubricant layer. 1962.. Kagawa Univ. V01.. Sliding surface are gentle (less than 10 ). 4)The tremor by a big earthquake by the active fault at the foot of the slope caused an extraordinary pore pressure in the slope. A. Japan. 1530. S. 143170. CONCLUSION This paper presents a posible machanism of rapid rock mass slides by hydraulic fracturing of bedrocks. Japan. 7) The mass above the sliding layer had slid rapidly onto the unconsolidated sediments and had stoped after long . northeastern Shikoku. Soc... 18: 79108. The geology of Kagawa and northern Ehime Prefecture. judging from the restoatoin of the mass. Hasegawa. Mem. 7.). 1526. A. simple static slope stability analysis cannot be adopted. 162 . Quaternary Res.. A. 3)The rock masses had slid rapidly from the fault scarp. Injection at the front boundary of the Miaki mass also supports the extraordinary high pore pressure. Soc. Geol. Hasegawa. D.. and Ms.. Doctor Thesis of Univ. Strikeslip faulting of late Quaternary along the Median Dislocation Line in the surroundings of AwaIkeda. Mem. 1992. based on above mentioned observation. Okada. 5) The extraordinary pore pressure caused the shear failure of the atlernated bed of sandstone and mudstone. SW Japan. The steep slopes had been formed by faulting of the MTL before the time of the rockslides. 2) Grativitation deformation might have formed the creeping zone in the slope. 3) Groundwater had permeated into the mass along the creeping zone. 1972. 6) The hydraulic fracturing have propagated along the preexsisting creeping zone. the hydraulic fracturing occurred. Largescale rock mass slides and Quaternary faulting along the Median Tectonic Line in Shikoku. S. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank to Dr. Saito. Proposal of the segmentation on the Median Tectonic Line active faults system. Balkema. 1992. expecially in case of earthquakes. 119125. Miki Kimura for typing the manuscript. Geol. A.. M. 1968. Therefore. and caused the slide. Quaternary faulting of the Median Tectonic Line fault system in the northwestern part of Shikoku. S.10. These gentle sliding surfaces are very difficult to occur. Largescale rock mass slides along the fault scarp of the Median Tectonic Line in northeastern Shikoku. That is.40. These indicate that longterm gravitational deformation of rocks under the steep slopes prepared the starting materials for the largescale rockslides. Fac. Seiichi Kanayama for useful comments on the manuscript. The texture of claymatrix brecciated layers which were the lubricant layer during the sliding indicates that the claymatrix brecciated zone acted as fluid. Japan.. Quaternary faculty along the Median Tectonic Line of southwest Japan.5. 1993. As this mechanism is inferred from geological evidences.. Nevertheless.H. The possible mechanism of rockslides is as follows: 1)The uplift by the fault activity and the opposite dipping structure of the Izumi Group had produced the largescale steep slopes. 1980. Conclusions are as follows: 1)Largescall rock mass slides along active faults of the Median Tectonic Line have claymatrix brecciated layer as sliding surface. No. 6894. 6. Okada.
U iJapan j. steeply hpping foliation bowed valleyward. In addition. The geomorphological features and the geological structure of these forms indicate that these forms were made by the valleyward bowing of slate and that such deformation is the incipient stage of hsintegration processes of a mountain that consists of rocks with steeply&ppingfoliation. 1964. 1966. Nemcock. Yambushi upstream of the Abe River m g .. its origins and historical development have not been fully studied in terms of the combination of surface morphology and internal geologic structure. Rotterdam. Geomorphc processes caused by rock deformation are thus little known. description and measurement of these forms. Based on the results. 1972. Tabor. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. Yagi. leaving scarp topography on the upper part of a mountain.SETTING AND GEOL Study area is a ridge extending NE from the Mt. of whch cleavage trends with a small angle with the ridge and &ps very steeply in the depth. 1987. Matsuoka. 1). Japan ABSTRACT: A formative process of upslopefacing scarps and ridgetop depressions has been investigated by the observation. while there are many stu&es on denudation processes of mountains. and its detailed morphology has been scarcely described. Zishnsky. Kyoto University. Fig. 2 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL OGICAL. but many recent stu&es attribute it to the gravitational deformation of mountains (Jahn. The scarp topography was sometimes attributed to periglacial processes (Kobayashi. and "upslopefacingscarps" have been documented in many mountainous areas including Japan (we call these forms as scarp topography). ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Evolution of ridgetop linear depressions and a disintegration process of mountains Kuniyasu Mokudai Kyoto University. Moreover. 1985. and geological survey around a ridge in the Akaish Mountains. Previous studies about scarp topography focussed mainly on largescale features.Slope Stability Engineering. . 163 This paper describes and classlfies the morphological features of scarp topography in the southern part of the Akaish Mountains by means of interpretation of aerial photographs and ground survey. Evans. central Japan. Masahiro Chigira Disaster Preventiofi Research Institute. The ridge is underlain by slate.Index map of the survey area. 1 INTRODUCTION "Ridgetop depressions". we infer the style of slope deformation in t h s area. Chgira (1992) and Chigira and Kiho (1994) reported gravitational deformation of rock mass that made scarp topography. The scarp topography has been called in various names. 1971. 1956). Uji. Understanding the features of scarp topography and its formative processes is very important to pre&ct slope movements or landslides. and its scientificrecognition and classification are not adequate as yet. 1. 1989). Varnes et al. "multiple ridges".
scarp topography changes its sharpness according to elevations. while the height of the upslopefacing scarp on slope is about 1 m. in whch many ridgetop depressions and scarps trend parallel or subparallel to the main mountain ridge. The top of the ridge in the second area widens toward the northeast. On the northeast side of the peak. 4 RESULTS 4. m s is a different feature from those in the first area. 2. shale. The 164 . The first area is around the peak of the Mt. there are upslopefacing scarps and ridgetop depressions aligned along several lines trendmg NE. In t h s area. Figure 4 shows profiles across the ridgetop depressions and scarps along the lines shown in Figure 3. 1995). These strata strike NSand dip steeply to the west or east.Two kdometers to the northeast of the Mt. because upslope or downslope could not be defined there. which trend NS and is mainly composed of sandstone. the unit is a downslopefacingscarp (Fig. we made a geomorphological map by interpreting aerial photographs (1:15000) and ground survey. we made profiles across of the ridge by using a tapemeasure and a hand level. and the scarp topography appears on the southeast side of the ridge almost exclusively. the height of the scarp of a ridgetop depression is 10 m. Measured lines were approximately normal to the trends of scarp topography in a plan. and greenstone. On the other hand. there are some ridgetop depressions parallel to the downslopefacingscarps. If the scarp inclines in the same kection with its surroundmg slopes. The ridge is underlain by the Paleogene Setogawa Formation. there are some downslopefacing scarps trendmg NW. with subordmate basalt. and h e s t o n e (Sugiyama. paying attention to scarp topography. 2). carefully dstinguishing stationary rock mass from creeping rock mass. The second area is on the northeast of the first one. chert. almost all rock masses in elevations hgher than creek beds have crept (bowed downslope). the Rgure 3 is a geomorphological map showing scarp topography. The alignments trend subparallel to the ridge. In order to characterize the alignments and morphology of scarp topography. The scarp topography has hgher scarps in hgher elevations. On t h s ridge and the upper parts of the nearby slopes. Schematic sketch showing teiminologyof scarp topography.2 Geologcalstructure The strata in the survey area consist mainly of slate with subordmate alternated beds of chert and slate. along Line 3. Some of the scarps or the depressions are connected to each other. the scarp tops are more rounded in hgher elevations than in lower elevations. The survey area is dwided into two regions from a geomorphologicalpoint of view. a unit with a scarp inclining in the opposite direction is an upslopefacing scarp. In addition to the height change. there is scarp topography whch consists of scarps and linear depressions aligning in three or four lines. Scarp topography does not appear in the slopes on the other side of the ridge. while on the southwest side of the peak. where the ridge top is narrower than in the first.Yambush. 4. The scarp topography on top of a ridge is referred to ridgetop depression. one the largest landslides in Japan. and slate. As is seen in Figure 4. Yambush is the Oyakuzure. 3 METHODS To clarify the geomorphological features in the study area. A unit of scarp topography consists of upper and lower h c k lines and a scarp in between.1 Geomophologcd features Fig. For example. We performed geological investigation by mapping and observation in the field. top of the ridge is a wide gentle slope.
and its upper and lower knick points is clearly defined. because the trend of the topography approximately parallels t h e contour lines. the scarp topography has a n alignment andrelations with geologic structure. which indicate 165 . Yambushi to the Oyakuzure (Fig. in the surface parts of almost all slopes on the southeast side of the ridge from the Mt. 3. Chigira. Consequently. T h s slaty cleavage bowed to the east. 2 for legend. 5 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND FORMATIVE PROCESSES OF SCARP TOPOGRAPHY The scarp topography has not been formed by normal erosion processes. downslope. 1997). On the contrary.Fig. 5. Geomoqhological map of the survey area. the rock mass is fractured extensively by the shearing along the slate cleavage. slate has welldeveloped slaty cleavage whch is parallel to the beddmg planes in most parts with some exceptions. See Fig.
The shape of scarp topography also changes laterally along the ridge in the second area: scarp tops become more rounded to the northeast. it is codrmed that the strata on almost all the southeast slope of the ridge bowed to the east. active tectonic faults could not be expected because it appears only around the ridgetop and because strata on one side of the ridge continue t o the other side across the topography. Proues across scarp topography along lines shown in Figure 3. These geomorphological features suggest that slope deformation spread outwards from the top of the ridge. t h a t i t h a s been made by g r a v i t a t i o n a l deformation of rock (Fig. as has been observed in the landslide scar of the Akakuzure. 6). Moreover. the roundness of a scarp in higher elevatioiis is larger than that in lower elevations as described before. are probably made by 166 . 1994). such deformation could form a gravitational fault whch appear as an upslopefacing scarp. 4. the relative height of scarps in hgher elevations is larger than that in lower elevations. In the survey. Morphology and heights of scarp topography probably inhcate a period of its formation as follows. Along the scarp topography. 10 km west of the Mt. In adhtion. area. On the other hand.Fig. Downslopefacing scarps in area 1. The top of a scarp is denudated gradually and its roundness is expected to increase with time. T i difference within an hs small elevation interval of about 40 m strongly suggests that the scarp topography in hgher elevations is older than that in lower elevation. Yambushi (Chigira and Kho. which form stepllke landform. inhcating older origin.
Fig. Yambush in the Akaish Mountains. 5. Arrows inchmix the dixection of rock movement mfeired &om the fold ayes made by the bowing of slaty cleavage the translational slide to the northeast leaving ridgetop depressions on the southwest side of the Mt. Upslopefacing scarps and ridgetop depressions trend parallel or subparallel to the ridge. Following results were obtained. 1.The above two facts strongly suggest that the scarps and depressions in hgher elevations are older than those in lower elevations. being ahgned in several lines. The top of a scarp in a higher elevation is more rounded than those in lower elevations. 5. Geological map of the Survey area. 3. The slope deformation is probably caused the 167 . 2. 4. whch is mainly underlain by Paleogene slate with steeplyhpping cleavage. YambusWs peak. The relative height of a scarp is larger for the scarps in hgher elevations. indxating that slope deformation extended from the ridge top outwards. CONCLUSIONS Ths study clarrfred geomorphological and geological features of upslopefacing scarps and ridgetop depressions on an ridge near the Mt.
Soc. Y. S m .Suppl. (Proceedngs of amual meethg of Japan . Heisei 9 nendo happyou kai kouen ronbun syuu. 18111822. & Kho.. 1994. Longterm gravitational deformation of rocks by mass rock creep. S m . International Geological Congress. REFERENCE Chigira. W. Southern Japan Alps. M. Geol.Matsuoka. U. i. Sec. 1985. Fig.RadbruchHall. 1989. Canada. 1972. 1st. D. 24th Montreal. Geol. Topographc and structural conhtions in areas of gravitational spreadmg of ridges in the western United States. K. Engineering Geologv 32: 157184. Rock control on the dstribution of linear depressions on the main divide of Akaishi range. U S GeoIogical Survey Professional Paper. Can. Deepseated rockslideavalanches preceded by mass rock creep of sehmentary rocks in the Akaish Mountains. A. A. S.181189. Lisbon. Rock Mechanics. 1971.lj: Proceedngs 131141. 168 . Engheezing Geolow. Surface hsplacement and massive toppling on the northern ridge of Mount Currie. valleyward bowing of slate separated by steeplyhpping cleavage. Nemcok. Kobayash. 46: 177214. Central Japan. 1992. N. 6. 58 : 411427. M. Gravitational slope deformation h g h mountains. On the deformation of high slopes. J. D. 1997. Relationshp between scarp topography and geological structure. 1987. Bd. K. 1966. Bd. Cong. H. W. and Savage.2: 179185. Engneennggeology society) 8991 Evans. Am. 38: 221230.. Geomorph. Soc. British Columbia. Tabor. M. Sugiyama. 1496. 1956. Geol. Zishnsky. Periglacial morphology in Japan. 82: Varnes. Large mass rock creep and possible landslides in the area from the Oyakuzure to Yambushdake. Washngton. Geology of the northern Setogawa Belt in the Akaish Mountains and the formation process of the Setogawa accretionary complex. Z.G. Paper. 5: 5972. Int. Origin of ridgetop depressions by largescale creep in the Olympic Mountains. 1995. Proc. R. Chigira. Geogz Re%Japan. 1964. Japan. Chgira. Slopes morphological features Zeitresulting from gravitation. B d PeuyglaqZy 4: 1536. 871A. Jahn.
Fig. partly of Paleogene age. Yagi. lithology and geologic structure of bed rocks. is one of the largest landslide areas in Southwest Japan. and also in Quaternary unconsolidated sediments or volcanic pyroclasts. On the basis of the fact that occurrences of landslides are generally controlled by geological factors. in the Setouchi area of the central Southwest Japan. are found in the Neogene "Green Tuff" formations along the Sea of Japan side. Central Japan. He pointed out that two kinds of main geologic factors. which mainly distributed in the Sanda Basin. based on those of the Kobe Group of Paleogene age. and are divided into three groups. Landslides of the first group. or volcanic pyroclasts. The Kobe Group. sandstone and conglomerate of lacustrine origin. The author discusses geological and geomorphologic characteristics of landslides of the second group. Central Japan ABSTRACT: Many landslides of the soft rock type occur in Tertiary or Quaternary formations of the Japanese Islands. This Group consists of mudstone. which are often large in scale. together with those of the Hokusho area in northern Kyushu. and is characterized by numerous tuff beds found in various horizons. are typical ones in the Inner Zone of Southwest Japan. such as mudstone and fine tuff. a large number of landslides belonging to the soft rock type are mainly distributed in the Neogene "Green Tuff" formations along the Sea of Japan side. Yamagami & Jiang (c 1999 Balkema. Rotterdam. which form typical landslide areas in Japan. the author proposed the geologic control of landslides. Those of the second group mainly occur in scattered sedimentary basins of Neogene age. It is clarified that many landslides occur in slopes with lower slope angle. Most of the landslide areas range from 5 to 10 in slope angle.1 Outline of geology of Kobe and its adjacent areas (based on Huzita and Kasama. different from those of the "Green tuff" type. It is indicated that many landslides of the slow slide type occur in fine clastic sediments. 1 INTRODUCTION In the Japanese Islands. in every kind of basement sedimentary rocks. Central Japan. Kobe in Central Japan.Slope Stability Engineering. 1983) 1: Alluvium and Quaternary sediments 2: Kobe Group 3: Basement rocks (preCretaceous formations with volcanic rocks) (S): Sanda Basin 169 . Some characteristic landslides occur in scattered sedimentary basins of Neogene or partly Paleogene age in inland areas. though the Basin forms many hills of 10 to 20 in slope angle. The third group is found in Quaternary sediments. and in the Pacific Ocean side of Northeast Japan. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Geological characteristics of landslides of the soft rock type. north of the Rokko Mountains. The author discusses geologic characteristics of landslides of the soft rock type. are closely connected with occurrences and movement of landslides. The landslides of the Kobe Group of Paleogene age.
overlies the Yokawa Formation with slight disconformity. particularly distributed its southeastern corner. and is considered to be pyroclastic flow deposits. characterized by tuffaceous facies as a whole. the Group is dips gently westward or toward the center of the Basin. respectively. thick sandstone beds with pebbles and mud balls are dominant. This Group is composed of mudstone. respectively.2 Compiled columnar section of the Kobe Group (based on Huzita and Kasama. 1983). Generally. Recently. The upper part. Fig. The fuino Formation unconformably overlies the basement rocks composed of rhyolitic to dacitic lava and pyroclasts of Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age.1). by means of tracing tuff beds in field and the petrographic study of tuff (Huzita et al. Thick massive and wellsorted sandstone beds dominate the lower part. who have been researching it since 1955. and partly containing pebbles derived from the basement rocks. Ozaki and Matsuura (1988) show that the Group is considered to be late Eocene to early Oligocene on the basis of the fission track age of tuff. These tuff beds are useful as key beds in order to clarify the stratigraphic sequence and geology structure. is mainly composed of mudstone. sandstone and conglomerate of lacustrine origin. sandstone and two remarkable tuff beds.2 and Fig. north of Kobe in central Kinki District. The upper part is mainly composed of tuff and tuffaceous mudstone intercalating sandstone or conglomerate. which are called by the Arima Group. Kasama and their group. and shows sedimentary cycles changing coarse to fine clastic sediments. and several terrace beds. The stratigraphy has been established by Huzita. Fig. Yokawa and Ohgo Formations in ascending order. As the result. which is mostly widespread in central part of the Basin. The Yokawa Formation. Huzita & Kasama. conformably overlies the Arino Formation. mainly occupied west side of the Basin. hard and widely traceable. and is characterized by numerous tuff beds found in various horizons. and show new stratigraphy of the Group. intercalating thin mudstone beds. the Kobe Group in the Sanda Basin is divided into Arino. and mainly consists of boulder to cobble conglomerate and sandstone with thin layers of mudstone and tuff. Wellsorted and massive sandstone dominate the lower part.3 show the modified stratigraphic sequences of the Kobe Group and the geological map of the Sanda basin. which is a square area with about 22 and 16 km in the East to West and North to South directions (Fig. though it commonly is difficult to distinguish them by naked eyes. 1983) 1: Tuff 2: Tuffaceous mudstone 3: Mudstone 4:Tuffaceous sandstone 5: Sandstone 6: Tuffaceous conglomerate 7: Conglomerate (wellsorted) 8: Conglomerate (poorly sorted angular gravels) 170 . 1971. The Ohgo Formation. and is unconformably covered by the Osaka Group of Quaternary age.2KOBEGROUP The Kobe Group is mainly distributed in the Sanda Basin. intercalating mudstone and two tuff beds. In the upper most part. and of preJurassic clastic rocks. The lower tuff is very conspicuous. Each formation is 170 to 190 m’s’ thick. It is exposed the marginal area of the basin. except for several fault and flexure or fold zones. and include pebbles or mud balls.
" On the other hand. 300 to 1. and it is clarified that many landslides occur in slopes with lower slope angle than with higher one.3 Geologic map of the Sanda Basin and distribution of landslides 1: Alluvium. The inclination is also gentle. 1976. Most of the landslides show the slow slide type of movement. a large new one is often formed. Though a sliding mass is small in scale. Fujita (1984 & 1994) and Ishida et a1 (1975.000 m. The average volume is estimated to be 4 x 104m3. The displacement is usually less than 10 cm a year. showing 300 to 500 m in width. many landslide areas show 10 to 15 in slope angle. the movement of a 171 Generally. 5 to 30 m in thickness. 5 to 10 m in thickness. Then. which consists of "debris and soil bed. some of the masses consist of weathered fine clastic rocks. A sliding mass composed of rock masses is usually large in scale. showing below about 100 m. partly sand. According to Huzita and Kasama (1983). combining several sliding masses. low and middle terrace deposits 3: upper part of the Ohgo Formation 5: upper part of the Yokawa Formation 7: Arino Formation 9: fault The surround area with black line shows one 3 GENERAL REMARKS OF LANDSLIDES 2: Osaka Group and high terrace deposits 4: lower part of the Ohgo Formation 6: lower part of the Yokawa Formation 8: Basement rocks (mainly Mesozoic Rhyolite) 1 0:landslide of the Fig. Particularly. The relative relieves are commonly small. 1984 & 1994). partly coarse clastic rocks of the Kobe Group. derived from mudstone. and 5 x 106m3 in average volume. such as montmorillonite. light brown or gray colored. landslide areas are so gentle and high in content of water that they mostly use as rice fields. This is called a "debris and soil bed. illsorted and massive debris deposits with angular to round cobble or . partly boulder. Its sliding mass is mainly composed of soft. but the movement is often continuous. the Sanda Basin shows hilly topography. including abundant clay minerals.Fig. The size of a sliding mass. The matrix mainly consists of viscous clay or silt. 1977 & 1985). tuff and sandstone of the Kobe Group. and most of the slopes in the Basin are between 5 and 20 in slope angle." is generally 10 to 50 m in width. Landslides of the Kobe Group are commonly found in found in mudstone or fine tuff beds. 50 to 300 m in length.4 pebble. main features of landslides of the Kobe Group are summarized as follows: By slope analysis (Fujita.
kinds of main geologic factors. 1987). because of including abundant clay Fig. conglomerate and coarse tuff.1 Lithological Control On the basis of the fact that occurrences of landslides are generally controlled by geological factors.4 Geological map and distribution of landslides in the Ohgo area 2: Landslide 3: Conglomerate and sandstone of the Kobe Group 1: Alluvium 6: Fault 4: Mudstone and tuff of the Kobe Group 5 : Mesozoic Rhyolite 0: Ohgo S: KitaSou0 H: Higashihata M: Mikage K: Kohda 172 . Generally. and calls them the lithological and structural control.4 shows the geological map with the distribution of landslides of the slow slide type in the Ohgo area. but are commonly small in scale. in every kind of bedrock of sedimentary origin. including abundant montmorillonite. the Kobe Group is divided into two kinds of lithofacies. It forms a soft clay layer with the thickness of 5 to 10 cm. the hard rocks form relatively steep slopes over 20 in slope angle. weak and low in strength. and smaller landslides occur. and is very viscous and high content of water. namely the slow slide or creep type. and form many gentle slopes with large slope length.4 clearly shows. This area is well known to be one of the most typical landslide areas in the Kobe Group. A primary sliding surface is generally found on an unconformity plane between a "debris and soil bed" and each formation of the Kobe Group. in comparison with the former ones. and is continuous. In general.landslide composed of rock masses is very slow. which locates in the southern and central Basin. From the fact. and coarse clastic rocks composed of sandstone. 4 GEOLOGIC CONTROL OF LANDSLIDES 4. it is indicated that many landslides of the slow slide type occur in fine clastic rocks. Therefore. and landslides of the rapid slide or fall type occur. The former rocks are soft. most of landslides belonging to the slow slide type are found in soft and fine clastic rocks. respectively. Fig. Some landslides show the rapid slide one. they calls slope failures. The secondary one is often found within the bed. are closely connected with occurrences and movement of landslides. and largescale landslides often occur. and these are not shown in the figure. Some of the surfaces are formed in mudstone or fine tuff beds of the Kobe Group. the author discussed the geologic control of He indicated that two landslides (Fujita. On the other hand. lithology and geologic structure of the Kobe Group. On the map. because of small in scale As Fig. namely fine clastic rocks composed of mudstone and fine tuff. it is pointed out that fine clastic rocks show tendencies to form sliding surfaces. the latter are hard and high in strength.
mainly sandstone or conglomerate. many landslides of the "Nagareban" type occur.Fig. These belong to the "Nagareban" type." 2 to 5 m under the ground surface. They move on slopes slowly and continuously. On the other hand. Fig. and has a slight relation to rainfalls. mainly mudstone. Some of these old landslides are found on the end of slopes with about 5 in slope angle. and that most of the landslides occur on these slopes. form gentle and long slopes. 1987). Hard and coarse clastic rocks. and the "Yokoban" type are the strike slide one. These lanclslides show the movement rapid slide type.2 Structural Control The author proposed three structure type of landslides. the action of groundwater is closely related to form a sliding surface. In Fig. Though the movement of groundwater is complex. Present active landslides occur on relative steep slopes with about 10 in slope angle. In this area. the "Nagareban. Many landslides show the "Nagareban" type. The first type is one of the shallow groundwater through relatively thin "debris and soil beds. sliding masses composed of rock masses belong to this type. L2: Active landslide. and are commonly large in scale. and are commonly small in scale. and belong to the "Ukeban" type. On the other hand. 4. and are often large in scale. and landslides belonging to the "Nagareban" type occur on these slopes with 173 . L: Landslide of the rapid slide type) S: Soft rock SF: sliding surface H: Hard rock (B) SS: Sandstone (hard rock) MS: Mudstone (soft rock) C: Landslide of the rapid slide type (L3 type) L: Landslide of the slow slide type  minerals. whose sliding mass moves along the dip direction side of a bedding plane. landslides of the "Ukeban" type move toward reverse side of the dip direction of the plane. and a few landslides of the collapse type occur. the lower figure (B) shows typical cuesta topography. the upper figure (A) shows the relation between occurrence of landslides and bedding planes of sedimentary strata with low dips less than about 5 O . two types of movement are proved. particularly montmorillonite. These are commonly small in scale. many landslides occur.5. On very gentle and long slopes parallel to bedding planes. In this area. form relatively steep slopes with short slope length. or sometimes the fall type." "Ukeban" and "Yokoban" types (Fujita. and most of them are distributed in central part of the Sanda Basin. Some smallscale landslides of the collapse type occur on slopes of the opposite side. and are stable at present. showing the rapid slide type of movement. This type of groundwater is closely related to The second type shows groundwater rainfalls. a small number of landslides belonging to the "Yokoban" type are found. moving in weathered strata of the Kobe Group about 10 m deep. These facts indicate that a main sliding surface forms along a bedding plane. These sections indicate that soft and fine clastic sediments. Therefore.5 shows two schematic cross sections of landslide areas in this area.5 Schematic cross sections of landslide areas (A) L1 L: Landslide ( LI: Old landslide. Particularly.
1985: Studies of landslides of agricultural land in Kobe Group. Hirano. On the other hand. mainly Mesozoic Volcanic rocks and partly Paleozoic rocks.4) & (Part. and topography of the lower figure has been formed.. K. Toronto. Ozaki. As Fig.Quadrangle series. This is the typical structural control of landslides. and this type is called the "Nagareban" type. Southwest Japan. Landslides. a sliding surface is formed along a bedding plane. Symp. 4. 5 CONCLUSION In Japan. Geol. which is widely distributed and shows tuffaceous lithofacies as a whole. Proc. Proc.. Y. these easily form sliding surfaces for landslides... This fact indicates the lithological control of landslides. 14151424. and includes many active landslides. 3rd Inter. Fujita. K. & Tanaka. It is pointed out that the ridge in the upper figure was eroded out.4 shows.. 1971: Geology and geomorphology of the Rokko area. 1723.. T... Abe A. namely mudstone or fine tuff. Tertiary deposit (Part. Japan. 174 . because of steep slopes. REFERENCES Fujita. T. Ishida. Kawahara. 22(1). M. The Kobe Group forms hills or hilly lands lower than 20 in slope angle. including other basement rocks. scale 1:50. in contrast to the former type. Tertiary deposit (Part.5). 93p.5 shows.Lanzhon.. which occur in coarse clastic sediments. 7th Inter. 1987: Geologic features of landslides in Japan. most of the landslides occur in fine clastic sediments. 1977: Studies of landslides of agricultural land in Kobe Group. T. Ozaki. Some landslides consist of rock masses. and include abundant clay minerals. Jour. Y. and move slowly and continuously. Accordingly. Y. Many landslides are composed of "debris and soil" beds. Ishida. 2. T. Huzita. which show the slow slide type of movement and are usually small in scale. However. Osaka Ct Univ. (in Japanese with English abstract). Ishida. & Kasama.. 1983: Geology of the Kobe district . Kasama. ChinaJapan Field Workshop on Landslides. Ishida. The Kobe Group consists of three formations. 3. Surv. IAEG. H. & Nishiura S. 6. 1994: Characteristics of landslides in Southwest Japan based on slope analysis. 5. the landslide areas form gentle slopes between 8 O and 12" in slope angle. Jisuberi (Landslide).. & Kunugi. In Central Japan. Japan. Jisuberi (Landslide). 21(4). On the other hand. Y. T. Many landslides show this type. Tertiary deposit (Part. T. 14.. 14(3). The geologic and geomorphologic characteristics of the Kobe Group and the landslides are as follows: 1. most of the landslides belonging to the rapid slide type show the "UkeO ban'' type. Imamura. 1521. smallscale landslides of the rapid slide type occur in coarse and hard clastic sediments. such as montmorillonite. many landslides are controlled by bedding planes of strata of the Kobe Group. many landslides of the soft rock type are found in Cenozoic formations. Kinki district.000. 115p. Generally.. 1988: Geology of the Sanda district. Many landslide areas of the slow slide type form gentle slopes and are used as rice fields. Tertiary deposit (Part. 71124. Fujita. (in Japanese with English abstract). Jisuberi (Landslide). with special reference to Quaternary tectonics. M. derived from the Kobe Group. 12(3). These landslides are mainly found around the central Sanda Basin..3). (in Japanese with English abstract). As Fig. & Sakane..1). Generally. the Kobe Group in the Sanda Basin is one of the most typical sedimentary formations of Cenozoic age. The fine clastic sediments are generally soft and weak. 7. Jisuberi (Landslide). (in Japanese with English abstract).. & Matsuura H. 3339. T. Surv. 13(3). Geol. 6168.2).. 1976: Studies of landslides of agricultural land in Kobe Group. Xian . M. and slide along the dip direction side of the planes. and landslides are found in the Yokawa Formation.. 7580.. I. those of other types are difficult to be used as rice fields or farm. 1828. iy Huzita. because of keeping a large quantity of water. namely coarse sandstone and conglomerate. Proc. & Tomoto S. Y. E. Japan. 1984: Slope analysis of landslides of the soft rock type in Kinki. 1975: Studies of landslides of agricultural land in Kobe Group.. (in Japanese with English abstract). with geological sheet map at 1:50. Shinoda.about 10 O in slope angle.000. 2. 717. 3.
depth and width of landslides show a good correlation. in which actual conditions such as sliding extent or depth were known. rational investigation and countermeasures can be programmed in early stage of landslides. namely as slide width. the author came to recognize a specific relationship between scale of landslides and geomorphic surface condition. as a slope becomes steep scale of landslide becomes small. if general tendency of landslides can be recognized by estimating one of configuration properties. 2)As for the scale of landslides. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. Omiya. and studied dominating conditions in the scale and distribution of landslides. Even if whole structure of landslide cannot be identified. and as an example on study of landslides in the mountainous aria of Shikoku was given. and depth. in an investigation of actual condition of a landslide and design of countermeasures. 2 CONFIGURATION AND SCALE OF LANDSLIDES f 2. From this point of view.1 Configuration o Landslides The author defines the configuration properties of landslides from Figure 1 as follows: Width of landslide 0 : m a x i m u m width of landslide Depth of landslide@):maximum depth of slide plane in vertical direction Length of landslide(L):distance between the head and toe of landslide Slope angle(P):inclinationof line between the head and toe of landslide to a horizontal direction Fig. as well as dynamic condition. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Study of configuration.Japan ABSTRACT: Configuration and scale of general landslides from the reality of existing landslides were studied. For this purpose. The author also carried out geomorphological analysis in a part of mountainous area in Shikoku. the author has been investigating the relationship between scale of landslides and configuration or slope angle. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1)As for the form of landslides.Ueno OYO Corporation. In this process. the older geomorphic surface showed gentler slope and thicker weathered zone.Slope Stability Engineering. length. it is necessary to clarify the relationship between each property from analysis of features of existing landslides. Rotterdam. 1 Terminology to define the form of landslide 175 . scale and distribution of landslides S. based upon 52 examples. of landslide(Tab1e 1). and landslides are distributed over such place. Yagi. 1 INTRODUCTION It is very important to understand configuration and scale of landslide. 3)In the mountainous area of Shikoku.
an: andesite.tf) T(ms. sch: schist. sl.dk) P(SP. sp: serpentinite.ba) T(ms.tf. s : sand. c: clay.c.ss) T(ms.ba) T(ms.ss. tb: tuff breccia. 35 160 170 80 40 50 70 55 50 200 300 200 300 350 350 350 200 210 250 300 370 185 35 35 230 190 65 40 110 160 110 45 80 110 140 38 225 300 900 160 400 750 250 800 600 900 800 675 P: Palaeozoic.Sl.ba) T(ms.s) Depth D(m> 30 23 19 10 13 19 6 6 14 15 16 18 38 23 30 20 8 8 7 8 6 30 14 15 10 39 9 7 27 23 13 9 14 19 11 8 5 8 10 9 25 30 40 40 40 50 60 40 55 40 60 69 Length 190 340 210 34 210 130 60 40 77 92 85 83 260 510 250 220 70 55 40 75 70 280 65 165 40 Slope angle B ("1 16 15 20 30 14 30 33 29 26 26 25 29 28 20 23 24 32 30 29 25 38 32 25 15 26 11 30 31 14 15 17 30 16 10 15 16 15 13 15 28 28 23 15 12 15 15 22 8 10 10 10 14 1 Ehime 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 60 120 80 80 40 300 30 50 180 130 80 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 . tf: tuff.s.tf.ss.tf) T(ms.tf) T(ms.SS) T (t f.tf) T(ms.ss.dk) T(ms.ss. ms: mud stone.ss.ss) T(ms. gr :green rock.ba) T(ms.tf.g) P(S1) P(s1) M(wtf.ss.tb) T(tf). T: Tertiary. Q: Quarternary.ba) T(ms.Q(an.ba) Q(W) Q(CJ) Q(W) Q(c.ss) T(ms) Utf) T(ms. dk: dyke.ba) T(ms.ss) T(ms.ba) T(ms. cg:conglomerate. ba: basalt.ss) M(ms.ss. slate. g: gravel 176 . ss: sand stone. M: Mesozoic.ss.Table 1 Na Geometric data measured for landslides Width W(m> 200 135 135 60 90 125 50 30 70 60 60 95 270 230 300 130 50 70 55 80 Location Kochi Kochi Fukuoka Wakayama Kochi Fukuoka Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Kochi Ehime Hyogo Saga Saga Osaka Saga Saga Oita Saga Saga Saga Saga Saga Saga Saga Osaka Osaka Osaka Osaka Nara Hyogo Kochi Nagano Yamagata Hokkaido Nagano Nagano Nagano Toyama Osaka Akita Geology P(gr) P(gr) P(gr) P(sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P(sch) P( sch) P(sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P( sch) P(sch) P( sch) P(sch) P( sch) M(ms. wtf: welded tuff. cg ) T(ms.
L/W=4). However.2 Relationship between width and length of landslide. W/D range within 5.NV):ratio of length of landslide to width Transverse configuration ratio(W/D):ratio of width of landslide to depth Longitudinal configuration ratio(L/D):ratio of length of landslide to depth The values of surface configuration ratio. the value of L/D exceeds this range because of same reason as surface configuration ratio. for the landslides with width grater than 2 1Om.Ratios between each configuration property are defined as follows. From the analysis of transverse configuration ratio. However. Surface configuration ratio0. because the sliding block is divided into several blocks. A good correlation was found. In these landslides.5) represent such long and narrow landslides in Japan. this value is often greater than 2. the value of LMr is supposed to fit within the range given here. because of expansion of landslide upward or downward. the values of L/D range within 415 as is shown in Figure 3. the relationship between depth of landslide and width is shown in Figure 4.4 Relationship between depth and width of landslide. For longitudinal configuration ratio.10. LMr. in some examples. in the case of landslides that have been active in long time. for the unit sliding block. Especially. and the Choujha landslide in Kochi (L=900mYL/W=4. Fig. and correlation between W and D becomes better.0 from the result of analysis (Figure 2). The Chausuyama landslide in Nagano (L=800m. and each small block moves independently. and the values of transverse configuration ratio(W/D) range within 4.5 in Japan. So. 177 . range within 0.10.53. Fig. the sliding block dose not move as a single block.
Type 1I:Surface with erosion by lower surface I11 distributed between EL. The relationship between slope angle@) and transverse configuration ratio(W/D) is shown in Figure 6. Type 1II:Surface that forms gentle slope from EL. 500800m. 300500m. 3.6 Relationship between slope and transverse configuration ratio. From this figure. when slope angle becomes steeper. Geomorphic surface in this area can be classified into the following five types: Type 1:Gentle slope with peak that forms ridge distributed higher than EL. and it is easy to compare each terrace to the past geomorphic surface. In general case. The relationship between distribution of landslides and geomorphic surface can be understood from classification of geomorphic surface with river bed profile. and the lower terrace along Yoshinogawa river is also mentioned.5 Relationship between slope angle and depth of landslide. and geomorphic surface in higher elevation can be considered as older surface with smaller influence of present erosion. several knick lines divide geomorphic surface. As is clearly shown in this figure. . such as weathered zone or talus cannot remain for long period in the process of weathering. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF LANDSLIDES In the topography with remarkable upheaval of ground. and location of these zones is in a line with knick lines. This result shows that both maximum and minimum value of transverse configuration ratio tend to be smaller. An example of geomorphological analysis focusing on knick lines is shown Figure 7. The author considers that. In this profile. Fig. on which many villages or paddy fields are located. Yoshinogawa river and its branch are shown with the base point at Ikeda dam that is located 30km down stream from the study area. knick lines that correspond to the edge of the past geomorphic surface can be recognized in many cases.2. Considering this result along with the above mentioned relation between slope angle and depth. And focusing on the river bed profile. Most data spread lower than the solid line in this figure. scale of landslide becomes smaller as the slope becomes steeper. 700m. This result shows that depths of landslide tend to be smaller in steep slopes. Fig. there are some steep zones (fast stream zones) corresponding with knick lines. most data spread lower than the solid line in this figure. fast stream zone can be identified in branch river. in steep slopes. thick unstable formation. River bed profile of this area is shown in Figure 8. because of erosion caused by small scale failure.2 Scale o Lanaklides f The relationship between slope angle@) and depth of landslide(D) is shown in Figure 5.
Fig. The ancient river bed when surface IV was formed is the connection of terraces shown Figure 8.7 Geomorphologicalclassification map Fig.8 Profiles of river bed of the Yoshinogawa River and its branch rivers Type 1V:Surfacethat is distributed between EL. 100400m and growing along river. Type V:The newest geomorphic surface that is distributed along the main stream of Yoshinogawa 179 .
Landslide Structure and Regional Perspective on Sumikawa Landslide at Hachimantai Volcanic Area. 3) If the slope angles of geomorphic surface are WETHERING CONDITION AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL SURFACE same with each other.13 T. From the result of boring on surface V. that was formed earlier. 2 0 0 4 and many rock outcrops are exposed. it is shown that if slope angle becomes steeper. 1) About configuration of landslides. Tuff breccia formation under colluvial deposit is weathered to depth about 35m and forms heavily weathered zone. thick layer of colluvial deposit about 20m is distributed in surface zone. Kamai 1989. This surface corresponds to steep valley slope lower than EL. depth of landslide can be estimated. depth of landslide@) and width of landslide0 show good correlation. Slope Evolution Processes of the Choja Landslide. Study of configuration. and large scale landslide is hard to form. the maximum of depth becomes smaller. Crystallin schist under colluvial deposit is weathered to depth 23m and forms heavily weathered zone. 5. transverse configuration ratio(W/D) ranges between 410. 180 . And. CONCLUSION Following are the result of this study. Northern Honsyu Japan. unstable soil layer cannot remain for a long period. Ueno. on the other hand. thicker weathered zone is distributed in upper zone of slope. OYO technical report No 14: 1. H.Higaki 1992. if thickness of unstable soil layer can be observed. Movement Patterns of the OgawamuraSodechi Landslide in Nagano. weathered zone develops thicker in older surface.Tamura 1992.Ikeda 1998. 2) From relationship between slope angle@) and depth of landslide(D). Landslide 26(2): 18 Figure 9 shows the result of borings that were drilled on geomorphic surface III.10 S. These estimations can be utilized in planning of investigation or countermeasures. From the result of boring on surface IVY the thickness of colluvial deposit is several meters.river. Geology in this area mainly consists of metamorphic rocks with partly distributed sedimentary rocks in south area. From this result. surface extent of landslide can be estimated. As is shown above. 4. and is not weathered to deep zone. Landslide 35(2): 1. Central Japan.Oyagi. and it seems to have been caused by weathering in long term. or. REFERENCES D. Landslide 29(2): 1219 N. surface layer consists of terrace gravel that was river bed deposit when surface V was formed. and larger landslide tends to occur in older surface.IV. Landslides with similar scale tend to be distributed in the same surface. From the result of boring on surface 111. and V. if width of landslide(W) observed. Sandy schist layer is relatively fresh. H. It shows that in steep slope. Scale and Distribution of Landslides. Southwest Japan.
Slope Stability Engineering, Yagi, Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 90 5809 079 5
Geodynamics and spatial distribution of properties of sea cliff colluvium
Eugeniusz Dembicki & Wieslaw Subotowicz
Environmental Engineering Faculty, Technical University of Gdaksk, Poland
ABSTRACT: In the paper three basic types of cliffs are presented and described, namely: slope wash, earth fall and landslipe cliffs. The spccial attention is paid to the slope wash cliff type and particularly to the geodynamics of its colluvium. Additionally, numerical kinetic model describing the process of internal alteration of colluvium into its homogeneous form is presented. 1. INTRODUCTION Along almost 500 kilometres of Polish coastline one can distinguish two main types of coast: cliffs and dunes (Fig.1). Cliff coast spreads out over a total distance of 100 km whereas dune coast covers 400 km. In both cases the coast can be divided into three basic elements: nearshore, beach and upper part of coast which in the case of the first type are cliffs (Subotowicz, 1982). The paper is devoted to the description of this coast element and particularly the properties and geodynamics of its colluvium. Observed on cliffs landslides phenomena are strictly connected with its geological structure. Additionally, in the landslide development an important role plays presence of groundwater which mostly occurs on the cliff slope in the form of seepage springs. Longterm observations of the geodynamical behaviour of cliffs allowed the distinguishing of three main types of cliffs (Subotowicz, 1982), ( Fig. 2): A. Slope wash type B. Earth fall type C. Landslip type. Slope wash cliff is characterised by sandy formations exclusively. Abrasive sea activity causes immediate slope wash of these formations. In this case, an inclination of a slope is very close to an angle of natural slope. Cliff colluvium is built of sandy cones. Earth fall cliff is forrned of soils with high strength parameters, such as loams and highly compressed
2. GEODYNAMICAL TYPES OF CLIFF
Cliffs of Polish coast are built of Pleistocene formations which are mainly represented by moraine clays and intermoraine deposits. The second ones consist of gravel, sands, silts and stagnant clays. Sometimes one can also meet formations of older age such as glacial detached blocks.
Fig. 1 Scheme of Polish coast
Fig. 2 Geodynamical types of cliffs. 1  ,moraine clays; 2  intermoraine sandy formations; 3 stagnant silts and clays. Age of formations Pleistocene.
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clays. In this case, an inclination of cliff slope is usually almost vertical. Earth fall occurs due to abrasive sea activity undercutting a toe of cliff together with destructive activity of tree roots and frozen water in the cliff fissures. Landslip cliff is characterised by soil landslipes. The landslipes are related to differentiated geological structure and groundwater. As in previous cases the direct initiation of cliff development comes here from sea abrasion, however significant role in this process play so called land factors (e.g. geological conditions, flow of groundwater supplied additionally by leakage from water supply installations located in the nearest vicinity of cliff crest etc.). Both, sea and land factors cause that the cliff slope becomes more steep worsening global equilibrium conditions what finally may lead to a loss of cliffs stability and subsequently a landslide occurs which is usually of structural character. Such character is caused by the fact that potential failure surface initiating the landslide phenomenon runs along top of stagnant or moraine clays. The surface develops progressively upwards being tangent to the top of these deposits, forming cylindrical shear surface which becomes a border between soil masses displaced and the undisturbed subsoil. The displaced soil mass forms a colluvium which immediately after landslide starts to undergo its own geodynamical processes different from the rest of a matrix bed.
left to it there was much younger landslip denoted as Landslide I1 which occurred in 1986 forming younger colluvium. Thus both cliff parts represent two different kinds of colluvium characterised by different stages of dynamics process. These different phases of dynamics acting on the two colluvium caused changes in spatial distribution and in lithologic composition of individual layers. Such conclusion has been derived on the basis of exploratory borings and SPT (Standard Penetration Tests) tests analysis. The depth of boreholes was not exceeding 6 m. Additionally, in order to measure displacements of colluvium surface by standard survey methods near every boring the settlement points have been installed. The survey measurements were carried out in the period from 1994 to 1997, (Czarnecki, 1998). The borings and SPT tests analysis allowed also a determination of colluvium thickness and the depth and shape of slip surface. In both landslide cases colluvium was built of much less compacted soils comparing to the original subsoil. Due to high saturation of colluvium clayey soils were plastic or even highly plastic. In many cases such high saturation of colluvium prevented its drilling through thus the floor of it was being determined from SPT tests. It has been found that the border between natural subsoil and displaced masses of soil is reached at 35 blows on every 10 cm of driven drill rode.
3. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF INVESTIGATION PERFORMED
The investigations of colluvium have been performed in the Jastrzqbia G6ra cliff (Fig. 1). The failure surface which had initiated landslide run along the roof of stagnant clays of varvedlike type called glaciallimnical clays (Fig. 3). They form cliff toe with well developed abrasive scar. The colluvium had been created due to displacement of two moraine clay layers separated by intermoraine sands. In both formations i.e. in intermoraine sands as well as in interstratified sandy and silty beds within clayey subsoil one can find groundwater. Displaced “en block” part of cliff which had become cliff colluvium preserved its original structure corresponding to undisturbed cliff subsoil only immediately after the landslide. In Fig. 4 is shown a landslide denoted as Landslide I which had developed on the turn of XIX and XX century. The colluvium formed due to this landslip process can be then recognised as old one. On the
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Fig. 4 Overview of Jastrzqbia Gora cliff.
Quarterly performed survey measurements have shown that the colluvium is being nonuniformly displayed in time. The colluvium movement is characterised by periods of different displacement velocities. The differences may range between 2030 cm withir, three years observation period. Thcy are mostly caused by various configuration of colluvium subsoil and varying intensity of water supply. Additionally, zones of faster movements are located in the areas of relatively large colluvium thickness what causes smaller influence of a subsoil on the movement. It has to be noted that periods of higher movement activity of colluvium and worsening soils strength take place during spring periods and not in autumnwinter months. It means that dynamics of colluvium is much more influenced by groundwaters instead of rainfalls. Older Landslide I is characterised by thinner colluvium and higher plasticity of soils. It results from higher progress of colluvium homogenisation process comparing to the Landslide 11. The differences of a shape of failure surfaces can be also seen. The slip surface of older landslide is much flat and less declined whereas in the second case cylindrical shape of the surface is much classical. Czarnecki, 1998 has elaborated the numerical model allowing the analysis of colluvium displacements and interpretation of the results obtained with regard to deeper colluvium parts. The numerical code incorporates soil resistance data provided from SPT tests. Typical data of this type are shown in Fig. 5.
4. LITODYNAMIC AND GMNULOMETRIC CONDITIONS OF COLLUVIlJM DYNAMICS Advanced dynamics of older Landslide I (see Fig. 6a crossseclion AA) has caused clear litodynamic stratificatiori within the colluvium area. Successive colluvium movement downwards cliff slope together with rainfall waters infiltrating into a subsoil and groundwaters caused that original layers of displaced "en block" soils underwent and continuously undergo the progressive process of alteration. The movement of individual layers (larger in the upper cliff part and smaller in the lower one) contributed to the decrease of thickness of original layers and to the formation of new ones. Subsequently, the new, qualitatively different colluvium subsoil has become homogeneous, (Wilski, 1997). However, it is not the arbitrary mixed structure but multilayered and flaggy spatial structure characteristic for gravitational flows, (Gradzinski et al., 1976). Such structure has been confirmed by both the description of soils drilled through the colluvium as well as by grain size distribution analysis. It has to be noted that the latter is an important feature allowing the assessment of grading, deposition and permeability of soils. These processes can indirectly serve for description of geological environment in which the deposits were formed. Sampling for the laboratory analyses was being done every 0.5 m of exploratory boring. The homogenisation of colluvium together with its lower border can be seen in Fig. 6  crosssection AA. The latter runs along slip surface localised on the roof of glaciallimnical clays. Lower colluvium part near abrasive scar can be subjected to the secondary landslip forming secondary colluvium consisting partially of older clayey subsoil (Fig. 6), (Czarnecki and Subotowicz, 1994).

5 . INFLUENCE OF GROUNDWATER GEODYNAMICS OF COLLUVIUM
ON
Fig. 5 Diagram of soil resistance and displacement of the colluvium
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Colluvium of both analysed landslides are highly saturated. Larger thickness of younger Landslide 11 colluvium and higher inclination of slope surface cause that groundwater table occurs quite deep within colluvium mass, sometimes several meters below the soil surface. In the case of Landslide I1 which is characterised by the essentially smaller volume of colluvium and little slope surface inclination groundwater table is situated much higher, not exceeding 2 m depth in the upper cliff part and reaching around 1 m going downwards.
Fig.6a Jastrzqbia Gora cliff colluvium  A  A crosssection.
Fig.6b Jastrzqbia Gora cliff colluvium  B  B crosssection. Locally, groundwater was found near colluvium surface (Fig. 6). There are three main sources of water supply. The first one is related to land supply coming from intermoraine aquifer. Its waters have direct contact with colluvium and occur in the form of seepage springs on the slope of landslide scar and consequently flow and infiltrate inside the colluvium. Second source are rainfall and melt waters, which also directly supply the colluvium. The third source are waters existing in cliffs undisturbed subsoil mostly in glacialliinnical clays and particularly in interstratified sandy and silty beds. They exist as confined groundwaters with its stabilised piezometric head at the colluvium level. They are hydraulically connected with colluvium waters and due to its confined character are source of additional supply. Continuous saturation of colluvium causes that its soils are permanently wet. It subsequently worsens strength parameters of these soils what induces dynamical gravitational processes.
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6. SUMMARY In the paper soil and water conditions of colluvium of Jastrzqbia Gora cliff and its influence on dynamics of cliff have been analysed. The colluvium soils are characterised by high saturation and are subjected to continuous dynamic process occurring in the form of permanent flow downwards the cliff slope. This process induces internal alteration of colluvium itself. It finally leads to the new qualitative structure of the homogenisation character, (Wilski, 1997). Grain size distribution and lithologic analyses performed, assessment of hydrogeological conditions existing within colluvium and SPT tests together with the measurements of colluvium movements were the basis for assumption to treat the colluvium as uniform liquidplastic material, (Dembicki et al., 1998). The assessment of colluvium properties together with the above assumption served for construction of numerical kinematic colluvium model. The model has incorporated the assumption of uniform displacements of colluvium along its depth. It enabled making use of survey measurement of colluvium surface movements for verification of the model. They are dependent on soil resistance measured during in situ soil investigations in terms of SPT tests Fig. 5). The analysis presented can serve for better assessment of colluvium properties and its influence on the dynamics of cliff leading to the better understanding of the processes governing the behaviour of this coast structure. At this stage of analysis the interpretation of the influence of blows on the strength parameters of colluvium soils is not possible. REFERENCES Czarnecki J. and Subotowicz W. 1994. Genesis of Jastrzqbia G6ra cliffs landslides (in Polish, Geneza osuwisk klifu w Jastrzqbiej Gorze), Iniynieria Morska i Geotechnika, 5 : 24825 1. Czarnecki J. 1998. Geodynamics of cliff coasts in Jastrzqbia Gora and Dqbno near Ustka. Gdahsk (in Polish, Geodynamika brzegow klifowych w Jastrzqbiej G6rze i Dqbnie k. Ustki), Technical University, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, PhD Thesis.
Dembicki E., Sobocinski G., Subotowicz W. and Czarnecki J. 1998. Spatial distribution of properties of Jastrzqbia G6ra cliff colluvium, (in Polish, Przestrzenny rozklad wlaSciwoSci koluwium klifowego w Jastrzqbiej Gorze), Iniynieria Morska i Geotechnika, 5 : 241 248. Gradzinski R, Kostecka A., Radomski A., Unrug R. 1976. Sedimentology, (in Polish, Sedymentologia), Wydawnictwo Geologiczne, Warszawa. Subotowicz W. 1982. Litodynamics of cliff coats in Poland, (in Polish, Litodynamika brzegow klifowych wybrzeia Polski), Ossolineum, Gdansk. TerStepanian G. 1975. Theory of Progressive Failure in Soil and Rock Media, Proc. of the First Baltic Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Eng., Vol. 1, Gdahsk: 181198. Wilski J. 1997. Homogenisation of colluvium on Jastrzebia Gora cliff landslides, (in Polish, Homogenizacja koluwium na osuwiskach klifu w Jastrzqbiej Gorze), Gdansk Technical University, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Master Thesis.
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Slope Stab/lify Engineering, Yagi, Yamagami & Jiang G ) 1999 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 905809 0795
A mineralogical study of the mechanism of landslide in the serpentinite belt
K.Yokota, R.Yatabe & N.Yagi
Depurtnzent of Environment and Construction, FUCU o Engineering, Ehinic? University, Mutsuyuinu, Jupun IQ f
ABSTRACT; A Serpentinite is consisted of Magnetite, Brucite and Serpentine. It has been made from upper
mantle matter and seawater at the deep sea floor. It has good coordination with basic rocks and sedimentary rocks. At the ground surface, Brucite is easily soluble into water, but Magnetite is stable. Therefore, at the border between Serpentinite and other rocks, many pores inner of weathered Serpentinite keep ground water channel. It affects other rock's weathering, and, some contact surfaces are made from different clayey layers. Serpentinite layers have larger residual strength and higher permeability than Montmollironite or Chlorite layers. When the layers of debris have loosen their stability, they sqush weathered Serpentinite layers, and they move slowly and creepy. The mechanism of landslide at the socalled Serpentinite zone is upper process.
1.INTRODUCTION
A Serpentinite has been valued as an ornament from its characteristic pattern, on the other hand, Serpentinite mountain's surface has been usually broken down and known fragile generally. We can see many landslide sites in the areas of the socalled Serpentinite. The characteristic profiles of Serpentinite's landslide have been worked up (Sokobiki et al. 1994). as below; 0 Serpentinite's landslide sites are distributed mainly along the tectonic lines, and there are complex geostructures around them. 0 Landslide topography is frequently at the border between Serpentinite and other rocks. There are few rock slides but many clay and debris slides. @ A gradient of the landslide site is comparatively gentle as 10 to 20. @ Many of the landslides still continue their slow and creepy movement. These features have been generally explained that Serpentinite is the intrusive rock and the surface of the landslides is formed from clay of Serpentine caused by faulty action and weathering. But these explanations do not give us positive proof about the characteristic of Serpentinite landslide's distribution and occurrence at the gentle slopes. It is considered that these features of landslide are caused by the
characteristics of Serpentinite's forming process and its characteristics of distribution. Then, we want to make clear of the mechanism of these characteristics of landslide at the areas of the socalled Serpentinite by the mineralogical method.
Fig. 1 Distribution of Serpentinites and sampling sites
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2.CHARACTERISTIC OF LANDSLIDE SITE The distributions of ultra basic rocks in Japan are showed in Fig. 1 (Miyashiro 1965). In Japan, we can find a Serpentinite as one of the ultra basic rocks along geotectonic lines. It has been considered, usually, that Serpentinite has been metamorphized from Peridotite whose main components are Olivine and Pyroxine. A Serpentinite is, generally, coordinated with green schist and black schist. And, it is often distributed with granite. Tablc 1 Coinponetit minerals of socalled weathered claycy Serpentinitcand stress strength of them Sampling spot main I Str.strengtIi structure bedulace names I
2. I . Features of dislribution of landslide. Distribution of landslide sites has a distinctive feature as below; 0Landslide sites are rare inner of the Serpentinite's distribution area. @ Many landslide sites are at the border between Serpentinite and metamorphic rocks as green schist, and, Serpentinite and sedimentary rocks as black schist. . @ There are few landslide sites at the border between serpentinite and granite.
2.2. Minerals of slip surface
In Table1 , the component minerals of weathered socalled Serpentinite by the Xray analysis and residual strength by the ring shear test are shown. Minerals of' slip surface are consisted from Serpentine, Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite at Serpentinite landslide sites. Serpentinite has high shear friction about 30 , but Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite have low shear friction angles about 20 to 10 , and degree of decrease from peak strength to residual strength is large. Chlorite is one of the main minerals of weathered green schist. And Montmorillonite is one of the main minerals of weathered black schist.
3.WEATHERING SERPENTINITE
AND
OCCURRING
OF A
At the outcrop of the ground surface, weathered Serpentinite usually turn grayish blue or green, and it forms a striking contrast against other dark brown weathered basic rocks whose layers are found with coordination of Serpentinite layers. Engyoji 1lC.SlS 2lC.SlS
I 29.81
30.6
I 31.21 30.6
t "
Br.2 1L.SIT.S
I
19.31
141
Br. :boring core C.S.:cutting slope S.C. : swelling cutting slope L.S. : Landslide site
S. : Serpentine C, : Chlorite T. : Talc M. : Montmorillonite F. : Felspars
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Fig.2. The propotion of Brucite at each sampling site
Chrysotile. Magnetite is one of the iron oxide and it is stable at the ground surface. Brucite is the only magnesium hydroxide mineral. It exists generally inner of the ultra basic rocks. And it is stable in the strong basic solution higher than pH 11. Serpentine is one of the magnesium hydrous silicate minerals and it is classified Anteigolite, Chrysotile and Rizaldite by the occurrence condition of temperature and pressure. In Fig.2, the proportion of Brucite, which is contained in respective serpentinite blocks in Japan, are illustrated. At the ground surface, Brucite is easily soluble into acid or weak basic water, but Magnetitc is nearly soluble. Therefore, Serpentinite is weathered easily and crashed into pieces quickly, and it keeps coarsegrained particles with Magnetite. Then, it has large residual strength and turns grayish blue or green. 3.2. A comparison with basic rocks In Fig.3, the metallic elements, which are leached from Serpentinite, Sanbagawa green schist, Sanbagawa black schist and Mikabu green stones in the acidic solution, are shown. Acid solution is H2C03 and pH6.3. Strikingly, leaching Mg from Serpentinite shows larger value than the others. And, prominently, leaching Fe from Serpentinite shows smaller value than the other rocks. Many other metalic elements are leached from the other rocks. Main minerals of basic rocks, as Pyroxene, Hornblende and Chlorite, have Mg2+,Fe2+,Ca2', A13+ and Fe3+in their crystal structures as anhydrous or hydrous silicate minerals. It seems that Fe and other elements are dissolved into acidic or basic solution with destruction of the crystal structure. Therefore, they are slowly weathered and reformed to clayey soils which have minutegrained particles and low residual strength. And they turn dark brown.
Fig*3'
components Of rocks and times
3. I . A Serpentinite We can observe, generally, a Serpentinite is basically consisted of some lumps of Magnetite with Serpentine and some veins of Brucite with
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3.3. A comparison with Peridotite rocks Olivine, which is a main mineral of ultra basic rock, has Mg2+and Fe2+ in its crystal structure as anhydrous silicate minerals whose names are Foresterite and Fairlite. The thin surface of weathered Peridotite turns reddishbrown, but inner of the Peridotite turns clear olive green. It seems that Fe is dissolved with destruction of the crystal structures. And it shows us that weathered Peridotite is not metamorphising to Serpentinite. We can find some slim, soft and straight white vein of fibrous the Chrysotile at the Peridotite outcrop. It has been reported that a Peridotite has some veins of Brucite and Chrysotile which keep fluidity of the upper mantle matter (Morimoto 989). The white vein the traces from which
Brucite has been dissolved into water at the ground surface.
3.4. A considervtion of the occurrence of Serpenlinite rocks These points of difference between Serpentinite and Peridotite, or, Serpentinite and basic rocks show us that Serpentinite has a unique occurrence condition and process compared with other basic or ultra basic rocks.
A profile of mineral facies A profile of rock facies
It is considered that Serpentinite has made from reaction between upper mantle matter and water at the deep sea floor suddenly with eruption or cracking the ocean crust. And it is considered that other basic or ultra basic rocks have gone hard slowly from lava of upper mantle matter with each condition respectively. The conceptual process is illustrated in Fig.4. (Arai 1992, Fujioka 1994, Ishizuka 1995 and Cannet 1995). It is considered that Serpentinite has good coordination with basic rocks at the sea floor, and many sedimentary rocks cover over the Serpentinite later.
0:Olivine
T
SB
SB
SB % SMS SB $ SMS T d SB SMS
H:Hornblendite C:Chlorite M:Magnetite B:Brucite S:Serpentinite
4. WEATHERING AND DISINTEGRATION OF SERPENTINITE On the one hand, a large ultra basic rock body, which is consisted of Peridotite with Serpentinite, forms generally a high mountain. We can find that veins of Brucite and Chrysotile affect some cracks inner of the ultra basic rocks, and they affect some rock faults usually. On the other hand, some Serpentinite rock body is very fragile by the dissolution of Brucite into water and it breaks into pieces usually. And then, a mountain of ultra basic rocks has steep cliffs and gentle slopes. But weathered Serpentinite break into clayey pieces rarely at the outcrop, and it causes rarely landslide inner of the serpentinite areas.
Mohodiscontinuity
,.
A vain of B&S (yellowwhite)
\L
SMSMS SB SMSMS MSHSM SB MSHSM 00000 SB 00000 SMOMS SB SMOMS OOPOO SB OOPOO MOPOM SB MOPOM OPOPO SB OPOPO SMOMS SB SMOMS POPOP SB POPOP MSHSM SB MSHSM PPOPP SR PPOPP SMSMS SB SMSMS HPOPH SB HPOPH SerpentinisedPeridotite Peridotite (grayblue) (01ivegreen) IMSMSM SB MSMSM SMMMS SB SMMMS SMSMS SB SMSMS SMMMS SB SMMMS MSMSM SB MSMSM SBSBSB SB SBSBSB SMSMS SB SMSMS SMMMS SB SMMMS MSMSM SB MSMSM SMMMS SB SMMMS SMSMS SB SMSMS MSMSM SB MSMSM Weak Serpentinite Hard Serpentinite (bluewhite) (blackgreen) Fig.4. Schematic diagram concerning genesis of Serpentinite
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4.1. The Primary Collapse with landslide In Fig.5, the coefficient of permeability of Serpentinite and other clayey soil at landslide site is shown. It shows that a Serpentinite has considerably larger coefficient of permeability than the others. At the border zone between Serpentinite and other rocks, when veins of Brucite with Chrysotile have dissolved into water from Serpentinite rocks, many pores are caused inner of the rocks, and they keep ground water channels. It affects other rock's weathering. In them, some contact surfaces are formed between weathered soft Serpentinite layers and other clayey layers as Chlorite and Montmorillonite. It has been cleared that Montmorillonite has the remarkable hydrophilicity and it expands with water. And it has been found that some Chlorite has been swelling at the outcrop with water. The two layers are contrary to each other. Weathered Serpentinite has the characteristics of high permeability and large residual strength. But, Chlorite and Montmorillonite have the characteristics of low permeability and small residual strength. If the stability is lost by some cause, the contact surface will affect collapse with landslide.
Table 2. Component minerals of landslide site's clay by Xray analisis and stress strength of them
Fig.5. Permeability of landslide's clay
4.2. The secondory Landslide In Table 2, the minerals of deposit at landslide site, by the Xray analysis and residual strength by the ring shear test, are shown. Minerals of slip surface are consisted from Serpentine, Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite. And they have the smallest residual strength. It has been reported that, at the Choja landslide site, many thin layers of Serpentinite and Slate are alternately with each other. They are few centimeters or several decimeters thickness. Main minerals of slate are Talc, Chlorite and Montmollironite. When slope collapse with other rocks should occur again and again, layers of debris containing many various rocks are formed. At the surface of the deposit, they keep a gentle slope caused by the characteristic of main mineral which have low friction angle. Inner of the deposit, some contact surfaces are formed between weathered soft
191
Ca:Calcite Tr:Tremolite M:Montmorillonite ss:slip surface Br.:Boring core Serpentinite layers and other clayey layers as Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite. One of the weakest contact surfaces becomes the slip surface at the location. When the layers of debris have loosen their stability, due to natural erosion by rivers or artificial cutting slop, they
squash weathered Serpentinite layers, and they move slowly and creepy. It is considered that clayey minutegrained Serpentinite layer is formed as the result of squashing weathered Serpentinite layer. It is considered that the mechanism of landslide at the socalled Serpentinite zone is upper process. 5. CONCLUSION 1. Landslide sites are rare inner of the Serpentinite's distribution area. Many landslide sites are at the border between Serpentinite and metamorphic rocks as green schist, and, Serpentinite and sedimentary rocks as black schist. . 2. Minerals of slip surface are consisted from Serpentine, Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite at Serpentinite landslide sites. Serpentinite has high shear friction about 30, but Talc, Chlorite and Montmorillonite have low shear friction angles about 20 to 10, and degree of decrease from peak strength to residual strength is large. 3. In acid solution, leaching Mg fkom Serpentinite shows strikingly larger value than the other rocks as green schist and black schist. And, leaching Fe from Serpentinite shows prominently smaller value than the other rocks as green schist and black schist. A Serpentinite is basically consisted of some lumps of Magnetite with Serpentine and some veins of Brucite. It is considered that it has been made from upper mantle maters and seawater, with ultra basic rocks, at the deep sea floor. And it has generally good coordination with basic rocks and sedimentary rocks. 4. At the ground surface, Brucite is easily soluble into water, but Magnetite is stable. Therefore, at the border between Serpentinite and other rocks, many pores inner of weathered Serpentinite, by leaching Brucite, keep ground water channel. It affects other rock's weathering. It is considered that the weathered contact surface will affect primary collapse with landslide suddenly. 5. At the landslide site, some boring cores show the many layers of weathered Serpentinite and other clayey soils, alternately, with each other. Clayey Serpentinite has considerably larger coefficient of permeability than the other clayey soil. When the layers of debris have loosen their stability, naturally or artificially, they sqush weathered Serpentinite layers. And then, one of the weakest contact surface become slip surface, and they move slowly and creepy.
192
It is considered that the mechanism of landslide at the socalled Serpentinite zone is upper process.
REFERENCES
Sokobiki H. et al, 1994. A study and property of Serpentinite landslide in Japan. The 33th Japan national conference on Japan landslide SOC. :7881. Miyashiro A. 1965. Metamorphic rocks and metamorphic belts, Iwanami Shoten. Morimoto 1989. Rock forming mineralogy. Tokyo University Publishing company. Arai S. et a1 1992. Petrology of peridotites as a tool of insight into mantle process, a review, Joint of Min.,Petro. And Econ. Geology, Vo1.87,pp.351363 Fujioka K. et al, 1994. Southerncross Cruise Preliminary Resultsa Transect of Palau, Yap Tranches and Ayu Trough at the SouthernTip of the Phillipine Sea Plate.JAMESTEIC J Deep Sea Res. 10:203230. Ishizuka H. et al, 1995. Oceanic lower Crust and Upper Mantle Materials in Transform Fault Zone of WMARK. JAMESTIC JDeep Sea Res. 1 1:3752. Cannet M. et al, 1995. Thin crust, ultramafic exposures, and rugged faulting patterns at the Mid Atlantic Ridge(2224" N)., Geology.,231 :4952.
Slope Stability Engineering, Yagi, Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 90 5809 079 5
Detailed geotechnical study in Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project, Western Nepal
I?Dangol
Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Ghaiitughur, Kathmandu, Nepal
T. R. Paudel
Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project, Nepal Electricity Authority, Tundikhel, Kuthmandu, Nepal
ABSTRACT: Detailed geotechnical study is very important for any infrastructure development works, especially for underground excavation in the geotectonically active parts like the Himalayas. This paper gives an account of the geotechnical study carried out for the Modi Khola HydroelectricityProject. It also describes the engineering geological problems faced during construction of tunnel and foundation works of various structures with assessments made to tackle the problems. As a result of the geotechnicalstudy,the project became safe and costeffective.The advantageof selfsupportingcapacity of rocks is used, which reduced a huge amount of cost in tunnelling. The formerly designed long and curved tunnel alignment from vertical shaft is changed to a straight and better alignment, which reduced the tunnel length by about 35.0 m. Previouslyfixed locationsof surge tank and penstock pipe at loose terrace and conglomerate deposit were shifted towards the bedrock by designing a 40 m high vertical shaft and about 4.45 m long pressure tunnel instead of an exposed inclined penstock. similarly, results obtained from various geotechnical tests granted a sound basis to decide the location and foundation of Powerhouse and Intake structures.
1 INTRODUCTION
The MO&Khola Hydroelectric Project area is located in Western Nepal (Fig. 1). The construction site lies along the right bank of the Modi Khola  one of the major tributaries of the Kaligand& River. The Mod Khola is originated from the glacier cirque of the Annapurna Range. Total upstream catchment of the Modi Khola from the intake of the project is little above 500 km2. A concrete diversion weir (7.5 m high, 33 m long) diverts the 27.5 cumecs of water from the Modi Khola to a 154.8 m long Desanding Basin through a 30 m intake and 250.29 m long underground Box Culvert. Thereafter an open canal of 63 m length conveys the water to a Regulating Pondage of 26,640 m capacity. Then the water passes through 1507.1m long Headrace Tunnel of 3.15 m diameter, 41.25 m long Horizontal Tunnel of 4.24 m diameter, 37.96 m high Surge Tank of 5 m diameter, and 50.845 m long Vertical Shaft of 4 m diameter. After passing through 351 m long Pressure Tunnel of 4 m diameter and 90 m long Penstock Pipe of 3.2 to 2.77 m diameter, it reaches to the semiunderground Powerhouse (27 m x 14 m x 22 m) with a net head of 67 m and generates 14 M W electricity. Finally, the water runs down to the Modi Khola (Fig. 2) again through a 262 m long Tailrace Canal (Cut and Cover Box Culvert type). The main objectives of the geological and geotechnical investigationsfor the hydropower project were to obtain: 1.The necessary geological and geotechnical input for
193
evaluation of site and possible alternatives and for overall planning of the project, 2. A basis for evaluation of potential stability problems and judgement of geotechnical parameters for stability analysis, planning of reinforcement and treatments, 3. Classification of rockmass for support in the tunnel. 4. A basis for cost evaluation, and 5. Evaluation of unforeseen geological hazards in the construction site and recommendation for excavation through unstable zones. 2 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION The Project site (Fig. 2) lies in quartzitic terrain named as Naudanda Quartzite (Hirayama et al. 1988). It has
Figure 1. Location map of Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project.
Geological map of the Project area. Due to the unfavourable geological condition for foundation works of diversion weir and sluice gate. while the joint planes are planar with plumose structure. The bedding planes are slickensided with sandy clay infilling. topographically depressed zones. Foundation works in such geological condition is not favourable for heavy concrete structures in river channel.Figure 2. 2. The rocks of the Naudanda Quartzite are represented by medium.2) to stop the sand boiling. white and green quartzite with intercalations of thinly foliated grey to greenish grey phyllites and massive dark green chloritic phyllite with mica schist. Surface investigation comprised insitu mapping and test of outcrops. An anticlinal fold axis passes through the river at this site. The bore hole drilled during detail design stage shows that the bedrock is far below the foundation level. heavy concrete structures was to be designed for the Desanding basin and its side spillways so that it can withstand giving minimum load at its sloping walls. sand and silt. active gullies and their interpolation to the subsurface structures. soft phyllitic schist. massive. A quartzite rock cliff is exposed on the left bank of the river (Pl. 194 . The maximum thickness of the quartzite is about 1000 m in the Modi Khola section. kaolinite mass with altered schist layers and fractured rock fragments. Surface mapping and subsurface investigations are carried out in the construction sites. The structures are designed on alluvial deposit.5 m by sand with jute membrane at the lower part (P1. the Headworks area lies totally in old terrace of the Modi Khola. Two sets of joints are predominant. Considering the low bearing capacity of deposited material. Detail geological map of the project site is prepared from the data obtained during construction of concrete structure and excavation of tunnel (Fig. Out crop of bedrock (quartzite)on the left bank and diversion weir under construction. showing locations of constructionfeatures. The inlet portal is affected by a fault. The portal and about 300 m length of tunnel alignment runs through an old stabilized landslide area. essential treatments were carried out. Generally. The rockmass in this area is composed of fully decomposed saturated swelling clay fault gouge. taking into consideration of the geotechnical parameters accordmgly. breccia. the rocks dip towards North West (N3Oo35"E/2530"NW) in the Project area.The alluvial deposit of the Modi Khola is composed of irregularpoorly sorted sequence of boulders. 2). gravels.to coarsegrained. 1). The spongy silty clay part at the foundation elevation was removed and replaced upto 1. chloritic schist and kaolinite band.2 Tunnel Area The Headrace Tunnel pass through greenish to white quartzite and highly weathered.1 Headworks area Geologically. a sharp contact with the underlying Seti Formation and gradational contact with the overlying Balewa Formation (Paudel & Dhital 1996). spongy soil and boulders can not be compared and such inhomogenous material act differently Plate 1. under stress and may create the problem of water tightness and unequal settlement. surface mapping of old landslide scars. Such a rockmass has zero 2. The engineering property of quartzite bedrock.
From Engineering classification of soil. 95 . 2. From these two borehole interpretation. Plate 3. 3). slightly weathered. The bedrock is no more continuous in the tunnel excavation line due to NW dipping of rock. pebbles and sand produced from granite. the Surge Tank was located at the slope surface just at the interface of the quartzite beds and the conglomerate deposit.3 Powerhouse and tailrace area A semiunderground Powerhouse and 270 m long cut and cover box culvert type Tailrace canal is designed on the terrace deposit along the right bank of the Modi Khola (Pl. The secondcycle is composed of irregular sequence of boulders gravels. cemented by calcareous matrix and clay. the bedrock line was traced. but it is loose at top and often at its depth too. it became obvious that the original Surge Tank location and last 300 m of Headrace Tunnel was on the loose terrace conglomerate deposit lying unconformably over the bedrock. level of powerhouse falls in Poorly graded sand silt mixtures with fine aggregates (SM). It is normally unsorted and inhomogenous. only 50 mm thick plain shotcrete and spotbolts are used for initial support.jointed. brownish in color and the sediments are poorly sorted. excavation was done with heading and benching method. which is geologically unfavorable for hydropower tunnel. boulders. The conglomerate is composed mainly of gravel. the expected bedrock might have deeply eroded and buried by the alluvial deposit of the first cycle in the past. Most of the part of this conglomerate is hard and compact. Therefore. where competent bedrock of quartzite is confirmed. Desirability of foundation for this type of soil is 3 to 7. Consequently. Recommendation to shift the Powerhouse at about 40 m upstream towards the slope in the same alignment is given. The alluvium exhibits mainly two cycles of deposition. limestones and calcareous sandstones are also interspersedwith in it. After 325 m length. Few boulders of granite. From the geological condition observed. strong to very strong massive green quartzite appeared in the tunnel.5 was far higher than the internal friction angle of alluvial deposit. The first cycle consists mainly of dark gray to ash colored silty sand with fine aggregates. The opencut excavation at the cutslope of 1:0. The dipping of bed rock towards the hill also limits its continuation towards the Powerhouse. Foundation treatment of the sluice gate using jute membrane. Then the location of surge tank was shifted on the bedrock about 340 m upstream from its Plate 2. the soil found at the foundation. In these reaches. The steel ribs installed became buckled (inwardly bended upto 20 cm) due to high stress from right slope. gneiss and quartzite. thick bedded. two exploratory drill holes were sunk to findout the subsurface condition of rock and thickness of overburden above the bedrock. stand up time. Power house site on the alluvial deposit. As a result. upstream from portal was designed to be located through the conglomerate deposit. The alluvial deposit as a whole is noncohesive. gneiss. this type of deposit is not competent for foundation of Power house. about 300 m long Headrace tunnel. Considering the geological problem. sand and silty clay.1 Relocation of Surge Tank and Pressure Tunnel In the original design. Obviously. Therefore slope stability problem was faced in the tailrace part. (where 1 is for excellent and 14 for unacceptable). where the vibrating load is high.3 GEOTECHNICAl FINDINGS AND CONSTRUCTION WORKS 3.
Core samples of fractured quartzites were obtained from about 18 m onwards from the drilling face so that the width of the shearzone was found to be about 32 m. About 300 bags of cement grouting in the perimeter and spiling bars at 20 cm spacing was required per meter length of tunnel in average. tunneling methods in unstable sqeezing Plate 4. 3) shows many unstable condition on crown and walls (Kwon & Choi 1998). After excavating 14 m in the shear zone following the heading and benching method. The grouting was done by injecting the cement milk at the ratio of 1:l (cement:water) through 3 to 8 m long perforated GI pipes. 3. But. thinly foliated. Since the diameter of adit was small. heading and benching method is followed for further excavation. On further excavation.2 Pressure Tunnel Excavation through Shear Zone A 76. persistency. Heading by steel arch installation above SPL at 30 to 50 cm spacing and lagging behind with steel bars was done in the first stage. After consolidation grouting in the perimeter and above the crown. A vent adit of 2.5 m diameter and 68 m length is added for the ventilation of surge tank.3 Assessment for Permaneizt Support in the Tunnel The major discontinuities. Steel ribs support with 75 to 100 mm thick fibre reinforced shotcrete was used throughout the weak zone.5 m long work Adit No. roughness and alteration of joint surface (Table 1) provide very important clues in malung permanent support in the tunnel. no problem was faced during excavation. As a result.. spacing. a major shear zone was to cross along the upstream part from junction. the Headrace tunnel alignment N36"E and N48"E is nearly parallel to the bedding orientation of N30"35"E/24"30"NW. joints and shear planes (Fig. The last 450 m tunnel profile is lowered by about 45 m along the bedrock and designed as Pressure Tunnel introducing a 40 m high vertical shaft. Cubes from the collapsed material was made and tested in the laboratory. the weak zone continued for a long distance. On the basis of experience from the Modi hydropower. 4) for the excavation of Pressure Tunnel was designed just below the PokharaBaglung road. is an important consideration in the context of tectonically active zones. opening. The slid material was piled up at the face and consolidation grouting was started to stabilize the collapse. Intersection of bedding plane by south dipping prominent joint (N1O0E/58"SE) has resulted maximum possibility of block failures along the left wall and crown of Headrace tunnel.The quartzite bedrock is sufficiently strong but the major discontinuitiesare very prominent and intersectingwith one another. Since the Pressure Tunnel alignment is 710 m below the river bed level. weathering. At the junction area. soft mica schist layers were appeared. rockmass can be suggested to overcome the problems encountered at other projects in similar situations. 3. Provisions of compressible packing between rock and the support to allow deformation under controlled condition and final lining of the tunnel after sufficient time has elapsed through completion of excavation so that all the movements have died down. About 40 m length of vent adit was designed to be located on the conglomerate deposit.The orientation of these weak layer is almost parallel to the tunnel alignment. high rate of ground water inflow further made the condition worse. The analysis of stereographic projection of bedding plane. Work adit 2 for the pressure tunnel excavation. horizontal Probe Hole Drilling was started to find out the width of the shear zone. 2 (PI. and their infilling.original location. Moreover. Since this adit is to use only for ventilation purpose. at the end of Adit and further in the Pressure Tunnel. 196 . The massive bedrock outcropped at the Portal and the orientation of bedding and joints shows a very favorable condition for tunnel excavation. a major shear zone composed of fully decomposed soft fault gouge and shattered fault breccia collapsed at upstream face chainage of 26 and 41 m. there remains no geological problem in future also. In the second stage full section excavation was done by erecting the post and struts with concrete foundation at 30 to 50 cm spacing.
5 m spacing is provided at the major weak zones and in the remaining part the support pattern is primarily the combination of shotcrete and rockbolts where the rockmass appears in Poor to Fair class.1 kPa (3) Considering these situation.5 mm 50150 cm 200300 cm 26 mm 100150 cm The support system primarily guided by rock mass quality (Qvalue) of rock calculated during excavation.100 cm 50. purpose of tunnel and safety factor.100 cm 2050 cm 100200 cm 35 mm 40. The Pressure tunnel. the final support system is recommended as follows: L=2+0. Tunnel Chainage Location 99.100 cm 3.120 120130 330400 400440 HRT 400440 from 440500 Inlet 500600 600660 660690 0200 0200 200360 200360 360390 Adit . Joint roughness and Q value of rock from the following formula (Speers 1992).10 mm 50100 cm 40. 197 . Vertical Shaft. subjective judgment of evaluating parameters also exist under consideration according to the field condition.The rockbolt spacing and length is determined from the formula given by Hoek & Brown (1980): 112 1/3 P= 2Jn 3Jg . Surge Tank and Upper Pressure Tunnel are concrete lined taking the design and hydraulic elements in consideration.100 cm 25 mm 2060 cm 100300 cm 51 0 mm 50100 cm 30. the permanent support system for the underground waterways are recommended after modification on the basis of subjective judgement of actual field condition.100cm 5. Steel rib support at 1 m to 1.15 BESR (1) where. 98.100 cm 60.1 390530 Upstream 53055 0 550600 600660 660705 705795 705795 BeddingJJoint Bedding Bedding Joint Joint Bedding Joint Joint Bedding Joint Bedding Joint Bedding Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Joint Bedding Joint Orientation N 25'E/35"NW N 27"E/37'Nh 125 "/60°NE 12/70 SE N 45'E/23'NW N 45"E/85 SE 200/44 SE N 3l0E/35NW NS/62E N 3O0E/24NW N 20°E/65 SE N 27"E/28 NW 78 "E/74"SE N95/6SW 220/66SE 42/72 SE 175/66 NE 340/60NE 90/70 "S 45 '/35N W 330/65NE In filling Clay Clay Sandy clay Sandy clay Clay Clay Sandy Clay Sandy Clay Sandy Clay Opening Spacing Roughness Slickensided Planar Planar Smooth Undulated Smooth Planar Undulated Planar Slickensided Smooth Slicken sided Rough/Planar Roughhight Rough/Planar RoughPlanar Smooth Smooth Smooth Planar Smooth/Planar Sandy Clay Silt + clay Clay 23 m 23 m 30100 cm 23 mm 50100 cm 50150 cm 35 mm 100200 cm 40. The spacing of bolt is 1/2 of the bolt length and the diameter of rockbolt is 20 to 25 mm. In the remaining underground waterways. The support pressure (P) is calculated from 100RMR gb 100 p= where g = rock density and b = tunnel height Permanent support pressure is calculated taking the average value of Joint set number (Jn). Minor modification in the support as recommended by Qsystem is carried out in the Headrace and Pressure Tunnel. B is Tunnel height.Table 1: Orientation and characterestics of discontinuities in the Headrace Tunnel. Further.
. Tnbhuvan Univ. Hydropower development in Himalayan region requires a high level expertise in geological and geotechnical fields. Support for tunnels subjected to changing rock loads: a comparison of design methods. Geology and structure of the area between Pokhara and Kushma. Kathmandu.Figure 3. High water pressure test was camed to decide the grouting pattern and locations The geological problems observed during the study can not be generalised for other hydropower projects. The geological study in coming years should be confined to particular specific purpose rather than in generalized forms. Issue. West Nepal. Speers. Tamrakar. 198 . Geology.P. In: ‘Tunneling and underground space technology’.. REFERENCES 4 CONCLUSIONS The detailed geotechnical investigation for the Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project helped to relocate a few major structures.R. Institute of mineralogy and metallurgy. J.. 7( 1): 2532. It also helped to reduce the cost in support measures.. Nepal. Nepal. Sum. The rockbolts and shotcrete applied as an initial support will be the part of final support and required number of rockbolts and shotcrete layer should be added in shotcrete lining sections. 1992. Western Nepal Lesser Himalaya.. & R. Geology of the southern part of the Lesser Himalaya. & G. Hirayama. L. Brown 1980. the rock bolts and consolidation grouting will be reduced and instead. 18: 343355. Spec. Hoek. Dept. Kathmandu. Sharma 1998.O. Kwon. Bull.B.. Bull. E.R. London. the experience gainedtackling various problems may help to solve the similar problems in other orojects. & M.D. Review report on construction works in view of geotechnical and civil engineering. T. however. Geol.. & K. previously designed in geologically unstable sites to safe sites with competent bedrocks. 39(4): 205249. Adhikary. T. Unpubl. Japan.M. backfill grouting will be required. Construction phase engineering geological study in Modi Khola Hydroelectric Project.H. Parbat district. Report. The geological and geotechnical parameters taken into consideration in various hydropower projects of Nepal under construction would be a great advantage for other hydropower projects proposed in the country. Dangol V.R. J. C. The role of geologist in makmg decisions is very important. Shrestha. JOUKNepal Geol. Dhital 1996. Underground excavations in rock. K.R. The engineering geological problems in construction site sometime requires certain modification of structures for which a geologist works in close contact with design engineer. Soc. Nakajima.P. S. 5: 4760. Paudel. T. & E T . Stereonet analysis of discontinuities of a) Head Race Tunnel1 and b) Head Race Tunnel2 In the concrete lining sections. Chitrakar 1988... Present geological and geotechnical study in hydropower project incorporates the geotechnicalparameters taken during design and their deviation in particular construction site. while in the shotcrete lining sections. Paudel. Choi 1998. Modi KIzola Hydroelectric Project. western Nepal. rockbolt number and consolidation grouting will be increased.
Since these soil masses were originally composed of the weathered graniticgneissic parent rocks (and also weathered diabase dikes. The slope was continuously monitored. The slope was extensively instrumented by piezometers. They present a marked influence of rainfall and phreatic levels on the rate of movement. with may faults and pegmatite and diabase dikes crisscrossing the mountain range. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. The initial history of this period can be seen in Sandroni (1982). and some of them are permanently saturated. INTRODUCTION Thick mantles of colluvial soil cover the hillsides of an appreciable portion of the “Serra do Mar” mountain range along Brazil‘s southeastern coast. at seaside. as superficial and in depth measurements indicate. Their movement is conditioned by the position of the water table. and the shear strength along this surface is at the residual value. During that period 16 piezometers and water level indicators and 18 inclinometers were read on a weekly basis. their residual effective friction angle is not very low. However. INSTABILITY DUE TO WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATION Borda (1 996) analyzed the instrumentation data of a deep (10 to 20 m thick) colluvium in a granitic/gneissic environment. typically in the range of 1500 to 3000 mm a year. they present a permanent phreatic level. and is found to be in the range of 26 to 30 degrees (Silveira & Lacerda. Brazil ABSTRACT In the southern coast of Brazil annual rainfalls range from 1000 to 6000 mm. Their thickness range from a few meters to about 30 meters. 1992. and the period from 1987 to 1993 was more intensely studied. which in turn is related to the rainfall. 300 to 500 meters in length. very abundant) with a predominance of sand and silt particles. permanently wet. Rotterdam. Due to the high annual rainfall. with thickness varying from 5 to 30 meters. Teixeira & Kanji (1 970)) They move along a preexisting shear surface. understanding of the observed phenomena. The history of the movement goes back to 1978. Pinto et a1 1993). They have been studied in length. 2. Deep horizontal drains were installed just above a highway that crosses the lower third of the slope. It is situated at a distance about 200 kilometers west from the city of Rio de Janeiro. water level indicators and inclinometers. local artesian conditions. Lacerda & Sandroni (1985). ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Local instability in saturated colluvial slopes in southern Brazil Willy A. and widths of 100 to 200 m. Thick colluvial mantles cover the residual soil on the seaside of a long (2. and anchored walls were built just below the highway. 1. Up to 1980 total horizontall displacements of 3040 cm were read at the middle of the slope. and some papers describe their behavior and mitigation measures employed (Eacerda. Average annual rainfall during the observation period was 2200 mdyear. These masses are usually long. often unpredictable. 199 . Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. initiate local instabilities that can trigger landslides of the upward mass. aiding in the . Yagi. and a simulation of local artesianism is presented. and of 80 cm near the foot. Raingages were read at a distance less than 1 km from the site The period of observation was from September 1987 to December 1993. Lacerda COPPE. and up to 6000 mm a year in some locations. along the Rio de JaneiroSantos highway. 1997.000 km) mountain range.Slope Stability Engineering. and a large rockfill berm was placed at the foot. Two cases are shown.
Figure 1 . for example.Section of the deep colluvial slope (Borda Gomes. Lacerda & Schilling.02 inm/day to 0. showing distinctly the slide surface at a depth of 21 meters. These local anomalies could be explained by the mechanisms described in the following sections. In Figure 3 the horizontal displacement of a typical inclinometer was plotted. Section CCl along zones C. Nevertheless. The branches of this complex slide present a colluvial layer on top of the residual soil. from less than 0. the position of the piezometric lines was then 1. 3. LOCAL INSTABILITY DUE TO IMPERMEABLE VERTICAL BARRIER AN Figure 2 . 1996) Initial inclinometer and monument readings of the 1987 . 1992). with an extension of 450 m. at the contact colluviudresidual soil Figure 1 shows a profile of the instrumented slope. irrespective of the position (upper or lower elevations). 1996) (Lacerda.13 mmlday. This indicated that at a certain critical elevation of the piezometric line the velocities of deformation read by the inclinometers increased abruptly. B and D is shown in Figure 5. 1988. but in some places bent downwards or upwards. It can be seen that a “jump” in deformation occurs when the accumulated 25day rainfall exceeds about 200 mm. and figure 2 is a typical inclinometer graph. and the sliding surface was clearly indicated at a depth between 5 and 22 meters.5 to 2 m higher than the minimum level.The water table is very . and these results can be seen elsewhere 200 The slides of Soberbo Road in Rio de Janeiro have been extensively studied (Soares et al. piezometer installed at different depths at the same location showed that both in the paper by Sandroni as in the study reported the direction of flow was predominantly parallel to the slope. The thickness of the colluvium lies between 6 and 10 meters. Figure 4 shows a partial plan of the slide.1993 period showed velocities of movement at the surface up to 20 mdmonth. 1997).Typical inclinometer graph (Borda Gomes. The analysis of rainfall data showed best agreement when 25 day accumulated rainfall was plotted against piezometric elevations.
as shown. Indeed. the ground was very wet.Figure 3 . The position of the diabase dykes found while perforating long (80 m) horizontal drains is noted in Figure 4. 1996) close to the surface. The position of the more impermeable dikes influence the flow lines. B and C. as Figure 5 shows. when it appears at the surface. as indicated by the schematic Figure 6. in the Author’s experience. Of course. Water recharge by means of concealed springs connected to water bearing fractures in the underlying rock can alter significantly the flow pattern in its neighborhood. inclinometers and superficial marks. The arrows in this figure indicate the direction of movement of the flow lines at the interval between two piezometers. and the water level is . The arrow indicates the direction of flow. as the arrows in this Figure show. which presents a barrier to the groundwater flow. and a suitably located piezometer would show artesianism. the water level of the deepest piezometer rising more than one meter above ground elevation. At this point a thick diabase dike was found. and a succession of cracks and the inclination and displacement of small trees and inclinometers showed the signs of this instability. superficial horizontal movements were larger at this location. INSTABILITY DUE TO HIDDEN SPRINGS Artesianism is not always caused by the obstruction of flux. 4. as Figure 8 shows. and they are shown in the Figure 5 as positions A. Local artesianism can initiate landslides in upper colluvial layers. The accumulated movement of the superficial marks can be seen to increase as the diabase dyke is approached. except at the lower range. and has been observed in some cases in Brazil.25day accumulated rainfall and inclinometer horizontal displacements against time (Borda Gomes. In the Soberbo Road case artesianism was indeed observed. which also shows the position of piezometers. artesian pressures can be observed just above the dikes. with rivulets of water springing at the surface. Thus. Two piezometers and a water level indicator were installed besides most of the soundings. as already discussed. The local stability of the colluviuni is then 20 1 decreased just above the obstacle to flow which the diabase dikes represent. 7). In order to simulate this situation Borges and Lacerda (1 986) made Finite Element analyses of a slope with an initial low water table (Fig. and then applied a fountain with a piezometric pressure above ground level. They are seen to bend upwards near the diabase dikes.
Plan view of the Soberbo Road landslide (from Lacerda & Schilling. If a cut were made in this slope at the dry season. 202 5. and. inside the slided mass. it would eventually fail during the wet season.Figure 4 . 1992) significantly altered to a position close to the slope surface. even without a cut. and follow the equations of the infinite slope equilibrium equations. In this case the velocity of downward movement of the mass is reasonably the . CONCLUSIONS The movement of infinite type colluvial masses are strongly dependent on the position of the phreatic level. The observation of some slides in natural slopes just after a very heavy rainy period showed springs of water near the crown of the slide. the slope would certainly show signs of instability.
in both 203 . 1986) this case local instabilities due to upward deflection of the seepage direction. which in turn leads to loading of the lower part and to the unloading of the foot of the upper part of the colluvial mass. however local anomalies of flowlines could be explained by the presence of dikes or springs.Idealized flow lines past the diabase dike same along the entire extent of the colluvium. as the latter part of the paper shows.Flow conditions along Section ACDE (From Schilling.Figure 5 . The first case is a typical example. Portions of the colluvium mass affected by these phenomena exhibit slides of the circular shape type. Flux restrictions or the existence of covered springs are also a cause movement initiation. and in Figure 7 . 1993) Figure 6 .a) Seepage along a slope with an impermeable base parallel to the slope. b) Seepage pattern of the same slope affected by spring in localized fracture of the underlying rock (Borges & Eacerda.
e Nader. E. S. V01. D. REFERENCES Borda Gomes.A. June. vol 1.. A. vol 1. Balkema. 7497 Schilling.5th International Symposium on Landslides. W. USPSgo Carlos.H. Christhurch. E. Rio de Janeiro. J. Rio de Janeiro. M.. Balkema. & Kanji. & Lacerda. Vol. Rio de Janeiro. (1982) Forecasting the behavior of slopes.S. piezometric levels and Factor of Safety in colluvial slopes in tropical regions. 1.A. (in Portuguese).2. 95142 Teixeira. Soares.A. Landslides. M. W. Proc. 1740 Sandroni.G. J.M. Port0 Alegre. ABMS. 4th Brazilian Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.. (1993) . & Schilling.H. ABMS. COPPEUFRJ. vol 4 19071925 Lacerda. Peres.1st COBRAE.S. Rio de Janeiro. These occurrences are illustrated by the two last cases. M. J. On Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. and Mr. Rio de Janeiro. (1970) Stabilization of the Landslide at elevation 500 of the Serra do Mar of the Anchieta Highway (in Portuguese) Proc. 8th Brazilian Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Proc. Pedrosa. MS Thesis.Instrumentation and Analysis of the movements at the Soberbo Road hillside. Vol. movements. ed.H. 6th Int.Mechanism of Movements in Colluvial Slopes in Rio de Janeiro . Siio Paulo. W.45152 Lacerda. (1986) On the internal drainage of cut and fill slopes (in Portuguese). Symposium on recent developments in Soil and Puvement Mechanics. (1988) . Vol..N.A. Lausanne.Recife. ABMS. RJ (in Portuguese) 1st Brazilian Conference on Slope Stability .. 1733 Eacerda. Bell.A. 7. W. Solos do Interior de 5'60 Puulo. MS (in Portuguese) COPPEUFRJ. (1992) Rain induced creeprupture of Soberbo Road Landslide.cases propagating the movement. & Lacerda. 6. 121 11216 Pinto. 186p Borges. Olinda . Symposium on Landslides. D. (1997) Stability of natural slopes along the tropical coast of Brazil. Gobara.1. (1996) Correlation among rainfall. W. (1992) Shear strength and compressibility characteristics of residual and colluviai soils of the Soberbo hillside.C. M. vol2 445462 Lacerda. Alto da Boa Vista. 11. G. Luiz de Franqa for the Figures. ABMS.A. & Silveira. Rio de Janeiro. (1993) Properties of residual soils.A... ABMS. G. C. Vifia del Mar. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author thanks the PRONEX program of the National Research Council (CNPq) and FINEP for the partial funding of this research. G.A. IX PanAmerican Conference on Soil Mechanics. (1991) Mass Movement Phenomena in Tropical Soils. (in Portuguese) COPPEUFRJ. W. IV33 to IV53 204 . Ed. examined from case histories (in Portuguese) 7th Brazilian Conf.. S. W.H.
2 Soil slope stability analyses .
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landslide is an unconsecutive and catastrophic process. and L. To be understood easily.1). But in fact. Otherwise. we take the instability of planarsliding slope as an example to explain it. when tracing the failure reason of the limited equilibrium method of rigid body sometimes. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. In Fig.. Observing the curve of antishearing stress and sliding displacement. it is the safety factor for one certain point by the limited equilibrium method of rigid body.2). we assume that the upper part rock mass above sliding plane is rigid body.Slope Stability Engineering. Chinese Acudemy ($Sciences.= limited antisliding force by limited .and % =the peak value of antishearing stress for medium 1 and 2. Curve of sliding plane medium. Figure 1. People’s Republic of’ China ABSTRACT: A cusp catastrophe model is presented for instability of planarsliding slope. z. I think the antisliding force by equation (1) is the reason. equilibrium method of rigid body. simultaneously reaching the peak value of strength where. Rotterdam. We have met two strange cases in practice: landslide with safety factor more than 1 is unstable and landslide with safety factor less than 1 is stable. so we can not calculate antisliding force with equation (1).. Yagi. we should pay more attention to the defect of theory itself. Curve of sliding plane medium. Obviously. there is a great shortcoming in this method. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 A new theory on instability of planarsliding slope . not simultaneously reaching the peak value of strength On summary. and it is more rational than any of the mathematical tools to describe successive 207 . neglecting the evolution of the slope evolution. and the safety factor is Figure 2. merely according to the safety factor for one certain state. However. the safety factor of slope is defined as the ratio of sliding force and antisliding force. we can find this method is proper in the condition that the deformation of two media simultaneously reaches the peak value of strength (Fig. To evaluate the stability of this kind of slope rightly. There is a defect in the above mentioned method . the sliding force is not a fixed value. Beijing. so it is not reliable to evaluate slope stability. =the length of medium 1 and 2. sliding plane is composed of two kinds of media with different strength.respectively. L . 1 PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM According to the traditional limited equilibrium method of rigid body. respectively. to evaluate the stability of slope. The discrimination formula for rapid and slow landslide is given and the stiffness effect instability theory is established. Fa. the new theory is needed to develop.. antishearing stress varies with the creepsliding displacement U .2. it is hardly possible for the two media to reach peak simultaneously (Fig. In order to guarantee the uniformity of sliding. rather than only consider the unreasonable values of parameters of rock mechanics.Stiffness effect instability theory Qin Siqing Institute of Geolog).
we can get u=u. z. V "=0 at cusp. Mechanical model of instability of planar sliding slope Due to the sliding force caused by weight of rock mass. In view of this. muddying action of water or great shearing stress. But at the other segments. It is easily known u.. G. e s l o p e angle. At some segments of weak intercalation. Above all. whose ability to resist deformation declines with increasing deformation.=initial shearing modulus. and a new theory on instability of slope . Curve of two media 2." ~ l i c 2 THE CUSP CATASTROPHE MODEL 2. the other is with strain softening property. (5 1 h h Apparently. The cusp is solved by the smoothness property of the equilibrium surface. I. one is elastic.=H/sinp. such as locked patch. with which the mechanical mechanisms of slope instability are explained.G. assume the weak intercalation is composed of two media with different mechanical properties.the equilibrium surface equation is expressed as . The constitutive equation for segment with the strain softening property (Qin 1993) is (31 h where. u*=critical displacement of unstable point. whose capability to resist deformation adds up with the increasing deformation.3. this above equation is balancing condition of forces. psliding plane dip angle.phenomenon for landslide to be described by the catastrophe theory (Thom 1972). h=layer thickness of weak intercalation. there is a creep displacement U for the rock mass to slide along the weak intercalation. (7) That is.=displacement at the peak value of stress (Fig..3). at the turn point of the curve. Figure 4. The constitutive equation for the elastic segment of weak intercalation is where. According to the catastrophe theory. the displacement value at cusp is exactly one at turn point of the constitutive curve of medium with strain softening property. because of the broken media.=221. a simple mechanical model is presented to solve the instability problem for planarsliding slope. = G.. u. slope is equal to G. media.=2u. according V'=O. I. by the equation (3).G A uelIIu" +umgsin/3 Gel. mg=weight of upper part rock mass @gravity acceleration). show elasticity or strain hardening because of high strength of media or smaller shearing stress.2 Cusp Catastrophe model In the system shown in Fig.. To simplify the analysis and focus on the physical essence of instability. media are with strain softening property after the peak stress value. ~ e . l. The total potential energy is Figure 3. upper part rock mass above the sliding plane as rigid body (Fig.the stiffness effect instability theory is proposed by a cusp catastrophe model in the paper. where. respectively.4). 208 .=the length of sliding plane with strain softening and elastic property.=shear modulus. we can choose U as state variable to make cusp catastrophe theory analysis by the equation (4).=residualantishearing strength.e'lh. that is v' and further. H=vertical height of upper part rock mass. the overall potential energy is equal to the sum of strain energy and sliding potential energy. which can reflect the dynamic instability process of slope.+ l. I Mechanical model Supposing the sliding plane as nonuniform weak intercalation.
owing to action by internal and external factors. in order to transform it into typical form of cusp catastrophe. control variables a and b are determined by stiffiiess ratio k and geonietricmechanical parameter 6. the corresponding points stand unstable state. If media of weak intercalation are wholly hardening (the medium with strain softening property is not exist) or one segment is with elastic property and the other is with ideal plasticity. we can obtain Carry out variable substitution for equation (8).ue’ mgh sin p k< 1 (17) That is to say. only when a20. geometric dimensions of system and mechanical parameters of medium. neglecting the forth order item and more.u. for the equation ( 5 ) . is to say. that is to say. very small change of those factors also results in very small change of equilibrium state. ~mghsinplG. system can cut across bifurcation set to result in catastrophe.Make Taylor extension with reference state u l . The smaller is the stiffness of medium with elastic property and the greater is the stiffness of medium with strain softening property. that is GI ) )  0. K is relevant to creepsliding deformation U and varies as increase U . defined by ratio of antisliding force and sliding force at certain deformation U .1)3+9(1+kkg?<O (19) (14) Parameter k is stiffness ratio.(1k)3’’] 3 It is easily known the stability factor only depends on k and ulu. . the right side of equation (20) uses positive sign. When across the left branch of bifurcation set.5 e 2 uo[l + k + (13 We get 2(k1)’+9( 1 +kka2=0 (16) mgh sin p & k)’”] The stability factor. we can determine the critical deformation value of unstable points as follows U* k)”’] 2 When control variables meet = uI[1(1 Jz (1 8) k=G.e’lG.l. 3 COMPARISON WITH THE TRADITIONAL STABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD We can change equation (1 6) as For rapid landslide. (13) 2(k.l. [ l + k + .l. value x has a jump. From equation (1 1) and (1 2). which is the stiffness of medium with elastic property divided by the stiffness at turn point of constitutive curve of medium with strain softening property. landslide will not happen. Combining equation (9) and (1 5 ) . The equilibrium equation is where. although slope is in limited equilibrium state . The necessary catastrophe condition depends on internal properties of system because the stiffness ratio depends on geometric dimension and material characteristic of system. Apparently. substituting (6) into ( 5 ) . bifurcation set that that is possible to take place catastrophe is decided by mechanical system characteristic itself and is irrelevant to external action. h<O. which is corresponding to slow landslide in nature. b<O. the more possible is for slope system to cause catastrophe. that is analogous to k+co. 209 . x( UU I)/ul = (10) softening property is not more than 1. in relation with weight of rock mass. the unstable necessary condition is K=G1 e‘i ’“o “ + kC. the stiffiiess ratio of the stiffness of medium with elastic property and that with strain (22) z/L u . Substitute equation (1 1) and (12) into equation of bifurcation set. is This equation is the sufficientnecessary mechanical criteria for instability of planarsliding slope..l.. 5 is called as geometricmechanical parameter. show that.
rapid landslide can be only judged not to occur but slow landslide is inevitable to happen. substitute equation (1 8) into (22). but during evolution process of slow sliding. shearing modulus of medium with elastic property.6 0.<l7 not to happen to rapid landslide.0 0. the greater the stiffness of medium with We can see that when k<l. landslide. 4 INSTABILITY MECI4ANISM OF SLOPE It is generally thought that slope instability has great relationship with water’s action.279 1. landslide will occur when stability factor is less than 1 and the effect of stiffness ratio is not considered. and can not evolve into disaster) when K.595 1. sometimes. This process can directly be understood through the senses.947 0. u=u*.9 0.82<K. becomes stable midway. 0.When slope evolves to critical state. This explains rapid landslide will take place when antisliding force is more than sliding force and some condition is met.999      2.k)j/z l+k3 and which is listed in Table 2.<1 . so the stress borne by media with strain softening property correspondingly adds up and its peak strength value become lower by water’s action.895 0.015 Figure 5 .819 0. the rapid landslide can not occur. in Mpa) When it turns to the phase of strain softening.137 1. [I .979 0.996 0.996 1.8 0.2 0. It is analogous to condition k=l and is a special example. The happening condition can be got for different stiffness ratio by equation (1 9). slow landslide probably occurs.0 0. So we easily understand why slope is still possibly stable (in this case. We can also see that even if K. < + &(I 3 . But this condition can not be given with the limited equilibrium method of rigid body.979 0.895 0.819 0. + &(l K K.4 0. Thus. O. affected by environment factors.2 0. (24) 0 70 k K‘  0. We can come to such conclusion from equation (16) and (19) that slope instability is with close relation to stiffness ratio k. becomes lower and its antishearing force also decreases at the same time.<1. this theory to evaluate slope instability is called as the stiffness effect instability theory. this easily causes stiffness ratio less than 1 to result in slope instability.0 It is clear that K. So the limited equilibrium method of rigid body is a kind of method to judge whether rapid landslide will happen or not. Acted by water. We should note that the evolving path of slope may change by the external environment.947 0. Values calculated with equation (23) are listed in Table 1. Steepening of inclination of the softening segment of quartzite deformation curve with the increase of pore water pressure (numerals on the curve are pore water pressure. but is not less than certain degree. is the smallest at k0 and KLwill add up when k increases.5) and at the same time also makes stiffness of medium with elastic property decrease. it is not difficult 210 .8 0.k)3” [I .f i (1 k)l’?][eJ’(1”“2 1+ k + kl <K.6 0.k)1/?][edl(lk)”2 kl _+ (23) 1+k k)3/2 3 We know from equation (23).0 1. This coupling interaction easily make medium deform into the phase of strain softening after peak strength value. whose expression is to understand why landslide (slow landslide) possibly takes place when the stability factor calculated by this method is more than 1. such as k 0 .043 1. even if stability factor is more than 1 but less than the certain critical value listed in Table 2. here.4 0.299 1. we can obtain the critical stability factor as follows [1 KL = fi(1 . water’s action makes stiffness add up (Fig. for which. KL is only relevant to k. such as slow landslide will probably change into rapid lands1ide.& (1 __ k)”?][e\/2(’”’‘2 +kl 2 (1 .
1993. But the author believes that the concept and method proposed in this paper will have vast developing prospect along with deeper research on the theory. REFERENCES Qin. but less than 1 is stable. the steeper the curve TU after peak strength value. An introduction to nonlineur engineering geology. this will lose its original equilibrium state to cause landslide. It is possible to make physical forecasting of landslide and explain the cause of rapid landslide with the theory presented in this paper. It is pointed out that there is great shortcoming for the limited equilibrium method of rigid body. Chengdu: Southwest University Press of Traffic. P. such as the form of constitutive equation needs to develop further. To be sure. the above mentioned model and theory are not too perfect. Q. is reasonably explained. 1980. and the elastic segment (locked patch) will have to undertake larger load. that shows its bearing capability decreases quickly at certain deformation. 5 CONCLUSION The problem. that is. the locked patch will break for the reason not to undertake the higher shearing stress. such as the slope with safety factor more than 1 is unstable.strain softening property. S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Saunders. T. An introduction to catastrophe theory. and also bearing capability of locked patch decreases by action of water. 21 1 .
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4) may be used for the parts in which the equivalent stress is not less than on the portions before it. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Ultimate state of a slope at nonlinear unsteady creep and damage S. 1 INTRODUCTION The complications in soils behaviour do not allow to assume a single rheological law for all the earths.4) is valid at a monotonous loading while the equivalent strain does not diminish. Yamagami& Jiang 0 1999Balkema.y subdue to the compatibility equation rd(d(r2ee)/rdr)/dr. p .4) with test data is better for unsteadier creep. At stepwise or interrupted stress change equations (2.an exponent of the hardening law. Basic law (2. In this situation it is convenient to apply to objects’ strength computation comparatively simple constitutive equations with the determination of their parameters from the data on the structures mechanical behaviour.3) The stresses are linked with the strains by the rheological law (Elsoufiev 1978) 2 MAIN EQUATIONS For a slope under loads P.2) Strains E F Q. oe(h)= o. The problem of a wedge penetration is also studied. The experiments (Elsoufiev. in polar coordinates r.d2~e/d02 d(r&y/&)/dr. if the time is calculated from the beginning of the new loading. o . Great difference between the properties of a sample and an element of a material in a structure makes difficulties in the usage of the Media Mechanics methods. the growth of materi 213 . oe(k)= p. 1) static expressions for stresses Gr. When the influence of time is negligible expressions (2. 1982)show that (2. doe/d0 + 2T = O (2’1) )$ Here ye = d ( 2 ~ r+ ~ .a function of time t. Some simple engineering formulae are proposed. = (2. Constitutive equations of a nonlinear unsteady creep and a damage (the development of internal defects) are introduced. 8 (Fig. Critical strains and time as well as the mode of fracture and ultimate load are found according to the criterion of infinite rate of strains for a hardening body and the scheme of the perfect plastic media. The correlation of (2.A. zro ‘: I ~ a(ror)/dr k  = O. (2. should be solved together with boundary conditions ‘c(+~) = o.an equivalent strain. Yagi.Slope Stability Engineering.4) turns to be the constitutive equations of the plasticity theory. Ukraine ABSTRACT: Nonlinear deformation and ultimate state of a slope under vertical Ioads are considered.Elsoufiev Odessa State Universiy.4) may be easily generalized for quasibrittle rupture(see below) that takes into account a damage (the development of internal defects) that induces the third parts of creep curves. Rotterdam.
(3. .2). oy(2)= (Pcos30)/2y. 1) AND The constants D1. the fall of critical strains and time for not enough plastic media and other effects. 1 1+ wherein m = p'.4) Fig.Ssin2h)'.2 In order to appreciate the results we compute for the case m = 1 the distribution of oyalong axis y under the concentrated load as well as under the centres of the stamp and uniformly distributed load on the length (1. where CO = (p/2)(sin2~ 2hcos2~)'  and constants A. D2 can be found from (3. Pcosh Srorsin0d0 h h which give (3. = E@ = Q(t)r"g(0). In 214 os/q= 2(tan'(l/y)+(y/l)/( ~+(y/l)~))/n.2 Nonlinear solution.3) and according to rheological law (2. B = Pcosh(hO. The solution of (3.for the case p0 = z =O and from the Here as in 3. B can be found from integral static conditions h The corresponding diagrams C T ~ = F(0) are constructed in Fig.4) we have E. and derivative by 0.p/2. At p = 1 we have the result of 3.l) where we have respectively GU/q=4(iiY)in.5) denotes the second Here p = dm(2m).1) CTy(4)= .3) we find g"+ p2g = 0. or= C~(20cos2h+sin28)p/2+(Acos0+Bsin0)/r. Psinh = Irorcos0d0.4) into compatibility expression (2.5) depends on the mvalue.2) A = Psinh(h+O.2) as above. 1) = (2Pcos40)/ny.~ / ~ . (3. From (3. g = f" and function SZ is linked with a. the similar way the cases m >2 and m <2 may be studied.1 at h = n/2.2 by solid. when with consideration of the symmetry demands we have respectively 3 SOLUTIONS FOR ELASTIC HARDENING AT CREEP BODIES 3. For practical purposes it is interesting to establish the dependence of yo.1) we find or=f(0)/r (3.6) and wellknown formulae of tensor transformation we have for m = 1.1 Elastic solution The common solution may be received by superposition method when we have (Fig.Ssin2h)'.(o. 0 0 = Co(20cos2hsin20) ./Pvalue on angle 0.als volume.oy/q =(2/~)(+2(~/1)~)(( ~ / 1 ) ~ ) .1 we suppose first static equation (2. For the case of h = rc/2 we find <Tr = P/2r.Putting (3. 3. If m = 2 g = C0 + D and due to the symmetry condition C = 0 and constant D may be found from (3.4P(cosh2d~0)"4cos30 )/y.4 respectively CTy( the z = Co(cos20cos2h).2. " (3. dashed and interrupted by points lines and we can see that with the increase of mvalue the distribution of the stress becomes more even.
6) can be valid at least in the above shown limit. Fig.3 The nonlinear solutiorzfor the case P = 0 Here we suppose that the strains and stresses do not depend on r (Sokolovski 1969) and putting representation cos28 = (1 .cD)cos2h)I The calculations by a computer reveal good agreement with these formulae . 1969. The latter curve is shown in Fig.4 by dashed line.2/Y).8) for p = 1/3. =((or oe)*/4 + T*)”* . Replacing in it CD = d8/dy we receive + tan2y(dCD/dy) = 2@(1@)((@1)/p 1 . In Fig.3 3. . Firstly we considered the case p = 1 when we have the rigorous solution (see 3.Here q = P/21 and from Fig. Then we integrate expression dWdy = CD at border demand 8(n/4) = 0 which also gives condition 8 = h at y = 0.1) which in the new variables here is (upper sign refers to h > n/4) Fig.5 215 . 1/2 and 1/3. y<n/4 and received curves y = ~ ( e )T~ = ~ ( h ) where T ~ = .3 where by solid. into (2.5 diagrams y = y(8) are shown for different h which practically coincide for 11 = 1.2/3. AS with the growth of nonlinearity the stress distribution becomes more uniform we can expect that solution (3.9) where Fig. Sokolovski 1969 integrated (3. It allows to use the scheme above for other pvalues.8) we find the second order differential equation that is shown only in a common form i n the Sokolovski‘s book.9) by the finite differences method at boundary condition CD(0) = 1.the maximum shearing stress. (3. dashed and interrupted by points lines the diagrams Oy= =F(y/l) are constructed we can see that at y>41 these Curves practically coincide.CD +cos22h)((2 . Fulfilling the operations in (3.4 Here we integrate (3.1 at P=O.1) respectively we derive that at p = I gives the solution of 3.3) and (2.
1).12) (zJn’(z/.When function ~ ( 0 is known the z.the cohesive factor. = 00.4.4 where the latter expression is shown by the interrupted by points line we can see that this solution may be used at least as the first approach. (z.5 (for h equal to n/4 and n/2 the straight lines coincide at all p). a .3) which gives ((rnl)(~. p=4~. 1).value may ) be found from the equation following of (2. then E.6).1). Here e ..l!sin2~exp(2!( l+dy/d0)cot21yd€l)d8 0 0 Computations show that for pvalues above diagrams z = F(h) are near to the solid line in Fig.a damage factor and E = As at 8 = 0 ci. p = 4!zesin2~d0 + 0 that in combination give for (h2d4) the equation maxx.1 1) the critical values (denoted by *) As E = E* acts under angle n/4 to the line 8 = 0 the destruction should begin on the line OH (Fig.6 Fig. = €0 = 0.’ = C2.1) z 2 z ( + 4(Q2)’+4z’)=O.12) where C2 is a constant. i 01 1 k sincp) rt cxcoscp (4.(O) h 8 (3. =x.(2. In particular we have for main stresses 0 3 (3.2) +42))( ”+4z)z ’+4(Q (m.2)the following result h dxe/zedO+ 2 ( d ~ / d 0 l)cot2y. In order to get simple engineering formulae we put (3.10) and the vicinity of curves in Fig.1 1) at a = 0 into (2. Another field of this kind consists of straight lines r with the same origin and inclined to them curves described by equation r = r0exp(8tancp). .the Neper’s number. It may be explained by the absence of p in (3. In order to use the criterion of infinite strains at fracture (Carlsson 1966) we write similar to (3.)’”~3~~2 + ~(T~)”’’)(T.2) for cig as Here we again suppose z’= 0 that gives z“’=O and with consideration of (2. That allows to use the solid curves for practical purposes. E = = y/2 and according to the criterion dddt +m we have from (3. According to the symmetry demand ~ ’ ( 0 = 0 and taking this condition for the ) whole wedge we get from (3. (3.6 allows to find many important formulae.4) 4. + 42) Fig.1) and construct the simple fields of slip lines that are inclined to the planes of maximum and minimum stress action under angles n/4 t 9/2.10) From Fig. where cp is an angle of repose and c .12) we differentiate it as follows =(c . 216 .1.l= z. To exclude C2 from (3. (4. PENETRATION OF WEDGE INTO SOIL AND CONNECTED WITH THIS TASK PROBLEMS Here we suppose as everywhere in Soil Mechanics compressive stresses to be positive and use the Mohr’s diagram for the ultimate state (Fig.7) and boundary condition (2. + 42) = = C2/4 which at m = 1 gives the solution of 3.
c/tancp and with consideration of Hvalue we derive finally REFERENCES Carlsson.7 and suppose that A 0 is a straight line.. 1 5 CONCLUSION In the same manner other problems for a nonlinear soil at unsteady creep can be solved: a strength of a thin layer at tension or compression.1:6265 Sokolovski. of Mech.v)).sin(h .l)/tancp. sphere and cone under internal and external pressure. At v = 2h . Theoiy ojplasticity. a flow of a material between two foundations. where a = (1 . the stability of retaining wall. 1966. 7. 0 = v we find from (4. In triangle AOB = 0 = 0 and from (4. Elsoufiev. (4. but from (4.sinh and from diagrams PJ21c = F(h)in Fig.7 have for the segment KE lcosh . = (6h + c/tancp)(I+sincp)e”t””’P( sincp) . = 2lp.Sci..From Fig. Creep induced tensile instability.sin2v =O. From the Figure we compute that it is inclined to the horizon AK by the angle h . 1982. f Elsoufiev.1) qn(1 .sincp) = cxcoscp. J. where cp = 0. S. 1969..c/tancp. inclined rigid plates and in a cone. We construct the field of slip lines at the wedge penetration as in Fig. On one scheme of determination of ultimate creep strains.sincp)exp(vtancp)/coscp. c = zyi. and from the equality of triangles AOG and GKD for the material of constant density we compute h’tanh=( 1I)’sin( hv)(cos(hv) + sin(hv)tank).8 we can see that P.Sov Mut.5) Now we find the ultimate load. (4. Sci. p. (4. (4. increases with the growth of h and cp.= H .(In Russ. 2: 218229. l). Eng. Putting the latter expression into (4. as well as of cylinder.c/tancp.2(a2 . .n/2 we find from (4 6 ) the ultimate load for a slope (Figl).4) we derive the formula linking angles h and v as (4acosv + sin2v)tan2h .v and we Fig.The use of simplified rheological rules for describing the processes of deformation and fracture of materials. R.6) Lastly of static conditions we find P.8 Fig. 13. It may be 217 . propagation of cracks and plastic zones near stamps edges etc. Strength o Muter.3) p+= H( 1 + sincp)exp(2vtancp) .3) o = Hexp(20tancp) .. and if v = n/2 we have the wellknown socalled second ultimate load for a foundation with depth h in the soil with the weight of its unit 6 P. = c(( 1+sincp)exp2vtanv/( 1sincp) .h = llsin(hv).C O S ~ V 2asinv)tanh + . and so H = c/(l 01 sincp)tancp. and h = Il(acosh . V..3) o.6 we can also derive much bigger its value for an ideal plasticity. the bearing capacity of piles and sheets of piles. !978.).c/tancp.the yielding limit at shear.4) From geometrical considerations we find 11 = al. In the same manner for triangle OCD where 03 = p. (4. 10. S.
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1 .2)The effect of dewatering method was proved by the proposed method. Japun ABSTRACT : This paper discusses the applications of FEM on the basis of the elastoviscoplastic model to landslide problems. :total stress . o3. F (0’ .o3 ( o . we can analyze the rheological (time dependent) deformation behavior of landslide. D : elasticity matrix ci = D i e 219 It can express viscoplastic behavior of the landslide well enough.(0. Then. + sin$’ C’ : cohesion based on effective stress. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema. EVP FEM is applied to some actual landslide Sites in this paper. ~ . the range of value of the parameter was grasped roughly in the actual landslide Sites. the time differentiation plastic strain rate ivp of stress vector is obtained by the next equation according to the elastic strain rate. 0. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Application of FEM on the basis of elastoviscoplastic model to landslide problems Hiroaki Fujii. : internal friction angle based on effective stress. Rotterdam. Okayama UniversiQ Japan Toshio Hori WESCO Incorporated. Fluidity parameter y which governs the time dependent behavior of landslide.U ) . Concluding remarks are as follows: 1)The fluidity parameter identified from five typical landslide Sites is within the range of 1* 105+7*104(day’). (x> 0) + (+) I) = 1.0.Introduction The numerical method is discussed to predict landslide behavior in this study. : maximum. Sinichi Nishimura & Kiyoshi Shimada Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology. By EVP FEM. ElastoViscoplastic model’)’2) 2. That is. F : yield function MohrCoulomb’s failure criterion is used as a yield function here. the fluidity parameter y that is one of the parameters constituting the elastoviscoplastic model and governs the deformation velocity of ground is identified in some landslide Sites.U . . Finally. Here.C’ . and it is defined as follows.Viscoplastic model stress. is determined from the comparison of the calculated displacement of landslide with the measured in the Site. 0 :stress vector. effective principal 2. The measured displacement of the landslide surface is compared with the calculated one. .). y :fluidity parameter. minimum. It is shown by the following examples.D. u :pore water pressure = )  The behavior of the soil is assumed to be elastoviscoplastic in this researchh the elastoviscoplastic theory. (x 0) + (@(x))= 0 < .(0. 3)Using this model. Yagi. The viscoplastic strain rate is expressed by the next equation based on the excess stress model and the associated flow.1 Basic concept qf Elasto. . the strain rate is obtained by (i= ke + iVp ) as summation of the elastic strain rate€. Particularly. it may be possible to make predictions on the future trend of deformation. Hyogo.0 ’ ) = 2 1 . and the visco In this research. @ ( F ) :flow function. the finite element method based on the elastoviscoplastic model (EVP FEM) is described here. cos$’ .Slope Stability Engineering. 0. the following simple function is assumed concerning @ .
2 Meaning of 7 and flow of the analysis Site geology length width Pt c 0 6 ’ measurement velocity (mm/Y) 512 A decision method of y has not been established yet.0X105 I1 : surface 42. the measured values are obtained from the inclinometer and the extensometer in the actual landslide Sites. As for the landslide activity of Site A.0 0. The position of inclinometer 12.300 70m 30m 17. there is no information about the initial movement. A Paleozoic 210m 120m 22.50 0.05 1.1 22. The material parameters of these layers are shown in Table2. 3.2X lO’ 1. Here. the history of the landslide and the prediction of the future displacement can be discussed according to the result of analysis.6 33.:unit weight(kN/m’).800  4. The representative in the objective Site is used as an analytical parameter.) 3.6 23.1 XlO’ : sliding : sliding : sliding 7. “Sliding”.4 ” 80100 10 D Mesozoic 18Om 90m 19. when the tail of the slope was cut for the improvement of the highway.31 I ’ 9.900.4 inclinometer B C ” 600m 320m 19.:unit weight(kN/m3).18 0.000 0.77 1.00Oday( = 11years) after the landslide start based on the assumption.79 0.4 45. d.09 1.94 0.2. Figure2 Element division chert Table2 Parameter of SiteA Pt E v c’ Surface Sliding Base rock 19.8 17. The highest water level of the past during the measurement period is shown in the figure.75 0.10 8ooo average fitting 7 0. The horizontal displacement corresponds to the surface and the sliding surface are used for analysis.2X105 0.6 Tertiary 7.1 Inclinometer (SiteA) 3. E : modulus of elasticity(kPa). 11. :internal friction angle(.2” 1.800 0 . Finally.1 XlO’ 1. “Surface”. : internal friction angle( ) point calculated displacement ( = 1 x IO’) ‘ y measurement Y ‘ U t=O I2 : surface 43.4 extensometer 4003.67 0. I1 and I3 are given in Figure1. The positions of the bore holes for the inclinometer I2.2 Modeling qf stratum a n d n i t e elements The finite element model is shown in Figure2. Application to Site A3’landslide Figure. so that the analytical and measured value agree with each other well in this research.25 9. The range and the difference of y in the various points are considered and the representative of the landslide Site is determined.5 17. it is decided by the trial and error. Here.80 1.45 0.82 0. I Analysis condition The outline and the movement situation of the landslide in Site A are shown in Table1. The horizontal displacement is used for the comparison of the analytical with measured.4 ’1 6.92 1.5 I 33. d. C 0 26. c : cohesion(kPa).4” I3 : surface 22.640  6’ 24.6 23.71 0. and I3 in the landslide block is shown in Figure1.96 0. The analytical values are compared with the measured in many places of landslide Site and corresponding y is determined at each point.2 cm 4000 7 0.6 P . The stratum classified into three layers.2 1’ 220 . The cut spot is coincide with the end of the sliding surface.7 inclinometer :cohesion(kPa). and “Base” as shown in Figure1. Therefore. it is assumed that the initial movement was caused. Various investigations and the measurements were started 4.9 ’1 8. v : poisson’s ratio.8X 10” 1.04 1.14 1.6 19.
Site B : The displacement had been measured by the extensometer during 19891990. and the displacement scale is extended 50times.050 day and t=l1. the displacement obtained by this analysis can be divided into the elastic component and viscoplastic component.1 Outline of Site B C Dlandslide The outline of the landslide and the movement Site situations of Site B5). In the figure.43mm/day.3. from l. the displacement velocity measured by the extensometer decreased as follows.000 days.2) X 105(day') according to an analytical result. and in the end part. At the head. while on the sliding surface the analysis a little underestimates the displacement velocity. Fig~re3~) shows the relation of the surface displacement of I2 point and the elapsed time in the case that y =1.362 day after are shown in Figure4. C *).1. Figure3 I2 point displacement 4. the analytical displacement is added to the measured one so that the measured and analytical are coincide with each other at the 4. ~ = l . 3. 2 2 d d a y at the landslide head and it's 0 .Here. The displacement velocity is 0 . 22 1 Figure4(a) ASite displacement Figure4(b) ASite displacement .3 Analvsis result and considerations The value o f y which corresponds to the measurement is within the range of (0. Almost similar results are obtained in I1 and I3 points.O* 105(day'). The displacement of extensometer about six months after construction. 0 4 d d a y . From the analytical result. the analysis predicts the surface displacement of I2 point well.lmm/day to 0.6)37).3. is accumulated in the tensile direction. from 9.70mm/day. According to the result. Site D9' are shown in Table. the dotted and solid lines mean the initial and deformed states respectively.4 Prediction qf displacement The deformations of slope on the t=5. Table3 gives the analytical and measured results of the displacement velocity and identified y values in the six points.81. Application to Site B * C * D landslide 4. 5 d d a y to 0. In Fig. o * l O (day') is adopted as a fluidity ~ parameter in Site A. Site C : Smallscale cutting was conducted in the vicinity of the center in the landslide block. 2 8 d d a y in the middle part. in the middle part. from 2 . Due to the dewatering well or bore hole in the measurement period. lmm/day to 5 .
calculated displacement agrees well with the measured. though the observation period is shorter than other Sites.3 Fluidity parameter 7 of Site B . Adopted values as the representative of yin the figures are 7*104(day1) Site B. the analysis underestimates the displacement compared with measured in the head and end zones.Site D : The displacement shown in Figure5 is obtained by the inclinometer in the landslide block in Site D. y =7* 1O'(day') is adopted as a representative value. 7. The result of analysis correspond to each Site is described as follows.4*1O4(day') from the measured displacements of the surface and the sliding surface respectively.0* 104 and 1.2 Modeling of Site B C *D We divides into three zones of "Surface". y =5 * 1O4(day') obtained by the measured displacement on the surface is adopted as a representative value. Figure5 DSite Inclinometer 222 . Site D: The parameter y is identified to be 5.9* 1OU4 (day') and 2. The calculated displacement agrees well with the measFigure6 BSite displacement ured.0*104(day') is used. 2*104(day')in Site in C and5*105(day') in Site D. and Table4 shows the material parameters of each zone. middle and end zones respectively. The finite element mesh is also shown in the figure. the former value 5. 4. 7 and 8. the calculated and the measured displacements of the surface are corresponding well. According to Figure7. "Sliding" and "Base". an analytical result when we use y =2* 1O'(day') that is the average value of abovementioned values. Site B : The parameter y is identified to be 1. while in the middle zone. In Figure8. 4.1 *104(day*')and 9. In this case. Site C: The parameter y is identified to be 1. measured displacement of the sliding surface exceeds the calculated and varies widely.2" 104(day') from the measured displacements respectively.2*103 (day'). The timehorizontal displacement relationship is shown in Figures6.C *D The highest ground water level of the past was used in the analysis.5*104(day')from the measured displacements at the head. Here. On the other hand. According to Figure6.
it is assumed that groundwater level decreases to the sliding surface after the drain conthe landslide behavior caused by the change of the pore water pressure is predictable._ 7.7 inclinometer 10 5. Table4 Parameter of sliding layer (B.D) Site parameter of sliding layer o t ( l < ~ / m ~ ) ~ a $("I c ) displacement( mm/y) ?.C. The value of y of Site A or D whose landslide is not active is small. the evaluation of the improvement effect is based on the observed ground water level in the bore holes or the observed volume of drained water. Currently. Thus. I1 and I3 in the hole points. In this calculation.000 days( % 11y) after the initial movement took place. The older the geological features age is. (3)As for B Site. on the assumption that various measurements were started 4.4 extensometer 80100 19. It is clarified the displacement measurement is more effective for the evaluation of the construction effect. the landslide behavior after construc Figure9 BSite drainage 223 .6 0 26. Moreover. It turned out that the fluidity parameter of this Site is y=l*lO'(day').zoo . we have compared the analytical value which is calculated by the material parameters obtained from the conducted laboratory soil tests and the identified parameter from the measurement value of inclinometer 12.8 17. It is extremely difficult to evaluate the effect in the design stage. there is great possibility that landslide is affected by geological features. the middle zone. the effect of the dewatering against the landslide is confirmed by comparing the calculated displacement after the dewatering construction with the measured one by the extensometers. the smaller y is.4.. and the end zone is shown in Figure9. On the other hand they of Site B or C whose landslide is active are larger than Site A and D.4 Dewatering effect in Site B An analytical result in the head of landslide. Conclusions The representative y of the each Site is shown Table5. The calculated displacement of the surface in each point was adjusted to the measured to identify the fluidity parameter y here. (2)The fluidity parameter obtained by four typical landslide which include Site A is within the range of 1*1057*104(day'1). (1)Site A. An analytical value of the displacement velocity at any point roughly agrees with the measured. The characteristic of yis clarified by investigating deferent types of landslide cases and accumulation of the identification. The obtained finding is surnmarized as follows.
101.Mesozoic 11Omi 9Omi References 1) Yoshiaki Yamada : Finite element method of plasticity.1992.1990. Ground EngineeringVol. Tamotsu Yoshida : The meas urement of the displacement on Rikushinai Landslide in Hokkaido Furubiracho. 1 11. The accumulation of an analytical case with the technique to consider variable pore water pressure.pp. Michio Takeshita. Toshio Hori.pp. However. 149152.C. Kazumi Table5 Site A The Parameter y of A. Some problems remains to establish the better prediction method as follows. Ground Engineering. pp.244247.1993. 2) The method of identify the initial movement of landslide is necessary considering the geological property of the Site.Landslide Academy research & lecture thesis collection of 1991 term. landslide Academy research & lecture thesis collections of 1991 term. the method of deciding the fluidity parameter y which governs the viscoplastic behavior of landslide.1. 1520. Hiroyuki Nakamura. 114117. Shinichi Nishimura: Some considerations concerni ng precipitation and amount of movement on landslide area. Meiketu Enoki : Characteristic of behavior of the Chichibu belt Kitaobiutiki district landslide and landslide clay. Norio Yagi.3336.1988.Landslide. 7) Hiroyuki Yoshimatsu.pp.pp. EVP FEM is based on the comparison of various measured data with the calculated and some kinds of ordinary soil tests.(Geotechnical engineering society Chugoku branch thesis report collection) 4) Hiroaki Fujii. Pref.1991.96. depends heavily on the observation of landslide movement. Tsuyosi Yauchi : Geographical & geological features consideration to largescale landslide. 1980. Ryuuichi Yatabe.pp. vo1.1991. Ryousuke Ichikawa : Measures worker and the construction effect of Kuchisakamoto landslide in 6.tion is predictable by comparison of the measured and the calculated displacement.~ Paleozoic 210m 120m I! B 600m 320m ~ o o ~ 3 7 X 1~ 2 x 10” 0 0 O4 70m 30m 80100 10 2X104 7 X 10” i5X1O4 1 x 1O4 I 512 Itou : Measurement result and the predict of Pore water pressure on a certain landslide area.1 OO.pp.vol. 11 . 2) 0wen. 8) Susumu Hoshino. 5) Ryousuke Amiki. Shinichi Nishimura. 6) Tatsuo Iinuma.. Landslide Academy research & lecture thesis collection of 1991 te1m~pp.pp 1324.1971 9) Masabumi Yuube.283285.1990 C Tertiary D . Masatate Funazaki. 2628. The proposed method seems to be practical to analyze a lot of types of landslide area. Toshio Hori. Kiyoshi Shimada.B. Kiyoshi Shimada : Application of FEM on the basis of Elasto viscoplasticity model in a certain landslide area. Science & Technology publisher inc.73.pp.D Site landslide velocity length width ( d y ) day’ lllI17/y lX105 3 x 1 0 .pp. (4)The analytical technique shown in this study... 3) Hiroaki Fujii. Theory & Practice.J & Hinton : Finite Elements in Plasticity.(Geotechnical engineering society Chugoku branch thesis report collection) 224 . 1) Many of the measured displacement always change the pattern by the influence of rainfall. 1123. Landslide Academy research & lecture thesis collection of 1990 term.
To take into consideration the influence of stress history including over consolidation. Nagoya Institute of Technology. In excavation problems. In practice the ground conditions in many geotechnical problems are considered to be under overconsolidated (OC) state. Nakai Department of Systems Management and Engineering. soilwater coupled finite element analyses are performed for different excavation times in order to investigate the change of deformation on the excavated slopes and vertical cuts with time. 1984). finite element analyses are carried out on normally and/or over consolidated grounds. Nagoya Institute of Technology. it is necessary to consider not only the stability of excavated slopes but also the settlement of ground surface and the deformation of surrounding ground. The stability of slopes is usually analyzed by using the theory of rigidplasticity.. (1996) discussed the influence of the construction history on the earth retaining wall. Nakai et.Japan Y. Model tests and elastoplastic finite element analyses were conducted on sandy ground. Then. On the other hand. al. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema. the subloading concept by Hashiguchi (1980) is introduced. should be conducted to consider the excavation process on the mechanical behavior of grounds. can describe the deformation and strength characteristics of normally consolidated (NC) clay. In this extended model. 1996). Hoshikawa & T. 1995. at reference state on normally consolidation 225 . Where t. The validity of this model has also been confirmed by using many laboratory test results. The value of t. however. Nakai et al. al. Also it is necessary to carry out elastoplastic analyses in order to predict the behavior of ground under excavation accurately. In order to simulate the behavior of OC ground. Rotterdam.clay model for normally consolidated clay. The yield function of the t. Employing this model. the subloading concept (Hashiguchi 1980) is introduced into the model. there are many cases of excavation closely neighboring to other structures in urban areas. it is very important to take into consideration the process of the excavation (Nakai et. It was indicated that the settlements and earth pressures on the retaining walls are very much influenced by the excavation procedure.Japun ABSTRACTS: Soilwater coupled analyses of vertical cut and slope excavations are conducted to investigate the behavior of an excavated ground in clay. and X are mean stress and stress ratio respectively according to the tijconcept. ground deformations are predicted using elastic finite element analyses in many practical problems. Hence. an elastoplastic model for clay named the tijclay model (Nakai & Matsuoka 1986) is extended to one which can describe the behavior of overconsolidated clay. the previous model has been extended to one which can describe the behavior of OC clay as well as NC clay. Elastoplastic analyses.. 1 INTRODUCTION In recent years. In this paper. This model is based on the tijconcept (Nakai & Mihara. Nishi Deparhnent of Civil Engineering. 2 ELASTOPLASTIC LOADING CONCEPT MODEL WITH SUB Nakai & Matsuoka (1986) proposed an elastoplastic constitutive model. Nakai & Matsuoka (1986) proposed an elastoplastic constitutive model for clay named the t.Slope Stability Engineering.clay model. The difference of time dependent behavior of excavated ground between normally and over consolidated states has been discussed on the basis of numerical results. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Coupled excavation analyses of vertical cut and slopes in clay T. named as the t. Yagi.clay model has been deduced by assuming that a linear stressdilatancy relationship is satisfied in the tijspace.
On the other hand. We adopted the following function for U for definiteness. total strain increment is composed of elastic and plastic component as follows (2) The elastic strain increment of clay is assumed to follow isotropic Hooke's law (3) Figure 1. Thus it can be given as d ~ = A d f . we extend this model by introducing the subloading surface concept (Hashiguchi 1980). (5) d G = + m for G = O dG=O for G = l dG<O for G > 1 Where G is the inverse of over consolidation ratio in accordance with the tijconcept and defined by Equation 6.. since the subloading surface approaches the normal yield surface monotonically with increase in plastic strain. which is monotonically decreasing function of G.. In this Equation. Now. 1).line (NCL) is denoted as tN0.. d tiJ The proportionally constant A of Equation 4 can be evaluated from the consistency condition df=O. (9) () 4 In the above Equation.. corresponds to the volumetric strain and is expressed by Equation 8. The above is the outline of the tjjclay model. Where E. Explanation of t. on NCL and can be obtained from present stress state (e. The mean stresses tN1 and tNle the tNt. and t.g. Now. Equation 1 is modified as Equation 5.. t. Substituting Equations 10 and 12 in Equation 9. the scalar A of Equation 4 can be obtained as Thus.. is Young's modulus and v. Where.C. is Poisson's ratio for elastic component. the evolution rule of G can be defined as Equation 10. the formulation of the subloading tjjclay model is complete. on the subloading surface and normal yield surface in tNtsplane. is given by Equation 7. the 226 . the mean stress t. Due to the presence of the second term in the denominator of Equation 13. plane are shown schematically in in Figure 1. at P in Fig. are the soil parameters. According to this concept. It is the value of t. It has been assumed that the plastic strain increment satisfies the associated flow rule not in the ordinary stress space but in the tii stress space. the scalar U should satisfy Equation 11.a and Cp = C.
peak strength. which are typical features of the overconsolidated clay. Laboratory tests vs. /( 1 +e. For normally consolidated clay (G=l). The boundary condition is the same for both meshes. it reduces the magnitude of strains and increases the strength compared to those of normally consolidated clay (because 0 < G s 1). The bottom boundary is h /(1 +e..08 X 10’ 1. the second term of the denominator in Equation 13 disappears and the present model coincides with the original tjjclaymodel.2.) K.  In order to consider the influence of the migration and dissipation of pore water pressure.12 x 102 33. Figure 2. Soil parameters of Fujinomori clay used in these calculations are listed in Table 1. Overconsolidated ground in CASE 2 and 3 are formed in such a way that a uniform load of q=98kPa is applied on the surface of ground and unloaded under drained condition. This model can describe not only the strain hardening and softening but also positive and negative dilatancy. and the remaining parameters are the same as the original model. Normally consolidated ground is assumed in CASE 1.000hr ( Slope excavation NC CASE1A CASE1B CASE2A CASE2B n:::E .25 Figure 4.7 O 0. The ground material of these analyses is assumed as the Fujinomori clay.000hr:Aseries) and ‘instantaneous’ excavation (t.=10. dilatancy and so on) depending on the OCR. It can be seen from this figure that the proposed model can predict well the deformation and the strength characteristics of clay (stiffness. All these finite element analyses are carried out using the subloading tijclay model and the soil parameters of Table 1. CASE 1 and 2 are slope excavation of ground.4 and 8) and calculated ones by the proposed model.proposed model can express some features of overconsolidated clay.2 0. which is used in previous section (see Fig. we will show an example to verify the performance of the proposed model.=O:Bseries) are assumed for each case. 2). coupled analyses based on Biot’s theory are carried out under plane strain condition. 3 ANALYSES OF EXCAVATION PROBLEMS Figure 3 shows the assumed excavation process of the clay ground.) 0 a V a 5. model prediction for clays with various OCR. Now. e : OC (q=98kPa) CASE3A CASE3B I I t. Finite element mesh of slope excavation 227 . Figure 2 shows the comparison between the observed results of conventional triaxial compression tests at constant mean stress on Fujinomori clay with various over consolidation ratios (OCR=1. Namely. I t. In the excavation process.7 0. The mesh of Figure 4 is used for CASE 1 and 2. CASE 3 is the vertical cut of ground.=0hr . while the mesh in Figure 11 is used for CASE 3. The coefficient of permeabillity (k) used in these analyses is O. ‘gradual’ excavation (tE=10.GxlO~”m/hr. An additional parameter ‘ a ’ of Equation 12 is required for the proposed model.
Computed displacement vectors for NC ground Figure 8.Figure 5. Computed contours of deviatoric strain for NC ground Figure 7. Computed contours of principal stress ratio for OC ground 228 . Computed contours of principal stress ratio for NC ground Figure 6.
high stress ratio area concentrates in the vicinity of the vertical cut at the completion of excavation.2 VERTICAL CUT FigurelO. The ground water level is assumed at the ground surface. 3. Fig. With increase of elapsed time. such region is not so clear in figure (a) even if the elapsed time from the beginning of excavation is the same.1 SLOPE EXCAVATION Figures 5 to 7 show the computed contours of principal stress ratio. the grounds were loaded with overburden stress q=98kPa and then unloaded. deviatoric strain. figures (a) correspond to ‘gradual’ excavations and figures (b) correspond to ‘instantaneous’ Though the region with high stress ratio firstly develops just behind the top of slope in the case of ‘instantaneous’ excavation (see Fig.S(b)). 3. 12(a)) the stress ratio distribution shows the same trend as that of ‘instantaneous’ excavation after t=10. and the dissipation of pore water is allowed at the top of the grounds. and displacement vectors respectively for CASE 1 (normally consolidated ground). To prepare the overconsolidated ground in CASE 2 and 3. it progresses toward the excavated surface. Figures 8 to 10 show the computed contours of principal stress ratio.47). The initial stresses in the grounds are calculated from the effective unit weight (y’= 0. Here. Fig. The behavior of overconsolidated ground under vertical cut is shown in Figures 12. the region moves with time to the toe of slope and the surface of excavated ground in the same way as the region for ‘gradual’ excavation. but the contours of stress ratio and deviatoric strain qualitatively show the same trend.=0. It is also noticed from Figure 14 that under 229 . and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be free only in the vertical direction.000 hours from beginning of excavation (CASE 3B.assumed to be fixed. As shown in Figure 12(b) in CASE 3B. deviatoric strain and displacement vectors for OC ground (CASE 2). 12(c)). The excavation procedure is simulated by removing l m thick layers one by one from top to bottom. We can see from Figure 6 that though the region with large deviatoric strain distributes along the circular zone from top to toe of slope ground in figure (c). 13 and 14.93tf/m3) and the coefficient of earth pressure at rest (&. Computed displacement vectors for OC ground Figure 9. Computed Contours of deviatoric strain for OC ground Figure 11. 11). Finite element mesh of vertical cut The excavation of vertical cut is simulated by removing the rectangular domain ABCD from the original mesh (see Fig. We can see from these figures that deviatoric strain in OC ground are less than NC ground. The computed patterns of displacement in Figure 7 depend on the elapsed time. In the case of ‘gradual’ excavation (CASE 3A.
It is also found from these comparisons that the behavior of ground is different depending on the excavation procedure even if the elapsed time from the beginning of excavation is the same. we can conclude that the simulation of excavation should be conducted using coupled analysis and appropriately considering the excavation process. Such tendency can be seen in the distribution of deviatoric strain in Figure 13. CONCLUSIONS An elastoplastic constitutive model (tijclay model) has been extended to one. Thus. But the vertical displacements increase only as t approaches to 10. ‘gradual’ excavation the vertical face deforms almost horizontally. In order to investigate the time depended behavior of the excavated ground. Coin p u t ed d i sp 1ace m e n t vectors for OC ground abovementioned extended model. the computed results of the ground behavior for ‘instantaneous’ and ‘gradual’ excavation have been compared.000 hours under ‘instantaneous’ excavation. which can describe the behavior of both normally and over consolidated clay and is named subloding tijclaymodel. The ‘instantaneous’ pattern in Figure 14(b) is very similar to the ‘gradual’ one in Figure 14(a). Computed contours of deviatoric strain for OC ground Fig U re 1 4. The numerical simulations of slope excavations and vertical cuts have been performed using the 230 .Figure 12. It is shown from the calculated results that the deviatoric strains in ‘instantaneous’ excavation are larger than those in ‘gradual’ one for every case. That is due to the migration of pore water after excavation. Computed Contours of principal stress ratio for OC ground Figure 13.
Vol. 231 .. Prediction of earth pressure and settlements due to excavation: influence of wall deflection process and wall friction. Kawano. 1980. of Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in soft Ground. 266272.8198. L. 1986. Nakai. NO. 26. 1995. Vol.. and Hashirnoto. T. H. of 10'" Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering..329332. pp. Proc. 1. M. pp. H. 47. H. 3. T. Appl. pp. A generalized elastoplastic constitutive model for clay in threedimensional stresses... Vol.. Proc. Vol. K.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The first author acknowledges the financial support of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). Nakai. 2. Soils and Foundations. and Matsuoka. Constitutive equations of elastoplastic materials with elastoplastic transition. Influence of construction history in excavation. Xu. T. Soils and Foundations. 1. and Mihara. Y. pp.. Nakai. 127132. 1984. A new mechanical quantity for soils and application to elastoplastic constitutive model. Nakai. NO. and Hashimoto. T.8294. Vol. ASME. T. 1996. J.. T.. 24. Mech. REFERENCES Hashiguchi. Kawano.
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Central Italy) and. cracks appeared in the major road pavement. well before excavation work started.FuenTa. G. soil movements were to be simply related to the stress level reduction induced by the excavation or. running immediately above the hillside and leading to the main city centre. The soil to be excavated was principally a highly overconsolidated.Tonni DISTAR7. From the start of excavation. shallow slope movements had already occurred. locally overlain by more recent alluvial deposits. achieving a satisfactory and safe construction and monitoring methodology for deep excavations in them is of considerable economic importance. but closely similar. 1.had to be constructed in the circled area at the bottom left corner of Figure 1. located in Central Italy. 1). therefore. 1977) and is characterised by the general outcropping of Pliocenic formations. Marchi & L. During and after construction ground movements in the hillside were monitored by three inclinometers which detected the reactivation of earlier landslip surfaces and other. The new permanent excavation. complex excavation into an urban hillside in the Republic of San Marino for the construction of a new shopping centre. clear evidence of soil displacements (concentrated along the bedding plane discontinuities of the existing formation) appeared in front of the excavated cuttings. INTRODUCTION The paper reports the geoniorphological and geotechnical aspects of a deep. Furthermore. on the contrary and more worrying.Slope Stability Engineering. subhorizontal layers. The older sediments essentially consist of bluegrey silty clays deposited in 1040 cmthick. A multi:torey commercial building over an area of 10000 in. ltuly E Bianchi Engineering Service. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Effects of a deep excavation on a potentially unstable urban hillside in San Marino GGottardi. progressed in front of a retaining wall of contiguous boredpiles of 8001000 mm diameter. after the construction of a contiguous boredpile wall. 2. Rotterdam. their monitoring and the prediction of possible further movements which might develop during and after completion of the excavation work. University of Bolognu. contained between Marche and Romagna regions (see map in Fig. but alarniing.. Yagi. were all studied intensively. The main question was therefore whether the new. Ituh ABSTRACT: The paper reports the geotechnical engineering aspects of a deep. Excavation work started in September 1997 and ended only in May 1998. heavy traffic road. 1992). are quite common in San Marino and the surrounding region (Marche and Romagna. sometime with the insertion of 233 . inore than 100 m long. The basement level of the new building was planned to be at a depth of 7.formed during historic iandslips in it .were positively identified during site investigation. Yamagami & JiangO 1999 Balkema. small. incorporating three tiers of reinforced concrete waling beams restrained by ground anchors. According to vertical cracks and local failures of preexisting masonry walls and to records of continuous road pavement repairs in the past. GEOLOGICAL SETTING The area shown in Figure 1 is a typical example of the geologically complex situation of the Northern Apennines towards the plane borders (Colleselli & Colosimo. complex excavation into an urban hillside in the Republic of San Marino for a multistorey building. The Republic of San Marino is an independent State. Causes of displacements. The relevant topography and soil stratigraphy. pliocenic silty clay and slickensided slipsurfaces . smaller but deepseated movements. coupled with congested urban development.5 m with respect to the previous surface level (with an estimated amount of excavated soil of 100000 m3) and up to a maximum of 13 in below the dual carriageway. to the activation of a major deepseated slope movement (Bertuccioli et al.
they reveal a main NES W direction strike and a dip angle between 10” and 15”. Ausa alluvium and the Pliocenic clayey formation. Map of tlie area investigated and relevant outcropping geological formation. the dashed area represents the area occupied by the building under construction. at the junction between outcrops of the T. 3. The dashed area of Figure 1 is where the more recent alluvial deposits of the local Torrent Ausa outcrop: they are soft brown silts and clays. 234 . In the area investigated. The main dual carriageway road is shown at the top. five Figure 2. Schematic geological section along AA’.SITE INVESTIGATION AND GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES Figure 3 shows a general plan of the construction site. as shown in tlie geological section AA’ sketched in Figure 2. essentially made of the same material. The construction site is located beside the rivulet named ”Fosso del Rio”. a Sew metres thick. with organic matter and gravellysandy lenses. The undisturbed stiff “bedrock” is usually topped by a softened and weathered shallow layer. which is maxiinally 13 m lower than the current road level. very thin arenaceous sublayers.Figure 1. The site investigation for design purposes basically comprised ten cone penetration tests.
inclined of 25” with respect to the horizontal and spaced. throughout the slope and normal to the wall. the alluvial material where present . This situation. in order to measure with time and excavation progress .Figure 3 . A secondary minor groundwater circulation through the many fissures and silty lenses is also possible in the clayey “bedrock”. 2). the top layer (Unit A) shows clear evidence of a strongly weathered material.can be considered as part of the same stratigraphic unit. Howcvcr. i. 3). showing tlie same average inclination of the existing bedding planes (see Fig. Little information is available on the piezometric levels. strongly anisotropic. but also because of the frequent siltysandy lenses on the bedding planes which tend to influence the overall available shear strength. due to the very low permeability of the clayey soils. together with the numerous previous records of shallow slope movements. In fact. with average activity index 1.General plan of the construction site. typically. pliocenic silty clay of medium plasticity (classified as CL. As regards tlie geotechnical parameters. deeply fissured and stratified clay (Unit B) by a transition layer a few centimetres thick. Since October 1997 some indication of soil movements appeared on the face of the excavation as relative displacements. Such shallow layer is between 4 and 5 i n thick and is separated from the underlying.2).the 235 . Undisturbed samples from borings and fiom specifically dug trenches were used for the determination of standard physical and mechanical soil properties. both belonging to the same geological formation and essentially made from the same material: a highly overconsolidated. progressed from north to south in front of a contiguous boredpile wall (8001 000 min diameter by 1518 m long).are likely to form. A schematic section of the designed situation (XX’ in Fig. Twelve benchmarks (BMn in Fig. THE DEEP EXCAVATION The new permanent excavation. During excavation.fed locally through the coarser upper alluvial deposits . obtaining average peak (cp = 70 kPa and @p = 25”) and residual (& = 19”) parameters. as detected during the excavation work. up to 10 cm. Shear strengths laboratory (direct shear and Ltiiconsolidateduiidrained triaxial) tests were performed on Unit B soil only. not only because densely stratified. either on the two units interface or within the clayey “bedrock”. However it should be kept in mind that the material is strongly anisotropic.e. were clcarly identified both along the two units interface and within the Unit B. a higher water content and a considerably lower undrained shear strength. perched water tables . is shown in Figure 4. in correspondence of the bedding planes. in correspondence of the silty lenses. much stiffer. 12 indeep boreholes and two open standpipe piezometers. slickensided slipsurfaces (which had developed during historic landslips). The wall was supported by three tiers of reinforced concrete waling beams restrained by 40 ni long x 600 kN ground anchors. induced the contractor to ask for advice and install three 20 indeep inclinometers behind tlie pilewall (labelled In in Fig. but they are probably rather low and related to Unit A only. more than 100 in long. 4. On such basis two stratigraphic units can be easily identified. at 2 m centres horizontally and 3 m vertically. 3) were positioned on the top edge of the pile wall in order to monitor the horizontal displacements. 3).
the more northern located. with a maximum integral value at the inclinometer head of 21 mm. In Figure 4 the I3 readings plot. which progressed until April and then practically stopped. Virtually nothing happened after April.1 mm so far. Again only one tier of ground anchors was installed by 1997 and the whole set completed in midApril. occurring within the “bedrock”. have been superimposed on section XX’. afterwards. together with the total horizontal displacements as measured from the benchmark BM5 at the top of the pile wall in the same period. the pile wall had not been designed to accommodate. displacements within the soil mass and detect any reactivation of earlier landslip surfaces and other. Inclinometer I1 showed immediately (after the first two readings) a total displacement of 6 mm at a depth of 6 m. then it stopped until the end of March and resumed to end in June 1998. The inclinometer readings are in good agreement with benchmark measurements. BM6. read monthly until June 1998 and again in January 1999. Section XX’: measured displacementsand possible slip surfaces. Some tendons were equipped with a load cell. i. well within Unit B. exhibited a total horizontal displacement of 48 mm. the final situation was reached at the end of April. the last readings seems to suggest that also those movements have now ceased. from late October 1997 till mid May 1998. Again early data show a possible shallow slip surface at a depth of 5 m. These information. together with the cracks position in the main road pavement and record of relative displacements on the face of the excavation. enabled us to draw possible slip surfaces (labelled from 1 to 3) for subsequent slope stability analyses. from the data available so far. displayed some deep movement at a depth of 9 m and. however the main displacements were concentrated in the first 5 m. The integral displacement at the inclinometer head has been 37. and subsequently the other two in March 1998. MONITORING OF DISPLACEMENTS The three inclinometers were installed on 3 1 October 1997. however in all subsequent readings. In order to better understand all these data. which advanced until last May and achieved a maximum value of 7 nun. of 12 m. Inclinometer I3 is situated along the mean section XX’ all the relevant incremental readings since and late October 1997 are reported in Figure 5 . i. They also show initial displacements of few tens of millimetres. which were carried out in the same period. which. when most soil had already been excavated. middle ground anchor was installed first. movements at every depth appear to halt.Figure 4. and.e. deepseated movements.e. at the interface between Units A and B. subsequently. Therefore the soil displacements were clearly detected at various depths only after October 1997. The shallow movements could well be interpreted as the 236 . possible. essentially normal to the wall axis. the same decreasing trend from May onwards. It is interesting to note a much deeper movement. 5 . the benchmark which moved most. have shown an essentially constant trend with time starting from the initially given value of 600 kN. As specifically the regards section XX’. Inclinometer 12. in December 1997. the excavation progress and the ground anchors installation should be also taken into account: in fact about 80% of the excavation work was quickly completed by October 1997.
All movements tend anyway to cease after the excavation work completion and the ground anchors installation.99 when the water level coincides with the soil surface). CONCLUSIONS The geotechnical engineering aspects of a deep. Results are reported in Table 1.64 1. Therefore a much simplified situation was considered: a steep. 9 mdeep slope. which can even become less than unity (0. A second analysis using a 2D finite element code was aimed to verify what could be the order of magnitude of the strains induced by the stress level decrease. reactivation of previously developed slip surfaces. complex excavation into an urban hillside in the Republic of San Marino were presented. STABILITY ANALYSES In order to better investigate the causes of the measured soil displacements and predict possible further movements. finally surface 3 concerns the whole slope and is related to the deepseated movements which developed within the Unit B. The first applied standard limit equilibrium methods to the slope stability analysis of section XX'. It is interesting to observe that the existence of a perched water table in the Unit A would substantially reduce the factor of safety of surface 1 (to 1. Inclinometer I3 incremental readings. For each slip surface the factor of safety towards slope instability was calculated with reference to the original soil profile (before the excavation) and the final situation (end of works). however. Factors of safety (FS) from limit equilibrium stability analysis. 6). be related to the soil deformations induced by the stress level reduction and concentrated .28 1. The soil to be excavated was principally a highly over 237 . whilst the deepseated displacements might. for a length of about 5 m. moving from the face of the excavation towards inside the soil mass. do not seem to have a great effect on the overall stability. on the contrary.21 1.in a strongly anisotropic material . surface 2 is the expression of shallower movements recorded both by the inclinometer and on the face of the excavation. The stability calculations were carried out assuming homogeneous and isotropic soils in Units A and B. Such model provides. 6. Of course the most severe situation everywhere is after the end of excavation and without the ground anchors. significantly increasing with the slip surface depth. in good agreement with what observed on site.16 1. in a strongly anisotropic material and whether such soil deformation could concentrate in thin levels of a siltysandy nature.27 1. these relative displacements tend to progressively reduce. due to the excavation.66 Figure 5. 7.06 with a water level at 2 m from the soil surface). the load cell measurements were used. progressively excavated in an elastoplastic homogeneous material (Fig. like the existing bedding planes. For the inclined concentrated forces applied by the ground anchors. 4): surface 1 essentially corresponds to the two units interface.52 3 2. which. as a consequence of the unloading phase. total horizontal displacements up to 10 cm and relative movements concentrated in correspondence of the silty interface. FS is generally greater than unity. taking into consideration the following three slip surfaces (see Fig. with and without the ground anchors.38 2 1. two separate analyses were performed. Slip surface Before excavation After excavation without ground anchors After excavation with ground anchors 1 1.Table 1.32 1.on the weaker layers. A marked anisotropy was introduced as a layer with no cohesion and an inclination of 10" with respect to the horizontal. with the following soil strength parameters: (PA = 16" and (PB = 20" and no cohesion.
On the other hand. Initial deforinatioiis of high cuts in overcoilsolidated jointed clay. probably situated at the two units interface. Such topographic and stratigraphic situation. Coinportaiiiento di argille pliopleistoceiiiche in una faiesia del litorale adriatico. Such important observation. measured by the inclinometers within the stiff clay. Total displaceinents greater than 30 nim were measured at the surface level. Proc. like the bedding planes or the silty lenses trapped within the clayey matrix. (1992). vol. overlain by a few metresthick layer of the same material. Federico G. they appear to be substantially attenuated. 6" ISL.1. Slope stability analyses have confirmed that the actual factor of safety is considerably lower in this case and can be further reduced by the possible creation of a temporary perched water table. they clearly stopped. coupled with congested urban development. could be better interpreted (as well shown also by the schematic finite eleinent analysis performed) as the soil strains resulting from the considerable stress level reduction caused by the excavation of a highly overconsolidated material. Esu F. 12651270. . Horizontal displacemeiits induced by the excavation of a 9 indeep slope (FEM analysis). together with the results of the relevant limit equilibrium slope stability analysis which provided factors of safety well above unity and increasing with depth.. surface evidence like the road pavement cracks are to be related to much shallower slope movements (also measured by the inclinometers).Figure 6. Colleselli F. The displacemeiits of the boredpile wall top edge. tend to concentrate on the weaker layers. REFERENCES Bertuccioli P. 522. now that work is completed. Riv. pp. Distefano D. consolidated. would suggest that major slope movements are unlikely to occur in these circumstances. to the stress level reduction induced by the excavation. vol. were continuously monitored and carefully kept under control during the excavation. pp. more simply. stiff. Christchurch.. is quite coinnion in San Marino and the surrounding region and similar deep excavations have often to be realised. but softened and weathered. XI. through the installation of three inclinometers. N. Those strains. It is hoped that the results of this study can help to achieve a satisfactory and safe construction and monitoring methodology. (1 977). However. The deepseated displacements. both on the cutting face and on the pavement of the major road running immediately above the hillside. The particular interest of this casehistory is in the analysis of the possible causes of the soil movements which had been detected during the excavation work. It. Geot... as well as the soil movements behind the wall. Colosimo P.. these shallow slope movements had already occurred previously and were just reactivated by the major excavation work: once the wall was completed and all the ground anchors installed. silty clay. Previous shallow slope iiioveinents had already occurred and question arose whether the new displacement evidence was to be related to the reactivation of an ancient deepseated slip surface or. 11. mostly before the ground anchors installation and. through topographic surveys. in a strongly anisotropic material.
covering an area of about 120 km2 and reaching an altitude of 600m above mean sea level.). carried out recently in the most sliding zone. an analysis of the displacements induced by the excavation together with their backwardpropagation effect on slope movements is performed using the finite element method. A recent census of landslide movements singled out about 140 unstable areas. corresponding to about 4% of the total surface of the hills (Dal Pra et al. They are composed of sedimentary and eruptive rocks. location of water springs.Slope Stability Engineering. located in the south eastern area of the Euganean Hills and involving the colluvial cover. it was decided in 1985 by the 239 . S. changes of river paths or of the surface drainage system also create alterations of the original profiles of the hills. For example. 1 INTRODUCTION The Euganean Hills rise isolated in the Venetian alluvial plain.1 Brief history o the landslide f The quarrying activity was undertaken in the early 1960s and continued until about 1986: at that time the scarps reached an height of about 60 m with a slope of 20". the morphology of the Euganean Hills has been intensively modified by several types of human activities. during 1997 more than 60 landslides of various size and importance were recorded (Mazzucato.. Yagi. position of tension cracks and of damaged houses (Ravarotto house. 2. is analyzed and discussed in this paper using both limit equilibrium and finite element method. show a precarious equilibrium also on gently conformed slopes. Since about 2000 years. Northeastern Italy. The influence of human activity on the stability conditions of a landslide. During 1976. These colluvial materials.b). 2 LANDSLIDE CHARACTERIZATION Figure 1 shows a general view of the landslide area. Rotterdam.. The influence of some recent drainage works on the overall stability is also briefly discussed. ect. some small sliding movements involving the colluvial sheet were observed behind the top of the excavation front. Lucia Chapel. These landslides are due to anthropic as well as natural causes. in 1985 a larger failure with an extension of about 1000 m2 occurred at the eastern border of the quarry. ryolithes. Again. section AA and BB both considered in the analyses. 1975). insitu instrumentation such as piezometers and inclinometers. ISBN 905809 0795 Displacements of a slope in the Euganean Hills induced by quarrying ABSTRACT: The paper concerns the evaluation of stability conditions of a landslide which occurred behind a marl and limestone quarry located in the Euganean Hills. among which the most important is probably represented by open quarries of mark and trachytes. irrigation wells and drainage well. construction of new roads. Then. 1998). Thereafter. trachytes and latites (Piccoli et al. Terracing for agricultural purposes. Yamagami & Jiang (( 1999 Balkema. 1995a. but their effects on slope stability are probably of less importance compared the intensive quarrying activity performed during the last decades. are also briefly commented. The former are generally excavated from the toe of the slopes whereas the latter from the volcanic outcrops. The effects of some drainage works. Features to note are: extension of the quarry and of the unstable zone. having sometimes a thickness of up to several metres. the former composed of limestone and mar1 and the latter by basalst. These excavations involve sharp variations of the profiles of the hills. The limit equilibrium conditions of the landslide is evaluated. The marl and basalt formations are normally covered with layers of weathered clay materials.
complained about damage (i. The movements. Nevertheless. etc. On the basis of the insitu investigations two crosssections were reconstructed as shown in Figure 2 (section AA) and Figure 3 (section BB). mostly composed of weathered trachytic elements (with dimensions up to several decimeters) in a clayey matrix. Some results have been already reported (Aquater. Mine and Quarry Regional Department to suspend the excavation works and the scarps were reprofiled. The soft rock deposits slope in a east by south east direction with a dip angle of 2530”. can be observed in the quarrying zone. occured along slightly sloping surfaces (8’. extensive undisturbed sampling was not allowed.Figure 1.) occurring to their houses. fissures. General view of the landslide area. On the basis of the limit equilibrium analysis carried out since then it appeared that no significant interaction between excavation and slope movements would have occurred or would occur. as shown in the crosssection of Figure 2. cracks.. The thickness of the colluvial sheet does not exceed (about) 16 m in section AA or 30 m in BB. has been and is still being debated. 1986. At the same time. whose emergences. 2.000 m2 was suspected to be active including a transitional sliding area around the quarry involving the whole detrital layer. The presence of tension cracks at the ground surface was also observed.2 Insitu investigations altimetric shape of the limestone bedrock supporting the colluvial deposits. where the rock outcrops emerge forming the Rusta Hill. 2. These investigations were performed mainly with the aim to provide the plano 240 .4 Laboratory tests Due to the nature of the overconsolidated detrital materials. Section AA was selected along the maximum slope direction whereas section BB intersects the zone of quarrying. having thickness of about 50 m.3 Structural setting Two types of sedimentary soft rock formations characterize the investigated area: the “Scaglia Rossa” (marly limestone) and the Euganean Marl.10’) and continued at variable rate depending on hydrological site conditions. wall rotations.e. Therefore an area of approximately 20. For section BB the ground surface and the bedrock are countersloping in the proximity of the border of the quarry. 1991). some samples were In order to characterize the nature and the extent of this larger sliding movement. 2. boreholes and geopyhsical tests were carried out in 1986. Favaretti et al. The possibility that quarrying works might influence the stability of the entire area. the owners of some properties located at the eastern border of the area.
Deforniability of colluvial material was estimated from some triaxial tests carried out on undisturbed samples as suggested by Soranzo (1988). whose position is reported in Figure 1. These latter measurements were taken in order to veri@ the efficiency of drainage system constructed in 1997.Figure 2.5 Hydrological conditions The ground water flow is relatively poor in the whole area and confined in the detrital materials resting above the impermeable marly bedrock. This was also confirmed by the presence of some water springs located at the interface detrital cover/marly bedrock in the southern part of the quarry. during 1998.42 min by using Bromhead's ring shear apparatus. especially to determine shear strength parameters to be used in limit equilibrium analysis. taken and subjected to geotechnical laboratory tests. On the basis of the geophysical investigations the presence of an underground valley. The average value of the elastic Young's modulus at stress levels compared to those acting insitu were approximately equal to 2035 MPa. For the matrix plasticity index ranges from 10% to 29% whereas for the marl from 20% to 29%. Figure 4 shows the results of the shear tests: note the higher values due the clayey fraction composing the matrix of the detritic colluvium (25"3 1") compared to those of the altered marl (16"2 1"). Figure 3. The ground water condition was monitored throughout the observation by piezometers and wells. Cross section intersecting the quarrying area. Atterberg limits were determined both on the detrital cohesive matrix and on the altered marl. Liquid limit lies in the range between 30% and 59% for the cohesive matrix and between 43% and 53% for the altered marl. consisting in a large well with subvertical microdrains departing radially from it. for some wells. delimited by two watersheds having an East West direction was noted. the Casagrande piezometers S2 24 1 . Figure 5 gives the results of the water level measurements in the period December 1985 to May 1986 and. 2. Cross section along the maximum slope. More particularly. Residual shear strength was determined on a cohesive fraction under 0.
4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS In order to evaluate the effect of excavation on slope movements. The Bishop simplified method was used considering residual strength of altered mar1 (20") as the minimum resistance parameter influencing the stability of the slope (Trevisan. fully saturated soils). on compar~sonwith the measurements taken in early Spring 1986 and 1998 the influence of deep drainage on the pore pressure can be appreciated. approaching the instability condition in section AA when the phreatic surface reaches the ground level.Figure 4. Therefore. 1986). No pore pressure was measured in piezometer S 1. 1998). 3 LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS The limit equilibrium analyses were carried out along AA section (maximum slope) and along BB section (intersection with the quarry). Two types of pore pressure conditions were assumed: phreatic surface corresponding to the maximum levels measured in piezometers and wells or coinciding with the slope (i. Figure 5. The material models used for sedimentary bedrock and detrital sheet were linear elastic and elasticperfectly plastic respectively. Despite the limited period of observation. Displacements observed in inclinometers I1 and 12.e. numerical analyses were carried with BEFE (Beer. it appeared that the sliding surface lies around 14 m below ground level for I1 and 18 m for 12. measured from 24'h April to 25th May 1986. 242 .6 Slope displacements In the two boreholes S4I1 and S5I2 inclinometers were installed. In this context. Note that I1 is located close to the most damaged buildings. for the detrital materials it is assumed that the effect of lithic elements present in the matrix with relatively small percentage do not influence significantly the deformability of the detrital cover. ranging from 2 mm to 11 mm with a SW direction. and s3 are located along the BB section whereas wells W I and w2 are along section AA. Residual friction angles. Ground water level measurements. it was presumed that the NEE'lipping movement occurred prevalently WSW direction as confirmed by inclinometric measurements. 2. In both cases the safety factor resulted greater than the unity. Figure 6. Figure 6 reports the displacements.
243 . they should be taken into account if the landslide is in a residual condition along with preexisting sliding surfaces. Regione Veneto.04 m. REFERENCES Aquater. the landslide was probably so close to limit equilibrium conditions that the stress variation due to the lateral excavation behaves as external perturbation inducing movements towards new stable slope configurations. are calculated at the ground level in that zone where some tension cracks were observed in the field (see Figure 1). these are probably not negligible when shear stress levels on preexisting sliding surfaces are very close to failure conditions.Figure 7. On the basis of site and laboratory investigations and on the above considerations. Therefore. even though with small movements. 3 0Friction angle @=20". up to the upper border of the landslide. Versante Ovest Monte Rusta . it appears that stress relief due to the excavation propagated backwards up to the upper border of the landslide. Elastic modulus for sedimentary rock was assumed as suggested by Meigh (1976). Figures 7a and 7b show the horizontal displacement contours spaced at intervals of 0. the slope seems to be stabilized by the drain system recently constructed in the most damaged zone of the landslide. 5 CONCLUSIONS A backanalysis of a landslide in the Euganean Hills.02 and 0. In the same zone horizontal displacements at the ground. . carried out with the limit equilibrium and finite element method was presented in the paper. 3 0 . Boundary elements were used at the vertical and horizontal borders of the mesh. p. Contours of horizontal (a) and vertical (b) displacements.01 m.02 my were determined in the direction of the quarry. Although the calculated displacements are characterized by very small values (24 cm). The mesh is composed of 8node isoparametric finite elements. Poisson's ratio ~ 0 . ~ 0 . between 0. From numerical analyses. Even though the calculated displacements are characterized by small values. 36. involving detrital materials. Sedimentary bedrock: E=200 MPa. on the basis of the last observations of the displacements and pore pressure measurements. about 400 m far from the crest of the quarry. ranging from 0. the following parameters were selected: * Detrital material: Young's modulus E=20 Mpa. It can be observed that the swelling of the marly bedrock induces a general heave of the whole area especially in the zone close to the quarry. Finally. Small vertical settlements.Condizioni di Stabilita. The advantage of using a finite element approach was given by the possibility of considering the effect of excavation due to mar1 and limestone quarrying not only on the overall stability but also on slope displacements. In other words. On the basis of the results of the limit equilibrium analysis it seemed that no significant interaction between the landslide and the quarry could take place.01 to 0. it was shown that the influence of the excavation backpropagates. (1 986).04 m and the vertical displacement contours at 0.
Dal Pra A. Proc. 6. Passuto A. M.. Sedea R. Analisi di un movimento franoso nei colli Euganei Sudoccidentali. & Di Lallo. Geol. Mazzucato A. Favaretti M. E. 353362. Note illustrative della Carta Geologica dei Colli Euganei. (1995a). of the Sixth Int. 3. pp. 26. (1975). University of Padova. Vol. Passuto A. No. Vol. & Silvano. University of Padova. MSc Thesis. 47. Symp.. (1998).. Rankine Lecture. Sedea. S.. Carta della franosita dei Colli Euganei. Studio sulla franosita dei Colli Euganei.. Results and interpretation of multistage triaxial compression tests. & Soranzo. with particular reference to predicted and observed performance of some major foundations. Advances in Engineering Sofiare. Mem. Piccoli G. R. pp.Beer G. Sci. Stability analysis of landslides occurred close to a mar1 and limestone. & Silvano. 244 . Previatello P. Sedea. Firenze. Cartografia SELCA. Societa Cooperativa Tipografica. Padova. (1991). (1976). Dal Pra A.A combined BoundaryFinite Element Computer Program. Vol. (1998). R. Advanced Triaxial Testing of Soil and Rock. 391452.. Trevisan A. S. Geotechnique. (1 995b). Meigh A. NO. University of Padova. Di Lallo. E. M. Di Lallo. 1.. E. The Triassic rocks. C. Soranzo. on Lanslides. BEFE . Le frane nei colli euganei. ASTM. (1 984). pp.. STP 977. MSc Thesis. 2. Bellati R. (1988).. 397402.
of about 40m in height. and a talus deposit of Quaternary on the hillside. The profile of the hill is geologically composed of a Tertiary mudstone deposit of Neogene period as a bedrock. in the horizontal and vertical direction of the order of 50cm to 150cm in the duration of two months until a countermeasure construction is completed by replacing a part of soil near the toe of the slope with crashed stone. Stability evaluation was then conducted by use of FEM and a simple conventional approach of limit equilibrium in order to discuss accuracy and reliability of the estimated behavior of the clay slope as compared to that observed in the field during excavation.Japan ABSTRACT: This paper concerns the mechanism of sliding failure along a thin layer of mudstone deposit due to excavation. as A large scale sliding failure happened to occur in a project of land improvement due to excavation. Nakamura . and a big slide took place through this thin mudstone layer immediately after excavation of talus and clay deposit.Japan S. Material tests were also conducted on the clay deposit in order to estimate stressstrain behavior of slope during failure and lateral earth pressure acting in the field to promote sliding. Japan J. Some laboratory tests were carried out on both undisturbed and reconstituted samples of the mudstone material to know its shear strength characteristics. 120m long and 8 to 10m deep took place immediately after the excavation of a part of talus and porcelain clay deposit. Narita & Y.Tokai Technology Center.Wakachiku Construction Company Limited. especially on the relationship among strength values of the peak. 1 INTRODUCTION 2 OUTLINE OF SLIDING FAILURE The sliding failure now under consideration took place in a project of land improvement of about 32. A big sliding failure of soil block of 150m wide.Slope Stability Engineering. This mudstone deposit of 10 to 20cm thick lying beneath the porcelain clay differs a little from the bedrock deposit. along a thin flat layer of mudstone deposit inclined with a very low angle of 2 to 3 to the horizontal. and a large deformation was observed. as illustrated in a plan view in Figure 1 and in the crosssectional view of AA in Figure 2a) . especially on the relation among strength values of the peak. Rotterdam. residual and normally consolidated states. The sliding took place just after excavating the clay deposit in 5 to 7m. containing some kind of carbide. accompanying large horizontal and vertical deformation of the order of 50cm to 150cm. Kojima . This paper concerns the mechanism of sliding failure along a thin layer of mudstone deposit due to excavation. Japan K. Tertiary deposits of porcelain clay and sand gravel overlying the bed. as indicated by displacement vectors of point survey in Figure 1. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema.Hanagata . 245 .Ohne Department of Civil Engineering.Toyota.5ha in area. Some laboratory tests were carried out on both undisturbed and reconstituted samples of the mudstone material to know its shear strength characteristics. and a thin layer of chocolate color alterated clay of 5 to 10cm thick is considered to be a potential slip surface in this sliding failure. Aichi Institute of Technology. Stability evaluation was then conducted by use of FEM and a conventional limit equilibrium approach in order to discuss accuracy and reliability of the estimated behavior of the clay slope as compared to that observed in the field during excavation. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Stability evaluation of sliding failure along thin mudstone deposit due to excavation Y. Field investigation and survey conducted after failure revealed that the mudstone deposit lies with a very low angle to the horizon and is considered to have some latent sliding planes which had been a cause of instability of the existing clay slope before excavation. Yagi. The land has a topography of gentle slope hill formed near a river. residual and normally consolidated states.AICO Company Limited. A thin layer of mudstone deposit of 5 to 10cm thick lies beneath deposits of clay and gravel mixture of about 10m thick.
Some physical properties of the mudstone material are summarized in Table 1. direct shear test was conducted on undisturbed samples by applying shear force repeatedly from one side to the other several times until the ultimate state of shear failure is reached. Cross sectional view along AA 3 SHEAR STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERATED MUDSTONE DEPOSIT Laboratory shear strength tests were carried out on both the undisturbed and reconstituted samples of the alterated mudstone deposit to know its peak and the ultimate residual strength values.7 1g/cmj 52.1 Repeated loading direct shear test In order to investigate the relationship between the peak and residual strength of the material. Plan view of sliding failure Figure 2. Stressdeformation in repeated loading . The test was done under CD condition: The sample was first submerged in a week to be saturated state and consolidated in 24 hours under a constant vertical pressure. Figure 3 shows an example of shear stress and deformation relation curve in a repeated loading under a vertical pressure of CI ~=200kPa. Table 1. * Figure 1. Point of interests noticed in this figure is the fact that the shear deformation until the peak strength is reached is significantly smaller as compared to that after peak to the ultimate state. The land slide is thus characterized by a very flat and straight slip of a soil block on along a polished latent sliding plane.2 3. is seen It that shear stress gradually decreases nearly at a constant rate and tends to converge to a certain ultimate state as the repeated loading proceeds. 246 Figure 3.6% 65.2% 116.1% 85.Olmm/min. and then 6mm in horizontal loaded repeatedly up to direction under a drained condition at the rate of O.2% 30.shown in Figure 2c) ..8% 4. Physical properties of mudstone Density of solid particle: Natural water content: Content of Sand: Silt: Clay: Liquid limit: Plastic limit: Plastic index: 2. The relation curves of shear stress and deformation are again plotted in Figure 4 by taking as usual the total absolute shear deformation on the abscissa.3% 31.
@ ) under consideration. respectively. 4 FEM ANALYSIS Figure 4. i. Also shown in Figure 7 is distributions of FS calculated for the configuration after excavation and filling of banks on the gravel layer. Deformation parameters used in the analysis.20 below the toe of the first and the second step of the excavated slope. Shear stress vs. Figure 6 shows distributions of the local factor of safety (Fs) obtained at elements along the surface of the thin mudstone layer for the original configuration before excavation. total deformation Figure 5. respectively. Distributions of the maximum acting along the thin mudstone shear stresses z layer before and after excavation are also plotted in Figure 8. This suggests equal potential of sliding along the base. The slurry sample of under 0. some of them were determined from the results of triaxial tests. Discussions associated with these figures are summarized in the following. and rather large angle of friction as compared to the residual strength of the undisturbed samples.10 and No. but it disappears by a large shear deformation in the residual state. 0 Peak and @ Residual strength of the undisturbed sample.Shear stress and deformation curves obtained in the test are hyperbola in shape as usually observed in a normally consolidated clay and the maximum shear stress at a large deformation was defined here as the completely softened strength. @ ) presented in Figure 5. indicating very small cohesion intercept. 2) Distributions of FS after excavation in Figure 7  mbl 24 . where the latter is defined here by the shear stress at deformation of 200mm. 3. which was obtained through site investigation after failure. 1)Distributions of FS before excavation in Figure 6 are rather flat in shape for every case of ( c . The factor FS is defined here as a ratio of the radius of the stress circle at failure to that at the present state and was evaluated for three different cases of strength values ( c . similarly as normally consolidated clay.2 Direct shear test on reconstituted samples Direct shear strength tests were also carried out on the reconstituted slurry samples of the mudstone to compare the strength value obtained above with that at compIetely softened state. a FEM elastic analysis of excavation is conducted on the cross section presented in Figure 2a). It should be noted that the undisturbed samples have a certain small amount of cohesion component in the peak strength.. and @ NC (normally consolidated) strength of the reconstituted sample. though the lowest value of FS appears near the toe of the original slope in the case of residual strength. which is supposed to be constituted with its stress history in the field. Comparison of failure lines Failure lines are drawn for the peak and the residual strength in Figure 5.42mm was consolidated in a week with its self weight and cut out and set in the shear box for a CD test under a specified vertical pressure. In order to discuss stress and deformation behavior and safety against sliding along the thin mudstone deposit. are taken to be 5MPa for the thin mudstone layer and 10 25MPa for overlain clay and gravel mixture. The solution of a simple self weight analysis for the model with the original ground surface before excavation is superposed with that by an inverse load due to excavation. Failure line thus determined for the reconstituted sample is drawn in Figure 5. together with the change in stress circles before and after excavation at two representative elements of No.e.
together with the residual strength obtained in the repeated loading direct shear test. Safety factor based on limit equilibrium 0Peak Figure 6.10 element. together with the change in stress states at No. which start in circles from the points where tension cracks were detected. et al.75 @NC 0. and passing through in circles again near No.L. 1977. as illustrated in Figure 7.23 Although much more discussion is still required on the mechanism of progressive nature of sliding failure. irrespective of strength values.13 2.03 @Residual 0. where tension cracks were observed in the time sequence as the 1st (1) and the 2nd (2) slide in the field. REFERENCES Bjerrum.35 0. 1967. Geotechnique. 93SM5: 349. Proc ASCE.e. Distribution of FS before excavation 1st 2nd 1.. 1977. Progressive failure in slopes of overconsolidated plastic clay and clay shales. for instance presented by Bjerrum 1967 and Burland et al. @ ) are listed in Table 2. not at least on the increase in shear stresses. 4)Stability analysis was conducted by use of a limit equilibrium method for two composite sliding planes.20 elements before and after excavation. The value of FS becomes below unity in the case of residual strength along two sections (1) and (2) near the above toes.10 and No.20 is mainly caused by an increase in shear stress accompanied by a significant unbalance of overburden weight due to excavation and filling. suggest the occurrence of different patterns of failure along the slip plane: i. suggests higher potential of a local sliding failure and is considered to be a threshold of the overall big failure due to excavation. failure at No.B. 3)Distributions of T: mar in Figure 8. Distribution of FS after excavation Figure 8. A study of ground movement and progressive failure caused by a deep excavation in Oxford Clay. 274: 557591.demonstrate locations of higher potential of sliding near the toe of the first and second step of the excavated slope. 5 CONCLUSIONS FEM analysis can be a practically useful tool for evaluating stability of sliding failure along a thin mudstone deposit due to excavation. The values of safety factor for the 1st small and the 2nd large sliding planes obtained in three cases of ( c . Burland.10 element is largely dependent on the loss of confining pressure. Very low safety in the 1st slide. Distributions of local factor of safety roughly indicate the position of higher potential of sliding and stress circles at elements along the failure plane suggest different patterns of failure. Table 2. some useful suggestions were supplied in this paper on the stability evaluation of sliding along a thin weak mudstone deposit.J. running along straight surface of the mudstone layer.61 1. and that at No. Figure 7. which are supposed reasonable to interpret sliding failure observed in the field. Stress change before and after excavation 248 .
Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. Rotterdam. limit equilibrium methods are popular and generally used. These methods do not consider whether the slope is an embankment or natural slope or an excavation and ignore the effect of incremental construction. Lo and Lee (1 973) analysed the behaviour of slope of a strain softening material. The actual normal stresses and shear stresses are determined from finite difference formulation using FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continuaa) with MohrCoulomb model.L. owing to their simplicity in formulation and in evaluating the overall factor of safety of slope. The actual factor of safety is obtained by consideration of contours of mobilised shear strains. 1 INTRODUCTION The stability of soil slopes is a common problem in geotechnical engineering and is a topic of considerable interest to engineers as well as researchers. lndian Institute of Science. Yagi. stress strain behavior etc and is likely that these methods predict the stability conservatively. The actual normal stresses and shear stresses are determined from finite difference formulation using FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) with MohrCoulomb model. Of the methods available for the analysis of soil slopes such as limit equilibrium methods. The residual factor based 249 . Bijoy Department of C v l Engineering. Limit equilibrium methods. In the work reported in this paper. It is shown that actual factor of safety is higher than Bishop’s factor of safety depending on slope angle and Lc+. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Appraisal of Bishop’s method of slope stability analysis G. In many situations. stress strain behavior etc. it is often advantageous to know the margin of safety so that this information could be used in the event of additional stability measures. a comparative study of actual state of stress and actual factor of safety and Bishop’s factor of safety is performed. India ii ABSTRACT: The stability of slopes is a major problem in geotechnical engineering. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Duncan and Dunlop (1969) superimposed upon the finite element configuration of slope. more popularly Bishop’s simplified method provides a simple means of evaluating the likelihood of failure in many types of soils. From finite element solutions. The ratio was taken as the factor of safety against failure. The actual factor of safety is obtained by consideration of contours of mobilised shear strains. initial stress. The comparative study is performed in terms of parameter Ac+ (= yH tan@).Slope Stability Engineering. Using Bishop’s method of slices. initial stress. limit analysis and numerical methods such as FEM and FDM. the mobilised shear strength along the failure surface was averaged and compared with the assigned value. In the work reported in this paper. However limit equilibrium methods possess certain disadvantages.Sivakumar Babu & A. Bangalore. the critical slip surfaces of a number of soil slopes with different geometries are determined and both the factors of safety are obtained. Using Bishop’s method of slices. the critical slip surfaces of a number of soil slopes with different geometries are determined and both the factors of safety are obtained.C. They do not consider whether the slope is an embankment or natural slope or an excavation and ignore the effect of incremental construction. the critical circular slip surface from which the limit equilibrium solution was evaluated. Their results exceeded those of limit equilibrium by more than 20 % for a homogeneous and normally consolidated slope. a comparative study of actual state of stress and actual factor of safety and Bishop’s factor of safety is performed.
according to linear elastic theory. Deschamps and Leonards. Incremental construction with 12 lifts is considered for each slope. The maximum levels of strain are at the toe and decrease towards top and variations in strain levels are due to the overburden at different levels and hence the above assumption is considered to be in order. A comparative study of average values of factor of safety was made and it was shown that the values calculated from line of safety stress distributions were marginally higher. Wright et a1 (1973) made a detailed study of these factors and examined the variations of normal stress and factors of safety along the potential failure surface as well as the overall factor of safety using finite element method. 1 (b) Distribution of resultant displacements in the soil slope . Duncan and Dunlop.1 (a)shows a typical actual failure surface as defined by strain contours and Bishop’s critical slip surface. Their results show that the limit equilibrium solutions overestimated the actual factor of safety when peak strength was used and underestimated when the residual strength was considered. 1(a)Typical actual failure surface as defined by strain contours and Bishop’s critical slip surface Fig. 1(a)). Fig. varying from 0 to 4. 1 (b) shows the distribution of resultant displacements that are essentially along the actual failure surface.5 % depending on the value of parameter hc. Lo and Lee. comprising a slip surface with two planar segments and one interslice plane and determined the bounds of all possible solutions satisfying equilibrium and limiting shear strength and showed that these bounds were greater than those determined from conventional limit equilibrium analysis. which can be considered as the actual potential failure surface. 3 ACTUAL FACTOR OF SAFETY Slopes on account of their geometry have induced shear strains and the corresponding shear stress within the soil mass on account of self weight. 1969. It was observed that variations were small. These contours define a locus of points. 1973. The contours of the shear strain define a continuous band of strain concentrations within the zone of overstress. In order to calculate the stresses and strains in slopes. Fig. Bishop’s modified method is carried out in the following manner. Deschamps and Leonards (1992) carried out a detailed study of slope stability analysis considering a simple wedge problem.on Skempton’s concept was calculated. The distribution of normal stresses by both the Bishop’s simplified method and finite element calculations assuming linear elastic for the material of the slope were determined. Fig.+(= yH tan$/c). 1973. finite difference scheme using FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continuaa) is employed and MohrCoulomb model is adopted for modeling material behavior. Limit equilibrium methods have certain disadvantages (Wright et al. a) the nature of arbitrary assumptions employed with regard to the determination of normal stresses and shear stresses which are determined without due consideration to the stress strain characteristics of soils and b) the factors of safety being one and the same for all slices. the strains are 250 comparatively smaller (Fig. Variation of local factors of safety along the potential failure surface assumed by the Bishop’s method were studied and noted that along onethird to onehalf of potential surface length. In this paper. The soil parameters considered are treated as effective and hence results are applicable to end of construction as well as long term stability of slope. the factors of safety calculated were less than the average values for the slope. 1992) such as. Out side this zone. calculation of actual factor of safety and its comparison with the limit equilibrium methods particularly.
4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS Fig. 4 is the angle of internal friction and c is the cohesion. (1: 1 slope of 6 m height with c = 10 kN/m’ Results clearly show that the actual factors of safety and 4 = 37’ and Yb. failure surfaces( 1: 1 slope of 6 m height with c = 10 kN/m2.2(b) Variation of shear strength along failure surfaces. Factors of safety obtained by Bishop’s method and factor of safety along the Bishop’s failure surface are given for comparison.2(c) shows the variation of local factor of safety along the slip surface for 1:l slope of 6 m height with c = 10 kN/m2 and @ = 37’ and bulk density of 18 kN/m’. $ = 37’ and yb .:!(c) Variation of local factor of safety along shear strain and Bishop’s failure surface respectively. It can be observed that local factors of safety calculated along the Bishop’s failure surface and the surface defined by maximum shear strain are marginally different. As indicated earlier. shear strength and Fig. Figs. The letters ‘a‘ and ‘b‘ in figures denote the slip surfaces as per maximum Fig. surfaces. The results are examined in terms of a dimensionless parameter Ac$ (= yH tan4/c). are more than Bishop’s factor of safety varying from 10 to 48 % depending on the slope angle and LC$ Horizontal distance from the toe along the slip surface in m Fig. 3 and 4 shows the variation Horizontal distance from the toe along the slip surface in r~ of factors of safety with Fig.:! (a) and 2(b) show the variation of shear stress. Wright et a1 (1973) also used the above parameter for slope stability analysis. where y is the unit weight. 3 and Fig. The correspooding Bishop’s factor of safety is 1. It can also be observed that at the toe. The average factors of safety are also given for comparison.4 present Fig.76 and is less‘rhan the actual factor of safety. .2(a) Variation of shear stress along failure results for I : 1 (V:H) and 1. for I : 1 slope 251 . local factors of safety are less than the average values of actual factor of safety. Fig. The letter ‘c’ denotes the Bishop’s factor of safety and is determined from conventional slope stability program. 18 kN/m3).5:1 slopes respectively. H is the height of the slope. 18 kN/m3). The above approach is extended to a number of soil slopes of different heights and slope angles and actual and Bishop’s factors of safety are determined.3 Variation of actual factor of safety with A.
2. 10.M. 252 . and G. N0.J. Seed and R. F. L.467492.W.B. and P. Stability and performance of slopes and embankments . REFERENCES Deschmaps. It is shown that the actual factors of slopes are more than Bishop’s factors of safety to the extent of 10 to 48% depending on the slope angle and kC+. Geotechnique. Leonards (1992).Y. and Duncan.. Lo. 23 (I).4 Variation of actual factor of safety with XC$ for 1S:l slope 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS In this paper.A. Accuracy of equilibrium slope stability analysis. No. 11 1. a critical examination of actual factors of safety in slope stability analysis is undertaken. R. Lee (1973). ASCE 5. A study of slope stability analysis.11.F. Vol.783791. Dunlop (1969). R. JI. Duncan. (1973). Geotech STP: 3I(Eds. and C. Of SMFE. 99.H. Boulanger) 267291. Journal of SMFE. J.l. Stress analysis and slope stability in strain softening materials. Vol. An approach to evaluate the actual factor of safety in terms of shear strains for soil slopes is suggested. Wright S. Kulhawy. M. J.Fig. Slopes in Stiff figured clays and shales.G.
We use the convention that quantities written to the right of the vertical bar " 1 " are considered as constant given parameters. ISBN 90 5809 0795 A convenient alternative representation of Taylor's stability chart R. without iterations. Yamagami & Jiang (c) 1999 Balkema. The functions SN[P ($rnJ are obtained by specifying the general two dimensional function SN[P. the parameter h and the slope inclination $ are the two independent parameters. Yagi. However.Tanaka Kobe University. In this representation. Alternatively. The logspiral assumption can be justified on the basis of the upper bound theorem of plasticity.e. It is believed that the new stability chart provides a convenient tool for practical slope stability calculation using Taylor's approach. 2. using a variational approach. as noticed by Taylor himself. P } are the slope's height and inclination respectively. Rotterdam. each one of which corresponds to a different constant value of the mobilized friction angle. for all practical purposes the results shown in Fig. Taylor's results have rigorous theoretical support and it is expected that his chart will continue to be used extensively in practical applications. it can be shown that slip surfaces yielding the minimal safety factors are log spirals in homogeneous problems. 1 as the Taylor's stability chart (the angles along the right vertical coordinates in this figure are the given values . The key to this representation is the use of a nondimensional parameter h = c/(y H tan$ ) which represents essentially the ratio of cohesive to frictional forces. i. The stability chart shown in this figure was obtained by Baker (198 l). This presentation makes it necessary to use iterations in order to calculate a safety factor for a given slope. Chen and Liu (1990). 1 are the same as those obtained by Taylor. and we will refer to Fig. results obtained on this basis are practically identical with results based on the assumption that slip surfaces are logspirals. INTRODUCTION Taylor's stability chart. @ } are the MohrCoulomb strength parameters cohesion and angle of internal friction. however. Taylor's original derivation was based on a modification of the friction circle assumption. J q a n ABSTRACT': The evaluation of slope stability using a notion of safety factor with respect to strength usually requires iteration as long as the strength envelope is defined by more than one strength parameter.(c.Isruel Y. it is possible to construct a design chart resulting with a safety factor with respect to strength. TAYLOR'S STABILITY CHART Taylor's stability chart is a set of functions : SN = SN [P I@ rnl where S N = C and d. y is the unit weight. @m] to a constant value of $rn. strictly speaking this figure is not Taylor's chart). This assumption can not be justified rigorously. 1. Practically performing this type of iterations using Taylor's stability chart is time consuming and not convenient. 1. particularly in the range of small slope inclination where the stability number varies considerably with the friction angle. F is the safety factor with respect to shear strength.e. is still the main tool for analyzing homogeneous slope stability problems. Baker Technionlsruel Institute of Technology.. Taylor presented his result in terms of mobilized friction angles. SN[f31@. In the present work we derive an alternative representation of Taylor's results in which safety factors can be established directly. Taylor (1937). Use of Taylor's stability chart provides a classical example of this situation.] are shown in Fig. The widespread use of Taylor's results is expected to make such a representation a useful designaid.Slope Stability Engineering. Baker and Garber (1 978) and Baker (1 98 1). Utilizing the information in Taylor's stability chart. and {H.= tan' Y HF are the stability number and a mobilized friction angle respectively. Consequently.] is a system of functions depending on p. and it represents results for logspiral slip surfaces (i.ffctifu. which avoids the need for iteration. The functions SN[P I@.
it can have any value in the range 0 5(9m 590". TRANSFORMATIONS OF TAYLOR'S REPRESENTATION For the present purpose it is convenient to "invert" Taylor's stability chart.5". and define the nondimensional uarameter h as: [vm Physically h represents the ratio of cohesive to 254 . q m }. The utility of the present classification is related to the fact that the functions SN [p $].. It is noted that the small (but nonzero) compressibility of water implies that even for undrained conditions (9m is not identically zero.e. and critical slip surfaces associated with ( 9 m = 1" have a finite depth. SN = 0). {8=52... however (9.. and in that case the definition of the mobilized friction angle implies that the safety factor is given by F = tan[@]/tan[p]. S N ~ 0 .Figure 1.. where of functions tan 4 vm= tan[4. 4. Taylor's classification is related to the depth of the lowest point on the slip surface. Consider any one of the functions SN [ q m I@] shown in Fig. and the dashed line AB in this figure is the boundary between deep and shallow solutions in the "coordinates" (SN. Consequently SN = 0 can be realized only in cohesionless materials. (9m] is defined only for p ~(9. 1 represent situations is which the critical conditions are realized for infinitely deep slip surfaces. The two dimensional function SN[p. Taylor's stability chart is consistent with the result usually obtained on the basis of the infinite slope approximation in cohesionless material. critical slip surfaces have finite depth for all finite values of @. 2. it is clear that the only physically significant case in which SN can be equal to zero is if the cohesion c is equal to zero. Taylor postulated a rigid bedrock at some finite depth Df. and it satisfies the limiting relation SN[p I(9 . and the slope's inclination does not affect the stability number if the slope inclination is less then approximately 52. 3. In order to eliminate this obviously unreasonable result. Baker (1981) has shown that infinitely deep critical slip surfaces occur only if (9m is identically equal to zero. for c = 0. Considering the definition of Taylor's stability number. 2. The dashed line CF in Fig 1 represents the boundary between situations in which the critical condition are associate with 'khallow" slip surfaces passing through the toe of the slope (the region CDEFC). representing it as a system SN = SN[vm IS]. In such situations the height of the slope is negligible compared with the depth of the slip surface. Consequently. while the present classification is related to the location of the starting point of the slip surface. 5 . (9m=O. = 0 the horizontal line BC in Fig.. I have a slope discontinuity along this boundary (see Fig 1). P 0 is not physically significant. Ta'ylor have shown that for (9. and incorporated the effect of Df in his stability chart. In the present work we choose to consider the completely homogeneous case which does not include the effect of Df. ?r] Figure 2. 1 8 )and { f ~ ( 9 ~ = 1 0 " .5'..2.). (i. Figure 1 shows that SN depends on ((9m = l".] = 0. It is noted that the present definition of shallow and deep solutions differs from the one employed by Taylor. and situation in which the critical conditions are realized on "deep" slip surfaces passing below the toe (the region ABCFA). The functions SN I@] The "concentration point" A in Fig 2 corresponds to the horizontal line BC of Fig 1. The end points C and F of this boundary occur at (approximately). Taylor' s Stability Chart It is instructive to note the following features of Figure 1: 1. (9 values larger then approximately 50" are obviously not realistic. Point E corresponds to the limiting situation in which $ = Qm= 90" and SN = 0. and the "singularity" associated with (9. depends also on F and if F < 1.1= as shown in Fig.
. [A. q)m>as shown in Fig. l). The definition of h implies that SN h q.frictional forces. 4. and it is possible to define a function GI [A. The stability chart G [ hI p] 255 .p] as = Figure 3.= q.and SN = SN [v. The basic transformation The value of h does not depend on F (Eqn.lp] can be obtained by solving the nonlinear equation SN [ q m l B ] = A q m . p} the intersection point A between the functions SN = h q. 3.. Inspection of Fig 3 shows that for each pair ( h.. this relation plots as a straight line and through the origin in the coordinates (SN.. Solving this equation yields qy... and Figure 4.
2) shows that that c = 0 implies h=O. The representation in Figs.1 1. Introducing this result into the definition of G1 [A. f3=90"] = 0).f3] is not defined). Eqn. with an inclination of 1 to 4 (f314").11. Steep slopes 256 . The main advantage of the representation shown in Figs. For the present purpose the important point is that there is no need to use Figs. and in the following section we discuss various features of those figures. It is noted that this result was obtained directly (i. p=14"] = 0. $=25" and y = 20 kN/m3 (these conditions are typical of many clay embankments of small water reservoirs in Israel). G represents the relative magnitude of safety factors in comparison with the limiting case of a cohesionless slope (subtracting the constant value of 1 from the ratio F [$. and continues to increase with h. b.. c = lOkPa. It is convenient therefore to normalize the functions G I [h I p] with respect to their values at h= 0. when h is small. c] / F [$Ic=O] is not essential. Figure 5.p] start at a large value (l/tan[P] ). and using Eqn.. 4 is not useful when (3=90" ( G [h. Consider the limiting case of c = 0. f3] = 0. For this input information Eqn. the functions G1 [h. 4 is that it allows evaluations of safety factors without the need for iteration. Figures 4 show the functions G [LIB] plotted in two different ranges of h values. In order to illustrate the utility of this figure consider a 10m slope. p=90"] CO for all values of h except h O where G [h=O. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a.knowledge of G1 [A. When G is equal to zero. 2 yields the classical result F = tan[$]/tan[f3] which is known to be valid for the limiting case of c = 0. p] shows that this function satisfies the limiting relation G I [ h=O. 2 results with F = (G+l) tan[$]/tan[p] = 2.replaces the conventional iteration process). while large p values result with small values of G1. The dashed lines OA in Figs. p] = l/tan[p]. and define G [hIj3]as: Figures 4 are the main result of the present work. and in that case the safety factor is given by F = tan[$] / tan[P].B] = F/tan[@]makes it possible to calculate F without iterations (in essence solving the nonlinear equation SN [qmlp] = h q. Figure 3 shows that h = 0 is associated with SN = 0. 4. 4 represent the boundary between deep and shallow failure mechanisms (solution points below those lines correspond to slip surfaces below the toe).e.e. interpolation in the first one of Figs 4 gives G[h=O. Figure 3 shows also that G1 [h I p] = 1/ q m increase monotonically with h.43. The definition of G guaranties that G [h=0. Numbers along the top and right hand side of this figure are slope inclinations f3. 1 gives h = c / (y H tan[$]) = 0. f3] = 0 for all values of (3 (except f3 = 90" where G [h. and it is introduced for plotting convenience only. SN = 0 implies that c is equal to zero.67. The definition of ( (Eqn. 4 in the vicinity of h O = where all the functions G [Alp] merge together. Figs 4 show that G[h=O. = + i. and excluding the limiting case of p=9Oo (which is considered below). and when c is small enough it is possible to calculate the safety factor directly as F = tan[$ ]/tan[ f3]. c. without iterations). Consequently.
Consequently. $. and dry or fully submerged slopes). NO. Limit Analysis in Soil Mechanics (Developments in Geotechnical Engineering Vol . NO. (1978). 6.e. Soils and Foundations. 28. where SN[pI$=O] is ihe limiting line ABCD in Taylor's stability chart (Fig. Figure 5 makes it possible to evaluate safety factors without iterations in the limiting cases of vertical and nearly vertical slopes. Tokyo. Stability of earth slopes. Taylor D. No. Consider the limiting case of $=O. tension cracks and stability of slopes. 21. 5 and 6 contain the same physical information as the classical stability chart of Taylor (Fig. p. 117. Jour. constant strength parameters.90" when the analysis should be done in terms of the functions G. W. pp. it is possible to calculate safety factors for all input variables {c. 3. 03. p] given in Fig. y H} without the need for iterations. XXIV. (198 l). 197246. Vol. and Liu X. Baker R. Chen W. Vol. which is associated with h. 2. so using the approximation G [LIP]= a[P] h (which is valid only for large values of A. It can be verified that in general G [ h l p ] a[P] ~ h. The validity of this result is illustrated by the dotted lines in Fig.Figure 6. and Garber M. (1937 ). of Civil Eng. the results presented in those figures suffer from the same limitations as the original presentation of Taylor (i. 39541 1. (1990). of Boston Soc. Figures 4 and 6 make it possible to evaluate G [h. Theoretical analysis of the stability of slopes. 4. Vol. Figure 6 illustrates behavior of the functions G [Alp] h is large. It can be shown that = ( REFERENCES Baker R. no external loads.L. d. 4. Limiting behavior of G[h I p] when h is large Therefore in this particular case it is convenient to present results in terms of the functions G I [Alp] 3 F / tan[@]as shown in Fig. 257 . 5). pp. [A. Geotechnique. l). p) (except p. As a result. NewYork. 1). way. expressed in a different (hopefully more convenient). results ) with a conservative estimate of safety factors. Elsevier Oxford. showing that for such conditions G [hip] a[P] h.F. p] for all pairs {A. 52). pp. Tensile strength. 5. It is noted that the presentations in Figs.
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One failing of the LEmethods is the fact that displacements in a slope are not considered. the FEmethod has been used since 1970. LY. The FEmethod has been used. This result shows that stressstrain curves influence the safety factor of a slope even if soils have the same strength. (1936) presented the original limit equilibrium method (LEM) for slope stability analysis which. however. Neutral porewater pressure due to seepage flow. Mochizulu & J. Rotterdam. Following this. Yamagami & Jiang 6 1999 Balkema. (1986) presented the Advanced LEmethod and Modified Janbu method. interslice forces acting on slices of potential slip surface and safety factors arc evaluated using the FEmethod and LEmethods. As an alternative technique. today. Yagi. Figure 1 shows interslice forccs acting on a slice in a soil mass on a potential slip surface. Japun M. In this paper. For is seismic force. are regarded as external pressures acting on each surFace of slices in both methods. The force. Penmun et al. included in the quasistatic coefficient method. In the FEmethod three types of stressstrain curves with the same strength were employed in order to investigate the influence on safety factors. a number of studies concerning the FEmethod have been carried out. the FEmethod is yet to be proven for accurate evaluation of the degree of danger of a slope.Slope Stability Engineering. is known as the ‘Swedish method’. These studies were discussed in J. At present. 2 INTRODUCTION OF TWO NEW LEMETHODS AND COMPARSION OF RESULTS 2. (1973) employed the FEmethod successfully to evaluate the displacements in dams. With regard to assessing potential danger of a slope using the FEmethod. or consolidation etc. water table. however. In thiy paper. It is found that the safety factors obtained using the FEmethod are in a range between values obtained from the Bishop method and Modified Janbu method. Ugai (1993. this method has not been proven to be a reliable method for evaluating the degree of dangcr of a slope. U n i l v i \it\ of rokushinin. Recently. which are obtained from the LEmethods including two new methods presented by the authors. several methods based on the limit equilibrium of forces have been developed. modeling the stresses and strains that dcveIop within a slope has been an important area of research in civil engineering.~. Following this. the safety factor and interslice forces of a slope. are compared to those obtained from the FEmethod. 1995) presented results showing that the safety factors obtained using 2D and 3D FEM were almost the same as those of thc Swedish method in 2D and 3D systems respectively. 1 INTRODUCTION Fellenius et al..Xiong nepurb?ient of Cilil Engineering. 259 Up to the present. acting in a normal direction to a potential slip surface is assumed to be acting at point m. In a number of situations it is necessary to assess potential danger of slope failure based on each stage of slope deformation from stable to unstable states. ISBN 905809 0795 I Influence of stressstrain curves on safety factors and interslice forces in FEM A. Duncan’s paper (1996) entitled ‘State of Art: Limit equilibrium and finiteelement analysis of slope’. M. Distributions of interslice forces and normal forces obtained using the FEmethod are similar to those obtained using the LEmethods. a lateral seismic coefficient. where the vertical line from the center of gravity of a slice crosses the potential slip surface. the M&Pmethod is regarded as being the most reliable. Both methods are able to provide accurate results with less computation than the M&P method. Mikasa Soil nrid Foumlotion Engineering Centei J q m i ~ ABSTRACT: The use of Limit equilibrium methods (LEmethods) over the past sixty years has proven them to be reliable for evaluating potential danger of a slope. Mochizuki et al. N. The Modified Janbu method (referred to in this paper as the MJmethod) employs formulas for the .1 The Modified Janbu method arid Advanced LEmethod.
it follows that Momentum equilibrium of forces around point m will give Eq. D = AV(l h. and D in Eq. The safety factor using the Advanced LEmethod (referred to as the ALEmethod) can also be obtained by solving Eq.K. Here it is assumed that the direction of “total surplus thrust force. (31) coincides with the assumed FJ on the righthand side of Eq. This has the same magnitude as the sliding force with an inverse sign.M h . By considering equilibrium of €orces in directions parallel and normal to the potential slip surface. Smooth transference of surplus thrust forces was assumed for each slice in the ALEmethod. Sfrepresents the potential resistance force and T represents mobilized shear force on the slip surface. ) tan (4) Here. and calculated using Eq. (6). )/b . totul surplus thrust force is a vector composed of AV and A H . and degree of redundancy for each LEmethod.E: water force due to water pressure h.s.w[h.W . . Taking ZH=O into consideration for all slices. on a slice surface coincides with that of the thrust line. (9) can be obtained following the conditions of Eq.is defined by Eq.safety factor of a slope from equilibrium of interslice forces for both horizontal and vertical directions in addition to momentum equilibrium of the forces at point tn. Eq. 1.2 Comparison of solutions obtuined using LEmethods Table 1 presents known and unknown conditions.  (31) (32) 2. Thus.AV U coscr ) tan 4 M= ~J(cos2a+sincrcosatan4/Ij.l Forces acting on a slice The safety factor of a slice is defined by Eq.H E / . (4) is neglected as in Janbu’s guide in his original method.z[( AE+K~~W)COS A I/)sin a ] a +(WA=C [cb+(WAVUcosa)tan@] [cosa + sin a tan $ / F . assumed. = H tan P. (3)./b < tanaj+D <)+ M(< cx . (3) can be presented as follows: F.N Fig. rather than assuming V/H= 2 f(x) (Morgenstern and Price. i l : distance to the action point of U. (6) denote slice number. though the angle in the MJmethod is defined as the angle from the horizontal.hl: height of the action point of E.tan a ] /b+(lc)tana]+U(c E)/cosa ~. A H : interslice forces U. (5) is 260 . 1965). The suffix of symbols in Eq. instead of using Eq. 3. (lO)./3 (51 Boundary conditions at both ends of a potential slip surface are shown in Eq. F. . (32) under the conditions presented in Eq. . As the Infinite Slope method is the only one”’ with a statistically determinable system. Here. Referring symbols are shown in Fig.h.1) is assumed to be 1/3 of a slice height in the MJmethod. (5). (2) is obtained: cb + (W . Height of the thrust line (h. (8). Eq. / b + E[(h. a safety factor of a potential slip surface can be obtained when F .M . as shown in Fig.tan p.(W . in Fig. (4) with respect to V when Eq.j Eq. (1).=h. The derivation process of the MJmethod is basically the same as that of the Generalized Janbu method (Janbu 1973). (7).=A/. on the lefthand side of Eq. (6): (l A V H . ‘I Here. ] The angle B.AV)tancx () 2 Differentials of interslice forces A H and AV in the above equation are shown in Fig 1.
. Formula of safety factor ( I ) F=MR/MD (2) F=S/T 1 ( 3 ) Fl=I. obtained using the LEmethods wcre compared to those obtained from the ALEmethod in the bottom line of the table. can be replaced with appropriate fiinctions. The safety factor obtained using the Swedish method has the smallest value. Safety factor (1) F 1. is not a condition s h o w n in the table. the Swedish method tends to estimate smaller normal forces for steep slopes. Equilibrium of inter slice force (1) 2 AH=O 1 (2) 2 AV=O 1 3. Forcc acting on slice (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 n n n n n i i n n n n n n n1 n1 _ I N T v H (5) AV (6) AH (7) h. that of the M&Pmethod with a similar thrust line of slice forces (see Fig. Equilibrium of slice . Table 1 knownunknow conditions and degree of redundancy of the LEmethods stabil~ty computation InsliSwedishl Blshop . 26 1 . which results in a low safety factor. 2 Solution by the M&P method Table 3 shows safety factors of the slip surface from the LEmethods.. 6n 6 n . They also have the same number of known conditions. Vn+l=KI 2 GJ MBP MJ ALI NC NC n n n 2 2 2 I NC NC n n n 2 2 2 n 2 2 2 w n 2 2 2  3.3 shows the same solutions obtained using the ALEmethod and MJmethod. T h i s enablcs problems of the slope to be treated in a morc gciieralizcd manner. thrust liiic etc. The degree of redundancy coincides with numbers of assumed conditions. including those of the two new methods. slip surfacc. The M&Pmethod provides a safety factor that has a range between the value calculated using the Bishop method and that of the ALEmethod. 2 2 (1) Vi. Figure 2 shows the differences of thrust lines and safety factors by varyingf(x) and /1 in the M&Pmethod obtained by Whitman (1967). Computations by the Bishop method.1 n n1 n NC.. (1967) reported that the Bishop method is subject to errors of 7% or less compared with the M&Pmethod.Total strcngth (1) s 5. the ALEmethod provides almost the same solution as that of other methods.hape~tslipsurlace P C C number oi slice I n n known concls. Total equilibrium (I) H=O (2) v=o (3) M=O 3 . 'This point. . The obtained safety factor is almost the same as. T '''2:One of the features of the M&Pmethod is that slope shape. the MJmethod. . it can be said that all these analysis methods are based on the same fundamental principle. result in a value of the safety €actor between those given by the Swedish method and the MJmethod. Taking the above into account. which assumes that A V d . with the exception of a condition of 2 A H =O in the M&Pmethod. Force acts on slice n n 1 (1) 2.. however. Due to the assumption that V=O and H=O.ccrtain assumptions must be introduced in the other methods. Bishop noted that the safety factor given by his simplified method was about 5% less than that from his rigorous method (Bishop. Table 2 presents assumptions introduced into each method. cricular n n1 n1 n1 5n . The ratios of the safety factors :*1: h e Wedge method is also statistically determinable. '1)horizontal direction )r slip surface direction 1 '2)vertical direction or iorrnal to the slip surface lirection 1  6n n 5111 n 11 n n n n n n n1 n1 n1 n1 'n3) 7111I 7111 7nI n n n n n n Fig. o sedundancy f 5. '3) moment 7. It should be noted that the Generalized Janbu method. the M&Pmethod'r2 and the ALEmethod have the same number of unknown conditions. 1955).= . Judging from the rate of F/F. 2 (1) and (2)). Boundary conds. 1. in the table. noncricular n1 6n ni n1 6n n1 The safety factors given by the Swedish method and the Bishop inethod were 12% and 6% lower respectively than those given by the ALEmethod. Fig. Whitman et al.ootalof formulas 6 Iegreeofwdundancy 0 nsl infinite slope P: plane  n  n n n  1  (1) n I  n 3i1+1 2n2 C. ?umberof unknowns 6 ond. or slightly larger than.=F.. Strcngth formula (1) Coulomb formula 1 10. The Swedish method is thought to have a comparatively large crror in the safety factor because some interslice forces are neglected in the formulas.
4.54 0. instead of using a LEmethod.9 Fig4 Stressstain curves for Casel.66 0. E.0 t/m‘ (=19.044 kgf/cm2(=4.Fig..94 F. met hod Case c. (kgf/cm’)* N Rf c=0. The potential resistance force on slip surface Sf is a On €unction of o.421 0.l).531./3 4dvanced Limit circular & Equilibrium noncircular V/ H=tan /3 Modified Janbu I n.0 F. The slopc was meshed by 222 isoparametric elements with 250 nodes.63  FMKP 1.8 0. c and d. rigidity Go. Table 4 shows model parameters for thrce cases of different stressstrain curves with the same strength parameters. is E / 2 ( 1 i’ ? I ) . Eq. F.000 0..8 0. (13) shows the definition of the safety factor used in the FEmethod (see Fig.420 0. 1. 1 2 3 3 RESULTS FROM THE FEMETHOD COMPARED WITH SOLUTIONS OF LEMETHODS In slope stability analysis the basic process involves evaluation of T and o N(or N in Fig.43 0. ci. (11) and (12). respectively (see Fig.4 is used.2 and 3 262 . Stressstrain curves represented by the parameters in Table 4 are shown in Fig. 1. The same slope as shown in Fig. 1.. For simplicity. a Poison’s ratio of 0. p. and Rf is a constant for adjusting stressstrain curves of a numerical model to those of test results. In the FEmethod a hyperbolatype model was adopted for describing the stressstrain relationship of soil. 2 was adopted in the analysis. Elastic moduli in the model are defined by Eqs.63 1.941..1). 3 Distribution of surplus thrust forces and interslice forces Table 2 Assumptions used in the LEmethods method Swedish shape of slip circular assuming v=o H=O number of assumptior n1 n1 total 2n2 Bishop Original Janbu M&P circular V=O circular & assumed noncircular relevant ht circular & V= f(x)H: noncircular n1 of f(x) total n n1 n1 1 n n1 circular & noncircular h... 0 =32‘ 2. the FEmethod is considered to be valid for evaluating T and oN.3kPa).421 0. F 1.6kN/m’) 21 9 500 3.1 Table 3 Safety factors obtained using the LEmethods F. assuming only volume shrinkage during shearing. 5)..88 FE. which are mobilized shear forces acting on a potential slip surface and normal stresses. Case 1 and 3 havc the smallest and thc largest slope stressstrain curves respectively.02 Here. this basis.=h.
in Casel.54 0. Fig. which coincides with that of the Bishop method.7 Interslice force obtained using the FEmethod Fig. It is shown that the safety factors differ due to the difference of stressstrain curves. the safety factors have the largest value at the toe of a slope and reduce further away from the toe. 5 The definition of safety factor Fig. Case I?.63 1. solutions of Case 2 and 3 show some differences from those of the LEmethods. Ratios of FFE/FA shown in the bottom line of the table.. 1 1.6 Safety factor distributions obtained using the FEmethod Next. Results from the ALEmethod are also are shown in the table. the value of the safety factor is greatest near the top of the slope. (1) for each slice. with the gentlest slope of the initial stressstrain curve.64 1. In Case 2 and 3. interslice forces H and V and their differentials AH and A Vobtained using the FE263 method were compared with those of the LEmethods (Figs.8 Interslice forces obtained using the LEmethods Fig.0 Fig. However. Case 1. r F. 6 shows the distributions of safety factors that are defined by Eq.94 2 1. 7 and 8).JF.Table 5 presents safety factors obtained using the FEmethod. showing a feature of progressive failure of the slope. showing almost the equivalent safety factor as that of the ALEmethod. It is . gives the smallest safety factor. In the solution of Case 1. interslice forces and their differentials show similar distributions to those obtained from the LEmethods. The greatest safety factor is given by Case 3.63 1.01 F. 1.0 3 1. However.
J. Poulos.(1955). pp. (2) The FEmethod was employed for evaluating stresses and safety factors under conditions of soils having the same shear strength but different stressstrain curves. 122. N. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. ASCE. pp.W.7. showing larger values than those obtained from the LEmethods. who is master student of civil engineering in Tokushima University. ASCE. CONCLUSIONS (1) The condition. July. the FEmethod gives safety factor valves in a range bctween those of the Bishop method and ALEmethod.. The 28th Japan national conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering. Slope Stability Computations. No. Vo1. Analyses of 3dimensional slope failurc by FEM and the column method. G. Comparison of the safety factors provided by the LEmethods was shown in Table 3. Duncan.445462.. REFERENCES: Fellenius. 12(4).V. The stresses near the toe are obviously greater than [hose obtained from the LEmethods. pp. the safety factors of slices differ from each other. Penman.139163. Figure 9 shows a comparison of distributions of normal stress o N(=N/AZ) on the slip surface with those of the LEmethods. R. However. K. R. Vol. and Charles. pp. Hagiwara. pp.Vol. pp. Threedimensional limit equilibrium and finite element analyses: a comparison of results. R. Constructional deformations in rockfill dam. (1073). (3) Interslice forces H and V and their differentials AH and A V obtained from the FEmethod showed similar distributions as those of the LEmethods. Calculation of the Slability of Earth Darns. Soils and Found. (1 9 6 3 .9 Comparison of 0 obtained using the FEmethod and the LEmethods 4. Vol. 21452148. G. and D..5. Effect of Tension on Stability of Embankments. The present paper has shown that the FEmethod is also practical for assessing the potential danger of slopes. The Use of the Slip Circle in the Stability Analysis of Slopes. H. (1936). '3: In the LEmethods. It should be noted that the safety factors depended on stressstrain curves of soils. 117. The Analysis of the Stability of General Slip Surface. (199S). (1968).E. ASCE. K.. while in FEmethod. (1967). M. Journal of geotechnical engineering. and Price. V. pp.475498. 15. A. J. (1986). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors would like to express their gratitude to Hirofumi Yumioka. the solution is obtained assuming the safety factors of slices arc all the samc. J. Div. pp. H. A. Siinplified calculation of embankment deformations. Janbu. equilibrium equations and degree of redundancy made in LEmethods including two new methods were clarified in Table 1 and 2. Leshchinsky. and T. SM4. pp.. No. The n. N. Booker. (1903). Mochizuki. 1996. 'Tokyo..4. and Ring. Whitman. Kobe. calculated using the FEmethod is more scattered. Bishop.Ida. EmbankmentDam Engineering. pp. The safety factors presented by the FEmethod were in a range between those of the Bishop method and ALEmethod (about the same as the Modified Janbu method). Soil Mech and Found. M.7993. Ugai. Distributions of small magnitude of +H in Case 2 and 3 is also one of the features of the FEmethod. (1996). W. State of art: limit equilibrium and finiteelement analysis of slopes. then values of +H and I/ will not yield in the slice near the top of the slope. ASCE.35. W.799. 99(2). Mikasa.supposed that the tension zone of the potential slip surface in Case 1 would yield.717 Morgenstern. J. 370. and Bailey. IU5. A. John Wiley & Sons. E. No. Spencer. (1972). for his help with the analysis. 17. Two New Slice Mcthods for Slope Stabillity Analysis. 577596. Geotechnique. (1973). A. SM5. In Case 2 and 3 the potential slip surface will move as a soil mass. 261270.4786.A. pp. Soils and Found. Second Congress on Large Dams. Fig. pp. Ugai. Use of Computers for Slope Stability Analysis. Geotechnique.. 264 .11591173. No.
The nodal displacements. be as inscnsitive as possiblc. I n this casc. 1 INTRODUCTION Thcrc arc many circumstances in natural slopcs. Existing rncthods of slope stability analysis using sliccs (Bishop 1955. by introducing a factor of safety betwecn thc two forces.Terado . therefore. the dispIa~mcnt magnitudes diffcr grcatly from thc convcntional onc. Normally. which arc bascd on thc mcthod of wcrc obscrvcd: 1) whcn thc slopc docs not fail. Sincc no stress analysis is pcrformcd for thc lower stable formation (bclow thc failcd mass) of thc slopc. such discontinuity is takcn carc of by introducing joint clcmcnt in such boundarics. fliayamizu . . Since varictics of conditions can be imposcd. H o u w w . Also.Yamazak_l. ~ Terado ct. most of them rcndcr a statically i n d e t c ~ i n a t e Thereforc. Tokyo. dcpcnding on thc reasonableness of the imparted conditions. hcncc. finitc elemcnt formulation is incorporatcd in the existing mcthod of slopc stability analysis using sliccs and a new numerical method is devised. Thus. The shear force acting along the slopc and the normal force acting at right anglc to the slope are considcred as thc nodal forces. it was considcrcd that thc nodal displaccmcnts develop along the sliding surface. in this mcthod. Such analysis should.uNutiorzal College of Technology. In this research. sliccs. In othcr words thc slicc or thc portion of thc split slicc is considercd as a planar elcmcnt of a finitc clcmcnt assembly. the shear force and the normal forcc acting on the slopc arc considcrcd a s the nodal forces on an element. and hcncc a uniquc solution can bc obtained. to 'a priori' conditions.Slope Stability Engineering. in order to obtain a unique solution it is ncccssary to introducc an additional condition.Technology Section. It is also possiblc to improvc the accuracy of thc rcsults by making the sizc of thc planar clement smallcr.M & u . In addition duc to thc abscncc o f any additional conditions a 265 statically dctcrminatc systcm. Hazarika Department of Civil Engineering. Rotterdam. Thus. Kojima et. a ncw analysis method is developcd.Kyoto. they naturally satisfy the analysis condition of thc convcntional rncthods of sliccs as well. Yamagami & Jiang (c) 1999Balkema. a1 1998). systcm. concerning the nodal disp~dcements C ~ S C S two the valucs arc closc to those that conventional FEM givcs and 2) whcn therc is a failurc. since the forcc and thc momcnt cicvclopcd in each slice automatically forms thc cquilibrium. it is not ncccssarily that thc problcm of d ~ s c t ~ n t i ~ u displacement can bc gottcn rid o f by ous the usc of joint clement. Tokyo. it is not possiblc to obtain rcliablc rcsults from thc analyses based on the method of sliccs.Japan H. Japan Fottndation Engineering Company Limited. it was assumed that the nodal displacements develop along the sliding surfacc.Japan ABSTRACT: With the aim of developing an analysis method that can give a uniquc solution for slopc stability problcms. dcpcnding on the valucs of the global safcty factor. Japan T. by considering the slices thcmselves or thc portions of the split slices a s planar elements. Yagi. The reason why the mcthod of sliccs rendcrs statically indeterminate system can bc attributed to the fact that only the force and the moment acting on thc slices arc considered with total disregard to the deformation developing in the sliccs. Janbu 1957) arc bascd on the limit equilibrium thcorern.Retired Faculty Chiha Institute of Technology. a1 1997. compacted embankmcnts and excavations where thc civil enginccr must invcstigate the stability of a slope by performing slopc stability analysis. however. so that the MohrCoulomb critcrion is satisfied ( ~ a y a m i1996.Japi~i r~ W. ~ i g h rcl~ablevalues the global factor of safety and thc external nodal forcc could bc o ~ t ~ ~ i from thc ~y of ncd present method of analysis comparcd to the cxisting slope stability analyses. therc may be significant differences in the results. A rclationship is derived. the global factor of safety and other parameters were calculated using the dcvelopcd method. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Slope stability analysis considering the deformation of slices 'r'. since thc forcc in thc nodc acting in thc dircction of thc slopc is d e t e r ~ i n e d thc forcc acting pcrpcndicui~to thc by slope. A relationship is dcrivcd rclating the two forccs so that thc ~ o h r . it is important to handlc thc discontinuous displacement that dcvclops bctwccn thc nodcs o f thc movablc sliccs and thc stablc formation. thc displaccmcnt and thc dcformation of the sliccs arc takcn into considcration. Howcvcr. In the present method.TechrzicdResearch L a ~ o r a t o Japan Foundation Engineering Company Limited. in order to do away with the necessity of additi(~na1 constraints.C o u l o m b critcrion is satisfied. based on the finite element method.
for the sclected problem rcprcsentcd in Figurc 1. 2) should satisfy thc conditions (a) and (b) statcd below. If Kij is the stiffness of each node of the planar element. Pk is the nodal force due to the pore water pressure generated inside the movable slice. and Fs is the global factor of safety. since we have two additional equations (Eqs. @kis the angle of internal friction. Thc external forces. The rcaction forcc Nk acting pcrpendicular to thc slip surfacc and thc shear forcc Tk acting parallcl to thc slip s u r f x c obey thc relationship as in thc cxisting rncthods of slopc stability analysis using mcthod of sliccs. acting at the node k in the x direction and the y direction respectively can be calculated from thc forces Nk and Tk (see Fig. the displacement in the x direction U2kl and the displaccment in thc y direction u2k is rclatcd by the following relationship: u2k = u2kl tanek () 2 Figurc 2. Figure 1 shows a typical finite element discretization for a slopc stability problem using slices. Each slice is again subdivided into planar triangular elements. (b) The forces acting between thc movablc slicc and the stable formation undcrncath act on thc nodc a s external nodal forccs. (l). Displaccmcnts and forccs acting on a typical node Hcrc. F2k1 and F2k. However. if Fi is unknown. (a) Sincc nodal displacement develops along the slip surface. c k is the cohesive force at the node calculated from the distributed cohesion at the slip surface. 2 & 3). Uj is known or the vice versa. Conditions (a) and (b) render four unknowns: U2k1. thcn FE formulation givcs the following relationship between the nodal force Fi and the nodal displacement uj: In Eq. the number of unknowns and the number of equations are equal and hence a unique solution can be obtained. As shown in the figure. FEM discretization of a slope nodal displacement and the nodal forcc of a typical nodc k (Fig.in general. 8k is thc angle of inclination of thc slip surfacc with respect to thc position of thc nodc. the failure mass is broken into a series of vertical sliccs. Tk 2 FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR Here.Figurc 1. 2). U2k. However. Nk and Q. ultimately w e are left with only two unknowns: u2kland Nk. Therefore. thc 266 (4) .
0 kN/m3 Distributcd cohcsion. A movable slice remains stationary unless the slopc fails. (1) thus can be modified as above which yields a unique solution by rcndcring the number of unknowns and the numbcr of cquations equal. For each clement thc following paramctcrs wcrc adopted. transfcrring G2k1 and G2k from the left to the right hand side of the Eq. Thcn. $k = 16. Young's modulus.0 kPa The angle of intcrnal friction. Even though movement occurs in all parts of a movable slicc. 3) of the failed mass was assumed to bc fixed. Thc wholc slopc was dividcd into 10 movable slices. In addition. Thc unknown parts G2k1 and G2k bccomc. which acts as an external forcc o n the rnovablc slice is considered as thc resultant of the forccs Nk and Tk acting betwccn thc movable slicc and the fixed layer underneath. thc nodc at thc lowest part (node 28 in Fig. The known parts arc newly referred as F. thc value of global safety factor Fs should bc obtaincd from thc calculation. hand side of Eq. I n the above derivation.3 NUMERICALPROCEDURE (5) 3. Morc cvcr. Denoting k as the node number of each node of the slip surfacc in the right 2.. The forces F2k1 and F2k can be divided into a known part and an unknpwn part. Thc triangular sliccs were takcn as triangular clcmcnts. Y = 0. and can be written as follows: Numerical calculations wcrc pcrformcd for thc slopc shown in Figure 3. (l). p = 17. and hence a trial and error m e t h d was adopted by rcpcating the calculation using various values of Fs. the nodal displaccmcnt u 2 k . (l). FEM mcsh of thc slopc undcr considcration . thc fifth nodc of the five noded quadrilateral clcmcnt is madc to coincide with the ccntcr of gravity of thc quadrilateral slicc. ( ) the CXpreSSiOn ( K i 2k1 Uzkl+Ki 2 k u2k) bccomcs (Ki2kltKi2ktanC)k)U2k1. (I). thc following condition is introduccd: K i 2 k = 0 for all i . (I).35 Average unit wcight. and rcplacing all U 2 k by Nk. Eq. Thc CxprCSSion (Ki2kl+Ki2ktanOk) is then substituted into Eq. Thus..1 should havc a ncgativc valuc. .2 Method of analysis It is worthwhile mentioning here some of thc important points to be considcred while performing the slope stability analysis using the developed theory. the weight of the planar clcmcnt wk. in ordcr to yield the rcsults to the safe side. the following rclations can bc obtaincd: Eq. and then using Eq. Thc correct valuc of Fs was assumcd as thc onc that is obtaincd whcn the displacement at the bottom nodc (node 28) of thc failed mass becomes equal to zcro. and a finitc clcmcnt asscmbly was formed using each slicc as an clcmcnt. However.3". 3. (1) is modified so that it satisfies the conditions (a) and (b). 267 Figurc 3. the minimum valuc of displacement at cach nodc does not ncccssarily bccomc zcro. Now. Fs appears in many parts of the modified vcrsion of Eq.. c = 12. while thc quadrilateral sliccs wcrc trcatcd as fivc nodcd quadrilatcral elements. since it was assumcd that thc valuc of Tk in Figure 2 is positive.and a new Ki 2k1 is calculated. At that moment. and F. In addition. it represents a condition that is similar to thc forcc boundary condition considcrcd in the convcntional method of sliccs. E = 50 Mpa Poisson's ratio.1 Finite element model Here w k is the force component acting on the node k due to the self weight of the movable slice. Also.
9 3543.02 0.3 14.80 6.7 2527.00 11.4 2582.5 14. In this casc. It can bc sccn that thc trcnd for both thc 268 Figure 4. Considering the pore water.7 3539.0 937.3 263.56 7.84 9.18 15.85 0. It is clcar from thc x and y dircctional displacemcnts that dcpcnding on thc forces Nk and Tk acting bctwccn thc movablc slicc and fixcd formation the magnitudc of thc displaccmcnt varics.00 10.08 for this calculation.04 8.1 Slope without pore water Table 1shows the results of the analysis for the case I where the presence of the pore water in the slope was neglected. 4. Thc negativc valucs of all thc x dircctional displacemcnts imply that thcrc was nothing wrong in the assumption of thc direction of thc forcc Tk.6 3206. practically thc slopc will fail and hcncc thc numcrical valucs shown in Tablc 2 can not bc obtaincd as it is.72 12.01 0.7 1658.00 5 8 1 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23 26 28 124.69 2.97 3.33 10. Variation of the reaction force with displaccmcnt . whcrc thc porc watcr insidc thc elcmcnts is considcrcd.84 4. The corresponding global factor of safety Fs was 1.00 0.00 11 14 17 20 23 26 28 cases is the same and thcrc is a critical point in thc failure surface at which thc rcaction attains thc maximum valuc.45 3.33 1.65 0.8 3208.2 h p e with pore water S Tablc 2 shows thc rcsults for thc Casc 11.24 0.21 0.4 3200.7 1696. For this valuc of Fs. thc cohcsion c and thc friction anglc & wcrc recalculated (dividing cach by thc abovc valuc of Fs) and thc rcsults obtaincd using thcsc ncw valucs arc shown in Tdbk 2.57 0.07 14. forcc.24 5.82 15.97 11. Nodal forcc and displacements for Casc I1 Nodc Reaction Displaccmcnt Displaccrnent Nos.6 2500.72 5.6 3572.5 3527.75 9.13 0.1 2024. In thc abovc calculation using the modificd finitc element formulation. thc global factor of safcty.00 0.67 3.4 RESULTS The numerical analyses were performed for two cases: Case I.5 2564.68 0.02 0.00 0. thc valucs of thc cohcsion and thc friction anglc changc according to thc valucs of thc global factor of safcty uscd.3 241.08 7. Nodal force and displaccments for Casc I Nod e Reaction Displaccmcn t Displaccm cn t Nos. Tablc 1. Tdblc 2.2 3240. Fs is 0.937.74 1.82 1571 13. This rcsults in thc differencc of the magnitudcs of thc displaccmcnt and the external force shown in Tablc 1 and Tablc 2 from thosc given by thc convcntional FEM analysis cvcn whcn the slope is stablc.76 2.30 0.17 0. Nk in x dircction in y dircction (kN/m) (cm) (cm) 1 4.1 2029. Howcvcr. Thc rclation bctwccn thc rcsultant displaccmcnt and the reaction forcc along thc failurc surfiicc is shown in Figurc 4 for thc two casts considcrcd in this rcscarch. Neglecting the pore water and Case 11.8 941. force.72 0. This factor should bc notcd while interpreting thc rcsults. Nk in x direction in y direction (kN/m) (cm> (cm) 2 117.
A ncw analysis mcthod for slope stability evaluation.lupane. However.A. London: 2 : 207212.why arc cnginccrs still drawing circl cs . Janbu.V. Furthermore.0 attention should be paid. 3: 18711872. A. 1997. Finitc clcmcnt slope stability analysis . 3: 17071708. and Griffiths D. Yamazaki. T. Kojima. Slopc stability analysis incorporating slicc ~eformation. no differences of the valucs of the global safety factor and the force developed between the failed mass and the stable formation underneath were found. 1955.. When the global factor of safety is greater than 1. Montrcal.5 CONCLUSIONS This rescarch has established that the use of the Finite Element Method in the slope stability analysis using slices yields a unique global safety factor without imposing any additional conditions. even while using a value of Young's modulus for the elements different from that used in the reported calculations. Y.0.Part If. 5: 717. which was one of the drawbacks of the existing slope stability analysis based on method of slices. Proceeding of the 4th International Conference of Soil ~ ~ c h a ~ and cF~Iundati~>i~ ~i s Engi~~eering~. Tokyo): 54(2): 768 1.~ > c e ~of ~ ~ g33rd ~ the ~ s Annual Coizfirencc of Jupuncse Ck~teclinicul S>ciety. and H..Part 1.~ym~~o. P. Canada: 589593. the results are not much different from the conventional method. as in that case fairly large difference exists between the results obtained and conventional method. REFERENCES Bishop. Hayamizu 1997. P i . the magnitude of displacement showed an inverse relation to the values of the Young modulus. H.siurn erica1 ~ ~ ) d ein ~ s ti~)na on urn l Geomeclzanics. T. Tcrado. Y. Hayarnizu 1998.. Lane. Slopc stability analysis incorporating slice e deformation . N.se Geotechnical Society.1957. Ge~tecIzni~ue. Yamazaki. it is seen that the present method gives more accurate results as comparcd to those from the existing methods of slices.W. Hayamizu. In addition. Earth pressure and bearing capacity calculation by generalized procccturc of sliccs. Proceedings of the Sixtlz ~ ~ ~ t e ~ n a~. ~ ~ ~ ~ 269 . and H.. this has also made clear some points regarding displaccments of the nodes of the movable slices. In Teclznology and Constructiorz: (Rcscarch Report of Japan Foundation Enginccring Co. Ltd. When the global factor of safety is smaller than 1. ~ ~ ~ ) of cthee 32nd ~ ~ Annuul Coizference of .. 1996. Thc use of slip circle in thc stability analysis of earth slopes. Regarding the magnitude of the force that develops between the movable slice and the stable formation.
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1990) . involves determination of the inclination angles of the interslice forces related with a statically indeterminate problem. the results of slope stability analyses are under the influence of the internal angles. Various slice methods have been proposed by Fellenius( 1936).1973) and others. Spencer ( 1967. The bearing capacities whose correct values have already been known. By the way. which are obtained from the stressstrain relation of the soil and the limit equilibrium condition. Bishop( 1954). Yagi. 1 INTRODUCTION The slice method based on the limit equilibrium principle is the most common method for slope stability analysis. However. Therefore. The analysis of these requires other methods. matter of course. Kondo Public Works Department. and an evaluation of this method on typical soil failure problems is discussed. 1986). ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Slope stability analysis using a spring attached to interslice planes K. Results obtained by this method satis@ the force and moment equilibrium conditions on each slice and the whole slope. the MorgensternPrice method (MPM) and Spencer method( SPM) have been based on a determinate state by using an additive of unknown value( Sarma. Jupun S. owing to the statically indeterminate nature of the problem.. as shown in Figure 1 ( b ) . soil failure phenomena such as those on a slope. because of the inability to determine the internal angles with reasonable accuracy by the conventional slice methods.Slope Stability Engineering. Hayashi Faculiy o Bioresources. MorgenstemPrice( 1965 ). are analyzed using conventional methods. In the method proposed. Imaizumi et al. This method can be applied to most soil failure problems. . Aichi Prefecrural Governmenr. thou h these failures result from the same phenomena? Yamaguchi. Rotterdam. most of these methods have done nothing but analyze by only using groundless assumptions regarding interslice forces. footing and backfill of a wall. From the standpoint of mechanics. even on a nonuniform ground surface. are caused mainly by soil shear failure. even for the slope stability analysis.. and assume all acting inclination angles of interslice forces( these hereafter will be called internal angles) to be set as usually parallel to each other as shown in Figure 1 ( a ) . This fact also indicates that the appropriateness of 27 1 Figure 1 Situation of internal forces the conventional methods is not clear. The subject of slope stability analysis using the slice method based on LEM. and are high in errors( Hanssen. the appropriateness of results obtained from the conventional methods such as the MPM and SPM is not ascertained. In an actual slope. Yamagami & Jiang ic) 1999 Balkema. For example. 1988) They satisfy the force and moment equilibrium conditions on each slice and the whole slope.Nugoya. the internal angles depend on the locations.1979. Janbu ( 1955 ). It has been desired that these phenomena can be dealt with uniformly by using one method (Imaizumi et al. Mie UniversiQ Japan f ABSTRACT: A new slope stability analysis method is proposed by using springs attached to the interslice planes based on the limit equilibrium method(LEM). the slice methods are not usehl for soil failure phenomena on the footing and the backfill of a wall. 1966). the interslice forces including these angles and the overall safety factor can be determined logically by deformations of the vertical slices. As a.
Figure 2 shows the several forces involved in the derivation of formulas. Q I the inclination angle between the tangent to the base plane and the horizontal. dn.w l ) Ij T In the slice methods such as MPM and SPM. 8 * .Figure 2 Several forces acting on a slice The aim of this paper is to propose a new slope stability analysis method by using the slice method based on the limit equilibrium principle. Therefore. the force and moment equilibrium conditions are usually employed in each slice. and a virtual rotatory deformation. normal to the base plane of the ith slice is defined as the origin of the orthogonal coordinates. the principle of virtual work can also make the derivation of the same formulas as equivalent as the SPM. of the zth slice can be obtained as follows l?II WI = U*. lJl and Qi from the left side interslice plane respectively. respectively. ( 2 ) has to be satisfied for all slices.h )tan a I . to derive the limit equilibrium formulas.. where cnll YFs. 61’ internal angle of Zl’.Iv and IQ horizontal distances of the gravity center and the acting position of NI’. Fs the ’=cl overall safety factor.‘. ( I SOZIC I ~ b~sec Q I ) and ( NI’. w r the inclination angle of Qj. the definition of each variable of the ith slice is as follows: Zj’: the left side R = M where x i included in the above equation is q5 ml‘. dL=h tan a By considering U * . the sum of the virtual work. br the width of the the slice. h’. Iiu. whose direction is the mobilized friction angle. Eq. U * . e l Rr. QI the surcharge force. The acting position of the effective force. from the base plane respectively. the force and moment equilibrium formulas using the principle of virtual work can be derived from considering a virtual deformation without rotation. du= ( b I . tan q5 )?I1 ’=tan q5 I YFs. cI’ and @ I ’ the cohesion and the friction angle in terms of effective stress on the base plane. U and PI the total pore water pressure on the 1 base plane and on the left side interslice plane respectively. This method is capable of determining the internal angles reasonably. NI’. = cos( x I + 61 ’ ) cos! T6I1’ 1 sin x I cos q5 1n1 sin q5 ini cos x I cos x I cos( x l .Q i. That is. measured upward from the base plane and considering 8 * . and to discuss an evaluation of this method for typical soil failure problems. and Eq.. Wi the selfweight of slice. ( 1 ) must satis@ the following relational equation concerning the principle of virtual work: wi = 0 (2) Since U * and 8 * are not zero.tan q5 the mobilized shear strength owing to the cohesion and friction angle on the base plane. LI and hrl vertical distances of the acting position of Zl’ and P. this method can be widely applicable to soil failure problems. However. h vertical distance of Q the acting position of Ql from the acting position of NI‘. and the coordinates of the acting positions of several forces are defined as shown in Figure 2 In this figure. wl. and even results in accurate solutions for the problems of bearing capacity and earth pressure. 2 NEW LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM FORMULAS FOR SLOPE STABILITY effective interslice force. the equilibrium formula of the whole slope is written as follows: =o 272 .
ZH~’. the horizontal elastic springs. V I . From now on. namely. and the vertical elastoplastic springs. ( 3 ) which is as equivalent as an equation in the SPM. ZI’. the horizontal interslice forces. introducing the stressstrain relationship attached to the interslice planes 3. and is equivalent to the SPM The SSM utilizes springs to determine the internal angles which are impossible to determine reasonably by the SPM or others Initial trial forces.1 Model of SSM Figure 3 shows the model of SSM to express the characteristics of the soil mass as an elastoplastic body. as shown in Figure 4 This figure 273 where i1 is the number of slices. are attached to the interslice . 1997b ) This method hereafter will be called the SSM (Slice Spring Method) The SSM adopts a new limit equilibrium formula as mentioned above. yield the relatively vertical deformation. because it is impossible to derive it clearly and quickly from the principle of virtual work. this new formula will be useful as a general formula of the vertical slice method. since the inclination angles of slip surfaces usually become steep at upper sides of the slope. H. etc which are acting on the slice. a relatively vertical deformation between the adjacent slices occurs due to a difference in the inclination angle of the base plane between the adjacent slices Furthermore. which are caused by both moving of the slices along slip surfaces and normal sinking of the slices to the base planes. a linear slip surface. two kinds of vertical deformation.I’ ( 2 1 . As for the deformation of slices. namely. The base plane is dealt with in the same way. each slice being a base plane in the limit equilibrium state moves downward to the left. 3)Soil mass is assumed to be isotropic. Eq. Regarding the slices as a rigid body. The plastic springs. The rotational movement is not considered here. Ni’ caused by @. Hayashi. bring a sinking normal deformation to the base plane into the slices The difference of the sinking deformation between the adjacent slices also yields a relatively vertical deformation As mentioned above. to add the new conditions. normal to the base plane and the sliders parallel to the base planes are attached to the base plane.N‘) to springH and springN. 2)The moving direction of slices is employed to a dilatancy angle while being in a plastic state on the interslice plane. deals with how to determine internal angles This problem is caused due to the lack of a number of mechanical conditions as compared with the number of unknown values Accordingly.Figure 4 Deformation of slices in the SSM Figure 3 Model of the SSM planes. shrinks with Zm’ and then moves downward to the left side along the slip surface Shrinking upper slices also slip downward to the left side on the slip surface following the lower moving slices If the inclination angles of slip surfaces are all the same. and NI’ are determined by the SPM Then the actual internal angles are yielded by a deformation of the slices caused by action of the springs etc. the deformations of slices are obtained from applying two forces (Zm‘. respectively Considering the usual slope rising to the right side. V. a relatively vertical deformation between the adjacent slices does not occur However. N. the following are assumed: 1 )The slices are assumed to move basically parallel to the base and interslice planes. has the generality of the slice method. the new slope stability analysis method utilizes springs attached to the interslice planes ( Kondo. 3 INTERNAL ANGLES 6 I’ The subject of the slope stability analysis using the slice methods such as the SPM and MPM. 3 2 Dejbrmation of slice based on the model In the SSM.
1'1 occurs 3 3 b?rilml acting arigk of rrzterslice force 6w In the SSM.26" ) . Zvl: the vertical internal force. the vertical 10cations of slip surfaces are taken as variables along the interslice planes. kl: function that describes the manner in which the internal angle varies across the slope. ml=( 1 )/Hi. R derived from the force equilibris and um equation using 6. ~ D I) . 1966). moves to different positions( Pi. In the SPM. 61'are the imposed angles on the plastic state as follows where g the tangential spring constant of the springV. 1921 ) . can be provided by an iterative calculation of the conditions of Eqs ( 3 ). Contrarily. dol can be given as shown in Eq ( 5 ) . A ground is considered for the bearing capacity problem in which the parameters are given as c=l.6% as compared with the correct value( 18. On the other hand. footing width B=l and V ( Poisson's ratio) 4 3 . Namely. 1997a. The method of optimization employed is a quasiNewtonian method similar to that of Arai et al. yield V I as mentioned above Before determining 6 ~ ~ . which is stationary before the moving of slices.N) diminished upon applying the forces ( ZH~ '. To search for an optimum geometry. this method gives rise to much error because of being obliged to assume all the internal angles to be parallel to each other( in this case. ZDV~.4 Computing Method of 8I ' The internal angles 6 i ' satisfying the limit equilibrium conditions are obtained from Eq. Usually. and then by these deformations the relatively vertical deformation.indicates that point.1. 6 are derived from Eq. the virtual internal shear force. computing by the SPM is also performed to compare with the SSM. the virtual acting angles of interslice forces (these hereafter will be called virtual internal angles. which are obtained from the SPM assuming all the internal angles to be parallel Just after determining these forces. ( 1985 ) . The SPM gives 9.' converge During iteration. the slip surfaces located at the midvertical plane on the active and passive earth pressure wedges are moved along the rupture line of each wedge.5 as the value of Nq and causes an error of 45. Also.NI') to these springs ( H. the SSM is also different from the SPM in the usage of the scaling factor In the SSM.6 as the value of Nq. This error is the .' k derived from both the moment equilibrium equation and Eq ( 6 ) . needs to be obtained from both 1'1 and the stressstrain relationship where 7b: the shear resistance force on the interof the springV as follows slice plane. P2) after this movement. in the SPM needs to be assumed. P. At the same time. once transforming the interslice plane to a plastic state. 1' unique internal angle. Though the SPM is known as an accurate method for slope stability analysis. are calculated before determining the internal angles. the bearing capacities of which the correct values are already known and of which the results from using the conventional vertical slice methods have much error. the internal angles.0 (the tolerance is 104 ) . (dl+dl+i) the horizontal length between the midpoints of adjacent slices By determining ZDr. are computed using the SSM. and the tip of the rupture line on the ground is moved along the ground surface. and causes an error of only 6.( 5 ) Namely.0 owing to the inability to determine these angles individually. which includes 8~ and the limit equilibrium in Eq.4) by Prandtl (Prandtl. the vertical length dl+dI HI of the left side interslice plane..5% as compared with the correct value.( 3 ) concerning slope stability derived from the principle of virtual work. ( 6 ). @ soil unit weight y =0. the 274 To verify the SSM. The computed results are shown in Figure 5 comparing with those by others ( Hansen. kl is taken as 1. 6 Calculating 6D~ requires ZfIl' and NI'. the action of the springs ( H. the SSM gives 19. are determined by calculating both Eq ( 3 ) and Eq ( 5 ) with iteration until Fs and each 6. 6 T'=l . ( 7 ) with iteration regarding 8 as the unknown variable. where k is the scaling factor. in the SSM. the SSM does not ~ need to assume k and 6 ~which. the value of Nq is computed. The ground is divided into 5 slices as shown in Figure 5 . using ZH!'obtained from the SPM 4 VERIFICATION OF SSM Details concerning the derivation process of 11. t a n 6 I' = kl * tan8 (7) where 8 : the scaling factor. The bearing capacity value must be optimized for the geometry of the slip surface on Fs set to 1. are referred to in the paper by Kondo & Hayashi.N ) respectively. can be derived from Eq ( 6 ) regarding k as the unknown variable While k. 3.
Hayashi. L. the directions of the five anchor forces are assumed to be normal to the ground surface. may not be able to be estimated properly.0". 1997b) Results of the SSM are computed on the condition that v (Poisson's ratio) is given at 0 3 Figure 6 shows the values obtained from both conditions of the horizontal boundary and without them Values of Nq by the SSM agree well with the correct values by Prandtl Errors of these values without the horizontal boundary conditions are about 1% in c. On the other hand. and then the anchor is acting position.Figure 5 Nq30" and slip surface shape obtained from several methods same as the one obtained from GLEM( Enoki. computing by the SPM is performed to compare with the SSM. Figure 8 indicates the difference and variations of the necessary total anchor forces by the SSM and .3. errors become less than 4% on the whole The examination above by means of analyzing the bearing capacity indicates that the results obtained from the SSM are appropriate and the SSM can be verified 5 APPLICATION TO ANCHOR WORKS Figure 6 Nq by SSM A basic characteristic of anchor force variation depending on the acting position of the anchor is clar275 ified by analyzing a model slope using the SSM (Kondo. Hayashi. and much less than the one obtained from the SPM Moreover. Figure 7 shows the model slope in which the parameters are given as @'=25. At the same time. because of being in an active failure state under the footing. Therefore. the internal angles on the midvertical interslice planes of the active and passive wedges are known as horizontal. the SSM still yields a more accurate value( 17 9. 7 =17. with these internal angles set to horizontal as the boundary condition (this hereafter will be called the horizontal boundary condition).500. 1991 ) . error=2 7% ) Figure 6 draws the bearing capacity values of Nq obtained from the SSM where the ground is divided into 6 slices with correct values( Prandtl ) (Kondo. the SSM is supposed to be able to estimate these properly. the safety factor and the slip surface to determine the position of an anchor body.64kN/m3 and v =0. measuring from the left side interslice planes and is varied simultaneously to the upper side of the slope. and being in a passive failure state adjacent to the footing Eventually. The computed results of slip surface shapes are shown in Figure 7. the tops of slip surfaces have been moved toward the center side of the slope. 1998 ) . because of considering the slice deformations due to anchor forces and then determining the internal angles based on these deformations. It is impossible for the conventional slice methods to properly estimate the change of these angles due to anchor force in the design of anchor works to stabilize a slope. the internal angles are supposed to change partially at and around the slice with the introduced anchor force. An optimization method which is the same as that in the above chapter is employed. In the analysis to determine the necessary anchor forces in which the safety factor is 1.6'=10"and 10% in $'=40" Given the horizontal boundary conditions. and the toe of these have moved toward the opposite side of the slope. the necessary anchor force.c'=9. Accompanied with increasing L. et a1 . Once anchor force is introduced into a slope.982kN/m2. in other words.
R. Therefore. Yamaguchi. Vol. Geotechiiique. . 1. pp. L. Spencer. Sarma. . Enoki. Kondo. V01. pp. 137149 ( i n Japanese) .. 199% : Evaluation of the SS method on typical soil failure problems. and Hayashi.3346 ( in Japanese). J. Soils and foundations. Soils and Foundations. pp.7993.ISCE. 197( in Japanese ) . the conventional slice method has much error. No. 1967 : A method of analysis of the stability of embankments assuming parallel interforces.4351.2. there is little difference between the SSM and SPM in the case where the force acts on the lower part of the slope. H. 1991 : Generalized limit equilibrium method and its relation to slip line method. the conventional slice method cannot estimate the internal forces properly.500) SPM These forces increase with increasing L.shuppan pp. Prandtl. 1973 : Thrust line criterion in embankment stability analysis. 23.5. Morgensteni. Vo1. 1997a : Slope stability analysis using the springs attached to the interslice plains..5560 ( in Japanese). 1965 : The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. J Y E .Journal of the Geotechnial Engineering Division. and Hayashi. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.Oohasl~i. 1.Journal qf Geotechnical Engineering. No. and is 2% at L=OOm and becomes 29% at L=l 2m.15111524.5.3 1. and Price. Bulletin No. No. S. the SSM is capable of wide application to soil failure problems. E. V. Hansen. so that when the anchor works and bearing capacity problem where the internal angles vary widely depending on the surcharge force.5821III 3 1. Math. K. 15. K. pp. S. E.25. No.561lIII 38. 1. No. pp. Anyew. REFERENCES Arai. S. Danish geotechnical institute. .. N. H. Vol.. 113.1220 ( i n Japanese) .143150 (in Japanese 1.. . and Yamaguch. No. pp. 1520.K. Spencer. M. Yagi.. Kondo.50. which is indicated as a percentage divided by the values of SSM The verification of SSM carried out in the above chapter can provide the results of SSM better than the results of SPM Therefore. 1986: Bearing capacities of shallow foundation calculated by the method of slice. H. K. and Tagyo. pp. Yatabe. Soils and Foundations. While the SSM cannot deal with a ground whose soil parameters are not uniform. pp. 1998 : Analytical study on the location of anchor works to stabilize a slope. a method capable of estimating the effects of interslice forces such as the SSM should be utilized 276 .. N. 1. Geotechniqu 17. 1990: Soil mechanics. it can deal with a nonuniform ground surface which is difficult for the limit analysis and slip line methods to analyze. K. E. Yamaguclu. B. Z. S.JSCE. 1966 : Comparison of methods for stability analysis. 1 126. pp. The necessary anchor forces by SSM are smaller than those by SPM The difference between the two methods increases with increasing I. S. Vo1. However. pp. Figure 8 Necessary anchor forces depending on acting location (Fs=1. No. 1988 : Stability annlysis by the generalized slip surface. No.85100. but the results by SPM are overestimated in the case where the force acts on the upper part of the slope In such cases. GT12. Kondo.2. K. R. Tsuchito.Mso.26. K.59. Mech.. 1921 : Uber die eindringungsfestigkeit plastischer baustoffe und die gestigkeit von schneiden. Journal qf The Japan Society qf Erosion Control Engineering. 1979 : Stability analysis of embankments and slopes.2 1 pp. Gihoudou.6 CONCLUSIONS Figure 7 Slip surfaces depending on acting location The slice method is convenient for the actual problems because of its ability to deal with several problems in which conditions are complicated. Geotechnique.36. V01. and Hayashi. No. pp. . Imaizunu. The proposed method( SSM) can estimate the internal forces properly. The tendency of its variation is linear in the SSM as compared with a curved line in the SPM The line of discontinuity at L=l Om is generated by changing the slice acted upon by the anchor forces accompanied with increasing L. 1985 : Determination of noncircular slip surface giving the minimum factor of safety in slope stability analysis. Imaizumi. pp.
beneficial influence of two end failure surfaces is neglected. In such the circumstances.. it does not influence slope general stability.. slope height is h. Based on limit analysis theory (Chen 1975) and some research results reported in literatures( Baligh 1975.X. produced by failure soil mass sliding along failure surface AD can be obtained: W. Figure 1. assuming the surcharge of an infinite extent.1 Smaller local surcharge When the local surcharge is smaller.the energy safety factor FS. and local threedimensional slope failure will be easy induced.b). and slope angle is (9O”~). When the local surcharge is bigger. this may lead to a very conservative design. Yamagami & Jiang cc) 7999 Balkema. By use of energy safety factor. and the slope with local surcharge is analysed by means of twodimensional methods. Hovland 1977 and Michalowski 1989)..He & Hubei Polytechnic University. Liu Wuhun Universify of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering. People’s Republic o China f Z.Q. of . I done by weight of failure soil mass is expressed as follo~vs: 2 LOCAL SURCHARGE ON TOP SURFACE OF SLOPE There is a slope with an infinite extent. General stability analysis of slope The slope general stability analysis can be regarded as a twodimensional stability problem.. the paper gives out a further study about the threedimensional stability problem of slope with local surcharge. external force work rate W ~ . Yagi. 1 INTRODUCTION Many practical geotechnical problems involving local surcharge on top surface of slopes require reasonable stability analysis evaluation. it does not influence slope general stability. for certain failure angle p.Slope Stability Engineering. .. When the local surcharge is smaller. If the soil mass satisfies MohrCoulomb yield criteria and obeys associated flowing rule. 2.. 277 Internal dissipative work rate J.Soilmass’s unit weight is r. and corresponding slope with no local surcharge can be used to study the slope general stability. cosiplsin p = ChV (2) According to definition method of energy safety factor (Yang 1997 b ).. as shown in Figure 1. Wuhan. the surcharge can be neglected. then slope stability analysis will be detailed under two kinds of local surcharge conditions in the following sections. Because of complexity of problem.. its top surface is horizontal.Yang S. 1977 a. corresponding calculation method of local limit surcharge on top surface of slope is proposed. and combined with energy safety factor(Yang et al. Based on limit analysis theory and threedimensional failure mode. People’s Republic o China f ABSTRACT: Stability analysis of locally loaded slopes is a complex threedimensional research topic. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Threedimensional stability analysis of locally loaded slopes X. D. Rotterdam. it is proved by many geotechnical engineering practices that dimension and location of the local surcharge will control slope failure state. some relations between slope general stability and local stability are revealed for locally loaded slopes in this paper.. cohesion and internal friction angle are C and p respectively.
I H2 4 1 (ct& + 2(ct@tg&)' cos?E I ~ 2 4 sin' pco? pco? E sinp sin' pcos?E . weight W. such field has to comply with the kinematical boundary conditions and compatibility conditions.t g E ) ..At the same time.. IH 3 Formula (4) coincides with failure angle derived by literature (Hunt 1986).' = C(S. making dFS.= 1 rBH I (ctgP . corresponding lowerbound length EF of the threedimensional failure soil mass should satisfy the relationship B=I+2HtgpIsinp.its =45 p/2. For vertical slope (FO"). obtained by formula (4) into formula . Putting p. 8 (ctgfl  tgE) (5) 1 1 2 3 sin .. Under such the circumstances._ _ _ _ . then the failure tgq) And area S. If AE and DF. then GA and KD must be two failure lines exposed on top surface of the slope. has a following relationship: mode of total threedimensional sliding soil mass is shown in Figure 2(b).+ 2 S 2 ) V c o s p . then critical failure angle p.. I 2c cos p rh (ctgp .I . and local surcharge on top surface of the slope can be obtained : i r . as shown in Figure 2. produced along velocity discontinuity surfaces GEFK.. O+ Then external force work rate done by the W. r H 3 *(ctgp = . z = [IBH '(ctgp .. Based on the construction of kinematically admissible velocity field. corresponding failure angle p can be calculated by use of the relationship tgpH/(g+b+HtgE). . According to above demonstrations. it can easy be conjectured that angle between GE and GG'(or KF and KK') must be equal to p.Figure 2. ( 3 ) then corresponding FSjlllll. of total threedimensional failure soil mass can be expressed as follows: w.. q c t g p . [ COiE tg&)'l2}? Then internal dissipative work rate M'.tgE) s i n ( p . of end failure surface AEG(or DFK) can also be gotten: s = { .. of the local threedimensional stability has following relationship: 278 . so angle between Vand GE(or KF) is also equal to p.&E)? ' cos2& 2 I sin2Pcos2& cos4& (9) Corresponding energy safety factor FS. sin . the slope general of stability can be gotten. GE and KF are sliding tangents of two end failure surfaces AEG and DFK respectively.p) sin p In order to calculate FSI. ./dpO. local stability analysis of slope the slope general stability can be gotten: FS I w ==. of bottom failure surface GEFK can be derived as follows: np H s. AEG and DFK can be expressed as follows: W.. area S. two failure lines exposed on the slant slope surface. WY .tgc) + 41bIC' sin( p  p) (6) 2. 8 . when the local surcharge is bigger. local threedimensional failure of slope is easy induced.. sliding velocity V of the total failure soil mass is shown in Figure 2 (a) and angle between velocity 'I and sliding tangent GG'(or KK') of bottom failure surface GEFK is equal to 9.. are vertical to the line AD..2 Bigger local surcharge Just shown in Figure 2(b).= H ( B s isin?p If rectangular surcharge on top surface of slope is uniform.t g E )  1 . Based on some geometry relationships.
. its g=lm..tgE)? H(Bsinp. then energy safety factor of the slope with no local surcharge can be obtained by formula (3): FS. dimensional failure will be induced.. then q=46 kPa corresponding to FS2. its (2)When the local surcharge is bigger. and I/b+x.. its g=O..=1. and its P'.. local threedimensional failure will be induced.. can be obtained as follows: q.. its PC.54 can failure angle corresponding to qllllllll named critical also be gotten by trial and error. its pcr=(90"Et p)/2 =5 5".. derived by formula (10) is identical with uniform surcharge on top surface.=1...=61.46kPa can be calculated through trial and error rectangular uniform surcharge on top surface. .O) into formula (1 1) ly.. (2)When the local surcharge is bigger.. C=20kPa and ~ 3 0 " .04" and H=5 m into formula (IO)...=54.. its top soil mass.=2. Example 111: Some vertical cohesive slope (FO").. corresponding h=5 m ...=99. There is a rectangular uniform surcharge on top surface. local threeTo locally loaded slope..54.. then qilllllll=148.tgs)? + 2 sin'pcos?E 1 COS4€ (1)When the local surcharge is smaller. it does not influence the slope general stability.lll can be obtained respectively.. and the (10). Please give out q.8. Example I : Some vertical cohesive slope (~0"). and I=4m.8.=59.04" and H=5m corresponding to the q. q. ~=18kN/m'. its 3 and /. then failure soil mass could be slided out either from toe q.54kPacan be calculated through trial and of the slope or from the slope surface... to FS2. (1)When the local surcharge is smaller.93" and H=3. [T rBH'(ctgptg~)I 1 1 ~ J rH5*(ctg.=59. Please give out qLllnln its corresponding to the qlllnln be obtained respectiveand can P' I ly. then formula (12) can be derived: (1)When the local surcharge is smaller... Putting B=I+2Htgp/sinp into the formula( 11 )... 279 If I / b ..Htgq) H' 4 +[ sin' 2 sin' pcos'qcos COS?€ 'E 2(ct@ .. &.then limit rectangular uniform surcharge q. Please give out q.... r=18 It can be proved that failure surface corresponding kN/m'.. local threetop surface is horizontal.. b=2m. local threedimensional dimensional failure will be induced ... and its p. in which the selected value q~lmln is (3) Putting &=61. so it often error by formula (11). b=2m.. . then q..+ x . Example I1 :Some vertical cohesive slope (c=Oo).. be obtained respectivecan ly(3) Putting &=59. Please give out q. its 2h = hsin psi@ .12m..=45"+ p/2=6Oo.. C=20 kPa and ~ 3 0 " .. r=18 kN/m'.75 m into formula called limit rectangular uniform surcharge..=1.. it does not influence the slope general stability..93" and H=3.54 can also be gotten by trial and error. then q=43 kPa corresponding to FS21. = c H(Bsinp.. then energy safety factor of the slope with no local surcharge can 3 CALCULATION RESEARCHS be obtained by formula (3): FS....75 m needs to calculate through trial and error by putting corresponding to the qrllnln be obtained respectivecan different values of H=cx h(a< I .8tgs)+y sinp bI ] 2(ctgP. There is a =172. or formula (12). making FS2=1.04O and H=5 m corresponding to the q.88kPa be calculated through trial and can error by formula ( I I ) . it does not influence the slope general stability. b=2 failure surface corresponding to q...=36.... there is a rectangular uniform surcharge on its top surface... and I=4m....p) ~cr=450+p/2=600..12.. .77" and H=4 m g=lni. C=20 kPa and ~ 3 0 " There is a rectangular .. its by formula ( l l ) . formula (1 1)...54. i t means the surcharge with an infinite extent. and I=4m.. is failure angle . (2)When the local surcharge is bigger.... its top surface is horizontal ... b=2m. its g=O. corresponding h=5m. PC.H tgp) H ' +E 2 sin' P C O4' ~ C O S ~ E+ COS'€ sin' p S In above formula(lO)..ll.calculated by m.1n=1 .other known parameters are same as that of example I . of the local threedimensional failure 8 Example I\/: Some slant slope ( F I O O ) .. corresponding h=5 m .... surface is horizontal ...53kPacan be calculated through trial and error by formula (12). then energy CHcosq rH2 safety factor of the slope with no local surcharge can (ctgPtgs) (12) be obtained by formula (3): FS.
Rotterdam: Balkema. the slope should be reinforced locally. New York: Elsevier. for examples q646kPa in example I . 103 (9): 971986.X. In J. 1989. Geotech.F. it is clearly indicated that assuming the surcharge with an infinite extent will lead to a very conservative design for locally loaded slope. can also be adopted.D. then the stability will be controlled chiefly by slope general failure surface. Michalowski. 12 can also be gotten by trial and error. New York: McGrawHill.3. & A . energy safety factor of slope general stability is smaller than that of slope local stability. J. some active reinforcing techniques such as soilnails and bolts et al. Z.n. Threedimensional analysis of IocaIiy loaded slopes.X.X. Rotterdam: Balkema. corresponding local limit surcharge yu.. local surcharge on top surface will have no any effects on the slope stability. the slope should be reinforced along its entire length. q G 3 k P a in example 111 and g 642kPa in example 1V. computer methods and advances in geomechanics: 19031908.E.n=2. it is shown clearly that q. Yu~n(ed.Q. S.. I n J. then the stability will be controlled chiefly by slope local failure surface. When the distance g exceeds certain critical value.~. of local surcharge will increase rapidly as distance g increases. 1975. Geotechnical engineering analysis and evaluation. R. When the stability is controlled chiefly by local failure surface. there are general failure surface and local failure surface.J. Geotechnique 39 (I): 2738. Yuan(ed.= 54. 1986.&S. local three. Research about stability of slurry trench excavation i n soft clay. Wovland. He 1997. End effects on stability of cohesive slopes.. Am. 101 (1 1): 11051117.H~. Engng Div. Chen. According to above calculation results. As increasing of the local surcharges.A new definition method of safety factor and its application.Figure 3. W. Azzoiiz 1975.77" and H=4 m into formula i (1 O). As the distance g increases. .L. example 111. @)By comparison between example I and example 11. Hunt. and exampleIV.S. I t should be noted here that the local threedimensional failure mode suits to a smaller distance g. some relations between 280 slope general stability and local stability for locally loaded slope are detailed in this paper. it is also shown clearly that the local threedimensional failure soil mass induced by local load easy slides out from slope surface as distance g decreases or as angle F increases. energy safety factor of slope general stability is bigger than that of slope local stability.Chen1997. Yang. insuits suppo~ing systems can be adopted to restraint the local failures.l.&G. other passive supporting techniques such as retaining structures et al.. 1977. ( ) When the stabi~ity s control chiefly by general 2 i failure surface. H. X.. Engng Div.Q.tcan be given out by formula (1 1). as shown in figure 3. limit analysis and soil plasticity. some understanding can be summed up as follows: (1)To locally loaded slope.L. ( 5 ) By comparison between example I . (4) By comparison between example I and example 111.. 4 CONCLUSIONS Based on energy safety factor and local threedimensional failure mode. REFERENCES Baligh. Threedimensional slope stability analysis of locally loaded slopes. ~ang..). M. then q=42 kPa corresponding to FS2. local failure as distance g increases (3) Putting ..X. R. M. When the local surcharge is smaller. Am.coinp~ter methods and advances in geomechanics: 16251630.. Geotech. J. Liu.X.dimensional failure mechanisms will change and approach failure inechanisms of shallow foLindations gradualfy.
. o f People’s Republic of China c. k.(: 1 + sin 4  $) A graphical method was presented by Terzaghi (1943) for obtaining the lateral earth pressures of cohesive soil in the case of backfill inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. This method becomes rather tedious for solving practical retaining wall problems. ISBN 90 5809 0795 0 A lowerbound solution of earth pressure of cohesive backfill with inclined slope surface M. . At present. Nian . 28 1 . Yagi. Japan Q. = p k .Depurmzent of Citil ancl Stmc~turul Engineering. friction angle 4 of soil.Ugai . People’s Rejmh/ic oj‘Chinu ABSTRACT: Rankine’s theory of earth pressure cannot be directly employed to the backfill with an inclined surface. an analytical procedure for solving this problem is developed on the basis of the lowerbound theorem of limit analysis. two extreme values of lateral stress which respectively correspond to active and passive earth pressures will be found and expressed in the superposition form. and the computed results useful for engineering practice are given in tabular form. Gunmn Universitv. Luan & T. y is bulk unit weight of soil.Depurtment c?fCivil Engineering and State Key Luborutory ( ~ C o a s t u l and Oflyhore Engineering. inclination angle a of backfill surface slope and nondimensional ratio c / p of cohesion to vertical selfweight stress.Departnient of Civil Engineering.Department of Ciiil Engineering. e. = CT. since several Mohr’s circles of stress need to be drawn for several points along the back of the retaining wall to determine the lateral active and passive earth pressures profile. p . Dalian Vniiwsityof Techology. are respectively the active and passive earth pressure given by Rankine’s theory. it seems that there is no theoretical solution available.Slope Stability Engineering.g. it seems that there is no analytical solution available. K. a theoretical solution of active and passive earth pressures of cohesive backfill with an inclined surface is developed on the basis of the lowerbound theorem of limit analysis. =1sin4 = tan. D u l i m University of Technology. and kp are respectively the active and passive earth pressure coefficients based on Rankine’s theory with the following expressions k.. 1 INTRODUCTION While analyzing stress conditions in the limitequilibrium state attained under selfweight in semiinfinite mass of cohesive soil. the depth of surface tension cracks zo may be found by equating oa to zero as pP =O P = p k P + 2J ~P k where p . Rankine (1857) presented following analytical formulae for calculating lateral active and passive earth pressures of cohesive backfill on retaining wall with a vertical and smooth back and horizontal surface of backfill. The computed values of active and passive earth pressure coefficients are given in tabular form for direct applications in engineering practices. c and qJ are cohesion and internal friction angle of backfill soil. Yamagami & Jiang ( 1999Balkema. and y. First a staticallyequilibrium stress field of the slope ground consisting of cohesive soils is constructed from elasticity theory. Numerical calculations are made for different combinations of related key parameters of the problem. For this practical case.T Law . z is the depth to any soil element on the vertical back of the retaining wall from the level ground surface. In this paper. Kiryu. Urzi~~ersipH m g Koizg. People’s Republic of China E Lee & K.Yang . Rotterdam. According to the lowerbound theorem of limit analysis. In this paper.2cJka In the case of active state of limit equilibrium based on Rankine’s theory. Then it is enforced to not violate the MohrCoulomb yield condition. Based on numerical computations conducted for different combinations of key parameters related to the problem.
the stress condition acted on the inclined cross section of the differential element under consideration is analyzed for obtaining the interrelationship among various components of stresses. of soil in the slope in the limitequilibrium state.. the following relation can be formulated. notice that the selfweight dW of the soil strip element is given by dW = y t d x . o and z given by Equation 5 into ) above equations and rearranging lead to following 282 Further simplification of this equation will give two principal values of lateral stress o x . and the acfive earth pressure p . the limit load corresponding to the statically allowable stress field will be a lowerbound estimation of its real ultimate load. 2. Solving this equation yields two limit values of horizontal stress ox in the statically allowable Figure 2. According to equilibrium conditions of forces..e. in order to determine the lateral stress ox and shear stress vertical stress oz.i. Stress analysis of wedge.oz zn) or ( oI.and shear stress z satisfying the equilibrium conditions with the . when q=O. Referring to Figure 2. Their relevant principal stresses will have the following values /7\ dT = p d x s i n a () 4 Notice dx = dl cosa . Referring to Figure 2 and Equation 6.2 FUNDAMENTAL AND FORMULATION Shown in Figure 1 is a typical differential soil strip element with the height of z and width dx cut from the inclined earth slope. In accordance with the concept of limit analysis. horizontal components o and cr. ) obtained . lateral stress ox as an unknown variable. expressions of the vertical stress o.e. MohrCoulomb failure criteria can be expressed in the form of principal stresses as + (oIo3 (oI+~. the average normal stress o = dN/d/ and shear stress z = d'/dl acted on the soil strip bottom surface may respectively be written as o=pcos2a. normal reaction force dN = dWcosa and shear force dT = dW s i n a along the bottom surface can be expressed respectively as CW = ytdxcosa.+ 2c tan 4F 2kp cos2$ [ ] + ( z U + ox)+ t (oz ox)cos 2 a rxzsin 2a  z= (oz ox)sin2a + zn cos2a  Substituting the expressions of normal and shear stresses (i. it can be observed that the passive and active earth pressures of backfill with inclined surface on the retaining wall will be parallel to the slope surface and have the following values . . By substituting Equation 7 into Equation 8. this stress field will be a statically allowable stress field if it everywhere doesn't violate the yield condition such as Mohrcoulomb criteria. o= stress field ox == l+k' 2sin2a p P . Stress state of soil in slopes. r=yirsinacosa (5) The stress field ( ox. of passive earth pressure p . The bottom of the element is designated to parallel to the slope surface. According to the lowerbound theorem of limit analysis. oj in this way is an equilibrium one which fulfills both the equilibrium conditions within the soil domain of slope and the stress boundary conditions.)sin + c cos 4 4 E (8) Figure 1.
i.e..g. ky and kc are respectively referred to earth pressure coefficient due to the contributions of soil selfweight and cohesion. Especially.. y 2 z. Comprehensive active and passive earth pressure coefficients values ( k. two principal values of lateral earth pressure in infinite slope obtained above will be the active or passive earth pressure of backfill with an inclined surface on retaining wall. the above formulae will be reduced to where ca is a factor that is dependent on the nondimensional ratio of the cohesion and selfweightinduced vertical stress of soil. Equations 10 and 11) will take the upper and lower sign respectively for passive state and active state of limit equilibrium. It may be noted that the depth of the tension crack is independent of backfill slope angle. They can further be expressed in the superpositiontype form in which 2sin2a c o s a + cos2@ ca tan$! 2 cos a cos @ (1 1 4 vertical and smooth interface. a and c / p . in Equation 10 to be zero and making a series of simplifications will yield a quadratic equation with respect to tensioncrack depth zo.4 c 2 = O From this equation.Table 1. k i ) for various combinations of 4 ." .4 c y t a n @ z o. The first and second items in the right side of Equation 10 respectively stand for earth pressures caused by the selfweight and cohesion of cohesive backfill on retaining wall. Setting p . the same value of the tensioncrack depth zo as given by Equation 3 will be obtained. for the cohesionless backfill and inclined slope surface. c=O and a g o .". The optional sign in the above equations (e. It is supposed that the effect of the leftside soil mass of any cross section in infinite slope on the rightside soil is replaced by a rigid retaining wall with a 283 .
kac)for various combinations of Friction angle 4. a and c / p . &20" &30" which is the solution of Rankine's theory of earth pressure for cohesionless backfill with inclined surface.Table 2. Furthermore for the cohesionless backfill 284 . Active earth pressure coefficients (kay.
Equation 10 can be further expressed in the comprehensive form as . (13) which is Rankine's formula of earth pressure for cohesionless backfill with level surface.Table 3... a and c / p Friction angle 630" 640" and horizontal surface. c=O and a=O. Passive earth pressure coefficients (kp.e..kpc)for various combinations of (s . i.
with the increase of the nondimensional ratio c / p . the tension components of active earth pressure in Equation 10 should be removed. hydrostatic pressures will develop on the wall. due to soil selfweight and comprehensive value k. Combined with numerical calculations. resulting from soil cohesion substantially decreases with the increase of backfill surface slope inclination a. For given values of friction angle 4 and surface slope a of backfill. Active earth pressure and passive earth pressure given by numerical calculations are linearly distributed along the depth z. For given values of a and c/p. If the tension cracks are filled with water. both the branch values and comprehensive values of active and passive earth pressure coefficients for various combinations of relevant key parameters. The negative k..’ of active earth pressure coefficients increase while the branch value k.’ and k i are the comprehensive values of active and passive earth pressure coefficients respectively.* of active earth pressure coefficients decrease while the branch value k.. and nondimensional ratio c / p of cohesion and selfweightinduced stress of soil. all the branch values kpy and kpc arising from selfweight and cohesion of soil and comprehensive value k i of passive earth pressure coefficients decrease with increasing values of a. Analytical expressions (see Equation 10 or Equation 14) of active and passive earth pressures of cohesive backfill on retaining walls with inclined surface of backfill are developed based on the concept of lowerbound theorem of limit analysis. REFERENCES Terzaghi. 3 NUMERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSES According to Equations 11 and 15. The corresponding results are presented in ta)ular form and given in Tables 13. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Tables 13 together with Equation 10 or Equation 14 can be used for calculating earth pressures of backfill on retaining wall with inclined cohesive backfill (ycq5 type soil). K. backfill surface slope inclination a and nondimensional ratio c/yz of cohesion and selfweight vertical stress. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The financial support from the TransCentury Training Programme Foundation for the Talents offered by the Ministry of Education of China for this study is gratefully acknowledged./ For given values of nondimensional ratio c / and friction angle 4 of soil. the branch value kay ~ due to selfweight and comprehensive value k. 3541. in which 4 CONCLUSIONS where k. Inc.. However all the branch values (i.. values in Table 1 show that tension develops within the soil behind the wall leading to surface tension cracks in the soil. Subsequently.three items of passive earth pressure coefficient increase with increasing values of 4. kpyand kd) due to selfweight and cohesion of soil and comprehensive value kpc of passive earth pressure coefficient increase with increasing values of c . inclination angle a of backfill surface slope.. 1943. The active and passive earth pressures of cohesive backfill on retaining walls with inclined surface can be conveniently achieved by the proposed formulae for practical applications. while all 286 .e. due to cohesion increases. numerical values of comprehensive or branch active and passive earth pressure coefficients are computed for various combinations of relevant key parameters such as soil friction angle 4. are given in tabular form (see Tables 13). such as soil friction angle 4. both the branch value k. two branch values and comprehensive value of active earth pressure coefficients decrease. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. At the same time.
equal to its saturated value. This study also presents a way to obtain the critical height of a cut in clay considering a failure surface that is made of a shear band of small length at the base of the cut. equal to zero. reached a value equal to (4cu/y ). Mechanism (111) assumes a tensile crack in the upper section of the cut. cLl. The present study presents the results of laboratory and theoretical investigations designed to understand the mechanics of formation and propagation of a shear band in vertical cuts in clay. University of Pittsburg. and a unit weight. USA f ABSTRACT: Stiff clays in the ground are highly overconsolidated. resulting in the formation of what is referred to as “shear band” or “toe crack” at the base of the cut. The first two mechanisms (I and 11) assumes the failure to take place in a clay which is saturated and has an angle of internal friction. 1 indicates the failure mechanisms used by geotechnical engineers to obtain the critical height. H . 287 . H. cohesion (c) and friction to resist failure. Yarnagarni& Jiang 0 1999Balkerna. with lateral pressures several times greater than the present overburden stress. a cohesion. Mechanism (11) is due to Taylor (1948) who calculated the height at failure. and a tensile crack at the top of the cut. Laboratory tests on simulated vertical slopes in clay containing a small shear band (crack) at their toe indicated that the shear band did not propagate in its own plane when subjected to a combination of normal and shear stresses. Fig. Such movements lead to the concentration of stresses in regions close to the toe of the cut. 1 Interpretation of the failure of a cut in clay. Yagi. Fig. the resulting stress relief causes the clay near the cut faces to exhibit large lateral movements towards the face of the cut. Mechanism (111) is due to Lohnes and Handy (1968). When a cut is made in deposits of stiff clays. ISBN 905809 079 5 Shear band formation and propagation in clay slopes Luis E. Pa. The height at failure. The third mechanism (HI) assumes the failure to take place in a clay that have both.can be obtained (a). H . equal to the undrained shear strength. H .. Mechanism (I) is due to Coulomb (1 773) who calculated the cut to fail when the height. to be equal to (3. 1 lNTRODUCTION The stability of a vertical cut made in a homogeneous clay layer has been a subject of great interest to geotechnical engineers. a secondary crack at an angle with the plane of the small shear band.Slope Stability Engineering.Vallejo Department o Civil and Environmental Engineering. at which the cut fails. Instead. 4 . c . This tensile crack joints a plane failure surface that starts at the toe and is inclined at an angle (45 + @ ) with the 2 horizontal.83cJy). the shear band or toe crack propagated in the form of a secondary crack that developed an angle with respect to the plane of the shear band. y . Rotterdam.
21. with lateral pressures several times grater than the present overburden. Therefore. 2 Shear band f o r m a t i o n i n a c u t i n clay. 1967. Bjerrum. the displacementsof the crack surfaces are perpendicular to the plane of the crack. 3 SHEAR BAND PROPAGATION The propagation mechanics of the shear band which forms at the toe of a cut immediately after it is made in a layer of stiff clay has been the subject of various studies (Christian and Whitman. 1984). 1967) (Fig. The purpose of this study was to conduct a laboratory study to clarify the shear band propagation mechanism in slopes. According to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) theory.indicates that the selfsame manner of propagatio~i a crack of under mixedmode type of loading (mode I plus mode II) indeed occur in in a cut in Oxford clay containing a shear band at the toe of this cut. In the analyses presented by Palmer and Rice (1973) and Bjerrum (1967). the magnitude of strain energy stored in a stiff clay deposit plus the existing lateral earth pressures can cause a shear band or toe crack formed right after a cut was made in the stiff clay to propagate inside the slope. (1977). However. a laboratory and a theoretical study using the principles of LEFM theory were carried out. In London Clay deposits. a crack or fissure in clay can be stressed in three different modes (Broek. When a cutting is made in stiff clay deposits. Hutchinson (1972) established that the notches propagated in the form of secondary failure surfaces that extended from the tip of the notches in a direction equal to 67 degrees with the horizontal plane of the notches. “analogousto direct shear test conditions. F i g . Normal stresses to the crack walls give rise to the mode I type of cracking. Inplane shear stresses cause the walls of the crack to slide in the plane of the crack. 1969. Palmer and Rice. Skempton (1961) measured lateral stresses that were in some instances equal to 2. the propagation of the shear band was assumed to take place in a selfsame manner.from Eqs. Smith and Redlinger (1953) described how a 3 inch wide cut i n the Fort Union shale closed in about 24 hours. (1) and (2). Patmer and Rice (1973) made their analysis of shear band propagation iii slopes made of stiff clay using fracture mechanics principles. (b) concen~ration reorientation of and and stresses in the region close to the toe of the cut. 3. In the study conducted by Palmer and Rice (1963). the resuIting stress relief causes theclay near the cut face to exhibit large lateral movements (elastic rebound) towards the face of the cut. This is a sliding mode and represents the mode IT type of cracking. 2 SHEAR BAND DEVELOPMENT IN VERTICAL CUTS IN CLAY Stiff clays and shales in the field are highly overconsolidated. The above mentioned mechanismsdo not consider the shear band or closed crack that develops at the toe of the cut when the excavation is completed. Field work conducted by Biirland et al.5 times the vertical overburden stresses. The introduction of this toe crack in the stability analysis is vital for our understanding how vertical cuts in clay fail. Such movements in open cuts in stiff clay will lead to: (a) the formation of a “shear band” or “toe crack” at the base of the cut (Bjerrum. Cracks can propagate in materials as a result of one or a combination of the two modes. In this mode I.’‘ Thai is. Hutchinson (1972) found that horizontal notches at the toe of chalk cliffs in England did not propagate inside the slope following the direction of the plane of the notches.1 Laboratory study involving shear bands in simulated clay slopes To better Linderstand how shear bands propagate at the base of slopes. they indicated that even in the absence of gravi~tional induced driving shear stresses. 1973). an initial horizontcrl cmck at the base of vertical cut made in a horizotita? ground wotitd advance into the intact material of the excavation I?orizontciIly (mode I1 type of crack propagation using the terminology of fracture mechanics) . The laboratory study involved the use of 288 . there is field evidence contrary to the assumption advanced by Palmer and Rice ( 1973) that shear bands in slopes propagate following the direction of their own planes.
The the lateral stress was gradually increased until the toe crack propgat4 in the sample. The application of the 40 kPa on stress to the clay sample caused the toe crack to doso. o n . o h . it will propagate in a direction that follows that of the plane of the shear band. the maximum tangential stress criterion of LEFM theory developed by Erdogan and Sih (1963) is used. This secondary crack was inclined at an angle c( equal to 70 degrees from the horizontal direction of the original toe crack (Fig.76 c m x 3. The sample of clay with the planar dimensions shown in Fig. 1991). the shear stress (T) on the plane of the closed crack were equal to 78 kPa and 45.a prismatic clay sample containing a cut and a preexisting toe crack as shown in Fig.simulates the lateral earth pressures. T . 18 cm). The closed toe crack propagated in the clay sample in the form of a secondary crack the extended from the tip of the preexisting toe crack and deviated from its original horizontal direction. One can also obtain the shear stress.simulates the gravity stress acting on the slope material. 3.7 kPa respectively. oil . According to this criterion. T/ZecIostJdroe c*rt~k propagated in the sample when the lateral norinal stress (Oh ) and Fig* Stresses near Of shear 289 . The prismatic clay sample used in the experiment was cut from a larger clay sample prepared by conso~idatin~ a soft mass of kaolinite clay in an oedometer 30 cm in diameter (Vallejo. The water content of the clay sample used for the crack propagation experiment was equal to 27%.18 cm was subjected in the PSDSA to a combination of normal. 1987. The normal stress. This shear stress is obtained by dividing the known lateral force (oh x 5. 3 L a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t of shear band p r o p a g a t i o n i n a c u t i n c l a y . oh .18 cm) by the area on which it acts (8. 1989). 3) . 3. the normal stress. 0 is the angle that the radius r makes with the axis of the crack (Fig. and a lateral normal stress. applied to the clay sample was equal to 40 kPa and was kept constant ~hroiighoLit experiment. This finding is contrary to the Bjerrum (1967) and Palmer and Rice (1973) assumption that states that when a shear band or closed toe crack at the base of a slope is subjected to a combination of normal and shear stresses. and KI and KII are the stress F i g . 3. acting on the clay in a direction parallel to the plane of the crack (Fig. 4).2 Theoretical evaluation To evaluate the laborato~ results shown in Fig.13 cm x 3. During the experiment. 3 and a thickness equal to 3. the tangential stress. This was done using the Plane Stress Direct Shear Apparatus (PSDSA) described in detail in articles by Vallejo (1987. The sample of clay that simulates a vertical cut in a horizontal clay deposit. o0 . was subjected to stresses similar to the ones a vertical slope will experience in the field. 3). 1988. in the material located in the vicinity of a crack subjected to a mixed mode type of loading (normal and shear stresses) can be obtained from the following relationship (Ingraffea and Heuze. and the lateral normal stress. 1980) (Fig 4) In the equations above r is the radius between the tip of the crack and a point in the clay surrounding the crack where the stresses are being measured. on .
That is the stress intensity factors KI and K 11 apply when the cmck is open. the stress intensity factor K I becomes equal to zoro (Broek. 290 . and Elq. 16) can be written as F i g . 1980) The solution of Q. Hence the direction of crack a . the ratio (I<rIA<I) is propagation taking place when 8 reaches a value equal to a is can be obtained after differentiationof o8 with respect to 8 (d o8 / d 8 ). 3. 5 Angle of p r o p a g a t i o n of a s h e a r band assumed open. 4). KI sina + KII ( 3 cos a . 3).intensity factors for an open crack under mode I and mode II type of loading.1215 0. 3 and 4) and T is the shear stress that acts parallel to the crack.The theoretical value of the angle of crack propagation. the angle of crack propagation. can be obtained by using Fq. Thus. The angle of crack propagation in our simulated slope experiment was equal to 70 degrees (Fig.3 Direction of crack propagation. crack extension will take place in a radial direction from its crack tip and that the direction of crack growth is nonizul to the direction of the maximum tangential stress o8 (Fig. The direction of crack propagation.5 degrees. These stress intensity factors are given by (Ingraffea and Heuze. Erdogan and Sih (1963) have proposed the hypothesis that crack extension in brittle materials takes place in a direction in which o8 . 1 11 .reaches its maximum value. ( T c ) I I2 [41 KII = 1. cx . the laboratory and field values of crack propagation are validated by the maximum tangential stress criterion of fracture mechanics. That is. LEFM theory has proved very effective for the interpretation of the laboratory results on the propagation of shear bands. If the crack remains open. [7] gives the angle of propagation of the shear band or closcd cruck .1 ) = 0 161 where a is the value reached by 8 when crack propagation takes place (Figs. a . Fig. [ 81. If the cmck close. 16) applies to an opcv7 crctck. Using Q s . KI and = 1. 161 . 5 was developed and shows the values of a for different values of the ratio (I<IrfiI). can be obtained from the following equation sina + (KII/K1) ( 3 cos a  1 ) =0 181 Using Q. is equal to 70. @. 3 and 4). given by Q. Thus. 3. Hutchinson found the horizontal notches at the base of the cliffs to propagate at 67 degrees with the horizontal. The theoretical findingsare also close to the field findings by Hutchinson (1972) of notch propagation in chalk cliffs in England. 1980) also eqiial to the ratio (do). 3 and 4. 1984).1215 T ( T c ) 1I2 ~51 where on is the normal stress that acts perpendicular to the plane of the open crack (Figs. and c is the length of the crack in Figs. 14 and 51.~ was the case of the laboratory experiment as depicted in Fig. If this is done the following relationship is obtained from which to obtain a (Ingraffea and Heuze.
29 1 .F. 93: 149. 27 (4):557591.C. Ingraffea. From a simple slope stability analysis of the geometry depicted in Fig. 1972. R. 1967. A one dimensional model for progressive failure. Phys. StressStrain Behaviour oj'soils. R. Journal jbr Numericul Methods in Geomechanics. The critical height of a vertical cut with a shear band or toe crack was influenced by the value of the shear and normal stresses acting i n a direction parallel and normal to the shear band. R. Isle of Thanet. Burland.1969.. 4( 1): 2543. and Sih. Con$ Soil Mech. Bjerrum. y sin 2 a . Broek. On the crack extension in plates under plain loading and transverse shear. Conf:. Znt. A shear band at the toe of a vertical clay cut is subjected to a combination of normal and shear stresses (mixed mode type of loading) and propagates in the form of a secondary crack that grows from the tip of the shear band. ed. a shear band or toe crack develops at the base of the cut as a result of a relief of the lateral stresses that acted normal to the face of the cut. 1977. Muth.L. J. and Heuze.. 3. For mechanism III of Fig. Essai sur line application des regel de maximis et minimis a quelques problems de statique relatifs a I'architecture.. J. 692706. Field and laboratory studies of a fall in Upper Chalk cliffs as Joss Bay. L. Proc. This result indicates the usefulness of LEFM theory for understanding crack propagation in clay slopes. 1967.R..B. T.4. Progressive failurewith special reference to the mechanism causing it. Christian. of Geology.. and Whitman.W. The depth of the tensile crack. can be obtained from Eq. CRITICAL HEIGHT USING FRACTIJRE MECHANICS APPROACH The critical height for a vertical cut in clay with a shear band of sincrll length at the toe of the cut.I. Foulis and Co.E. London. Proc. Mein. 2541545.. The only difference between the mechanism 111 of Fig 1 and that shown in Fig. 76(3):247258. F i g . G. Values of this angle a can be obtained from the plot shown in Fig. and (b) the direction of propagation of the shear band under the mixedmode type of loading. Selmth Int. The maximum tangential stress criterion from LEFM theory predicted very well: (a) the type of stresses (tensile) that caused the shear band to propagate. 6 F a i l u r e mode of a c l a y c u t w i t h a s h e a r band and s e c o n d a r y and t e n s i l e cracks. When a cut is made in a stiff clay. This secondary crack is inclined with respect to the direction of the plane of the shear band. 6 a relationship to obtain the critical height H of the cut can be obtained. 1773. Eng. J. 5 CONCLUSIONS 1. Lohnes. this angle is equal to (45 + $12). H= 4c I. 6 this angle is equal to a . 5 .G.N. F. J. For the failing geometry depicted in Fig. G. und Found. and Handy. 85: 519. ASCE..Geotcch. 6 is the angle that the lower failure surface males with the horizontal. 1963. Mexico.527. Geotcchnique. A.A.V. ASME. Parry. 5. 4. J Journal qfthe Soil Mechanics and Foundutions Dillision.T.. This geometry is very similar similar to that shown in Fig. Hutchinson. Boston. A study of ground movement and progressive failure caused by a deep excavation in Oxford clay.. Slope angles in friable loess. 1980. 1 (mecanism 111). Longworth. A. 6. 1968. as well as a tensile crack at its upper surface can be obtained very easily from a stability analysis of the failing soil geometry shown in Fig. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.H. I 2 1 and the vaule of a from Fig..T.. Erdogan. Elcinentary Enginrwing Fracture Mcchunics. Finite element models for rock fiacture mechanics. z. R. D.Oslo.. 1984. J. I . and Moore. 7:343 Bishop. Progressive failure in slopes of overconsolidated plastic clay and clay shales. 2: 142150. England. CA. Journal qfBasic Eng.2cos2a tan@ 6 REFERENCES 191 Coulomb. A. Vol. This relationship is the following: 2. R.
. Gootechniyue.G. ofrhe Royal Sociqy of Lnnihn. Zurich. 115 (9):13031317. Taylor.. D. A plane stress direct shear apparatus for testing clays. A332: 527548. D. Proc. 1987. Smith.. Paris.chcmics. Firnhrni~nrcrls qfSoil Mr.New York: Wiley.. Soil properties of Fort Union Clayshale. Fissure parameters in stiff clays under compression.W. A. A. 1953. 10: 7378. Vallejo.C. J.Palmer. 1948. E H . F. 37( 1): 6982. Campbell. Eiig. Conf:on Soil Mech. Mr.R. Sltempton. Vallejo.‘ on Soil Mmh. I. ASCE’Special Geotechnical Publication No. 1: 6266.. Pioc. Proc.W. L. and Harris..E.F.W. The influence of fissures in a stiff clay subjected to direct shear. The brittle and ductile behavior of clay samples containing a crack under mixed mode loading. 292 . 1961. Thcoicticul and A pplicd Fiucrurc.E. Third Irir. McLean. Vol.ch . D. 1973.. 1988. L. Horizontal stresses in an overconsolidated Eocene Clay. C. LE. J ou rn(iI of Gmtc. 27(11): 85 1862.K.cl?nicul Etiginocring Congress 1991.E. 1991. Gcwtc. mid Found. The growth of slip surfaces in the progressive failure of overconsolidated clay.s. Conf. Fiflh [}It. 1989. Vallejo. Etig. L. unrl Found. Vallejo.A. eds. ~ ASCE.. and Redlinger. and Rice.chunic.. 1:351357.
Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (Huang & Ma. In this paper we propose two different techniques to treat the local factors of safety after local failure has occurred at some location: the AlLC method and the AGLC method. so the factor of safety varies from place to place as well. Skempton. Potts e al. Yagi.S. Srbulov (1995).g. based on the variable local factors of safety in the limit equilibrium approach. is assumed along the whole slip surface in conventional limit equilibrium methods. that is. 1971). 1991). Therefore.= Local factors of safety 293 . ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Progressive failure analysis of slopes based on a LEM Takuo Yamagarni & JingCai Jiang Depnrhnent of Civil Engineering. Japan f Masakazu Taki Fukken Conzpaizy Limited. Therefore. stipulates the characterand istic hnction g(x) [F=g(x)T where T is the unknown scalar factor]. Two different techniques called AILC and AGLC are devised to deal with the local factors of safety in the failure zones. The stress or strain levels are nonuniform along the slip surface. The softening of soil can also be taken into account in terms of local factors of safety. Nevertheless. Law and Lumb do not take into account the interslice forces. Bjerrum. Consulting Engineers. Jupnn Satoiu Yarnabe A ruig Limi Company Limited. 1992) are all effective methods for progressive failure analysis due to their available stress and strain fields. A local factor of safety is defined at the base of each slice. the problem can be easily made determinate through introducing simplifying assumptions. A single value factor of safety. FEM (e. these methods are complicated and the amount of computation required is quite large. Therefore. the latter method seems preferable from a physical standpoint. they have not been widely used. Once local failure takes place. A local factor of safety is defined at the base of each slice to represent progressive failure. In an actual slope. which makes the conditions redundant. Chugh considers the variations of the factor of safety (8. while the latter does not. 1990. Although the number of unknowns increases due to the local factors of safety. In Srbu lov's method. 1964. It is also used to approximately simulate the softening behavior of soil. the local factors of safety have to be used to express the progressive failure within the framework of the limit equilibrium method.Slope Stability Engineering. Law and Lumb (1978). the local factor of safety of the zone becomes equal to unity. local failure along a slip surface. simplifying assumptions are simultaneously made of the interslice forces and the line of thrust which are separately used in the MorgensternPrice method and the Janbu method. and used to account for the progressive. the locally failed zone is in limiting equilibrium. Discrete Element f Method (Chang. Hyog o. The former permits a local factor of safety to have a value less than unity. Bishop.S. 1992).g. the initial stress state and pore water pressure are difficult to determine in practice. J c p n ABSTRACT: A new method for progressive failure analysis of slopes is presented. The results of case studies show that the proposed approach can simulate the actual behavior of progressive failure. Chugh (1 986) put forward limit equilibrium analysis considering progressive failure respectively. the number of equations is one more than the number of unknowns. Furthermore. Rowe. 1967. Hiroshinza. In order to render the problem determinate. Limit equilibrium equations are derived using the slice method. Rotterdam. and finally leads t o overall slope failure. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. however. The introduction of local factors of safety results in an increase of the number of unknowns. all these methods are quite limited. a slope stability analysis method considering progressive failure is developed based on the limit equilibrium approach. However. local yielding or failure initiated at some points gradually develops. 1973. Hence it is impossible to deal with progressive failure using such existing methods.F. UniversiQ o Tokushirnu..Fs. while the former still has a mathematical significance. The following abbreviations are used in the main body of this paper: L. = Local factor of safety L. but he fails to explain how to determine it. 1 1NTRODUCTION In this paper. On the other hand. Lo and Lee. This phenomenon is known as progressive failure (e.
[ALf(x). R shear strength at base of slice) Location of normal force N (middle of base) Relation between interslice forces X and E [X= f(x)q . namely one is the relations between shear force X and normal force E on the interslice faces. 1 Forces acting on a slice 294 Fig. 1 Location of interslice force Total number of equations n n n n n n. some simplifying assumptions are necessary to make the problem determinate In the present analysis.M. is illustrated in Fig 1.x. namely. denotes a moment of E. about the rightmost point of the base of the zth slice (a) Potential sliding mass (b) Forces acting on an infinitesimal slice Fig.Table I The numbers of unknowns and equations The number of unknowns Nonnal force N at base of slice Location of nonnal force N Shear force 5' at base of slice Nonnal force E at interslice Location of interslice force E (line of thrust) Shear force X at interslice Local safety factor F a t base of slice An unknown parameter Total number of unknowns 11 The number of eauations ~~~ n n n.. + 0 L As the slope stability problem is highly indeterminate.2 = M. which is divided into n slices.x.yJ. + Kzx 1.. where b. refer to our companion paper (Yamagami. 2 Diagram for formulation .1 n.1 n. the numbers of unknowns and equations are summarized in Table 1 We can see clearly from Table 1 that the numbers of unknowns and equations are in corrspondence. A typical slope. and the other is the acting points of normal force E i e the line of thrust. 2).F.1 n 1 7n2 Horizontal force equilibrium for each slice Vertical force equilibrium for each slice Moment equilibrium for each slice Definition of local safety factor F (F=RIS. As for the detailed solution procedures.L. Jiang & Khan.=E. The forces acting on a slice are also shown in this figure For such a slope. the problem becomes determinate. = Overall factor of safety 2 STATICALLY DETERMINANT SOLUTION b.S. The basic equations from which the solutions can be obtained are as follows (see Fig.. I and M. (yt.41 E. L.1 1 1 1 7n2 O. 1999). + e x + b. Yamabe. the assumptions used in the MorgensternPrice method (1965) and the Janbu method (1957) are employed simultaneously.
in which local failure has occurred at some location.Fs.S.3 (b) illustrates the distribution of L. distribution along a given slip surface just as can be seen 295 In a stable slope. It is true. Hereafter we call this type of analysis method AGLC: Analysis of Gradual Loading Condition.e. In the schematic figure the locally failed slices occur continuously.Fs. friction angle at peak strength $p = 27.4 Schematic diagram illustrating a situation immediately after solution of kdLC has been obtained .S. as the only unknown. iteratively. however.6' ($1l$~=0. less than or equal to unity as the result of the AILC.Fs.S.F. while it meets all the equilibrium conditions for the entire sliding soil mass. that as long as the soil mass above the slip surface is in equilibrium. In other words.85).[l] a value of El is determined with a known value of El). those in Fig. enabling us to solve for P. it is also necessary to establish an approach in which once local failure takes place on some part of the slip surface during the solution process.F. Fig.Fs.4.S. interslice forces. e. The slices i to m in Fig.Fs. let's suppose that the part poq. the factor of safety should be equal to unity on the locally failed zone. Conventional single value factor of safety analyses do not represent this essential phenomenon. i. In short.Fs. In the following we propose an iterative procedure of the AGLC which starts with the solution of AJLC. are less than unity. Then.6" and friction angle at postpeak residual strength $i= 23. An analysis method that satisfies this condition has been named as AGLC.3. Suppose also that the L.[2] yields an equation which contains F. as will be briefly discussed below.4 are assumed to have L. The reason for this is that the shear forces become equal to the shear strengths on the failed zones. can be justified.S.g. this means that local failure has occurred on that portion. below unity. cp=ci=2. Fig.3 (a) shows the configuration of a homogeneous slope. The result of an illustrative example is given here to demonstrate how the above procedure yields the solution Fig. but Fig.S.3 (b) that a local failure zone where the L.129. together with the overall factor of safety. It can be seen from Fig. is a result wrong in which L. shear stresses must be equal to shear strengths.Slice number (b) Local factors of safety in Fig.56kPa.S. and so forth. In the meantime. 3 DEFINITIONS OF AILC AND AGLC The preceding procedure provides the L.S. we call this method AILC: Analysis of Instantaneous Loading Condition. of a given slip surface AB has locally failed as the result of AlLC.Fs.3? The answer is of course not.S. If the L. the factor of safety for that part is kept at unity. the local factor of safety is inevitably equal to unity over the failed zone. of slicej is the smallest of all the L. This indicates that local failures may have already occurred at some locations even if the slope is safe as a whole. no sliding as a whole will take place along the slip surface unless the O. This approach. Even under this situation.6kN/m3.. are lower than unity appears though its overall factor of safety is 1. the method of analysis addressed so far has allowed values of L. The soil parameters used are y=19. is smaller than unity. Hereafter. Substituting this value into Eq.F. ' Solving the two equations for each slice thus provides local safety factors as well as the location of the thrust line.S.3 Simple example problem AGLC From Eq. and will explain its details in the following section. a given slip surface and division of slices. lie below or equal unity at a portion of the slip surface.
Fig.5 shows schematically a situation in which the first converged solution has been attained. if the condition is not satisfied. slice I. whereas the rest of L.F. retains a factor of safety of 1. ru values are different from one slice to another. The part p q does not necessarily coincide with the initial failure zone poqcj (slices in) in Fig.0. computation is made of the AILC on condition that c=l.O. e. physically much more reasonable. The third iteration is done in order to obtain the solution in which. F. a check is made of the boundary condition (En=O)at the rightmost end. a third slice. is less than unity and implies that complete failure will take place along the slip surface under consideration. are all unknown. value is a constant of 0. will be obtained as a converged solution. Nothing else is otherwise different from the original AILC. a new set of L. This case suggests that the O. are totally different. S. There might have occurred discontinuous failure zones as well at this stage.S. Hence. 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Within the framework of the limit equilibrium approach.Fs. slice I possessed a minimum factor of safety less than unity at the end of the second iteration process (see Fig. These values have been read fiom the original flow net profile. In this way. This landslide has been also solved by Law and Lumb ( I 978) with their progressive failure analysis method. First step The iterative procedure starts with making the factor of safety for slicej that has a minimum factor of safety equal to unity. The AGLC thus fails to provide the solution for this case. Here.S. More specifically. the factor of safety 6 is made equal to unity. however.S. followed by the subsequent procedure. The iteration processes are continued until no slices having factors of safety smaller than unity exist.g. a progressive failure analysis method has 296 .35 in Law and Lumb’s analysis.7 that both AILC and AGLC have predicted almost the same 0. it is the AGLC method that renders each factor of safety equal to unity one by one for the slices in locally failed zones. That is to say. slice k. Consequently. Ob viously. We may encounter a case where a converged solution cannot be obtained even after all the L.S.O. for slicej as known (l. only the AULC may solve these types of problems. all the L. but the distributions of L. Secorid Step Fig. Assume that the slices above a part p q of the slip surface have failed as the result of the First Step. causing no problems at all. It is essential that we treat the L.F. And when the last slice is reached.g. S. have become equal to unity.=l. Fs.O and Fk=l. It is quite interesting as can be seen in Fig.7 illustrates the conditions employed for the analysis and the results obtained. As seen at each base of the slice in Fig 7(a). This time we conduct a similar computation of AILC on condition that fi. Hence we omit showing the preslide slope profile here. The result of AGLC is. 6 A schematic diagram illustrating the second converged situation 4 CASESTUDY The Selset landslide (Skempton and Brown. pay attention to the slice having the smallest factor of safety again.Fs. and when arriving at slicej.S.. e. beside the two slicesj and k. while the r.5 Schematic diagram showing a situation in which the first converged solution has been attained at the end of the first step Fig.6). Fig. the process is repeated until a converged solution (the first converged solution) is obtained. They may appear at discontinuous locations without loss of generality.O). 1961) is employed to show how the proposed method works.Fs. are greater than or equal to unity when a solution for the AGLC is attained.S. starting with the first slice the procedure of AILC described before is performed..this is not a prerequisite.Fs.4. of course.
1992. simple assumptions from the Morgenstern and Price method and the Janbu method could equalize the number of unknowns and that of equations or relationships available. completely satisfies the equilibrium of forces and moments. Chugh. Chang.S. Huang. Earth pressures and bearing capacity calculations by generalized procedure of slices. A. Variable factor of safety in slope stability analysis. Progressive failure in slopes of overconsolidated plastic clay and clay shales. 1998. 1967. And then the AGLC is applied to the critical slip surface so as to obtain detailed solution. Discontinuous deformation slope stability analyses. 93 (SM5). REFERENCES Bishop. 479492. Leshchinsky. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. danbu N. 4th ICXMIX Lolldon 2. However. Bjerrum. This is the subject for our fbture study. 349. A. June 2829. 1957. Geotechnique. The influence of progressive failure on the choice of the method of stability analysis.e. M. Physically. complete failure is anticipated to occur. Dalian. i. The AGLC is. 168172. (b) Local factors of safety f?om AILC and AGLC Fig. C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Dr. 5764. however. A. for his kind review and advice on the main parts of this paper. & Ma. 7 Selset slope failure been presented.W. and indeed it has turned out through case studies that this method provides highly accurate solutions. In the AGLC method. 18891905. the AGLC method is rational. This method. The proposed method should be expanded in the hture in order that it may search for the critical slip surface that has the minimum overall factor of safety. China. Proc. 1992. Geotechniqe. ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations. In other words. NOTES: The main contents of this paper were presented at the Special SinoJapanese Forum on Performance and Evaluation of Soil Slopes under Earthquakes and Rainstorms.D. a variable local factor of safety analysis method. The AILC method allows the local factors of safety of the failed 297 . It has also turned out that locations where local failures take place and overall factors of safety predicted by the AILC method approximately coincide with those from the AGLC method. Softening can be simply handled through the use of local factors of safety. The AILC method still holds for the situation. Y. Sfahilify and Performance of Slopes and Bmhankments.(a) Thrust lines for AILC and AGLC for Selset slope zone to be less than unity. With regard to this. Two different treatments are developed for the local factors of safety after locally failed zones have occurred: the AILC and AGLC methods. D. Introduction of the local factors of safety resulted in an increase in the number of unknowns. Discrete element method for slope stability analysis. 36 (1). B. 1986. they are kept at unity based on an iterative procedure starting with the solution of the AILC method. 1. 197 1. the analysis has been rendered statically determinate. Professor of Delaware University. L. a possible way is to use the AILC method in search of the location and shape of the critical slip surface. 2072 12. the overall factor of safety has been used to evaluate the overall stability of the sliding soil mass. thereby making the problems highly indeterminate. Furthermore. Occurrence of local failure along a slip surface and its progress are recognized on the basis of the local factor of safety defined at the base of each slice. K. 21 (2). 118 (12). Proc. nevertheless. not available for a situation in which the overall factor of safety will fall bellow unity.
123127. 1999. Jiang. 15. 41 (3). Finite element analysis of progressive failure of Carsington embailluiieiit. 40 (1). 1965. & Lee C.122. 25 1258. 1973. 79. Rotterdam: Balkema. 1990. Morgensteni N. 1978. ofInt. Y. T. Yaniagami. on Slope Stability Engineering: Geotechnicnl and geoenvironmental Aspects ('s'S'hikoki~'99).et al. Ceotechnigzie. 113.C. 7993. T. & Luiiib P. Soi1. Canadian Geotechnical Jozirnal. A reassessment of the causes of the Carsington embankment failure. Srbulov M. F. A promising approach for progressive failure analysis of reinforced slopes. The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. 1. Mockba. 1995. & Price V. Y.s and Foundations. E. Proc. 8th ICSMFE. 35 (4).Law K. 298 . 77102.. Longterm stability of clay slopes.. & Vaughan P. A limit equilibrium analysis of progressive failure in the stability of slopes. Sym. Geotechnigue. W.R. Analysis of progressive failure in clay slopes. Eds. 39542 1.W. Potts D. 1964. 1991. R. Yamabe.101.. Rowe P. A. J. 14 (2). M. Dounias G. Pioc. T. Lo K. M. Geofechnique 15 (1). Skeiiipton A. Yagi N. S. & Khan. A simple method for the analysis of stability of slopes in brittle soil. Geotechnigue.
Chugh (1986). Finite Element Method (e. However. the factor of safety is the same for all locations along the shear surface. 1991).g. 1990. The softening behaviors of the soil materials are also included in the method. where local yielding or failure initiated at some points along the shear surface develops which finally leads to the failure of the slope as a whole. This process is called as progressive failure (e. but they will not result in the true progressive failure mechanism. Universify o Tokushima. Multiple wedge methods have proved capable of satisfjring all these needs and the approach of Sarma (1979) is widely accepted. The equilibrium equations are derived using the static equilibrium of nonvertical slices and MohrCoulomb failure criterion. two different techniques called AILC (Analysis of Instantaneous Loading Condition) and AGLC (Analysis of Gradual Loading Condition) are devised to deal with the local factor of safety in the locally failed zone (Yamagami. So. Law and Lumb (1978). Srbulov (1995). these methods are not so satisfactory except. Japan f ABSTRACT: An approach of progressive failure analysis of slope stability is proposed based on a method of nonvertical slices within the limit equilibrium framework. Discrete Element Method (Chang. Morgenstern and Price (1965). These conventional limit equilibrium methods are generally regarded as best available for stability analysis. The commonly used procedures are those of Bishop (1955). In this method. for example. Bjerrum. Jiang & Yamabe. In limit equilibrium analysis certain assumptions are made to solve the problems using static equilibrium and failure equations. 1967. in an actual slope stress or strain levels vary along any slip surface. There are many instances. and the nonuniform distributions of either stress or strain level inevitably cause local failures along the surface. Therefore the single value factor of safety is unable to define these failure surfaces. In an accompanying paper. To evaluate the ultimate stability of a slope an overall factor of safety is introduced. Yamagami and Taki (1997). the local factors of safety have to be introduced to express this nonuniform distribution of local stress levels during progressive failure within the limit equilibrium framework. Rotterdam. slope stability analysis of artificial and natural slopes is usually performed by the limit equilibrium method.. Rowel.Slope Stability Engineering. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Progressive failure analysis based on a method of nonvertical slices Takuo Yamagami & JingCai Jiang Department of Civil Engineering. But due to the complicated nature and large computation procedures. However. Lo and Lee. that of Yamagami and Taki (1997). The method is presented with two case studies 1 INTRODUCTION A limit equilibrium method of nonvertical slices for slope stability analysis considering progressive failure is developed. these methods have not widely been used so far. Simplifjring assumptions about the interslice forces and their points of action made this method determinate. University c?f’ Tokushima. In geotechnical engineering practice.e. Skempton. i. Taki. Spencer (1967). variable factor of safety is defined along a shear surface to represent the nature of progressive failure.g. Sarma (1973) and Janbu (1973). Yamagami and Taki have satisfied all equilibrium conditions in their method satisfactorily to make the problem deterministic. There are number of limit equilibrium methods considering progressive failure. A complete method should satisfjr force and moment equilibrium. et. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999Balkema. al. Japan Younus Ahmed Khan Gracluare School of Engineering. All these methods assume a single value factor of 299 safety for the entire failure surface. an approach . Bishop. Potts. Furthermore. Yagi. 1992) and Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (Huang and Ma. Force and moment equilibrium equations are derived from the equilibrium conditions and the MohrCoulomb failure envelope. 1964. 1999). 1992) are all effective methods of progressive failure analysis. 1973. The required assumptions are made in order to get the solution of the method. 197 1). Variable factor of safety is defined along a shear surface and the local safety factors are calculated.
sin + X. we have the following 4n number of equations n number of horizontal force equilibrium equations. 4 i are the strength parameters li is the length of the slice base Ni & ui are the total normal force.A6 A3 300 (9 .N I sina. where. the local factors of safety are allowed to be less than unity in stable slope. Since we define a local factor of safety (I. (3) and (4) for eliminating T. n number of the points of application of the N forces and n number of the local factors of safety I. . 6 sin (3) From equations (1) & (2). cos 6. All of these methods of progressive failure analysis are based on the vertical slices. the body of mass contained within the assumed slip surface and the ground surface is divided into n nonvertical slices (Fig 1) Now. 2 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 2 1 Necessary ussirmptrons In this method.+. n number of the shear force T. E. + I cos6. Yamabe... n1 number of interslice force X. we get the following expression from the MohrCoulomb equation: By combining the equations (2). Here.we get.1 number of the points of application of the E forces given by Z . and NI. =KIT+ cos6. 1999). the mass contained within the slip surface and the free ground surface is divided into n nonvertical slices. A.+ X i .X. I?. Considering a failure surface as shown in Figure 1. On the other hand. Taki.+. . the number of required assumptions are 3n3 We assume 171 acting points of E forces and another ii acting points of N forces at the middle of the slope base Another n1 assumptions are made about the relationship between X and E forces. Therefore.X i cos. progressive failure analysis using nonvertical slice needs to be considered. A2 + Xi+.’sin a. the analysis is based on the AILC (Yamagami. n number of vertical force equilibrium equations. Jiang & Khan. i e X= A.r. cos a. + N. f(x)E This type of relationship is considered here to introduce one extra unknown. . n1 number of the interslice force E.6.we have. to equalize the unknowns to the number of equations as proposed by Morgenstern & Price (1965) in their method Therefore.. E.for progressive failure analysis of reinforced slopes with vertical slice have been developed and presented in a companion paper (Yamagami.XIA4 + A5. +E. we have the following 7n3 unknowns n number of the normal force N. .n. (2) T c o s a . 1999) technique where. Jiang & Yamabe.) at the base of each slice.2 Resolving eyiruiions Figure 1. sin 6.+.+.El+1 6. . 7.A1 = E . the actual number of assumptions is reduced to 3n2 2.sin6. = . c. (A) Division of nonvertical slices and (B) forces acting on an inclined slice. This paper presents a simple limit equilibrium method of progressive failure analysis using nonvertical slices. n number of moment equilibrium equations and n number of MohrCoulomb failure criterion equations for each slice In order to get the solution of the proposed method.and pore pressure acting on the base of the slice and Fi is the safety factor of the slice Resolving the forces vertically and horizontally we have.
F. Calculating the processes from 2 to 8 of step11. is satisfied SO. (6) To solve this equation. if (Finem1F1nas tolerance Here.= 6Mi. sin 6.. tan@. The complete solution must satis@ the boundary condition. sin 6. which is similar to that of MorgensternPrice method. the above mentioned equations are applicable to find a solution for safety factor calculation.2 for Secant method 2. m. as mentioned before..~F.newl the immediately previous value of F. A1 = m. Find F.. Find N.E. Substituting this E.A3XlA4+A5A6] 1 A1 For any slope... F... the relation between normal force E and shear force X.. Start with FI1 and from equations (6) & (7) 4.. from the Secant method as. . A6 = K... . 301 .. A3 = m.. A4 = m. <I) Now putting the value of Xi.ne~\.). .. = 0) about the left cornerpoint. al.. . ygi) is the center of gravity of the slice and d. sinS.W.I. sina. value from equation (4) 6 . A5 = (m.(A1. Therefore.] from equation (9) 7.. c. = Fi. E.. COSS.. with for example the Secant method.= 0.+. and . + m. are as follows: Step I: 1..+] andf(x) must be optimized in the present analysis (Yamagami. Fit and Fi2 for Secant method 3. Considering moment equilibrium(M. Assume two initial F values... E + cos a.(AI. 2.m.) 14~1. until (F1nealFInea )< tolerance.sin a . )< F. we obtain. The calculation procedures for a slope. 1 & A.. + ym. c. C (xb. Z.+. Putting another initial F (=F12)value and recalculate M1.b..value into equation (9) yields an equation which contains F.) M. the moment equilibrium for individual slice is satisfied and the value of <(i = 1 .+.[Al.1 8. r?) in sequence can be obtained. +m. By solving the equation (lO). which is divided into n nonvertical slices numbering 1 to n from left to right. Start with A.1 Step 11: 1. . we obtain a recurrence equation (6) of interslice forces. et.Mr.+1 X1+l 5 .(AL E. A is an unknown parameter. cosa...F. is assumed to be half of the base length (I..[A... = horizontal length of the slice base 6i & & + I are the inclinations of slice interfaces with yaxis ai= angle between the slice base and xaxis. (xgi. COSS. sin 6. i=l. we have the following equation of moment equilibrium: If (F. I.[~1. Wi= weight of the slice Ki = horizontal Earthquake acceleration b.Fi.f(x)is a known hnction..where.= mz = s i n a .+. A2 = m.. ybi) of the base of the slice. (A4 e. tan@.m.]with this F.m.. and find next F. is and tolerance is1 O'6 9.ne~\)>tolerance.. setting Ei and Xi to zero 2. = A..) M.cosa....cosS. m..3 Cnlculatiori procedures E. 1999) A value for E. Assume A. recalculate then M. Calculate E.. =[EiA2+X.. where. as the only unknown.COSS..tan @. <.. where. we assume.is determined from equations (6) and (7) with a known value of E.] from equation (7) into equation (8). Find moment value M.
and TP) and the sum of the available shear strengths along the entire slip surface. Peak . value. 3. At the beginning.1 Example I :Simple homogeneoirs slope Figure 3 illustrates the geometry and strength properties of a slope problem with no pore pressure. 2. we define the overall safety factor. with A. the peak strength of such slices is then replaced by the residual strength. 1. newl . Rr = clr I + N tan @ r For evaluating the safety factor of the slope as a whole. 2.=A. The calculation is continued until the peak strength of all the slices with F<1. then 1 new = final 2.value until the boundary condition =0) is satisfied. Z is assumed usually to be 1/3 of the slice height.. "'> f ('n)7 1' >2 ' 7 "' > z~l 1 + minimize(= 0) (13 ) The NelderMead simplex method for nonlinear programming is applied to solve the equation (1 3). 1978) The softening processes are included by the following iterative procedures: a. The local factors of safety are calculated using the calculation procedures discussed in the previous section. Figure 3b shows the 302 .. it is assumed that the soil resistance will drop abruptly to the final residual value (as Law and Lamb. 1 newt1 is the immediately previous value of A. The solutions including no softening as well as softening process are presented. where. new.g. until it is satisfied. Therefore. every slice is assigned with the peak strength. 1978) immediately after reaching the peak value (Fig. However.4 Considering softening The softening can not be defined with the amount of deformation or strain in the limit equilibrium analysis. many studies have indicated that f(x) and 2 in this method must be optimized to obtain a complete converged solution. A value is found from the Secant method as follows.6 Overall safety factor Rp = c ' . f ('. This set of F values represents the local safety factors of the slices.for n numbers of slices we find the values of F1.A. f(x) is taken as an arbitrary function. for example.. 1) or half sine and so on. we present solutions of the two illustrative examples. The slip surface for this case is noncircular. If slices whose F<1 emerge.). In the Janbu method. At this stage. In this study. FZ.& and we will get another set of F values. 2).strength (Rp) and Residualstrength (Rr) are expressed as. if not reiterate the processes from 1 to 11 of stepI1 with the successive A. Schematic diagram of softening. new . Yamagami & Taki (1997) solved this problem considering progressive failure with vertical slices.. reiterate the processes from 1 to 10 of stepI1 with A. 12. are replaced with residual strength. . Then. l + N t a n @ . 2.. Now. F. Figure 2. usually En+lf 0. .O'. a constant (e. 11. tion. (after Law & Lumb.F3. we get a set of F values after satisfying all the conditions. m is the number of slices with residual strength among the total slices (n). .5 Optimization of f(x) and Z if ( A. The boundary condition can be reached by optimizing the following equation: I'Il+l 1' = F2m[a>f(x. check the boundary condi=O. . Recalculate the processes from 1 to 9 of step11. In the MorgensternPrice method.lby the ratio between the sum of the mobilized shear forces (T. new)<l. 3 EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS Here.era. 10. Fc.
In the present approach. For these cases.25. Figure 3.0° and unit weight of the material(y) =21.3~ & 3d). we consider several cases with residual strengths (Figs.20 for the case of no softening. where the proposed method showed an overall factor of safety of 1. c=8. 3. which is analyzed by Skempton & Brown (1961).6 kPa & $=32. We used the strength parameters. the calculated overall factor of safety is 0.98. For this case the slip surface is circular. The Morgenstern & Price method provided a single value factor of safety of 1. To demonstrate the effects of the softening behavior of the soil.Figure 4. Solution of Selset landslide (example 2) distributions of local factors of safety along the slip surface. near MiddletoninTeesdale in Yorkshire. we find the overall factor of safety gradually decreases with strength. we find that the local safety factors of about twothird of the slip surface are below unity.2 Example 2 :Selset Landslide This is a failed valley slope of the River Lune. Solution of a simple homogeneous slope (example 1) 303 . A number of researchers have analyzed this slip surface for example. Figure 4 depicts this slide with the calculated results. Law & Lumb (1978) and Chang (1992).8 kN/m3. Here.
Geotechnique.R. T. Application of composite slip surfaces for stability analysis. Svmp..E.40: 1:79101. Sarma.. Limit equilibrium method with local factors of safety for slope stability.36: 1:5764. Geotechniqzte. Jiang. 14:2:77102. Chang. Geotech. No. 1961. The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. Proc. Proc. and Lumb. Analysis of progressive failure in clay slopes. e h . 1954.K. Proc. Mokba. Janbu.3 :4349. it might be extended for the slopes with reinforcing elements.K.K. . Morgenstern. 1954. Yorkshire. S. . N. So our hture research is aimed to these possibilities. 1979. Yamagami. 1973. Variable factor of safety in slope stability analysis. & Yamabe. gfh. and Lee. Geot. Panel discussion.ICSMFE. 1955. Eng.17. Rot terdam. Jiang. and Taki. The overall factor of safety judged the safety factor of the slope as a whole. 23:3 :423433. 1986.C. Discrete element method for slope stability analysis J. Balkema. Geotechnique. Stabilty analysis of embankments and slopes. 118:12:18891905. Yogi. A. REFERENCES Bishop. Sarma. Limit equilibrium slope stability analysis considering progressive failure. This method hlly satisfied the force and moment equilibrium conditions. Yogi. Hanrard Soil Mechanics Series.T. M. J. 1967. Progressive failurewith special reference to the mechanism causing it. 4h Rankine Lecture.4 CONCLUSIONS A method of progressive failure analysis considering nonvertical slices within the limit equilibrium approach has been proposed. Symp. Eng. of Inter. Japan. A. 5: 1:7.C. Taki. J. J..S. The influence of progressive failure 011 the choice of the method of stability analysis. 1999. and Vauglian. local failures along a slip surface and softening behavior of the soil materials have been taken into account. 304 . A. 1971. Yamagami. Geotechnique. The locally failed zone has been treated with the AILC technique. 1965. Bjerrum. N. Skempton.I. This method should be treated with AGLC technique for locally failed zones of the slope. and Brown.Y. A limit equilibrium analysis of progressive failure in the stability of slopes. N.46. V.et. P. Balkem a. of Inter. L.D. Progressive failure analysis of Slopes Based on a LEM. Potts.. Proc. eds. Moreover. Geotechnique. Canadian Geot. European Con$ On Stability of Earth Slopes.W. Dounias. 1992. Janbu. C. ASCE. 1978. 7 19724. the method provided acceptable solutions of the two example problems. Chugh. Yamabe. 1999. S. al. A. al. Y.W. 3"Terzaghi Lecture. Symposizim on Deformation and Progressive IG+htre in Geomechanics (edited by Asaoka. C. . Yamaganii.T. Proc. J. et. Bishop. 21:2:186172.W. Nagoya. ASCE.. on Slope Stability Engineering: Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Aspects (ISShikoku '99). T. Stability analysis of embankments and slopes. & Khan.. A. Div. and et. 15:1:7993. A. The method became statically determinate with the inclusion of simple assumptions from the Morgenstern & Price method and Janbu method.M. Law.M. S. The use of slip circle in the stability analysis of earth slopes. A landslide in boul der clay at Selsct. 105:GT12:15111524. Canadian Geot. 24:652656. Div. and Price. 1990. 15:113122 Lo. 1. on Slope Stability Engineering: Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Aspects (IS'Sliikokzr '99). Progressive failure in slo es of overconsolidated plastic clay and clay shales. G. Found. Geotechnique.J. Rotterdam..1:251258.W. Geotechnique. K. Intl. Long term stability of clay slopes. 1964. 1987. Srbulov: M. N. 1967. K. Div. S. Finite element analysis of progressive failure of Carsington embankment.. Finally.R.. 1973. D. By defining the local factors of safety..2:142150. A. 93:SM5:349.. Stability analysis of slopes with dimensionless parameters. Geot. J. A. Soil Mech. 1997. M. A X E . P. 11:4:280293. Bishop. Proc. A promising approach for progressive failure analysis of reinforced slopes.al). Geotechnique. T.W. N. Skempton.F. COTIF O~l0. Stockholm.
(U.matric suction on the failure surface at failure. laboratory testing is not a practical method as it requires costly laboratory equipment. 1 Failure criterion for unsaturated soil 305 internal friction.U. 1). The unsaturated strength parameters (c’. Therefore. Gan et al. should be adopted in order to evaluate reasonably the stability of slopes in unsaturated zones. In addition. when slope failures occur slip surfaces will be located in an unsaturated zone. 1992. expert test techniques and long test times. . A back calculation procedure is constructed by combining these two conditions with the Bishop factor of safety equation with Fredlund‘s failure criterion.pore air pressure. 4’. Abramento & Carvalho. 4”) from an actual slope failure as long as the suction distribution along the slip surface at failure is known. Rahardjo & Fredlund.. instead of the MohrCoulomb model for saturated conditions. U . An effective failure criterion for unsaturated soil (Fredlund. Uni\wsitv of Takwhimu. 1986. 1996). 1979) is expressed as (see Fig. 1984.net normal stress state variable on a failure surface at failure.[l] can easily be combined with the conventional limit equilibrium methods to carry out stability analyses for unsaturated slopes. ) Yamagami & Ueta. The basic idea of this method is based on two fundamental .. However.angle of internal fiiction associated with suction of soil. However. a slope overlying a relatively shallow strong layer of soil or rock).[l] are usually determined by triaxial compression tests and/or modified direct shear tests (e. (onu. In such cases. Jupatz Yasuhiro Ueta HLI nshin Consultunts Comnpuny Lini ited. pore water pressure. The back analysis method proposed has the potential to determine the magnitude of (c’. $b) in Eq. bb) can be back calculated quickly.Back analysis of unsaturated shear strength from a circular slope failure JingCai Jiang & Takuo Yamagami Depurmient of Civil Engineering. Some being used to back calculate both c and $ (e.g.) . it is often encountered that the groundwater table in a slope is deep and/or only a shallow slope failure is possible due to particular geological and geographical conditions (for example.effective cohesion. This method is based on two essential conditions which take full advantage of the information provided by a slope failure in a unsaturated zone. 4”) in Fredlund’s failure criterion.) .. In other words. 1 INTRODUCTION In engineering practice. Tadepalli. Back analysis is an effective tool for obtaining shear strength parameters for design of landslide control works because it avoids many of the problems associated with laboratory tests. Application of the proposed method to a hypothetical slope failure illustrates that a unique and reliable solution of (c’. all existing back analysis techniques to determine strength parameters are only available for slope failures under saturated conditions. 1992) and others being used to estimate the magnitude of 4 only by assuming a value of c or vice versa. it is necessary to consider the effect of unsaturation of soil on slope stability. 1988. 1989. Eq. Osuki. The objective of this paper is to present an effective and quick method for determining the unsaturated strength parameters from a slope failure. Nyugen. an unsaturated strength criterion.effective angle of Fig.g. where c’ . U . the difficulties in undisturbed soil sampling from an unsaturated soil also greatly limit applications of laboratory testing. Vanapalli et al. J u p n ABSTRACT: A back analysis method is described to determine three unsaturated strength parameters (c’. 4 . 4’.
tan$' and tan$b.u . $b) is described in detail by applying these two conditions to the Bishop safety factor equation with Eq. a solution (c'o. 1986. b'. ..O)into Eq. and tan$b. $b) is given through experimental or empirical means.. a solution (c'o. the NewtonRaphson method. The back calculation procedure for (c'.[11.. tan@. In Fig.  u.. In other words. are evaluated from the information of the failure surface. d=Icosa is the width of the slice ( I is the length of the slice base)..2. The value of the factor of safety of a failure surface is usually taken to be F p l . I 306 . $. 11). Back analysis of strength parameters is carried out based on a known or assumed failure surface within a slope. an iterative procedure. 1987) some point on the relation surface. ) d t a ~ ~ + ~F. the two essential conditions for back calculation of the strength parameters are yielded: I). is presented. 1992)..2. i. we have c {crd+Wtanbr+(u. and m. is necessary to obtain a solution of tan$'. [3] indicates the relationship between c'. Substituting the known value ofF=Fo (=1 . The required strength parameters satisfying Eq.) CW sin a mr c = c31 where W.... 1986.conditions (Yamagami & Ueta. we will first show that when a parameter among (c'.. and tan$'. c'.. Finally. O<tan$'~~tan$'. This surface will be called the "relation surface" hereafter. its factor of safety should be the smallest of all admissible slip surfaces in the vicinity of the failure surface. As an actual failure surface reflects the most critical conditions.. limit ranges of variation of c'.[3] keeps unchanged (constant). That is to say. representing a 3D surface.. an illustrative example problem is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the back analysis method. [4b] is implicit in tan$'. W is the weight of a slice. Then.= hrd + W tan@+ ( U .[3] is corresponding to As Eq. 2 BASIC IDEA OF BACK ANALYSIS 2 1 7ivo Essential Conditionsfor Back Analysis Two essential conditions suggested for back analysis of strength parameters (Yamagami and Ueta. we assume the slope in question to be homogeneous in strength In other words.)d tan@b}/ma Y'Wsina [21 where m. To summarize the above descriptions. which take full advantage of the information provided by a slope failure. and are essential for any back analysis procedure of strength parameters. the crtan$'tan$b relationship of Eq. a procedure. The c'.[2].2. which is able to back calculate three unsaturated strength parameters simultaneously. Strength parameters to be identified must satisfy the relation surface shown in Fig... and a is the inclination of the slice base to the horizontal. . tan+") to be back analyzed should meet the inequalities of O<C'O<C'~~X.(3). Based on the above two conditions. e.. tan$'o. to be back analyzed should make the factor of safety of the failure surface minimum. Note that the c'tan$b relationship is linear when tan+' in Eq. can be calculated respectively by >. 1992) are presented here for the sake of completeness Since the aim of this paper is to develop a simple and quick back analysis method for the unsaturated strength parameters. tan4'0... These two conditions take full advantage of the information provided by a slope failure. Eq.. tan$'. 0 .=cosa+sinatan$'/F.e. 4' and +'' are back calculated as an average of the strength parameters along a failure surface The Bishop method for unsaturated conditions is employed in this paper and the factor of safety equation is written as follows (Fredlund.g. egf in c'tan$'tan$b space. maximum values of the strength parameters. and O~tan$bO<tan$bmax. d. tan$' and tan$'. as shown in Fig. the other two strength parameters can be determined by Yamagami and Ueta's back analysis (1986) of c and 4 for saturated conditions. Strength parameters to be identified must satisfy that the factor of safety of the failure surface is the minimum among any admissible slip surfaces close to the failure surface. crmax..
may be expressed as: Y where the overlined symbols indicate that they are evaluated from the trial slip surface in question. Since one parameter is known. all trial slip circles are constrained to pass through the two ends A and B of the failure surface.3.u. For computational convenience. Fig. [5]. [3] and rearranging the into terms of the equation. F.)d tan bb = w(hosin a  tm4i) [5] ma ma This equation indicates the relationship between c‘ and tan$b. as shown in Fig./ tan$bIStan$bo 5 tan+bn For any trial slip surface. F. varying with the parameters c’ and tan$b.e.2. In other words. c.4). In order to explain the back analysis procedure. Substituting $‘=$‘o Eq.3) can be represented by a curve blb2 and a curve ele2.[8a] and [Sb] indicate that application of the two essential conditions to a pair of trial slip surfaces resulted in reduction of possible range of the required c’ and tan$b. the factor of safety. F. 2 F. i. F. From Fig. d c ’ o 5 c.3 Circular failure surface and trial slip circles 307 Eqs.3) can be illustrated by a curve a1a2in Fig.4 (b). P I P I Fig. in Eq. we consider the condition 11) which requires that the factors of safety.4 we can see that satisfaction of the condition 11) signifies that values of c’ and tan$b cannot be beyond the ranges AB and DE. On the other hand. the F. Next. we have $I t c’d + : ( U . Application of the Yamagami and Ueta back analysis (1986) has shown that when (c’.. the condition I) means that strength parameters (c’o. . respectively. tan$”) to be identified must satisfy the c‘tan$b relationship shown in Eq. respectively. which can be represented by a straight line PQ on the relation surface. $b) is given.3). the F. a number of trial slip circles are also chosen in the vicinity of the failure surface (Fig. corresponding to a point on the line PQ in Fig. In the present case.4 (a) and by a curve dldz in Fig. As the Bishop method is employed. a circular failure surface is illustrated in Fig. of trial slip surfaces should be greater than Fo.2.c’ and relationships for a trial slip circle below the failure surface (such as A0‘’B in Fig.2.. a similar method to that proposed by Yamagami and Ueta (1986) is applied to dealing with back calculation problems where one of (c’. $I.2 Application of Yamagamiand Ueta s method In this section. tan$b) change along the line PQ in Fig. the required c’o and tan$bo should satisfy the follow inequalities (see Fig. respectively (Fig. the range of variation of c‘ and tan$h can be restricted to an extremely narrow zone in . say =$I0 is assumed to be known here for convenience. tan$”) It is of interest to note that the factor of safety.4 Restriction of ranges of variation of (c‘.. It has been shown that when the above procedure is performed with respect to an appropriate number of pairs of trial slip circles close to the failure surface..4).c‘ and relationships for a trial slip circle above the failure surface (such as AO’B in Fig.2.[7] is considered to be a knction rather than a constant in the present analysis.
6) For the trial slip surface with the radius r1. m+l) where c'l=O and c.7 are performed using the back calculated strength parameters.. $'= 9. is The above procedure is repeated for each trial slip surface.. a similar back analysis to the Yamagami and Ueta 308 .) associated with r. The pairs of (c. tan$'j) so calculated certainly meet the condition I). The example has a configuration with a height of 5. 2.85') are back calculated respectively by giving c'=c'0=4. 4) Substituting c' = c'. ('j=l.n).9kPa.3 An efficient and Aysternatic back analysis procedure Similarly to the method by Yamagami and Ueta (1986).6. 10.5 points of intersection of the Ftc' curve with the line of Ft =Fo 4'.. The obtained critical circle and the corresponding minimum factor of safety are also shown in Fig. tan$'. an inclination of 1:2 and a lower groundwater table. m+l. =c '..9H (kPa).. 7) Accor$ng to the obtained values of c'i (C*'i). Note that $' =$I0 is assumed to be known in the present case.. $'= 6. As a result. Fig.9kPa and $b= $'o= 6..2. Eq. as illustrated in Fig.a.03') and (c'=5. tan$b) exists. 2. .[2] with the conventional repeated trials. 2) Values of c. tan$') or (c'.. values of tan$'.0 kPa.7..(r*.which a required solution of (c'. computations of Ft by Eq.7. $' and $' is given as a known value. 1) An appropriate number (n) of trial slip circles are separately chosen above and below the failure surface (but in the vicinity of it). a search using the soil parameters of ct=4. 2.. The point of intersection of the rcr curve with the line of r=ro (radius of the failure circle) corresponds to a required solution of c'. 5) Using the above (c.+. Also. BACK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR DE TERMINING(c'.[3]. When $'= $'o=lO' is given.8). In addition. respectively (see Fig.64 kN/m3 has been carried out by combining Eq. 6 An efficient and systematic procedure It has been shown that when c' or tan$' is given as a known value. the results of (c1=4..91kPa. (tan$' .)=4..24') are obtained by the efficient and systematic procedure (see Fig. And the point of intersection of the rtan$" curve with the line of r=ro yields a solution of tan$'. the back analysis procedure described in Section 2. .Om. . 2. It can be seen from these results that in each case the back calculated strength parameters agree with the assumed values quite well.. and the value of c' at a dividing point is represented by c'. 2. i. 4') It has been indicated that when one of the three parameters c'. the critical slip surfaces and the associated minimum factors of safety obtained from the above three situations are almost the same as those shown in Fig.6). ($I= 3.5). 3 ) The range of OC'. $'. m+l) corresponding to c.~. . in which H (m) denotes the height from the groundwater table.~ is divided into (m)equal parts. The distribution of suction is assumed to be (uau. By assigning a known value to one of (c'. as shown in Fig. n). $b= 6.)(i=1.4 Verification An illustrative example problem is presented here to verifl the effectiveness of the back analysis procedure described in section 2.. a value c ' ~ c' at the point of intersection of the Ftc' of curve with the line of Ft=Fois obtained from the results in step 5 ) (see Fig. $'=6' and y=17.[8] are carried out for each trial slip surface.. j=l...7.... 3 in which only two trial circles on each side are shown for simplicity). and tan$'.2 can be performed more efficiently and systematically by applying the following calculations. (j=l.7. are calculated.. Fig. rcr and rtan$" relationships can be drawn schematically (Fig. are calculated respectively using Eqs.0'.tan$'). Their radii are denoted by ri and ri* (i=l. and the results are recorded..e.. . into Eq..1'. Stability analyses for the slope shown in Fig.3.[4a] and [4c] on the basis of the failure surface information.. $').[3].. tan$'j). 2. . the other two parameters are back calculated according to the information shown in Fig. similar back calculations can be constructed to determine (tan$'. $'=loo. In order to obtain a failure surface. .r. a value (tan$")l of tan$' at the point of intersection of &tan$' curve with the line of Ft =Fo determined in the same way.
'c . difference between critical slip surface and the failure surface can be regarded to be a fknction of tan$'.9) between their centers. the back calculation procedure for determining (c'. Based on this fact. the critical slip surface located using these parameters differs from the failure surface.C ' ~ . first. corresponds to a required solution of unsatu By considering the above condition. In order to explain the approach. 1) Calculate values of. 8 Back calculation results based on Tc' and rtan$b relationships ($'=$'0=1Oo) method (1986) can be applied to determining the other two strength parameters uniquely.. tanb.. . 2) Divide the range of 0tan$'. The minimum value of DR. and the associated minimum factor of safety must be equal to FO(=1 . tan$:. $'. 2.. into an appropriate 309 Fig.. and $"o must be identical with the failure surface.7 Critical slip surface of a hypothetical slope (H: vertical distance from the water table) Fig. 4'0) should satisfy that the critical slip surface searched by do.. 3)Regard each value of tan$. and 0.. being a hnction of tan$'. tan$b) which are beyond O . a procedure is presented here to back calculate three unsaturated strength parameters simultaneously where the following condition is used: Required strength parameters (c'o. Eliminate back calculated values of (c'. $'o. is divided sufficiently small. It is obvious that the magnitude of difference between the locations of the critical slip surface and the failure surface depends upon the chosen value of tan$'.using Eqs. three parameters (c'..tan$b.. tan$bj) as a required solution which give the critical slip surface that is most close to the failure sudace.m)where tan$'l=O and tan$k+l=tan$lmax. similar back calculations can also be carried out in terms of c' and tan$b separately. tan$'.[4a][4c] on the basis of the failure surface information. In searching for critical slip surfaces. An optimization approach is constructed to enhance the efficiency of back calculations.. $Io number of equal parts (tan$.. i. Thus.9 Optimization problem for back analysis . .. DRmm (=O).. a value of tan$' is chosen between 0 and tan+'. . Therefore. and tan$bma. If the range of 0tan$'. 5 ) Take such values of (c). tan$") by the procedure described in the previous sections. tan$b) so obtained are not a required solution. DR varies with tan$'.. While the above procedure is described in terms of tan$'. j=1. the difference between a critical slip surface and the failure circle can be represented by the distance DR (Fig. tan$'.e.O). tan$") obtained in 3). and back calculate (c). tan$'o = tan$. In other words.9). However.. the abovementioned back calculation procedure can result in a sufficiently accurate solution of strength parameters. and then c' and tan$b can be back calculated by giving tan$'o = tan$'. to be a solution of tan$'. +b) is described as follows. such computations require long computer time. it is convenient to constrain them to pass through the two ends A and B of the failure circle (Fig. Usually.Fig. 4) Search for the critical slip surfaces and the minimum factors of safety using each group of (c).
. 115122. respectively. $'. =tan$'maxare denoted. Proc.0" I the Bishop factor of safety for unsaturated conditions. has been presented. and Fredlund. H. and if DRI =D&. EXAMPLE PROBLEM Table 1 Back calculation results Cases in terms of $' 1 correct solution I 5. T.rated strength parameters. G.tan$'J are back calculated by giving tan$'o = 61 and tan$'o = 62. D. Anderson and K. 1992. U. assume 6.. then 6m=O and 6. is calculated. Y. 4") are in good agreement with the assumed parameters (correct values). 379392. V. & Ueta. K. 1992) back analysis of (c. 4. Balkema).. The average value.=61 and 6.. R. 4') in Fredlund's failure criterion. Back analysis of average strength parameters for critical slip surfaces. E.. Application of the proposed method to a hypothetical back analysis problem indicates that the back calculated strength parameters agree well with the correct values of (c'. D. D. G. Measurements of matric suction and volume changes during inundation of collapsible soil. Slope Stability (Ed. tan$") and (c'z. Canadian Geotechnical Journa. the above solution procedure can also be performed in terms of c' or tan$". 619624. =6n.G. S. D. ChristChUrCh. Based on the critical slip surface. Y . Con$ on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Their average values and the correct solution of (c'. 4'). It can be seen from Table 1 that in all cases the back calculated values of (c'.. W. This method is based on the two simple and rigorous conditions which take full advantages of the information provided by a slope failure. A. the minimum factor of safety and the distribution of suction shown in Fig.0" 1 6. Int. It is an extension of Yamagami and Ueta's (1986. 1988. 4 2 . Rio de Janeiro. the 12th Int. Nguyen. Repeat steps from 2) to 5 ) until the difference between 61 and 62 does not exceed a prescribed tolerance. $'. 3. Gan. Second Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: Appropriate concepts and technology for unsaturated soils. $' and $" are summarized in Table 1. Details of this are described in the following. 1989. Ltd. differences between the two critical slip surfaces and the failure circle. and Rahardjo.$I. & Ueta. 1979. Vanapalli. J. 62. D.+0. assume 6. M. the same idea will be combined with factor of safety equations for noncircular slip surfaces for back calculation of unsaturated strength parameters. 4") was suggested by applying the two essential conditions to $I. 5367. tan$"') and (~'2... Two circular critical slip surfaces are located using the obtained (~'1. 25. K.=6. 1984. 1987. The following two values of tan$' are calculated by the golden section method: 61=6. D. Rahardjo. 16. 1996. Back analysis of strength parameters for landslide control works. 15 (2). M. 7. G. and Clifton. H. DRI and DRz. If DRl <DRz. GZJODJ.0 I 10. 1. 34(3). Canadian Geotechnical Journal. and 62=6. Geotechnical parameters for the study of natural slopes instabilizatioii at 'Serra do Mar'. 33. G.. 423427. Geotechnique. The back analysis procedure for (c'. Pufahl.S. G. three unsaturated strength parameters are back calculated by the back analysis method described in the preceding section. (c'l. Richards). C. Model for the prediction of shear strength with respect to soil suction. The golden section method is employed to solve the above optimization problem. 15991602. Geotechnical Testing Journal. A value of tan$'. on Computer and Physical Modelling in Geotechnical Engineering (A. 6th International Symposium on Lanhlides (A. 1992. Then. Of course. Fredlund. by M. $) for slope failures in saturated conditions. Slope Stability Analysis Incorporating the Effect of Soil Suction. Future research planned is to carry out laboratory failure tests for model slopes to further verifL the accuracy of the back analysis method. T. Fredlund.382 (6nSm). assume 6. Yamagami. Determination of the shear strength parameters of an unsaturated soil using the direct shear test. Bangkok. & Carvalho. are obtained. Fredlund. 113144. and 6. A. Yamaganii. The results obtained from the procedures in terms of c'. $") are also shown in this Table. and Fredlund. Tadepalli. In addition. 61. and the corresponding c' and tan$" are taken as a required solution of the three strength parameters. Symp. Balkema).618 (6n6m). REFERENCES Abramento. S. $. S U M A R Y A back analysis method for determining the unsaturated strength parameters (c'. A. I 5. 6 (tan$'). 5005 10. John Wiley & Sons. =62. Proc. 121139. Proc.=61 and 6. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.+0. 1986. Back calculations of slope failure failures by the secant method. if DRl > DRz. of the final 61 and 62. 310 . This indicates that the proposed back analysis procedure can provide sufficiently accurate results of unsaturated strength parameters.
a sophisticated numerical analysis method such as finite element method (FEM) can be used to back analyze the soil's parameters on the basis of displacement measurements (Sakurai. any model can be used as a subroutine program. in some cases such as largescale natural slopes. In back analysis. can not be applied to the slopes without failure slip surfaces. There are only four parameters (E. the results of laboratory tests and in situ tests become more and more reliable. v . With the development of the measuring instruments and techniques. University of Tokushima. 31 1 . It is not surprising that material properties largely scatter from place to place. The proposed method is applied to an excavation performed in a homogeneous and isotropic slope. even after a carefid investigation. However. Rotterdam. So one should choose the most appropriate model depending on the quality and quantity of the given information for prediction purpose. Nguyen. For example. An increase in parameter number generally improves the system modelling error. although soil formation seems to be identical. 1996) is employed in which MohrCoulomb failure criterion is used and DruckerPrager model is taken as plastic potential functions. in fact there is no effective back analysis methods so far for the stable slopes. Yagi. it is extremely difficult to quantitatively estimate the mechanical properties of soils by tests. One important and difficult task in FE analyses is the choice of constitutive models for soils. Jiang Department of Civil Engineering. Yarnagarni & Jiang 0 1999 Balkerna. The problem is that there are more material parameters in elastoplastic model than in elastic model. and these methods have been more and more frequently used in the estimation of the model parameters. Therefore it should be recognized that increase in parameter uncertainty reduces the prediction reliability which is the most important aim of the back analysis. An elastic and transversely anisotropic model was assumed for rocks and applied to cut slope problems (Sakurai.Yamagami & J.g. The NLSSQP method is capable of solving Nonlinear Least Squares problems with constrained conditions by means of Sequential Quadric Programming method. a complex model may not give better prediction.Yamagami & Ueta.. a simple but practical model called MCDP elastoperfectplastic model (Tanaka.Japan T. 1984. however. 1989.Q. however. 1990).C. some researchers proposed back analysis methods. there is no necessity to prescribe the constitutive model. In order to avoid these difficulties. 41' ) to be back analyzed. the elastic model is not applicable to soils.Japan ABSTRACT: This paper presents a possible method to back analyze the parameters of MCDP model by incorporating FEM into a minimization method NLSSQP. Therefore the real behaviors of structures such as displacements often differ from the predicted ones. there are mainly two types of errors: one is the system modelling error which can be evaluated by the goodness of fit of the calculated results to the observed data. These methods. In the present paper. This difficulty is mainly due to the complex and nonhomogeneous geological conditions of the ground. et al. Thus. because it is well known that the soils usually present elastoplastic behavior.g. 1990). Feng Sun Brain Plan Company Limited. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 A back analysis of MCDP model parameters based on FEM and NLSSQP method T. But if the stable slopes are subjected to loading (e. The results indicate that the proposed method can provide convergent and accurate solutions. the strength parameters (c' and +') of failed slopes have been successfblly back analyzed by combining limit equilibrium method and optimization techniques (e. So it is essential to employ elastoplastic model for soils.Slope Stability Engineering. The model parameters are estimated by minimizing a norm of the difference between observed and calculated values at specified observation points. but it also increases the parameter uncertainty and vice versa. Although only MCDP model is investigated in this paper. and the other is the error corresponding to parameter uncertainty. c' . 1 INTRODUCTION The parameters of constitutive models are conventionally determined using two ways such as laboratory tests and in situ tests. Tokushima. 1990). excavation).
The present paper introduces a minimization method (NLSSQP method). The observation data can be related to the calculated values at the specified points by the following relationship: U* = ~ ( xe) + r(x) : (1) where U*:field observation data vector. The . Hence we usually need to solve the NLS problems with some constrained conditions. There are some methods available such as quasiNewton method for the optimization of NLS problems. The quasiNewton method.L= J(x)TJ(x)+$rj(x)V2rj(x) j=l rj(x) = u l U. x: model parameter vector to be estimated.g. The most comprehensive function to be minimized in the parameter value estimation procedure is given as: and the objective function is: Denoting the Lagrangian multiplier vectors of constraints g(x)SO and h(x)=O by A. U: calculated results vector by FEM based on the employed physical model with a chosen parameter vector. 312 . however. NLSSQP METHOD Equations (2) and (3) are commonly called Least Square problem. any model can be used as a subroutine program. loading conditions and boundary conditions. andp .details will be described in the following. it is clearly understood that the parameters are at least positive. different schemes give different answers. in which Sequential Quadric Programming is used to solve Nonlinear Least Square problems with constrained conditions. First let's see the following nonlinear least square problem: Constrained conditions: The constitutive parameters are estimated by minimizing a norm of the difference between observed and model calculated values at specified observation points.g. Due to the complexity of the constitutive relationship.. It is the authors' opinion that NLSSQP method has so far been the only method to be capable of solving NLS problems with constrained conditions. which is capable of solving Nonlinear Least Square problems with constrained conditions by using Sequential Quadric Programming method. In fact.p) = r(x)Tr(x)+hTg(x) +pTh(x) 2 1 where (8) f(x) = r(x)T 2 '('1 = ~ l l r ( x ) l ~ = 2 c ( r ('~))' J=1 1 N=PxK (3) The Hesse matrix corresponding to x is given as: V. there are several minimization methods available (e. the Lagrangian hnction is defined by: L(x. 1973). it is very common in geotechnical engineering that most model parameters have definite ranges which can be known by experience or laboratory tests in advance.h. 1987). The convergent solutions by the proposed method are very close to the correct values. The other important task in back analysis is to solve minimization problems. Many methods. So the proposed method can be applied not only to the homogeneous and isotropic soils discussed in this paper. r(x): error vector. 3. it is difficult to determine such ranges. this paper employs NLSSQP method (Takahashi et al. MINIMIZING FUNCTION K: the number of the time steps. Although in some cases. N: the total number of the data. This method is applied to an excavation in a fictitious slope. however. the relation between r(x) and x is usually nonlinear and nonconvex as well. but also to various types of soils. e.It should be noted that there is no necessity to prescribe the constitutive models. Luenberger. 8: known input data vector. soil profile. (4) P: the number of the observation points. 2. In order to solve such problems. suffer fiom nonuniqueness and instability solutions. can not be used to solve the NLS problems with some constrained conditions.. The solutions obtained are very much affected by the set of initial values in the optimization schemes and sometimes. therefore the problem described above is a Nonlinear Least Square (NLS) problem. So far.
Therefore. where J(x) stands for the Jaccobi matrix of r(x). Step 3. 1 k. I : Let Y k. this paper employs an elasticperfectlyplastic model (Tanaka et al. then stop. An increase in parameter number generally improves the system modeling error. Considering this point. Ak.. was adopted in this model. = go to Step 3.k + l and p k + l respectively. Step I : When the xk. The constitutive models of soils (from simple linear elastic ones to very sophisticated elastoplastic ones) have been developed for several decades and a great deal of achievement has been acquired. et a1.l. k=O. The B matrix in SQP method can be expressed as: Then the algorithms of NLSSQP method can be described briefly as follows: Step 0: To set up initial x. a Step 5: Renew the matrixes of 4 and c to produce k Ak+.0. we can solve the following QP problem with respect to d.Ck are known. elastoplastic models can simulate the behaviors of the soils better than elastic ones do. respectively. but also increases the parameter uncertainty. go to step 3 to judge the convergence.5).2. Step 2: If (xk. MCDP MODEL then let a k Y kJ7and go to step 4. Step 3. j=j+l. 1996. parameter 6 >O..pjV2hj(x) j= 1 i=l (9) Step 4: Let xk+l=xk+ kdk.(DGW Equation) and Ck+l (BFGS Equation). The MohrCoulomb failure criterion and DruckerPrager plastic potential function are given in Equations (21) and (22). Correspondingly. then go to Step z 3.m +ChiV2gi(x)+$.2: Regarding the following line search evaluation fkction: Step 6 : Let k=k+l.. z E(O.and . LL) '(0. but the number of the model parameters increases correspondingly. and the nonassociated flow rule is assumed in which DruckerPrager model was taken as plastic potential fhction.3. otherwise. Oettl. it is essential to employ an appropriate constitutive model that can provide reasonable results.. p k + l ) satisfy KarushKuhnTucker (KKT) conditions. C. h(Xk) + Vh(xk)d = 0 (13) The solution of this problem is dk by which we can determine the searching direction. which coincides with experiment data very well.. the matrix of A. Lagrangian multiplier vectors of constraints g(x) 5 0 and h(x)=O become 2.3: let Y kJ+l= Y 4. So a mixed model (MCDP model) was produced. go to Step I 4. Step 3: To determine a k in the following procedure (Line Search): Step 3. The MohrCoulomb failure criterion. otherwise.1=1 and j=1.l).1998). Generally. 313 .
FE mesh and the observed points 314 . when stress state is at elastic zone r=l.. The MCDP model like many other models is confined to isotropic conditions.0. $' is effective angle of internal friction and cp represents angle of dilatancy. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE 1 An excavation performed in a homogeneous and isotropic hypothetical slope is taken into consideration in this paper.+o$ 4 + T2. ox'. we should choose the anisotropic models (e. Nova. BACK ANALYSIS PROCEDURES /(o.'.). 2 sin cp + The determination of the mechanical properties from the measured values of displacement is referred to as a back analysis. Figure 2. 1987). and r represents a coefficient. z are stress components. where c' represents effective cohesion. The finite element mesh and six observed nodal points are shown in Figure 2. 2 f= sin $' + 5 . +o. in other cases O<r<l.o. In these cases. (i. The convergent solutions have been obtained when KarushKuhnTucker (KKT) conditions are satisfied (Takahashi et al. however.' The stressstrain relation then can be expressed as follows: d o = [Del(1~ L where ~ 2(1v) _ _ (12v) 2v_ (12v) 0 _ 2v _ _ _ 0 (12v) _ 0 Figure 1. $' and E. Neglecting the angle of dilatancy cp (i. It should be noted that we employ MCDP model only for the sake of the simplicity. and .c' cos$' = 0 a= 0.e. +o. The flow chart of back analysis for determining model parameters is briefly given in Figure 1. 1986. Note that the number of the measured values should be large enough in order that optimization techniques can be adopted to determine the unknowns. The flow chart of back analysis [Del = E 2(1v) ~ 2(1v) _ _ (12v) 0 6. Schmidt et al. In most cases. c' . 1993).e. the soils of natural slopes exhibit anisotropic behavior due to geological formation. assuming cp=O). there are four parameters to be back analyzed in this model. at perfectly plastic zone r=O.g. v. . The proposed method belongs to indirect back analyses in which the FEA is one of the subroutine of NLSSQP.
22 0. then we need to change the input initial parameters till the convergent solutions come out. 315 . The initial stresses are determined by elastic analysis in which selfweight is handled as loading force. Due to the limited space. This does not mean that the back analysis results of Case 3 are the best one.00 KNm2 32.49 24. AB and CD in Figure 2). the computation time is no longer the most difficult problem.35 4(0) E(KNin') 7.00 No) E(MNm2) 7140 5130 6900 V 0. For the sake of simplicity. The model parameters are back analyzed by optimizing the norm of the difference between observed and calculated displacements at the specified observation points. which provide the good approximation of measured displacements.50 5540 0.01 38.e. In this figure. The height of the original slope is 20 m at 1:l.50 31. Nowadays.22 case 2 4.22 case 3 15.This excavation was done in the slope in 5 stages.71 25. Like other optimization methods. It is shown that the values of Case 4 and Case 2 are nearer to the observed values compared with Case 1 and Case 3.00 42.35 case 4 7. Therefore. There are both horizontal and vertical restrictions at bottom (i. The height of the cut slope is 10 m with the slope of 1: 1. From table 3 we can conclude that the backanalyzed values having the smallest error can be taken as the final back analyzed results. Table 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS As we do not have in situ observed horizontal displacements.50 25. the observed data are then produced from forward FEA. If the solutions are not convergent. For example the results of Case 4 can be chosen as the best one. with the development of the fast.70 10300 0. the computation time may be quite long if the initial values are given improperly and may be quite fast if the initial values are set properly.50 38.50 9. We can see that the present procedure could back analyze the reasonable constitutive parameters. The constrained conditions for the parameters to be back analyzed are handled as: c'> 0 (25) Table 2. The material parameters used in the forward FEA are regarded as correct values (see Table 1). which are usually taken by inclinometer. Four sets of initial values Property c (KNm2) v case 1 15. The corresponding output of horizontal displacement of specified points is taken as observed values for the following back analysis.10 32.00 31. small size computers. we can see that the displacements of Case 3 meet the observed ones better than other cases do. As we do not know whether the solutions with the input initial values are convergent or not in advance.74 Errors( x 104) Number of cycles 5 Property case 2 initial results 4. the present method also needs to do trial computations with different initial values till the convergent solutions are obtained.00' 7 140 KNm2 0. we first set the initial values arbitrarily. The development of the displacements of nodal point 41 1 with construction process is given in Figure 4. Table 1. Back analysis results case 1 correct values initial results C (KNm') 9.3 KNm3 The backanalyzed results of four cases are listed in Table 3.22 0. we do not list the results of all the observed points.36 6 As it is well understood that the back analysis results depend closely on the initial input material parameters.31 1. we do not take into account the pore water pressure. BC). because this figure represents only one point other than all the points.50 4.00 5130 0.80 5540 6940 0.30 22.00 5.31 4. The following four sets of initial values can provide convergent solutions (see table 2).00 12000 0.e.30 0. Figure 3 presents the comparison of the displacements between the observed and computed values at the end of the excavation. Material parameters Property Cohesion (c) Angle of internal friction ($) Young's modulus (E) Poisson's ratio (v) Density (y) Value 9. The boundary conditions for the displacements are described as follows: there are only horizontal restrictions at left and right sides (i.
R. Hence this method is not limited to the homogeneous and isotropic problem discussed here. 1989. An extended Cam clay model for soft anisotropic rocks.. Maruzen Co. 1998. Computer and Physical Modelling in Geotechnical Engineering (eds. & Hansen A. 1993. G.F. should be paid to the large number of the parameters associated with the complicated models.. T. Kawamura. 1987. Edited by C.80 E(KNm*) 7140 12000 7240 v 0. Balasubramaniam et al. Computers and Geotechnics.. & Ueta. ISShikoku’99.3 1I. the solutions with the smallest error could be regarded as final results.Table 3. 1999). Sakajo. (Continued) Property case 3 correct values initial results C (KNm’) 9. Yamagami. Perth: 6 17622. Nova R.. Sakurai. 119(4): 748767.. Tanaka. A. & Ohtsu. Proceedings of the Fourth AustraliaNew Zealand Conference on Geomechanics. Yamaki. 1984. A technique for the back analysis of slope failures.00 15. Oettl. which may lead to the instability of the solutions.J. Takahashi.00 10300 7120 0.00 5.49 6. and the computations were quite fast. This is another topic of the authors’ interests (Feng et al. Desai/G. Computers and Geotechnics 23:1938. Y. it can also be used to solve more complicated cases (for instance. 23(2):28 1295. & Jiang J. Yamagami. R. K.. C.35 Number of cycles 7 case 4 initial results 7. This method has been applied to an excavation in a hypothetical slope. Addisonwesley Publishing Company. however. S.S.30 Errors(x 1(Y4) 5. 1986. The advantage of this method is that there is no necessity to prescribe the constitutive models. & Hofstetter.30 0. Numerical analysis for the interpretation of field measurements in geomechnics. T. H. & Yabe. 1996: Three dimensional elasticplastic finite element analysis for foundations.70 31. Some modifications of sequential quadratic programming method for constrained optimization..35 0..83 24. V. H.00 42..06 11 Attention. T. Gioda. TRU Mathematics. Journal of Engineering Mechanics.. N. elastoplastic and anisotropic condition) if the constitutive relationships are available. Wang D. Luenberger D. ASCE. Back analysis of average strength parameters for critical slip surfaces. S. Ltd.C. Stark. CISM courses and lectures No. & Ueta. REFERENCES Feng T. T.. Proceedings of the Tenth Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference: 2 132 16. Figure 4. 1990. Numerical Methods and Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics. 316 .U. The proposed method belongs to indirect back analysis methods.) Balkema: 5367.. The solutions obtained were very close to the correct values in case the solutions were convergent. Y. 1999 A finite element analysis for transversely isotropic soils and the determination of model parameters by means of back analysis.. 1973. Correspondingly. 2: 6988. Japan.Q. The comparison of horizontal displacement at Nodal point 41 1 8.35 0.. Back analysis of failed slopes in heterogeneous soils.29 No> 32. S. Ugai.Q. Plasticity model for transversely isotropic materials. Yamagami.30 1.00 33.. S. G. CONCLUSIONS A back analysis method for determining the soil parameters has been proposed by incorporating FEM into NLSSQP method. Japan (in Japanese). Schmidt. A comparison of elasticplastic soil models for 2D FE analyses of tunnelling. Introduction to linear and nonlinear programming..G. 1990. International symposium on slope stability engineering: Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental aspects.. Springerverlag: 35 1407. M. Nguyen.
1986) dealing with the anisotropy of soils. However. 1990. Rotterdam. it has been generally assumed that the . 2. the number of model parameters increases in comparison with that of isotropic soils. It is the authors' opinion that this model is the most suitable for FE analysis because it is extended from a wellknown Camclay model (Burland. these parameters are quite difficult to be determined by laboratory tests. In the present paper. Also. At present. Thus the final goal of our research is to develop a rational method in which the constitutive models should be implemented in a simple and proper manner to present the anisotropy of the geological materials. The difficulties exist in that it is nearly impossible to obtain the specimens of high quality through samplings in mountainous areas. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a cutting in an orthotropic slope. Its effectiveness is also illustrated in the present paper through a fictitious excavation performed in a transversely isotropic slope.Jupun f ABSTRACT: A finite element analysis has been implemented by employing an elastoplastic model for anisotropic soils proposed by Nova (1986).g. Owing to the complexities of the anisotropy. there are no generally accepted elastoplastic constitutive models that can be used with confidence to simulate the nonlinear response of anisotropic materials under a variety of loading conditions. which exist broadly in the mountainous regions of Japan. Jiang Depnrtnient o Civil Engineering. This procedure has been successhlly applied to isotropic soils (Feng et al. The results indicated that the present procedure is applicable for transversely isotropic soils 1 INTRODUCTION In the numerical analyses of soil behaviors. there are few acceptable methods proposed for the determination of the parameters of anisotropic models. A complex model is not always preferable to a simple one due to its large number of parameters. because it is either difficult or costly to determine the parameters used in anisotropic models by laboratory tests. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOILS To start with. the transversely isotropic soils are taken into consideration in which the axis of symmetry is normal to the bedding plane. We shall define a cartesian frame where one axis y coincides . 1990). It has been well understood that most geological materials present elastoplastic rather than elastic behavior. Sakurai.C. is introduced into the present paper.properties of soils are isotropic. These parameters are to be back analyzed by a minimization method in which NLSSQP method is combined with FEA. As a first step. this assumption does not appear reasonable for the natural slopes. Japan T. Feng et al. At present. 1999). Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. an attempt has been made for the determination of the model parameters by combining FEA with an optimization method. because it is hardly possible to acquire the specimens of high quality for representing the anisotropy of geotechnical materials. A very important task in FE analyses is the choice of constitutive models. Sakurai (1990) described the anisotropy of the soils only in elastic behavior. therefore. It is. University oj'Tokushimu. In order to present the anisotropy of the soils. 1999). however. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 An FE analysis of anisotropic soil slopes and back analysis for its parameters T. Oda and Nakayama (1989) introduced a fabric tensor to express the anisotropy of the discrete particles.Yamagami & J.. Oda & Nakayama. Tokushimu. A back analysis substituted for laboratory tests has become an available method for the determination of 317 the model parameters (Sakurai. Feng Sun Bruin Plan Coinpany Limited. Yagi. which may leads to parameter uncertainty. some researches have been done in the past decade (e.Q. 1967) and there is a small number of parameters compared with other models. essential to take into account the anisotropy of the geological materials.Slope Stability Engineering. a simple and practical model (Nova. The mountainous regions of Japan consist of very complicated. heterogeneous and anisotropic geological materials varying from soft soils to hard rocks. 1989.
E2. l 0 n(lnv:) nv2Al 1v: 0 0 0 J Figure 1 . we shall employ the associated flow rule. one needs to choose a yield function f and a potential hnction g.. Lade and Duncan. there are 5 elastic parameters such as m. the yield surface may be expressed by a hnction of the state of the stress dij and the plastic history of the material through hardening variables. however. ePhk f = f(oij. = 1v... the yield function and in general all mechanical properties depend on the orientation of the principal axes of the stresses which are inclined to the orthotropy axes with angles 8. 1978). the plane of isotropy is the plane (x. Although it is widely accepted nowadays that the associated flow rule is not valid for geological materials (e. 1967). as reported by Nova. For anisotropic materials. Lade and Musante. equation (4)). and v 2 . n. . as a first step.. 1975. 0 . 2nv. Since the strain history may change the initial anisotropy of the soils. where A. Nova. There has been no effective testing techniques for them so far. G2. which is a hnction of plastic strains.Y . Although the quantitative agreement between experimental data and predicted values. the derivation of the yield hnction for anisotropic materials is briefly described. 318 . In the following.k(&)) If the material is orthotropic. 3 .v along y direction. the elastic matrix for transversely isotropic materials is known as (Zienkiewicz. perpendicular to the xzplane. The yield hnction of the modified Camclay model is given by the expressions Then the elastoplastic stressstrain relationship can be expressed as (3) Dep]represents the elasto . 1986)..with the symmetry axis.e. are associated with the behavior in xz plane and E. assumed here for the sake of simplicity. A cartesian coordinate system for transversely isotropic soils X AlA. Nova (1 986) proposed a constitutive model by generalizing the yield hnction of the modified Cam Clay model (see Burland.g. 1977) [Del = Tnv2A. In the following. and they will be back analyzed in the present paper. and cofisequently. the associated flow rule will be. gives an overall picture of the behavior of sedimentary rocks. was not always satisfactory. will be in general hnctions of the plastic strains. +20. this model. k. Hence. The model for anisotropic materials was investigated through triaxial compressions for soft sedimentary rocks (e.g. In plane strain condition. v . 8. Thus E. YIELD FUNCTION FOR TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOILS In order to present the elastoplastic matrix (i.plastic matrix where H is referred to as hardening parameter and is written as where p' = (G.) 1 3 q = 0. = l + v .. z) as shown in Figure 1. mA1A2 (7) A. If the soils are isotropic.
Therefore 8 I is not taken into account in this paper as a first approximation. 3k2 = 0 11's IJ I J where C.] is an elasticplastic matrix corresponding to XIy' global coordinate. To obtain the elastoplastic matrix of equation (4). Q ..)dS = v S (21) where [NI =displacement interpolation matrix. is a quadruple tensor whose components are linked to the anisotropic characteristics of the material. { A f. it is still necessary to define the fimctions k and 8 Nova (1986) pointed out that it is very difficult to choose a suitable expression for 8 I because few experimental findings have been achieved so far. (17). is the Kroneker delta.}=external load vector. { Af.. p . the number of plastic parameters then reduces to 4.).1986). Equation (9) can be expressed in a generalized formulation 4. l..  where [BIT is the straindisplacement transformation matrix.~.}=body force vector. The generalized equation may be expressed by the following equation Figure 2 . 2sin€Icose cos28 . 6. p2=2M2/9.2 sine cOse . [T] is a transformation matrix and may be expressed as Equation (15) is the yield fimction for anisotropic materials. p .] represents the elasticplastic matrix associated with xy local coordinates. Equation (12) holds for an isotropic material. the quadruple tensor Cllrs given by is The relation of elastoplastic matrix between the two coordinate systems can be given as in which [D'.. [D. z. A generalization of equation (12) to orthotropic conditions was given by Nova (1986) who followed Hill's ideas (1950).sine cos0 . and { U ) j[Nr{Afb}dV+ /[N]T{Af.e. there are 5 plastic paIn equations (15) rameters (i.. Two sets of coordinate systems C..M =strength parameter. 319 . y . Since y may be linked to 0: (see Nova. k= pc /2. In plane strain condition. A possible expression for k E Phk) may be assumed as fol( lows cos2 e [T]= sin28 sine cose sin2e cos2e .sin28 (19)  where 8 is the angle between the xy and XIy' coordinate systems (see Figure 2). FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION where The finite element method follows a conventional elasticplastic formulation except that the stress components corresponding to local xy coordinate system must be transformed into those of global XIy' system as shown in figure 2. represents the volumetric compressibility. The basic governing equilibrium equation. pc= initial mean effective stress. based on the principle of virtual displacement. is given by in which A..
in which NLSSQP method is employed. The boundary conditions for the displacements are described as follows: there are only horizontal restrictions at left and right sides (i.20 0. only 8 of them are herein left for back analysis.50 1. Due to lack of the observational data of practical projects. With regard to the details about the optimization method. On the contrary. However.5 0 > 0. Takahashi. the value of 0has no influence on'the shape of the yield surface for 8 =O" and 8 =90". (KNm') 10500 VI 0. some parameters can be determined by tests in advance. we believe that the researches should be contributed to the essential development in tests.35 70. Here four groups of initial values are taken into investigation as listed in table 2.00 8 (0) a 1.25 P 1.) 8 a P P A. BC).oo 0. For the sake of simplicity.10 9000 0.00" 2. Table 2..50 1.00 1.e. since the intrinsic properties of anisotropic soils may be revealed only through a wealth of test data. v . E.20 70. these tests cannot be carried out successhlly because it is hardly possible to acquire specimens of high quality for representing the behavior of anisotropic soils. Like some other optimization methods.0 KNm" A cutting made in a fictitious slope of transversely isotropic soils is investigated in the following sections.70 0. the present procedure also needs to set up a group of initial values. This does not imply that the authors underestimate the value of laboratory tests. Four groups of initial values Property case 1 n 0.) Poisson's ratio (v.35 0. we need to do a forward FEA to produce them.30 0.20 11000 0. These parameters are conventionally determined by laboratory tests. DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS BY MEANS OF NLSSQP METHOD There are 10 parameters in this model (i. all the 10 parameters and density yt ought to be evaluated.09 7000 KNm' 0.20 1. we do not take into account the pore water pressure.30 45. For example.L and 8 ). In addition.35 1. Y . NUMERICAL EXAMPLE The constrained conditions for the parameters are prescribed as O<n<l.37 0. can be determined by performing a compression test since it is affected little by anisotropy.03 20.0 in the present example.80 0. p o Table 1.90 1. may lead to unstable solutions. There are both horizontal and vertical restrictions at bottom (i.5.U. 6. a>0.45 case4 0. .e. however.e. m. m>0.00 3..50 0. This paper does not contribute to this aspect.. Feng et al. Property n m Young's modulus (E. The initial stresses are determined by elastic analysis in which selfweights are handled as loading forces. As a result. The NLSSQP method is capable of solving Nonlinear Least Square problems with constrained minimization conditions by means of Sequential Quadric Programming method. while focussing on the determination of the parameters in terms of an optimization procedure. a ..21 20. 1987. The finite element mesh and the observed point number 1. Theoretically speaking. et al.21 v2 0. n. . E2>0 0 < v2 < 0.03 E.15 case 3 0. Density ('yJ Value 0.15 case 2 0. Also the values of A.) Poisson's ratio (v. So the value of 0is assumed to be 1..20 0. 1999).. The properties of the soils and the model parameters listed in table 1 are regarded as real solutions.10 320 . the value of density yt can be easily obtained by routine tests. the readers are referred to the related papers (e.20 m 0. The finite element mesh and six observed nodal points are shown in Figure 3 . Material parameters.5. 1986). As the excessive number of parameters . and is of minor importance for other values of 8 (Nova.g. AB and CD in Figure 3).20 20.00 Figure 3.05 5500 0. 0 < v1 < 0. P .
especially those of case 4 meet the observed values very well (see figure 4(b)).29 0.21 0. The comparison between observed and computed values at the end of excavation 8.37 0. which leads to a larger errors (i.38 20.) 7000 v1 0.30 0 (") 45.20 0. and the corresponding horizontal displacements are given in figure 4. Since the study on the constitutive relations of anisotropic geological materials are insufficient at the present stage.0 120 30 A finite element analysis has been implemented by introducing a constitutive model for the transversely isotropic geotechnical materials.21 0. An attempt has been made in the present paper to employ a back analysis method in which FEM was incorporated into NLSSQP method.35 Errors(x l(Y4) Number of cycles case 3 initial results 0.29 0. 1999). The displacements back analyzed are generally approximate to the observed values. various attempts.60 1. should be made in order to predict more accurately the behaviors of heterogeneous and anisotropic slopes existing broadly in Shikoku of Japan. Here. It is very common that the backanalyzed values of parameters having the smallest error.15 1.g.39 0.60 1..15 1.12 5500 6340 0.80 0.30 1. this method is worth hrther studying.51 0. 321 .00 45.09 9000 6220 0. To avoid such discrepancies. Hence.03 0.25 2.45 0.0800 28 Figure 4. Correspondingly.29 1.30 v2 0. 8 ) can be well optimized to the real value in the four cases.TS AND DISCUSSIONS The backanalyzed parameters are listed in table 3. Table 3. (KNm..60 0.e.50 m 0.20 0. (KNm.35 0.50 P 1.10 0. RESUL..00 ff 2.00 0 (") ff 2. (Continued) Property Correct values n 0. 1992.30 45. which is a norm of the difference between observed and model calculated displacements at specified observation points..09 11000 6910 0.70 0.50 P 1.27 20.08 10500 7180 0.34 70. The values of the parameters back analyzed were very close to the correct values.. the simplest way is to choose the results with smallest errors.30 0. However.00 44.24 0.e.00 44.20 3. Back analysis results Property correct values n 0. However. a .45 1.20 0. the solutions with the smallest error could be regarded as final results. which is difficult to be determined in practice.0270 4 case 4 initial results 0.00 45.90 2.45 1.73 1.35 0. The significance of introduction of this model is that some materials such as sedimentary rocks enjoy an intrinsic or structural anisotropy due to their formation process.20 0.50 2. this model has not been widely used so far due to the complexities of determining the model parameters by laboratory tests.30 V1 v2 0.20 0.52 0.31 70.45 0. the results of case 4 can be chosen as the final values of the parameters.50 m 0.7. y in case 3) are not convergent towards correct values.09 E.50 1. Feng et al.) 7000 0.35 Errors(x w 4 ) Number of cycles case 1 initial results 0.06 0.39 3.027X 103 in case 3 ) . 1.20 0.0802 18 case 2 initial results 0. including laboratory tests and back analyses. can be taken as the final results (Yamagami et al. The proposed procedure has been verified using an example of excavation in a stratified slope. It is worth noting that the value of the angle between local and global coordinate systems (i.35 0. This means that the present method can predict accurately the values of 8 .10 1.33 1. CONCLUSIONS Table 3.09 E. some values (e.
Journal of Engineering Mechanics. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division..GT2: 193210. T. J. 1950. Japan. Desai/G.. Elastoplastic stressstrain theory for cohesionless soils. 322 . Computers and Geotechnics 2: 6988. N. V. Vol.REFERENCES Burland.. & Duncan D.. T. 104. CISM courses and lectures No. ASCE. H. J. 1992. Deformation of soft clay. London. Yamagami. Yamagami.. Yamaki. Takahashi. R. Oda. 1978. Zienkiewicz. No.. 1: 89104. Published by McGRAWHILL Book company (UK) Limited: 93134. Lade. The mathematical theory of plasticity. No. M.. Ueta. C. & Musante H. Numerical analysis for the interpretation of field measurements in geomechnics. H. Springerverlag: 35 1407.S. T. Lade. Y. Vol. Thesis. M.3 11. ASCE. A back analysis for parameters of MCDP model by combining FEM with NLSSQP Method. Oxford University Press. V01.. Hill.. 1967. 1987. TRU Mathematics. S. International symposium on slope stability engineering: Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental aspects. B. England. Q. An extended Cam clay model for soft anisotropic rocks. Numerical Methods and Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics. Gioda. V. M. ISKyushu'92. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. 1975. Nova. Some modifications of sequential quadratic programming method for constrained optimization. Three dimensional behavior of remoulded clay. 1990. D.C. Ph. S. 115. Sakurai. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement Practice.101. No. Yield Function for Soil with anisotropic fabric. University of Cambridge.1986. Edited by C.GT10: 10371053. R. Design and construction control of a large embankment with reinforced earth walls. 1989. & Nakayama H. 0. Japan: 443448. 1977. 1999. & Yasutomi. Mori. K. Feng. P.. ISShikoku'99. & Yabe. Jiang. P.. The finite element method. 23(2):28 1295. ASCE.
3 Rock slope stability analyses .
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Wang China Institutue of Water Resources und Hyclsopor~w Resecisch. compared with the traditional approaches. the textbook answers can be as low as 60 percent of the upper bound solutions. It is apparent that the case p=O" corresponds to the conventional method which assumes that the shear forces on the two failure surfaces are parallel to the line of intersection. 1976). J. 1977). The limit equilibrium method is generally used to find the factor of safety for this kind of failure mode. However F can be as large as 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Wedge failure is a common collapse mode found in rock slopes. let us examine an example that has a symmetric geometry and material properties with respect to the line of intersection. for wedges with cohesionless material. People's Republic of' China ABSTRACT: The solution to a wedge failure of a rock slope is normally obtained by employing force equilibrium analysis (Hoek.136 at p =39". Wang & J.z coordinate axes(Figure 1). there are generally two unknown force vectors on the two failure surfaces. Main parameters are shown in Table 1.g.y. a wedge failure may occur if the line of interaction of the two slip planes daylight at the slope surface. Yamagami & Jiangco 1999 Balkema. Figure 2 gives the factor of safety associated with different values of the angles between the line of intersection and the shear forces applied on the failure surfaces. two assumptions must be made to allow the problem statically determinate. A new method based on the upper bound method of plasticity has been proposed by which Pan's postulates( 1980) can be numerically performed. In this paper we would investigate the theoretical background regarding this issue and try to establish a new analytical method that is based on the upper bound theorems of Plasticity. Therefore. which involve a total of six components in the x. MohrCoulumn failure criterion on the failure surfaces would provide another two equations. Wang. Rotterdam. In general. When establishing the force equilibrium equations. the sliding mass falls along two well defined weak planar structures either with or without a tension crack at the crown (Figure 1). 325 . which is represented as p. This means that the currently available wedge failure method may be too conservative if failure potential is assessed on the ground that cohesion of the material are not considered. the new method gave exactly the same answers as those from the textbooks. The procedures are well documented in textbooks (e. To understand the effect of the assumption made in the conventional method. Yagi. It has been found that for material that has no friction angle. The numbers of available force equilibrium equations for the wedge block are three. It has been found that the problem is in fact statically indeterminate and some assumptions were made to render the analysis tractable.Y.87. It can be found that the conventional method gave a value of factor of safety F = 0. More than 80 potentially unstable wedges in the Shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges Project were evaluated. This is certainly an area of much needed firther research. Cohesion of the two failure surfaces is set to zero. The traditional method presented in Textbooks actually implies an assumption that the shear forces on the failure surfaces are parallel to the line of intersection of the two failure surfaces.Slope Stabhty Engmeenng. Bei jing. The value of factor of safety to be searched adds one more.Chen. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 An upper bound wedge failure analysis method Z. Hoek and Bray.G. In this case. However a detailed study of these procedures will come to the fact that the problem is statically indeterminated. Y. Hoek and Bray (1 977) discussed the conditions upon which a typical wedge failure may take place. However. X. The question thus arises is what the true answer to F would be and in what cases the deviation between different assumptions regarding the directions of the shear forces can be of significance and caution must be exercised to select appropriate answers.
which reduces the available shear strength parameters c ' and 4' to the new values of c'.y= 0 2 AN APPROACH BY THE VIRTUAL WORK PRINCIPLE Let us examine the forces applied on the two failure surfaces that constitute the wedge.. / F Considering force equilibrium for wedge leads to (2) + Vy' + Vz2= 1 (8) W + ?. Factors of safety for different value of p Figure 1. + V... we assign a velocity V that inclines at angles q. Equation ( 5 ) involves only one unknown. . the work and energy balance equation becomes where y is the angle between the weight vector.. N.. the left and right failure surfaces respectively can be uniquely determined by solving the following equations: (1) V.. Each force comprises two components..) .Figure 2. whose magnitude is c '. the value of F.c+ Cr. Now..' + Vy. P inclines at an angle qeto the normal of the failure surface.) is the directional component of the normal of the failure 326 ..qerto the left and right failure surfaces respectively. = sin ye.N. Parameters for an example of symmetric wedge Surface Dip direction Dip angle Left 120" 65" Right 240" 65" Crest 180" 0" Slope 180" 90" Unit weight = 27KN/m3 where W is the weight vector of the wedge.Vy. which is implicitly involved in the shear strength parameters with the subscript e and can be solved by iterations... The first component.e + Pr.. + C/. The wedge failure analysis Table 1. c =c'lF k (4) Since the work done by the frictional forces P on V is zero. N ...A .V. is a resultant of the normal force N and its shear resistance N tanq.V + P.e = 0 (3) where the components of V in x. V. we have w + P. = tan 4. The velocity V that inclines at angles qel q. to . The subscript e involved in the strength parameters defines the factor of safety F. y. N. . According to the virtual work principle. z directions are designated as (V. .. (7) tan 4. Ny. (N. The second component designated as C is the shear resistance force contributed by the cohesion. The subscripts r and I refer to the right and left failure surfaces respectively..V + c.V + C.. designated as P (Figure lb). and $'c by the following equations to bring the wedge into a state of limiting equilibrium..
(1975) gave a comprehensive review on its fundamentals and applications to solving bearing capacity. On the other hand. (7). In wedge slide the failure mass is a rigid body.U sin 4: )V (13) 3. . T* is zero. or in other words. for problems which concerns factor of safety rather than the external ultimate load. )V + z = (c‘cos 4. and tangential velocity y. (2) Equation (10) is identical to (5). performing the upper bound statement would be the determination of the minimum values of F involved in the following equation L. 1975) and can be stated as follows: Now it is not difficult to find that: (1) the velocity determined by solving Equations (6). (2) For a specified slip surface. the solution obtained by the procedure presented in Section 2 is an upper bound. which assumes Pie. The associative flow rule thus requires that the normal velocity V. W.surface. the external load T* then determined by the following workenergy balance equation will be either larger or equal to the true load T that brings the structure to failure. = ( cos 4. The energy dissipation developed on a unit area of the failure surface can therefore be determined by the expression. obey the following relationship This implies that for a MohrCoulumb material the plastic velocity is inclined at an angle of 4Ie to the failure plane. oV. are assigned to a failure mechanism R*bounded by a failure surface P. earth pressure and slope stability problems. where z and G are shear and normal stress on the failure plane respectively.Pr. F.refers to the energy dissipation developed on the slip surface. Use of the bound theorems of Plasticity to Geomechanics is not new. 1980). However the mathematics was too complicated to be approached in the time when his theory was advocated. The procedures described in Section 2 actually gave the maximum factor of safety of 1.1 Pan s postulates o maximum and minimum f The value of factor of safety obtained by the procedures described in Section 2 is one of many possible solutions that satisfy Equation (3). In his book (Pan. term in Equation (9) does not exist. It is different from the one obtained by the conventional method introduced in the textbook. the stress in the failure mass as well as on the slip surface will be reorganized to develop the maximum resistance against failure ( Principle of maximum). dD = zy. the real one offers the minimum resistance against failure ( Principle of minimum). (9) The first and second terms refer to this energy dissipation developed in the failure mass and on the failure surface respectively. It is now possible to demonstrate that the procedure described in Section 2 is actually the maximum value of F based on the upper bound theory of Plasticity.136 for the example shown in Figure 2. Sloan (1988.. Optimization was followed to find the If an increment in compatible plastic deformation V* (called velocity) and strain filed E. Therefore. Pan tried to find the maximum values of F in Equation (3) among all the two possible extra unknowns. Donald and Chen (1997) presented an upper bound slope stability analysis method which employed a multiwedge failure mechanism.. = WV* The second term D. (8) is exactly the plastic velocity determined by MohrCoulumb associate flow law which obeys (12). U is the pore pressure. + o sin 4.eparallel to the line of intersection.2 The Upper bound theorem o Plasticity f The upper bound theorem of Plasticity as applied for soil mechanics is discussed in detailed in Chen’s textbook (Chen. a solution that offers the maximum resistance. based on the reduced shear strength parameters c and For a MohrCoulomb material the yield surface is given by @Ie. he put forward the famous postulates in China as follows: (1) Among many possible slip surfaces. 1989) used finite elements and linear programming to approach both upper and lower bounds for the determination of bearing capacity on both uniform and layed foundations. I I is the magnitude of I V ? 3 THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 3. therefore the left first 327 . Chen. Perhaps Pan was the first one who challenges the conventional approach.
497 2OQ 1.361 2. However.M. The conventional method (Hoek and Bray. Example Stability analysis for the No. The method presented herein belongs to the same theoretical framework. 4 Wedge of the shiplock slope of the three Gorges Table 3 shows the result for No. Beijing. the textbook answers can be as low as 60 percent of the upper bound solutions.142 10" 0. the method described in Section 2 will give identical results to those obtained by the conventional method.328 2. and Bray. W.898 3. 13. the two methods gave identical results. 1988.. 6 167.685 1. Z. Stability analysis and landslide assessment for structures.665 2.THE THREE GORGES SHIPLOCK SLOPES In evaluating the stability of potential wedge failure of the shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges project.346 1.846 2. More than 80 potentially unstable wedges in the shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges Project were evaluated.W. but is particularly applicable to wedge analysis. J. 4 of the Three Gorges shiplock slope DiD direction DiD angle 345" 76" left right 130" 80" crest 21" 0" slope 21" 90" Height = 32.263282. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics.516 0. and U.573 0. Hoek.886 3l0 1. Water Resources Press.982 1.715 1. W.M. Donald. Table 2 Parameters of Wedge No. This means that using currently available wedge failure method may be too conservative for cohesionless materials. Rock slope engineering.150 *L.285 0. The following is a typical example. Geological and strength parameters are shown in Table 2. compared with the traditional approaches. 4 of the Three Gorges shiplock project Friction c=O KN/m2 c=25 KhJ/m2 c=50 KN. 5 O REFERENCES Chen. Table 3 Factors of safety associated with different strength parameters for Wedge No. Limit analysis and soil plasticity. Elsevier Scientijk Publishing Co. E.317 15' 0.172 1.661 1SO8 2. It is also not difficult to demonstrate that for material with $'. 1989. Some of them exhibited quite large difference between the results obtained by the conventional method and the upper bound method described herein.P.953 1. which according to the upper bound theory would be either equal or slightly higher than the true answers of the problem. L.154 3.526 1.18 2.=O.M. stands for the conventional limit equilibrium method. W. 1975.. Slope stability analysis by the upper bound approach: fundamentals and methods.154 2.. 1980. O0 0.872 0.M. Upper bound limit analysis using finite elements and linear programming.184 0.97 5" 0.97 1. for the upper bound method proposed in this Section. 328 5 CONCLUSION It hzs been found that the limit equilibrium method involved in a wedge failure analysis is in fact statically indeterminate. Lower bound limit analysis using finite elements and linear programming. Sloan S. 34: 853862./m2 angle U. U. L. F.405 1.176 1.16 3. Sloan S. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.1 m Unit weight = 27 KhJ/m3 upper bound method of plasticity and Pan's 'Theory of maximumand minimum'. 2. We found that: (1) When the friction angles of both failure surfaces are zero. (2) Great discrepancy was found for cases where the cohesion of both surfaces is zero. The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. (In Chinese).25 1.697 2. Further experimental research is certainly much needed to justify the issue raised in this paper. Y. U. New York. the new method gave exactly the same answers as those from the textbook.129 2. 1977. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics.916 2. for wedges with cohesionless material.P.982 0.591 2. 4 Wedge based on a different combination of parameters.942 1. Pan. J. It has been found that for material that has no friction angle. we performed some 80 wedges. 4 CASE STUDY . L.15 2. 1977) introduced an assumption that the shear forces on the failure surfaces are parallel to the line of intersection of the two failure surfaces. This paper presents a new method based on the .velocity field that offered the minimum factor of safety.P. 1997. I and Chen. This method gives the maximum possible factor of safety among all statically admissible stress fields.P. 12.
the i . one is that the downstream shell is al rockfill. 3 CITES pint of vertical load AW and sLide plane ~ . ’Therefore. a concrete gravity retaining wall is used to cut the long dip bedrock. In the mthd. and modified Coulomb theory is used to analyses the stability of gravity concrete retaining wall along the dip bedrock and the soft intercalated layer in the bedrock again.& betwen rockfill and tedrcck i obviously s less than that of mkfill itself ( G x n & Guan 1 5 9 ) . the stability of downstream shell is one of key problems. Results show that the stability safety factor does not meet the desired value. see Figure 1 .oure 2): about 270111. two kinds of type of downstream shell is chosen at preliminary design stage. People’s Republic of China ABSTRACT: Modified Janbu’ s general slice method is used to calculate the stability of the downstream shell of rockfii dam along the dip bedrock. In what follows. the stability of downstream shell of two kinds of type is discussed respectively. and the shear strena index between the n8mkfZI and weak warherd quarti! sandstone and strong h e r e d gmxteprphyry are shown in Fi. The stabdity t analysis of downstream shell along be$rock suface is irnplemnted by rmm of d e d Janbu s general slice mthd. Tnus.. and the maximum height is and k d m k surface is one of key factors to determine the stability of the downstream shell of rockfill d m along t e a h dip k d m k surface.plant will be built in %a.slide plane has saT1z: safety factor.situ direct shear test are carried out to determine the shear suen. 5 . the other one is that a gravity conl crete retaining wall is built to cut the long downstream shell in order to increase its stabllity. a insitu dimt shear test is n carried out to m m the shear stren.ure 2.oth n between rockfill and the bedrock. and Fi. 3 .ure 3 respectively. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Stability analysis of rockfill dam and retaining wall constructed on dip bedrock Chen Shengshui & Fang Xushun Department of Geotechnical Engineering. Yagi. As a result. The average gradient of bedrock surface is about 1 : 1 . Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute. Figure 2 Forces applied on soil slice It is wll known that the shear strength between mkfill 329 1. Therefore. the following assqtions are made (see Fi. Yamagami& Jiang 0 1999 Balkerna. the interface of downstream s e l and k d m k hl b e c m of the m p b l e slide plane.&. the major dam of upper reservoir constructed on the dip bedrock is a remforced concrete face rockfill darn.. As a result. 1 INTRODUCTION A lOOOMW pumped storage hydro . The curve of shear stress and dsplacexmt. Results show that the stability of the retaining wall is sufficient. Rotterdam. It is found that the shear mn.Slope Stability Engineering.
the average height is about 28.34. the total lengch of the Chinese design code of earth and m m darn. it indicates the disolbunon of yia faults and soft inferabed layers in becjtrock. the slide plane in rockfill is detemdned by t and m. Direct shear test results (benveen tuff rockfill and weak weathered quartz sandstone) 2  [ cllz + (pAz + AT . can be given: F Figure 3 . 3. the expresson of stability safety factor F . As a result. different from Janbu’ s general slice IrEthd. It is worth to i d c t that the seepniae (between tuff rockfill and strong weathered graniteporphyry) age force applied on tedmk surface and rockfill is not considered in the calculation.u h ) t g 4 ~ (1 + $ a ) / ( [ ( p ~ + ar)tga z . t e maxirrmm height of retaining wall is about 62. then ol (1) where t = AT/a?G.In above calcud larion. ?he stability of retaining ~+aLl along the kdrcck 3 WILITY ANALYSIS OF REc4TMNG MI?vL Considering the long and steep k d m k surface of downstream shell. aae n Figure 4 gives three typical Sections that mml the stability of retaining wall along the k d m k surface. less than 1.50 requested by 9m. . ?he axis of retaining wall is about 4 1 3 . and the distance between its acting pint and the bottom of s i slice equals ol 1 3 Based on the esphbrium of force and rrmmx. h retaining wall along the softinterc l t d layer i k h x k . Moreover.. = I 1+ F) ] (3) 3 ?he iteration m t h d will be q l o y e d to calculate the stability safety factor F. The distance behl n twen axis of ~taining wall and axis of mc damis about jx 1&. the following expsiions can be obtained for i s i slice: ol .porphyry is used respectively for merent bedrock (see E . che combined slide plane of typical section campnding to stability of downstream shell tlansfers into the stabil~tyof retainhg wall. It is well known t a the stability of retainht the rninimm safety factor is show in F i m 1.p = y z . k . 3 . ing wall contains the following two aspects: I.9m. the inm~ocking force of mkfill c = W a .a 3 ) . SLlIface. As a result.?he push E is linear distribution. U is the pressure of pore water. 3 and Fi. 330 . y is the unit wight of soil.( p + t)Axtga when the width of s i slice is srr!all enough. ?he stability of . Figure5 is a t p c l section.w .is also the acting pint of reactive force AN. hi and h i + l is the distance betwen acting pint of push ol f a E and the bottomof s i slice. internal Figure 4. ?he calculation result shows that the safety factor is 1. In the calculation. Direct shear test results firction angIe $ = 4P. the acting force E and T betven s i slices are obtained from lower ol position to uppx position. the shear strengh between rockfiu and w a k weathered quartz sandstone or granite . a gravity concrete retaining wall is sugested to M d in order to i c e s the statxlity of downstream nrae s e l a d d u c e the volunx: of midill. the simpl5ed Bishop’ s mthod is employed to a n a l p the stability of mkfill.
the cernendng power 1 34609. induced by rockfill reaches the maximum.me 5 indicates that interconnected Fig.1 stability d y i s qf retauwzg ud &ng beasock srqfpace Generally. 2 Stability analysis of retaining waLL along s o j Intkree typical sections are listed in table 1 .11 1. the angle between direction of active soil pressure E.tg($ 13) + ctg( $ a) 1 (7) Where G is the rockfill weight of slide mass AI3C (D) .93 al between concrete retaining wl and bedrock c = 2 30479. It is worth to note that the obtained by above expressions less than the dip angle of bedrock surface for section 3 . the interface of bedrock and rockfid becomes of slide plane.8 10. Accordingly. therefore. and normal direction of BC plane equals to the internal friction angle of rockfill. The active order to reduce the volume of concrete. F ao gainst sliding and overturning of retaining of above 3 . the direction of acting force applied on slide plane is determined by the friction angle between rockfii and bedrock surface.5kN/ Table 1 Stabdity analysis results m3 and 23.. soil pressure E. the connectal ing line BC of wl top and wl toe can be approxial al mately regarded as the wl back (Guang 1996). the hction factor f = 0. only the cementing power tion 3 have an excessive safety factor. Thus. Moreover. F4 faults ~~ ~~ 331 .5kN/rn3 respectively. especially . In stability analysis. the lirmt equrlibrium theory of rigid body can be used to calculate the stability Figure 5 Sraoilip anaihsis o i r m i n i n g nail along becrock surhcs safety factors of retaining wall. Acal cording to Coulomb theory. for ' L' type retaining w l . it can be determined based on the principle that the active soil pressure E. the unit wei&t of rockfii and concrete are 31.42 3.8 6.8 6.3. As for slide plane AB. the active soil pressure E.75 GOOkPa.50 dip contact face of retaining wall and the bedrock is possible tensile stress zone.a ) ] .7 8. Consider that the 8 3 9772. and friction force of horizontal contact face between the toe slab length of retaining wall may be reduced in reraining wall and bedrock are considered.1' . the section 2 and secFi. As a result. 6 is the angle between slide plane AI3 and horizontal plane. It is found tercalated layer and fault in Bedrock that the stability safety factors of retaining wall along bedrock surface are lager than 3 . 0 requested by (31nese design cede. the internal friction angle of rockfii 4 = 42". induced by slide mass ABC(D ) can be calculated by means of vector mangle method. the following expressions can be obtained from Figure 4: J 1 + tg(a + $)ctg( 4 . and stability safety factors F. . Now. the friction angle between rockfill and bedrock $ = 33.
block DBE and EBC are assumed in limit equilibrium state. Study on shear snen. As a result.05 HDDE 5" 8" 3" 1. = 3. S . H. the stability analysis of retaining wall along the soft intercalated layers and faults is canied out. is regarded as external force. REFERENCES & B . The shear stren. However. the active soil pressure E. It is found that the stability increases with increasing depth of soft intercalated layer. S. therefore. $ = 17. In the calculation. For conservative aim. applied on wall back HI is obtained. Lu (1984) Rock Mechanics and Engineering. = 1. and the stability safety factor F.the 3". Therefore.44.the unit weight of bedrock is 24.& between rockfill and bedrock surface. NHRI Rport. At first.situ test. Chinese Hydropower Press. 5" and 8" dip angle of soft intercalated layers are chosen to cany out the sensitivity analysis. Consider that the dip angle of soft intercalated layer of Sb0 and St21has obvious influence on the deep slide stability of retaining wall . the anchoring measures should be taken to ensure the deep slide stability of retaining wall. F. Calculation result shows the stability safety factor F. the following conclusions can be obtained: 1 . Thus. The stability analysis of retaining wall along fault F 9 and F1 is implemented by means of equivalent 1 safety factor method (Lu 1984) . In the calculation.93 2.50 requested by Chinese design code of earth and rockfiu dam. the dip bedrock surface connol the stability of downstream shell of rockii dam.gh of rockfill itself. the direction of acting force R applied on slide plane AH is determined by the friction angle $ r of fault FI9. less than 1 . S . In the calculation. HD or HF plane is assumed in critical unjoint state. the anchoring engineering measures must be taken. the cohesion and friction angle c = 30kPa. slide stabilitv safetv factor Table 2 D e e ~ Slide type Dip angle Safety factor 3" 2. on the basis of Coulomb theory.FG 5" 8" 4 CONCLUSIONS Based on above analysis results. 2. St21 soft intercalated layers exist in the foundation of retaining wall. the active pressure E. The shear stren. fault F19 is redarded as slide plane of slide mass AHI. the weight of block MDEJKL is assumed as the external load. Hohai University Press. 5kN/m3 . the stability of retaining wall along fault F19and F1 is sufficient.67 1. it is necessary to analyses the deep slide stability of retaining wall along faults and soft intercalated layers.30 when the dip angle of soft intercalated layer St20reaches 8". Guan (1999).6". The stability of proposed concrete reraining wall along bedrock surface is sufficient.gh of soft intercalated layer Stzo and St21is determined by in .gh between rockfill and bedrock surface is less than the shear stren.S . Conventional Limit equilibrium method is used to calculate the stability of reraining wall along soft intercalated layer St20and Sbl . 4 = 15. Calculation results are listed in table2.30 2. the cohesion and friction angle of fault FI9 and F4 c = 30kPa.19 2.and St20. N . the deep slide stability of retaining wall along shallow soft intercalated layer does meet the requested value when its dip angle a = 8". Chen Figure 6 Srabilip analysis ofreramng n a i l along iauirs and soft layer 332 .7".08 HF. Guang ( 1996) Design of Retaining Wall. Then.
Yamagami & Jiang 0 7999 Balkema. the redistribution of stress in ground due to strain softening. such as strain rate dependency. a finite element analysis of soilwater coupling problem is conducted to investigate the progressive failure of a cut slope in a model ground. (1991). (1 994) proposed an elastoviscoplastic model that can describe the aspects of time dependency.Slope Stability Engineering. based on an elastoplastic model with strain hardening and strain softening (Oka. namely. The mechanical behaviors of a cut slope. cyclic dryingwetting or stress release cause such a breakdown. soft sedimentary rock has an unconfined compressive strength of 110 MPa and its mechanical behavior is between the behavior of soil and rock.. Biot type solidfluid mixture theory with effective stress concept were adopted in order to take into consideration soilpore water interaction. Yoshida et al. It is found that a soilwater coupling analysis based on an elastoplastic model with strain softening can simulate the progressive failure of a cut slope. From a physical point of view. such as the change of excessive porewater pressure. one is due to the interaction of free water and soil skeleton and the other is brought about by the inherent viscous characteristics of soil skeleton. Adachi et al. EOka. Gifu University. the void ratio is relatively large and a special structure formed during sedimentation. Its mechanical behavior during shearing is largely dependent on the confined stress and the porewater pressure. Generally speaking. strain hardeningstrain softening and time dependent.Japan ABSTRACTS: In the present paper. The softening behavior of soft sedimentary rock becomes a very important factor in the longterm stability of cut slopes It is known that progressive failure of cut slopes is usually caused by the following two factors.Fukui Department of Civil Engineering.)"' (1) 333 . ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Soilwater coupling analysis of progressive failure of cut slope using a strain softening model T. 1985). In the present paper. Kyoto University. The cementation existed in the structure. the mechanical behavior of soft sedimentary rock is elastoplastic. Cementation plays an important role in its shearing strength.Os& & H. and Adachi. Compared to other geological materials formed in the same epoch. dilatant. deteriorates due to the breakdown of the structure. there are two types of timedependent behavior.. and (b) a reduction in the apparent shear strength due to the dissipation of negative porewater pressure caused by rapid excavation of the cut slope. In the analysis. such as large shearing deformation. the propagation of shear band and the progressive failure are discussed in detail. a finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the instability of a cut slope. 2 ELASTOPLASTIC MODEL WITH STRAIN SOFTENING Oka and Adachi (1985) proposed an elastoplastic model with strain softening. In general. using the strain softening model. Adachi and Yoshida (1993) discussed the softening behavior of soft sedimentary rock and the instability of cut slopes. creep and stress relaxation. using a strain measure expressed as dz = (de. H.de. such as the instability of cut slopes and foundations. Long term stability and progressive failure of cut slope have been studied due to strain softening and time dependency due to the dissipation of pore water pressure with small permeability of soft rocks.Adachi. but also the strain softening of geologic materials. (a) the deterioration of the structure of geologic materials due to the swelling and the weathering during and after the cut of the slopes. Rotterdam. Yagi.Japan E Zhang f Department o Civil Engineering. 1 INTRODUCTION It is commonly known that soft sedimentary rock can be linked to many geotechnical engineering problems. Various processes.
.f + d&T (31 The plastic strain increment is given by the nonassociated flow rule as.dK = 0 Combining Equations 4.= 0 . where Sq is the deviatoric stress tensor and om the is mean stress and M is the parameter that controls the development of the volumetric strain. = 7' = . = SV/(o.q*)' . 8.. . is the deviatoric stress history tensor. the plastic potential parameter. it can be integrated as Figure 1 Plastic potential and boundary surface y p = jdyP is where 8. which defines the normally consolidated and overconsolidated region as shown in Figure 1: fb= i + g . The subsequent yield function is defined by Based on this relation.. (5) where S*. 10 and 12.where dz is an incremental strain measure. < 0 unloading # 8 parameters are involved in the model and they can be determined with the conventional triaxial compression tests. 1985) 334 . the following Prager condition should be satisfied. a deviatoric plastic strain tensor. dfy > 0 loading = = 0 if A = 0. q ' . fy is the yield function and H is a positive function describing the strain hardeningsoftening characteristics./ / : . n +b)l(o. dfy = 0 neutral = O if f. 6. It is assumed that plastic potential function is expressed by the relation as where zis a material parameter which expresses the retardation of stress with respect to the time measure and a. the following equation for the plastic strain increment tensor can be derived: (8) A = M. the value of M in equation 10 can be determined based on the boundary surface: L. K is the is strain hardening and softening parameter and is given by the following evolution equation: In the case of proportional loading. The total strain increment tensor is composed of the elastic and plastic components: d E q = dE. +b) The loading condition is given by the following relations: 0 if f J 0. omb.~ the mean stress history... q. namely. d&. +b)]=O (11) where & is the plastic potential function.. For the yielding function defined in Equation 5 . is determined by isotropic consolidation tests and takes the value of the preconsolidated stress. n l n [ ( o ./ is the effective stress tensor. 5.' IG'I(M.U . The stress history tensor is expressed by introducing a single exponential type of kernel function. Detail description of the determination of these parameters can be referred to references (Oka and Adachi. G' and h f fare the strain hardeningsoftening parameters. The following relation expresses a boundary surface.K = O . o'. dfy = d 7 * . b is the plastic potential parameter that represents the extensive.
In the calculation. it is fixed at the bottom in both x. a soilwater coupling finite element analysis based on the model introduced in section 2 is conducted to analyze a progressive failure of a cut slope in a model ground of soft rock. a stress concentration will occur.025 45.2 Figure 2 Comparison of stressstraindilatancy relations obtained from theory and FEM Figure 2 shows a comparison of stressstraindilatancy relations of the model ground in conventional triaxial compression and extension condition obtained from the theory and the finite element analysis.2%/step. Residual stress ratio M'f b (MPa) omh . For strain softening material. In this case. It is found that the calculated relations agree well with the theoretical ones. strain. which often results in a localized softening zone. which implies that the finite element analysis is convincible." z 0. In the soilwater coupling analysis.43. The boundary condition is given as: (a) for displacement. the strainsoftening zone will develop gradually due to the redistribution of the stresses. After it reaches a peak value.3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PROGRESSIVE FAILURE I CUT SLOPE OF MODEL N GROUND In this paper. In a boundaryvalue problem such as an excavation. strain rate and dilatancy of individual element. then an overall failure will occur and it is called as progressive failure. (1) Overall changes of the field quantities such as plastic strain. it will finally reaches a residual state. The height and the slope gradient of the cut slope are 150 m and 5:l respectively. simulated by releasing the initial stress with 500 steps (0. the ground surface is the drainage boundary and the others are impermeable.25 0. The initial Figure 3 Finite element mesh In order to fully study the process of the progressive failure. the excavation of the slope is completed within one month. 6000 sec/step).0 1. However. After the completion of the cut slope.(MPa) 1. If the development of the zone stops. when it is subjected to a shearing force. Table 1 Material Darameters of model ground Young' modulus E (MPa) Poisson Ratio v Density y' (g/cm3) Permeability k (cdsec) Strainsoftening parameter G ' (MPa) 0.O 1O' stress field of the model ground is a gravitational field with a value of K0=0. because of the strain softening. an excessive porewater pressure is taken as the unknown variable. 335 . excessive porewater pressure and stress state (2) Time history of stress. (b) for excessive porewater pressure. 30000step calculation with a time interval of 6000 seclstep is conducted to simulate the dissipation of the excessive porewater pressure caused by the excavation of the slope.33 1 . Table 1 shows the material parameters of the ground. an overall failure of ground will not occur. it will firstly exhibit strain hardening.oo M .87 16. y directions and is fixed at the vertical boundaries in x direction. The size of the ground is 1000 m in length and 360 m in depth. The numbers of the node and 4node isoparametric element are 1120 and 1053 respectively. the stresses around the zone will redistribute to satisfy the equilibrium equation. Figure 3 shows the finite element mesh adopted in the analysis of the cut slope. For this reason. if the zone develops to such an extent that the surround ground cannot bear any more stress shifted from the softening zone. the following two points are discussed. strain softening will occur and if the shearing deformation continues.
it increases abruptly at the toe of the slope and then the phenomenon propagates to other regions. Figure 5 shows the change of the distribution of plastic shear strain. In this case.3. the stresshistory ratio will be the same as the stress ratio and takes the value of In the figure.67 years. shear strain develops very quickly in a zone at the time of 4. The propagation of the shear zone in which a large shear strain occurs takes the same form as the failure zone shown in Figure 4. a large excessive porewater pressure developed in the 336 . the cohesion or the cementation of the geologic material tends to be zero and only the frictional strength that depends on a confining stress remains. the value of q* is kept as a constant of about 0. 4. 5 month later. In AdachiOka's model. t=O means the time immediately after the completion of the excavation.1 OVERALL VIEW OF CHANGE IN FIELD QUANTITIES IN PROGRESSIVE FAILURE Figure 4 shows the change of the distribution of stresshistory ratio. At the beginning. Figure 6 Change of excessive porewater pressure Figure 6 shows a change of distribution of excessive porewater pressure with the time. taking the band as its boundary connecting the stable area of ground. Finally an unstable block appears in slope. At the time immediately after the completion of excavation. the failure state or the residual state is described by the equation as Figure 5 Change of plastic shear strain Figure 4 Distribution of stresshistory ratio with time In'the residual state.67 years after the completion of the excavation. in which the q* reaches to the residual value.80. a failure band formed from the toe to surface. Similar to the stresshistory ratio.
After 4. In both cases. in individual element is studied in detail. meanwhile the plastic strain was very small. In group A.ground. resulting in a sharp reduction of the stress ratio. Two groups of elements located in the shear zone. It is also known that the stress ratio increased very slowly but did not change for a long time. The failure band develops gradually and finally a global failure in cut slope happens. it is clear that because of the dissipation of an excessive porewater pressure due to excavation. resulting in an apparent shear strength that keeps the slope stable. the softening started from the shear band. Figure 8 shows the change of stress ratio with time and the stressstrain relations.2 TIME HISTORY OF FIELD QUANTITIES IN THE ELEMENTS In order to clarify the mechanism of the progressive failure. From Figures 46. the ground of cut slope lost its apparent strength and a strain softening occurs in some area. Figure 8 Time change of stress ratio and stressstrain relation Figure 7 Change of stresshistory ratio with time Figure 9 Relation of strain rate with time 337 . the softening propagated from inner to outer. When the shear zone formed. resulting in the formation of the failure band and the shear zone. Obviously. Figure 7 shows the change of stresshistory ratio with time in the elements. one is grouped along a horizontal line and the other is grouped along the slope surface. showing a clear propagation of the softening zone. the time history of field quantities such as stress ratio etc. the excessive porewater pressure reached its minimum value. At the moment. the stresshistory ratio kept as constant for a long time and then increased abruptly to the failure line. strain softening occurred and the plastic strain developed very quickly. it dissipated gradually and the failure zone shown in Figure 4 began to develop due to the loss of the apparent shear strength. while for group Byit propagated from the lower to the up part. are considered.67 years. 3. resulting in an increase of excessive porewater pressure as shown in Figure 6. It is also found that the time when strain softening occurs is different for different elements. strain softening occurred and a dilatancy develops in some area. When the ratio reached its peak value. Then a redistribution of stress leads to a start of the propagation of the softening zone.
T. and Yoshida. while the stress history is under the line. (2) The propagation of the shear zone in cut slope takes the same form as the propagation of the failure zone. the following conclusions can be obtained (1) A cut slope of soft rock may remain stable for a long time after the completion of a rapid excavation. A constitutive equation of geologic materials with memory. implied that the global failure does not depends on a single element.. 1993.50. pp835842. and Adachi... Finiteelement analysis of softening effects in fissured.. Symp.203217. the creep failure that is usually marked by an acceleration of strain rate occurred at the same time in all elements. Analysis of excavation in clay shales with high KO stress states. Conf. V01.. N. the volumetric strain and the excessive porewater pressure of element 423.28. Vo1. Balkema. Oka. Material Instabilities: Theory and Applications. Sometime. 1985. Then the stress history and the stress move towards the failure line and finally they reached the line and failed. N. F. an acceleration of a strain rate. pp. N. and an increase of a negative excessive porewater pressure that has dissipated long time before. (6) The progressive failure of cut slope can be simulated with a soilwater coupling analysis based on an elastoplastic model with strain softening. Jour. overconsolidated clays and mudstones. The strain softening of the element always accompanied with dilatancy. REFERENCES Adachi.5 16 Figure 10 Stress and stresshistory path Figure 11 Change of stress and strain in element 423 338 . and Chan. Proc. H. but depends on the deformation of surrounding ground. it is possible to simulate the time dependent behavior of geologic materials due to pore watersoil interaction. It is found that although the strain softening occurred at different time for different elements. Int. China. (3) The progressive failure in a cut slope is caused by the redistribution of a stress due to the stain softening. the stresshistory ratio. F. resulting in an increase of excessive porewater pressure and an acceleration of the strain rate 4 CONCLUSION Based on the numerical analysis of progressive failure in a cut slope conducted in this paper.. Oka. Figure I1 shows the time history of the stress ratio. can be observed in a localized area. showing that it is stable at the moment.Figure 9 shows the relation of strain rate with time. pp. AMDVol. a failure band may forms abruptly in the slope and then slope may fail overwhelmingly at a few months. 1994. 5th Int.. 1991. The figure gives a clear description of the change in these valuables. Mathematics in Rock Mechanics and Engrg. Morgenstern. however. The stress at the end of excavation has already excceed the residual line. T. F. T. ( 5 ) By conducting a soilwater coupling analysis. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model with strain softening and its application to the progressive failure of a cut slope. Adachi.1.. ASME. D. on Application of Computer. (4) Before a global failure of cut slope. on Numerical Method in Geomechanics.293300. and Zhang. Canadian Geotech. Xian. pp. Yoshida. 1 83/MDVo1. Proc. Figure 10 shows the stress and stresshistory path of element 423.
Rotterdam. and formulated by finite element method. This evaluation and modification of the initial design. such as cohesion and internal friction angle. For this purpose. In such a case that the real behavior differs. the question of how to design parameters such as cohesion and internal friction angle arises. is the second objective of field measurements. cohesion and internal friction angle. 1. The objectives of the field measurements are first to monitor the stability during excavation of the concerned structures like tunnels and slopes. Since displacement measurements are most commonly carried out. the slip planemay occur along the direction of the maximum shear strain. This paper addresses the question of how to monitor the stability of slopes and how to assess the strength parameters. In this method. and can evaluate the cohesion and internal friction angle from field measurement results. However. J q m n ABSTRACT: This paper deals with a back analysis method for assessing the stability of slopes which can determine not only a sliding plane. the strength parameters of hard rocks are difficult to obtain by using a small specimen in a laboratory. 2 MODELING OF ROCKS It is assumed that the concerned rocks are highly jointed. The straininduced anisotropic damage is defined in such a way that the geomaterials start to yield as the shear strain along the slip plane reaches a certain level. field measurements by using extensometers and inclinometers are carried out during the excavation of soils and rocks. but also the strength parameters. The conjugate slip plane is also defined as shown in Fig. insitu tests such as direct shear test may be useful. As an alternative for the insitu tests. considering the MohrCoulomb’s failure criterion. but it is costly.Slope Stability Engineering. ISBN 90 5809 0795 A back analysis in assessing the stability of slopes by means of surface measurements S. The laboratory triaxial tests on small specimens which have been most commonly used may be adequate for either soils or soft rocks. in this paper we call it a “potential slip plane. the strength parameters can be determined. slip does not occur completely unless the maximum shear strain becomes quite large. The idea of monitoring arises because the real behavior of structures under excavation quite often differs from the one predicted at the design stage. Therefore. so that the continuum mechanics approach can be adopted. the effect of joints on the strength of rocks must be taken into account. Nakayama Kohe University. This method makes it possible to use a GPS surveying for monitoring the slopes. Yarnagarni& Jiang 0 1999Balkerna. so that a factor of safety is easily evaluated by this method.Sakurai HiroshimuInstitute oj Technology. Yagi. taking into account the critical strain of geomaterials. This difficulty is because the strength of hard rocks entirely depends on joints and joint systems existing in rock masses. the field measurement results are usually displacements. The method is based on a concept of straininduced anosotropic damage of geomaterials. The constitutive equation adopted in the backanalysis is based on the concept of staininduced damage (Sakurai et al. strength parameters such as cohesion and internal friction of angle of concerned geomaterials are most important. by using displacements measured at the slope surface alone. Therefore. A back analysis is described which can determine the location of sliding planes.” When the principal stress directions are known. In this process of evaluation and modification. the original design must be modified. the direction of a potential slip plane is determined. Furthermore. then. This proposed method is also used for interpreting the measurements results of GPS surveying. Jupun T. 1INTRODUCTION The stability of slopes is in general assessed by a factor of safety. However. The constitutive equation expressed in the 339 . 1998).
3 Relationship between increments of parameter m and shear strain. the finite element method is adopted. Eq. Fig. Laboratory experiments show that the parameter m is expressed as a function of the maximum shear strain in the following general form. while shear modulus decreases as a function of shear strain. 2 Parameter m (= U E )versus shear strain. in the second case the displacements occur as the parameter of m decreases. (2) can be transformed to a global coordinate system as follows: Fig. The other is due to the reduction of strength of soils and/or rocks. it should be noted that no matter what cause may be the increase of shear strain causes the reduction of the parameter m (see Fig. say Am (see Fig. 11Y Y 0 0 1 ! (2) 1 21 (+ U ) 7 where E and Y are Young’s Poisson’s ratio. The the ratio of shear rigidity to Young’s anistropic damage parameter d is follows: modulus and parameter m is modulus. can be represented by the following equation: (4) where [ T] is a transformation matrix. However. In other words. This type of decrease of the parameter m may be caused by weathering. which are the equivalent to the reduction of m values. It is worth mentioning that Young’s modulus remains almost constant. One of the results for sand is shown in Fig. even though there is no excavation.(l): Fig. 3). One is due to the reduction of stress caused by excavation. 1 Conjugate slip planes under a triaxial compressive stress condition. In this study.y ’ is shown for twodimensional plane strain condition in Eq. respectively. 3). the external forces acting at each nodal point. 2. It is noted that there are two ways for the cause of displacement in slopes. (5) 340 . The then defined as F i m where Y is Poisson’s ratio. When the parameter m decreases in a certain increment.local coordinate system x’ .
Considering these the parameter m 34 1 . In this figure the displacement analysis in which the moduli of deformation such as vectors u1ul0 were obtained by the finite element Young’s modulus and shear modulus. 4 BACK ANALYSIS PARAMETERS OF STRENGTH As already mentioned the stability of slopes is usually Fig. To assumed that we can find the edge of the sliding plane overcome these difficulties. considering displacements of the ground surface. Monitoring displacement parallel to the displacement vector ul. These strength parameters are difficult to evaluate at the design stage because there are many Consider the displacement of vectors measured along uncertainties involved in geological and the surface of slopes. and the strength parameters are then shaded zone in the figure. however how to determine the strength parameters From point B.where [ B ]is a matrix connecting strain in an element with displacements at nodal points of the element. until hitting measurements by using extensometers. It is obvious that the predicted sliding plane falls exactly within the assumed damaged zone. 5 Application of the proposed method for predicting a sliding plane from the ground surface displacements displacement vectors as the measuring value.(l) can simulate well three different types of deformational modes of slopes. (2) sliding and (3) toppling. that is (1) elastic. 5 w e demonstrate the adequacy of the displacement measurements. . The determination of factor of safety generally requires strength parameters such as cohesion and internal friction angle. Fig. . the sliding plane stretches parallel to from the measured displacements. . In this damaged zone. This means that the proposed method is well applicable to accurately predict a sliding plane from surface displacements alone. inclinometers point B on a straight line which is perpendicular to the slope surface and passes through point E located and surveying are commonly used. {cr} is stress induces by gravitational force. a sliding plane is predicted by using the proposed method. a two dimensional case is illustrated here. 4 Schematic diagram for the procedure of the proposed method. After that we repeat the same procedure as before answer this question: (1) a nonlinear back analysis in until arriving at the last point D. The question is at the center of the two measuring points @ and 0. It is geomechanical characteristics of geomaterials. 4. There are two different approaches available to the displacement vector u2 until hitting point C. Sakurai and Hamada (1996) demonstrated that the constitutive equation shown in Eq. field measurements are at point A. Though the method may be extended to a three dimensional case. the determining strength parmeters directly from In Fig. determined from the backanalyzed deformation decreases. A sliding plane starts from the point A carried out for the monitoring of slope stability during its excavation.. is firstly method assuming a damaged zone indicated as the obtained. 3 PROPOSED METHOD FOR PREDICTING A SLIDING PLANE A method for determining a sliding plane from displacement vectors measured at the ground surface is proposed. assessed by the factor of safety. as shown in Fig. and (2) a linear back proposed method.
which is a function of Young’s modulus. = ‘A ) Fig. shear modulus G can be evaluated by G G = mE Sheor Hodu I U S (8) (3) The critical shear strain y . The ratio of uniaxial strength to Young’s modulus is defined as “critical strain”. critical strain can be immediately evaluated. is plotted in relation with shear modulus G. The procedure of this back analysis is as follows: Fig. This paper uses the second approach. and m may be determined as to minimize the following equation: (5) Cohesion c is then determined by the following equation assuming the internal friction angle q5 : (6) The factor of safety can then be calculated by a conventional limit equilibrium method. In this back analysis.moduli by considering the correlation between the strength and deformability of geomaterials. 6 The relationship between critical shear strain and shear modulus. (1) The parameter mi and m (see Fig. Once the critical strain together with Young’s modulus are known. 7. m. The procedure of this back analysis is illustrated in Fig. 2 i=l (7) Uirn where U. as shown in Fig. It is a great advantage for the critical strain that there is no scale affect.3) are determined by a back analysis of the displacement vectors measured at the ground surface. 7 Schematic diagram for critical shear strain and shear strength 342 . Thus. (2) Since Young’s modulus E has also been determined by the back analysis. Sakurai (1983) demonstrated that there exists a good correlation between the strength and deformability of geomaterials like soils and rocks. respectively. 1993): (a) Relationship between shear modulus and critical shear strain where E . and cohesion of the materials can be obtained by assuming the internal friction angle. I I > 0 (4) Shear strength zccan then be determined by the following equation: (b) Shear strength ( The definition of shear strain is y . so that if Young’s modulus is known. and N is the total number of measuring points. and uic are measured and computed displacements at measuring point i . is determined by the following equation (Sakurai et al. The critical shear strain y. is the critical strain and Y is Poison’s ratio. uniaxial strength can be evaluated by the definition of critical strain. (8). from this figure the critical shear strain can be evaluated from shear modulus determined by Eq. 6.
Hong Kong. REFERENCES Sakurai. (3) A back analysis method for evaluating the strength parameters such as cohesion and internal friction angle from measured displacements have been described. 1996. Deformation Measurements. In this method.5 CONCLUSIONS (1)To represent the deformational behavior of slopes. 1993. Sympo. June 2528. Straininduced damage of rocks.. S. was proposed. Hori. It is a great advantage that according to this method. Kawashima and T. A Hiraoka and K. A criterion for assessing the stability of tunnels. EUROCK’93. 3rd Intl. S. Presented at the 8th Intl. 969973 Sakurai. Conf. Lisboa. the factor of safety can easily be evaluated. I. Considering this parameter a constitutive equation has been proposed. 1998. Otani. 2127 343 . (2) A method for determining the location of a sliding plane has been described. This means that this method can be used for interpreting the results of GPS surveying being carried out during the monitoring of slopes. Vienna. and K.. on Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock. Sakurai. Proc. the parameter m. whose physical meaning is the ratio of shear modulus to young’s modulus. Once the strength parameters are obtained. Hamada. Monitoring of slope stability by means of GPS. S. the strength parameters can be evaluated by displacement measurements which are commonly carried out during monitoring of slopes. This method requires the displacements at the ground surface alone be known. the parameter m. together with the critical strain plays a key role.
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but results of past computations and lab tests are only about 20cm. and the secondary stress field is induced in the new rock slope. it is simplified to be orthotropic. The dominating unloading direction is perpendicular to the axis of the lock slope. the mechanical characteristic of unloading with slope excavation is studied in this paper. make the rock mass anisotropic. 1 INTRODUCTION The permanent ship lock is one important part of the Three Gorges Project. which make the stressstrain relationship different for loading and unloading. but results of past computations and lab tests are only about 3cm. The numerical simulation has been done for excavation of the high rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock. the initial stressunloading area is wide.Slope Stability Engineering. The ship lock is located in a trough valley excavated deeply in granite rock mass. 345 . For examples. Yagi. According to the actual situation of the high rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock in the Three Gorges Project. Its characteristics are: (1) Huge dimension The total length of the lock is 1617m. These structural planes. It is also one of the biggest navigation buildings over the world. The actual deformation of the slope of Jin Chuan Open Mine is already over 5m. The results are consistent with the insitu observed data. The rock mass deformation of unloading is much larger than that of loading. People’s Republic of China ABSTRACT: According to the characteristics of rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock in the Three Gorges Project. the initial stress is up to 10Mpa. which mainly occurs in the Huangling anticlinal plagiogranite. The deformation of rock mass is relatively large. are over 2m. After rock mass excavation. (3) High initial stress Because of complex geological conditions. There are differences of several orders of magnitude between these results and those of other past researches. the difference is even more evident. cracks and the existence of initial stress in rock mass. Obviously. Based on the characteristics of unloading. When tensile stress appears in rock mass. In past research it is assumed that the constitutive relationships under loading and unloading condition are the same. insitu gaps of cracks in rock mass of Lian Zi Ya precipice. the mechanical parameters used are obtained from loading mechanical tests as well. It is typical rock mass unloading and natural unloading is coupled with artificial unloading. and the effective lock room dimension is 280mX34mX5m. Rotterdam. especially those have large inclinations. The structural planes include dikes. joints and cracks. The software of unloading nonlinear finite element analysis of rock mass excavation named UNLOAD has been programmed. (2) Obvious anisotropy There are many kinds of structural planes in the bedrock that is mainly composed of granite. The main problem in past analysis of rock slope stability or stressstrain relationship is that the value of deformation obtained from computation or lab test is much less than that from insitu observation. West and South directions. Numerical simulation of excavation of the rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock has been done by this program. the law of mechanical parameters changing with the degree of unloading caused by slope excavation is presented in this paper. The relationships are also thought to be the same when rock mass is subjected to tensile and compressive stresses. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Numerical simulation of excavation of the permanent ship lock in the Three Gorges Project Yongxing Zhang & Ke Yin Chongqing Jianzhu Universiv. which is in the Three Gorges of Yangtze River. The main reason of above problems is that there are many joints. (4) Obvious horizontal unloading The river valley topography of the Yangtze River makes the rock inass unload in the East. faults. these results can not correctly represent the mechanism of slope deformation and damage. Yamagami 8 Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. Generally.
it will be along the curve ab'c' to the compressive strength of the rock mass.4 0. The method of flexible plates was used at all test points. (E0=40GPa. the stressstrain relationship will advance along the unloading curve abc into the tension region.006 346 . which started from the structural system of the rock mass formed by the sixth tectonism (Movement of the Himalayas). insitu tests were done for studying the mechanical characteristic of the bedrock of the dam in San Dou Pin. the actual unloading condition of slope excavation can be simulated. o . Unloading modules of horizontal deformation of slightly weather and fresh granite rock mass. The stressstrain relationship curve was obtained from the tests. In rock mass excavation. The results of these tests indicate that the slope of the unloading curve decreases rapidly with the stress reducing to low level.65 0.2 MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SLOPE EXCAVATION AND UNLOADING In the geological history a sequence of architectonic actions have made various joints and cracks in rock mass of the ship lock. as shown in Figure 1. Figure 2. For analyzing the influence of the various structural planes on the strength of rock mass and deformation behavior. The error is about 20% when 3D problem is simplified to a plane one. the result of the tests is very useful in engineering. so the strength of rock mass is much less than that of the rock. the stressstrain curve of rock mass is a continuation of the architectonic loading and unloading curve.01 0. Therefore. As to loading in rock mass. in order to achieve the nonlinear constitutive relationship and corresponding mechanical parameters.08 0.30 3. Because of the architectonic actions. Diagram of stressstrain curve of unloading and loading tests E 26 18 E'/E 0. in order to study thoroughly the unloading mechanical characteristic of rock mass with tensile regions. so it is important to study the stressstrain relationship under condition of unloading and to tensile stress. Stressstrain curves of the tests with flexible plates Table 1. In the tests for the insitu deformation curve or strength of rock mass. These structural planes have large inclinations and are the most important influence factor of anisotropy and unloading characteristic in rock mass of the slope. Due to unloading in rock mass. The loading and unloading paths of triaxial tests are keeping with the actual plane strain problems. It is seen in the figure that the initial modulus of loading is much larger than that of unloading. Chongqing Jianzhu University and Ge Zhou Ba College of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering. gypsum and water.45 "Tensile stress 12 0. or when rock mass being excavated. The test simulation material is a mixture of barite powder. In 1986. have done some mechanical tests with similar models. the engineering dominant structural planes have been considered in these tests. the loading paths of these tests are based on principle of architectonic movements in this area.=lOMPa) (unit: GPa) <30 30508090100% "load % 50% 80% 90% 100% Figure 1. There are many class 111. and the strength point c' is the residual strength of rock mass. and it is the basis of nonlinear mechanical analysis of the permanent ship lock and research of anchorage methods.25 0. The special triaxial test equipment was designed for the tests. point c' . the stress is usually unloaded to low level and there are relative large tensile regions appear. According to the past geological research. Thus. just as shown in Figure 2. IV and V structure planes in the rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock. it is assumed generally that the initial state of stress is at point a in the figure.2 0.
E. E. The order of magnitude and tendency of computation results are consistent with insitu values. the comparison is worthless obviously. Results computed by this program are the same as that by the expanded one. the observation data in one particular period were compared with computation results. When the unloading forces are applied in opposite directions.1 Comparing and analyzing the results o computation and observation In the past analysis. The unloading regions can be determined again by the same way. The results of computation show that after excavation of the rock mass the depth of strongly degraded region is about 5m. However. a wellknown standard structural nonlinear FEM program.The horizontal deformation modules of slight weathered granite rock mass in different unloading period are shown in Table 1. It was used in computations of Jin Chuan Open Mine slope and Qian Mu Rock Tunnel. the stress field of the rock mass slope is computed when it is acted with the unloading forces from the first step. The stress field and unloading forces on the excavation boundary are computed firstly. Then the computation results at same time and excavation elevation are compared with the corresponding observation data. Thus. named UNLOAD. in which the corresponding macro mechanical parameters used are different in different iterative steps. the rock mass of the slope is classified into strongly weathered. One specific program for unloading nonlinear excavation has been programmed by the authors. the abovementioned model and parameters of unloading nonlinear rock mechanics can represent the actual rock mass condition of the high slope of the permanent lock. In this paper where the observation points locate and when the observation start as well as the corresponding excavation elevation are paid enough attention. 4. The UNLOAD program was used in the stepwise computation of three observation points in the high slope of the permanent lock: TP40GP02. We have expanded and developed ADINA. Moreover. 4 SIMULATING THE EXCAVATION OF HIGH SLOPE OF THE PERMANENT SHIP LOCK f 4. which were the total value of deformation. they can represent the unloading characteristic of the rock mass. 3 COMPUTATION METHOD OF ROCK MASS EXCAVATION AND UNLOADING The degrees of unloading are different in different regions of rock mass as it is excavated. is the “unloading” modulus. It is shown in the table that the horizontal deformation modulus of rock mass decreases with the increase of amount of unloading. the unloading mechanical parameters are determined in corresponding regions with different unloading degrees. so the amount of manual work is very large. The comparison between observation data and computation results is shown in Table 2. Thus. is the initial “loading” modulus. Then there are over ten computational regions. The excavation level of every computation step is based on the observation data of the three points. The unloading mechanical parameters used should be consistent with the unloading condition in the rock mass. (4) The unloading regions computed above will expand continuously. this phenomenon is more apparent in the region of tensile stress. which formerly was used in almost all cases. and the quality of rock mass is degraded by excavation and unloading. and the iterative process will last until satisfactory accuracy. slightly weathered and fresh. according to the degrees of natural weathering. The conventional programs of finite element method can not be used directly in computation and analysis of unloading nonlinear rock mechanics. It indicates that the displacement computed by unloading nonlinear program UNLOAD is consistent with that of observation. less weathered. In the computation of the rock mass slope of the permanent ship lock. but manual work is reduced to the least amount. (2) Without changing the parameters of the rock mass. and that of the influence region where the quality of rock mass is degraded by excavation is about 20m. Comparing this stress field with that of step 1. the program used is expanded from others. The process of deformation to damage of the rock mass slope can be simulated by this method. no matter what condition rock mass was under. Thus. (3) According to unloading mechanical characteristic of the rock mass. TP41GP02 and TP42GP02. where there are plentiful observation data.2 Predicting the deformation of high slope o the f permanent ship lock Results of Computation are shown in Table 3 when 347 . the rock mass after excavation of the slope can be divided into several regions with different degrees of unloading. for any particular stress the unloading modulus is less than the corresponding loading one. The excavation can be approximately simulated by the following steps: (1) The rock mass in computational area is considered as an anisotropic continuum. the initial displacement and stresses of rock mass are computed.
This can prevent rapid development of the unloading process and stop more quality degrading of the rock mass that may cause too large displacement and even make the slope collapse.5 tion point (m) Value MPa MPa TP40GP02 +170 17.10 18. Because of many structural planes with large inclinations and nonhomogeneous behavior to a certain extent.37 56. I continuously in the computation process can the results be consistent to the actual situation. REFERENCE Ha. This displacement is hard to be controlled by any past reinforcing methods. This is unfavorable to maintain the lock gates.L. Ha.33 26.08 4.60 30. It indicates that there are different orders of magnitude between results of these two computations. the rock mass in this area is obviously anisotropic. Q. Beijing: Chinese construction industry. and it is over lOcm at least. are both shown in Table 3.06 4. It occurs in one very short period. Ha. The largest unloading displacement is about 14cm during excavation. 2. but only 4cm in usual computation.the permanent lock is excavated completely to its design altitude in the simulation computation. & J. the results show that terminal horizontal displacement of the rock mass in this section without supporting is about 4cm.06 4.1 . 5 CONCLUSIONS 1. The results of computation indicate that according to the present design plan there will be several large tension regions after excavation.L. The results are equal to those of other past research. Horizontal displacements of the top of the lock room with different tensile strength. & Y. the results of computation can reflect that of observation.2 TP41GP02 +185 24. Research of engineering geology in unloading rock mass of rock slope. The rock mass characteristics of unloading are different from those of loading. in which the usual isotropic deformation parameter (E=3 5Mpa) of less weathered and fresh granite rock was used. and the anisotropy should be considered. The research shows that macro mechanical parameters should be adopted in simulation computation of excavation of rock mass slope.95 21. Comparison between computation results and observation data. Research of unloading nonlinear rock mass mechanics of rock slope.8 TP42GP02 +200 22.Computation result ObservaAltitude vation ( . The results of unloading computation show that without supporting the tensile strength of rock mass of the permanent lock decrease gradually.L. If the loading mechanical parameters of rock mass are used in computation. the computation results of UNLOAD program show that the corresponding displacement depends on the tensile strength of rock mass.11 Loading *Tensile strength used in computation. 5.L. 348 .38 15. The horizontal displacements of the top of the lock room.X. (unit: mm) .00 4. 3. Beijing: Chinese construction industry. it is suitable to choose an orthotropic model in computation. Zhang 1998. Liu 1996. However.*=2. We also computed the deformation of the same sections with the elasticplastic DruckerPrager criterion with corresponding tensile strengths. and the largest displacement is over lm. Unloading 14. (unit: mm) Obser.0 *Tensile strength used in computation. Only when the mechanical parameters be considered as degrading Table 2. Research of macro mechanical parameters in unloading rock mass of rock slope.82 15.06 4. Therefore. Table 3.05 21. Q. Q.00 72. 4. Beijing: Chinese construction industry. The natural condition is changed with excavation of the rock mass slope of the permanent lock. large unloading and tensile regions appearing. initial lateral pressure should be applied beforehand or promptly during excavation.2 r cr t=l . Thus. These regions are mainly concentrated under the two walls of the lock rooms and in the middle partition wall. which are computed by UNLOAD and traditional method respectively. In order to simulate the behavior of the rock mass. & G.L. Li 1996.88 20.
This failure mode appears in sedimentary rocks containing slabs separated by bedding planes. Yamagami & Jiang 0 1999 Balkema. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Numerical simulation of the buckling failure in rock slopes Y. The calculation model is based on the geometrically nonlinear theory and implemented by using finite element method. In this paper. A buckling failure of sandstone strata in an o en it coal mine and modeling. In general. it was reported in the literature that the buckling failure of rock slope can occur if the rock mass contains one or more throughgoing discontinuities approximately parallel with the rock surface. The discontinuity behavior is simulated using "joint element". Kutter (1974) as well as Hock Lk Bray (1977) described and discussed the buckling failure of the a) photograph of the buckling b) three hinge buckling model Figure 1.g. 1 INTRODUCTION It is wellknown that the geological structure and strength of the rock discontinuities as well as its orientation with respect to the slope face are the essential factors to the failure of rock slope. A calculation example is illustrated for a slope in an open pit mining. Hu & H. b) The spacing of discontinuity set is relatively small. Yagi. a numerical method is presented simulating the buckling failure process of rock slope. The preexisting weak planes or discontinuities with unfavorable orientation are usually the failure surfaces of an unstable rock slope. whereas in soils it appears generally in the form of a circular arc. Kempfert Institute of Geotechnics. and also in jointed rocks. 1. Germany ABSTRACT: The buckling of slope in jointed rock is a special failure mode. c) The discontinuities have a low friction angle smaller than slope angle. However. see e. 349 . The pure sliding is predominately the failure mode in rock slope engineering. if the slope dips more steeply than the internal friction angle of the discontinuities parallel to the slope. The basic boundary conditions may be described as follows: a) Major discontinuity set is parallel to slope face. Rotterdam. the buckling failure may occur in the rock slopes. from Cavers 98 6 17.Slope Stability Engineering. Fig.G. University of Kassel.
see Hu (1997). Separate treatment of joints becomes necessary.3. In these approaches. Alberta. kS. d7. compar. P T ~ aT3.g. Figure 2.3) remains. 2 MODELING OF JOINTED ROCK As a simplified way. That is. Zienkiewicz & Pande (1977). there are two ways modeling its stressstrain behavior. a combined modeling seems to be computationally economical. if the joint opening or large sliding along joints occurs. The observation and the analysis of the four buckling sites indicated that the bedding thickness is an important parameter determining the modes of buckling. the jointed rock can be approximately seen as a continuum material. A calculation example i s given for the buckling failure of a rock slope in an open pit mining.Tz.T3. Jointed rock is essentially a discontinuous system. Canada. p.UF). and each point in this new material behaves mechanically same.l Ct7. For plane slope. In the replacement material. The corresponding mechanical models were proposed for predicting the initiation of the observed buckling behavior. Fig. the discrete modeling is applied to the area where the joints should be individually considered. . Hu & Cruden (1992) reported the buckling of beds in the sedimentary rocks occurring on steep underdip and dip slopes in the Highwood Pass.2.rock slope qualitatively. P7. This represents the deformation and strength anisotropy. In these cases. In general. kS. d7. 350 .2. To represent the hndamental behavior. The influence of discontinuities in elastic stage (kN.TI . the real spacing of the discontinuities exists no longer (dT1. however. a rock mass containing three families of discontinuities (joints) is illustrated in Fig. 1 . only the critical state at failure is referred to and the failure procedure can't be simulated. a numerical method is presented simulating the process of buckling failure in rock slope.~N. whereas the orientation (striking and dip angles of the discontinuities ( ~ t 7 . if the dimension of building is much smaller than that of joint spacing. 2 a).T3) is taken into consideration using the average values for rock mass (EF. see e.T2.1. The analysis using this modeling lead normally to conservative results.T1. 2 a) and b)). Modeling of jointed rocks. In this paper. kS. Cavers (1981) assumed four possible failure modes of single slab lying on the slope and formulated two simple approaches to the analysis of buckling failure of rock slabs. whereas the other area of the jointed rock is simulated using the homogeneous model. kN.
The slope is located in a geological fold and covered by two rock slabs being 0. it was seen as notyetproven numerical technique and has not been applied so extensively as conventional continuum analysis technique. however. it may become a generally recognized tool in the analysis of rock engineering as the continuum technology. This equation can then be converted into a finite element formulation: linear stiffness matrix referred to the configuration at step t. 351 . The total height of the slope comes to 49 m. incremental displacement vector at step t+At. In addition.(a(t)}dV(t) + ~(AE..6 m thick. Upon the finite element equation (2) a finite element program has been developed for analyzing the deformation and stability of buildings in jointed rock. the continuum model is applied with the special treatment for some key joints. {AE jdV( t) 'I 7 6 : (As. The discontinuities between the two slabs as well as between the underlying slope surface and the slab below have the same mechanical behavior as that of three cross joints. In the recent years. 4 NUMERICAL CALCULATION EXAMPLE W(t + At) L t . total surface traction vector applied at step t+At. { Ft } : equivalent internal force vector at step { AFtVp} : [KL. In order to investigate the buckling phenomena.. respectively. the theoretical further refinement and the development of the software related to this method were made. Cundall (1988). jointed rock mass is represented as an assemblage discrete blocks. "joint element" has also been implemented in this program which makes the separate treatment of some key joints possible. the controlling equation can be written to: equivalent viscoplastic force vector at step t+At referred to the configuration at step t. the distinct element method was specifically developed for discontinuum analysis in rock mechanics about thirty years ago. 3 shows the cross section of an open pit coal mine as well as the planed excavation procedure. the geometrically nonlinear theory is used.g. elastic matrix. [D] . The dip above the fold is 50" and below the fold 70".Compared to this procedure. incremental nonlinear strain vector referred to the configuration at step t.> : : PI (A?it}: {o(t)) : (Acvpt) : {Au} : (1) variationof. ~ ( A E . incremental linear strain vector referred to the configuration at step t. Here. {f?(t+At)}: { f"(t+At)}: (F'(t+At)}: body force vector at step t+At. It is assumed that the tension strength perpendicular to the joints is zero. All joints in rock mass are individually treated and viewed as interfaces between distinct rock blocks. incremental linear strain vector referred to the configuration at step t. [KN. More and more rock engineering projects are analyzed using this technique. The corresponding contact forces and displacements at the interfaces are determined through a iterative procedure using the principle of mechanics.)' * 4. total concentrated load vector applied at step t+At. Arising from the updated Lagrangian formulation and the elastoviscoplastic theory. see e.tl : 3 FORMUALTION OF THE APPLIED MODEL For the analysis of the buckling failure of rock slope presented in this paper. incremental viscoplastic strain vector referred to the configuration at step t. For many years. The geometrical and mechanical parameters of the jointed rock are given in Table 1.1 Details of the problem Fig. In the near future. i. {Rt(t+At)}: total force applied at step t+At referred to the configuration at step t.~] : nonlinear stiffness matrix referred to the configuration at step t.
so that the possible sliding and opening along the parallel and cross joints can be well simulated. p = 50"/70".2 Computation cross section and FEmesh Table 1. Details of the problem. 8node finite element elements were used for other area in the cross section. y~ = 12" cross joints: a = 180". The excavation was divided into 5 part excavations in the numerical simulation. Totally 6 calculation steps are necessary. see Fig.2. Apart from the area of slope surface. p = 50"/30"/20". 4. The rock slabs and joints on the slope surface were separately considered using finite elements and joint elements. U = 0. c = 0. cp=26". 4 illustrates the chosen computational cross section and FEmesh. Figure 4. c = 0. cp = 26". The geometrical and mechanical parameters of the jointed rock rock: y = 25 kN/m3. parallel joints: a = 180". In the first step the 352 .Figure 3. y ~ = 1 2 " Fig. E = 10000 MN/m2. Computation cross section and FEmesh. COSS section of an open pit coal mine with the rock slope. 3.
It comes to ca 1. the sliding as well as opening of the second slab relative to the underlying slope surface are illustrated for the excavation down to 45 m and 49 m. 189 elements as well as 58 joint elements. . primary stress state before the construction was determined. Relative sliding of the second slab to the slope surface. From the development of the relative displacement. At the same time. The calculation example illustrates the gradual failure process in the course of the excavation until the critical state. round the fold and increases from 5. 4. 5 CONCLUSIONS In Fig. 5 and 6. 7 gives the total displacement arising from the excavation with the reference to the primary state.3 Calculation results Figure 6.9 mm at the excavation depth of 45 m and increases drastically to 8. The relative sliding of the slab part above the fold appears toward the bottom while the slab part below the fold toward the top. respectively. The designed FEmesh consists of 1274 nodes. Fig.25 mm at 49 m. the opening of the parallel joints occurs The numerical method using the geometrically nonlinear theory and the discrete modeling of joints has been applied for simulating the buckling failure of rock slope in an open pit mining. it can be concluded that the slope is in the critical state of buckling failure. Any minor disturbance may trigger the massive slab slide. The following 5 steps simulated the 5 step excavations.7 mm to 27 mm at the last two stages. Opening of the second slab to the slope surface.Figure 5 .
W.. Timedependent multilaminate model of rocks . P. Cundall. Minneapolis. International Center for Mechanical Sciences. 1977.A numerical study of deformation and failure of rock masses. J. Miiller ed. 354 . Canada. 1988. Methods in Geomech. L. D. Vol. Rock slope engineering. Sym. 1981. 165. Hu. J. New York: Springer. J. 1997. The buckling failure analysis of a cavern in jointed rock. 30. NYRocks'97. Minnesota. D. Cruden. Rock Mechanics 14. G. New York. Simple methods to analyze buckling of rock slopes. & Anal. 0. Conceptual. N. Int. Can. Key address in 29'h U. Rock Mechanics.. Pande. 2'ld ed.. Buckling deformation in the Highwood Pass.Q. Alberta..S. Course and Lectures No. Hoek. 1974. 1. Proceedings of the 36'h US Rock Mechanics Symposium (CDROM). C. A. S. Geotech. X. E. Kutter.. analytical and numerical modeling. London: The Inst. 1993. Hu. K. Y. REFERENCES Cavers. H. of Mining and Metallurgy. Columbia University. Total displacement with the reference to the primary state. 1977. M. on Rock Mech.Figure 7. Mechanisms of slope failure other than pure sliding. Num. Zienkiewicz. Bray.
hydrogeology. temperature fluctuation. Factors such as variation of geological formations. natural slopes..Slope Stability Engineering. Ohio.) to behave other than usually assumed (modelled as linear or idealised nonlinear) and it is not practical in most cases to conduct even a single full scale test of these massive geotechnical structures... erosion. uncertainties of geotechnical parameters (geological materials and structures. In this paper a new procedure to estimate the risk of instability of sliding rock masses will be presented using fuzzysafety techniques. fkagmentary. Conventionally. USA f ABSTRACT: Stability of rock sliding surfaces is governed not merely by the shear strength of rock alone. Universig o Akron. Kosko 1992). This will enable to solve the difficulties mentioned above in quantifylng the noisy geological and environmental data. waste deposits. 1 INTRODUCTION Rock slope stability analysis and design are rarely free from uncertainty. . incomplete. Other uncertainties.etc. In other words. Uncertainty in a design situation emerges whenever information pertaining to the situation is deficit in some respect. the real behaviour of rock.etc. soil and soft rockhard soil near failure remains unknown in most cases because of the diversity of complex factors affecting the behaviour. frosts effects. . The appreciation of modes of failure in such cases has usually ill defined boundaries. tectonic forces.. rainfall. especially those involving description and. Unexpected loading conditions. and 355 . It may be imprecise. cut by joints. loading. fissures and other possible weaknesses. as well as those based on very scarce information have never been incorporated satisfactory in the probability theory (Klir. synthetic fuzzy evaluation. Such factors are generally difficult to quantify with the present approaches. . the imprecision is standardly modelled as a random process (classical stochastic model). Presented in this paper is a new approach to estimate risk and safety of rock slope stability employing methods of fuzzy quantification. Nawari & R. ground water.) can not be adequately described with probabilistic models. tectonic. incomplete. vague. contradictory or deficit in some other way. Gravity. Rotterdam. This conventional probability theory require idealised assumptions such as the independent of evidence and the mutual exclusiveness and exhaustiveness of hypotheses. and ambiguous terms and concepts concerning these parameters. ISBN 905809 0795 Fuzzybased stability investigation of sliding rock masses N..etc. This is due to the diversity of factors affecting the stability of the slope. such as jointing. unreliable. vegetation. cracks. ambiguous. Rock slope failure represents one of the most complex geotechnical problems that can not be grasped and analysed totally by any conventional mathematical models. judgmental opinions. in the construction of the mathematical models of these ambiguous systems. dams. or unseen deficiencies in soil or rock continuum are likely to cause the geotechnical structure (tunnels.O. Yagi. Difficulties stem from the vague.. It is more rational to describe these factors in the manner of fuzzy variables. boundary conditions. there are many possibilities for a block mass movement along weakness planes and a large variety of behavioral modes are exhibited. In bedded or foliated rock. 1988. The application of this method in the practice will be illustrated by numerical examples. but also by various rock defects. Yamagami & Jiang (c) 1999 Balkema. are difficult to include in safety analysis computation. Liang Civil Engineering Depurtment. weathering and erosion brought about by the environment are factors contributing eventually to the instability of rock slopes. For example.
(i.. whose generic elements are denoted by Xi . + Y ..).x X" i = l . 1973). X L*(X) E[0... x. called the universe of discourse. 13 and is defined as a . 2 THEORETICAL SETTING 2. 3 APPLICATION EXAMPLE x. . their Cartesian product is defined by: A ~ .1.. Let AI.x.. respectively.. Let X be a set of objects. A is completely characterised by the set of pairs: A = ((h~(x)/X): E x.. x " ) (3) The preference fiinction of a fuzzy variable A.. .... 1978). The first computation model for the slope investigation will be based upon the Direct Sliding Block Method(DSBM) (Nawari et. I Tlzejkzzy variable: Owing to this principle.n under the constrain y = f(x1.e. The governing equation at the limit state is given by r 1 where 356 . The failure mechanism can be approximated by three sliding blocks as shown. the membership function of the fuzzy relation R o S..computation with imprecise and uncertain parameters utilizing the concept of fuzzy variables and fuzzy preference functions. Rock slope failure is generally governed by the intercalated change in lithologies and the related change in discontinuities such as faults.. Fuzzy relations generalize ordinary relations. 4) (2) YEY Note that in (2)..3 The Extension Principal: The essential theoretical backbone for the fuzzybased slope stability investigation will be stated below: 2.. i. . The second computation model deals with the quantification of subjective excitation conditions. As such. 1997b). staticskinematic correct solution for the stability analysis).z ) = SUP min (All ( x . The characteristic values of rock properties and geometry are given in figure. This method assumes an admissible collapse mechanism of the sliding rock blocks and satisfies the conditions of statics and kinematic.. Then if A is a subset of X with hA(Xi) is the grade of membership of Xi in A.e. This principle will be stated below and its main applications will be seen later. through f has a membership function: AB( y ) = sup min AA8(xi) (4) x I. al. X " E X I X .class" with a continuum of grades of membership (Nahmias. bedding planes and joints. A. they can be composed: let R and S be two fuzzy relations on X x Y and Y x Z respectively. 1971. R acts as an elastic constraint.. ... i='. (AA) is a mapping from % (real number line) to the unit interval [0..X X .. 1 1 Let f be a mapping f : XI x. be fuzzy sets over XI. . R(x.. A fuzzy relation R is a fuzzy set in a Cartesian product X x Y of universe of discourse X and Y (Zadeh.Y ) .1] 1 (1) 2. wedge sliding and toppling. on X x Z is defined by: S O S ( x . This practical example concerns the determination of the safety of cut along a highway alignment passing through a rock formation. .2 Fuzzy Relations x X. . The stability of rock slope is conducted to evaluate the possibility of slope failure in terms of plan sliding. X.y) is the membership value of (x. R can be interpreted as a fuzzy restriction on the value of a variable (u. . a product or other algebraic operations could replace "min". any mathematical relationship between nonfuzzy elements can be fitted to deal with fuzzy entities. X XA. The fuzzy image B of AI. = J ~ i n A ~ i ( x i ) / ( x .. ( x . . . y) in R.v) ranging over (X x Y). A.
= Length of the block along the sliding surface. Ix.i+l = Porewater pressure along the right side of Block($ dWi = Weight of the sliding block(i) (including applied load).U . v (9) Table 1.l. dUi.l i L(Q = L((a. dQij = Vectorial difference (dQi. The safety measure is then adequate when T 2 0. a i.Figure 1: Jointed Rock Slope 4r = where. .i+1 and ail.)/v) xIa.. there is no unique precise limit state surface to provide a crisp portioning of strict dilapidated and survival sets. _<a.i+l) with unknown inclination pi.i = Porewater pressure along the left side of Block(i). 1.(7) x < a .i = Interblock force from left inclined with the angle Oi1. x>a. cpi = Friction angle along the sliding surface of Block(i). dUi. In case of nonlinear functions.3 b3 [m] 20 y[~\~/m~] 22 $["I 5 c[M\T/~~] 44 1.i from the horizontal. Now.i+l = Friction angle along the right side of Block(& 0.i+l and Qil.i against the horizontal.i = Friction angle along the left side. Vil. dCi = Cohesion force.x) / U ) R(Q=L((xa. .i+l = Interblock force from right inclined with the angle oi.35 21 23 6 45 0. Definition of the Fuzzy Variables 1 Variable 1 Function parameters 1. u>o a. In the fuzzy failure event.35 2 3 4 2 4 5 3 The results of the computations are depicted in Figure 2.i+lagainst the horizontal. (Pi. dQil. all design parameters in equation 5 will be considered as fuzzy variables and the computation of the fictitious disturbing shear stress T will be determined using the extension principle.i . the reference hnctions L(<) and R(<) are given by the following relations: .. hstead a family of limit state surfaces will be .i = inclination of Qi. dQi. = Slope of the sliding surface in Block(i).dQi. The fuzzy variables are defined using linear and nonlinear functions (equations 79) and are summarized in table 1. dui= Porewater pressure along the sliding surface of Block(i).35 3 0. dQj = Resultant from normal and shear forces along the sliding surface of Block(i). T = Fictitious disturbing shear stress.
(0. (0.1/0. then results S m (n) = ((0.0 0. (1/0.16 0.8 S = 0.8).19.5/0.64/(n0.8/0.0 0.UO.25/0. 15 U ' .9).9).4). fuzzy relations between (K1. vegetation and unexpected loading in the safety evaluation will be made. = .8).5 0.0 0. if the maximum value in every column is selected.2) } h~1 A = CON(K3) = ((0.64 1. (0.5 0. In the second model.4 0.16 0. (0. consideration of the climatic conditions.7 0.3 0.2/n). (0.8/(n0.6 0.910.9 0. the causes or actions which affects the safety of the rock slope system will be described using fuzzy variables (see Table 2): ile 2. Performing conventional Factor of Safety analysis in this problem results in FS=1. (l/(n1)) >.Safety state (I): absolute safe (b)Safety state (11): safe (c)Safety state (IQ: more or less safe (slightly damaged) (d)failure state (I): partial collapse (require maintenance) (e)failure state (n): absolute collapse.64/(n0.2 0. Bl). As a first step for the system identification. then 133 is also small = {(l/n). Now.9).64 0.2/0.7).64 1.9/0.16 0. (0.2). For example.5). (K2. Now.O4/n). 358 . (O.2 0.9 1. frost.5/0.2/(nl)) }. if K is medium. TemDerature) 2 Tectonic activity 3 \Vegetation and significant II medium small II simificant very significant II (0.64 0.2 0.4 0.0 > The preference functions for the fuzzy variable in Table (1) are defined below: Awl It is now necessary to find ftom S a subset S.4/0.64 1. denoted by RI. (0.l).16 0. 0) can be constructed. then 131 is very significant = {(O.1.(n).2 0. (l/(n1)) >. The area under the curves in Fig2 varies from negative to positive having almost equal values. R2 and R3.64 0.5 n1 0. where n = safety index (considered safety level ). (0. if K is small.4/0.8/(n0.2/0.16 0.0 0.132) and (K3. (0.16 0. we can assess the slope stability as more or less safe (Safety state III) (see figure 2).7).7).5/0. which represent the risk assessment.6).9/0. then the interaction between consequence (K) and the index (13) is to be considered. 5 \ b 15 10 5 0 10 Figure 2.81/0.5 0. (1/1) } 1 Aw2 = {(0. 1998): (a).5)).7). a relation between RI.2/n).5 0.16/0. (0.4 0.5)). (0.1 0.O/(n1)) (12) = {(0.2 0. tectonic activity. The selection of Sm(n) will be as considered as a fuzzyfied process.5 0. Safety Grade for the Rock Slope introduced to reflect the real structural environment (Nawari & Hartmann. R2 and R3 will be created to estimate the entire interaction: R = R1 v R2 v R3 A subjective measure of risk of failure (S) will be built using the fuzzy composition: S=GoR W n n. then 132 is significant = ((0. (0. Fuzzy Variables for the synthetic analysis snow.16 0. (0.5)). (1/1) The total effect on the degree of danger of slope failure will be determined using the following equation: G = ( W I A K1) V (W2 A K2) V (W3 A K3) (10) If the measure of safety is defined using the index (13). (0.16 0.8/0.9 0. (0.3).64 0.8) } hw3 = ((UO). These relations will be .5)).2 0. (0. (14) } hm = {(0.8 0. Further. (l.8). 1997a.8 0. Theses interplaying actions will be described using the following approximate reasoning relations: if K is significant.
Zadeh. 2037. Nawari.855862. Inf. if one specifies the largest g a d of membership as a diffzification criteria. (1971). G. Zadeh. pp. R. (in German) Journal of “Die Bautechnik” 74.516. Neural networks and fuzzy systems.( 1l). L. For example. Nawari. Not all these uncertainties can be considered adequately within the probabilistic safety concept.J. Croatia. 4 CONCLUSIONS Rock slope stability analysis is associated with inherent uncertainties. (1997a). Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision Processes.3 14. vo1. New Jersey. Zadeh. and Hartman. April. Polytech. S. 0. 2529 May. pp. IEEE Trans. which arise in the reduction of actual site conditions to a representative analytical model. Sci.227232. The fuzzy model presented is a more reliable procedure for mapping the slope failure potential because it is based upon the incorporation and managing of uncertainties through a combination of objective and mostly explicitly expressed data and from information that is eminently subjective. International 359 .34. on Systems. and Information. Fuzzy sets and systems. Journal of Rock Mechanics. pp. PrenticeHall.(1965). and Hartman. System Theory. and in the determination of physical properties of the subsurface formations. pp. Englwood. vague and experience wise disturbing actions. Uncertainty. R.. R. SMC3. pp. Vo1. Similarity relations and fuzzy ordering.3. A.97110. R. then due to climatic and geological factors we must reduce T by one. and Lackner.Fuzzy Logic Concept in the Limit States of Geotechnical Structures. L. Man and Cybernetics. one gets the safety index (n1). T. Brookl. The XI DanubeEuropean Conference. Kosko B. This represents the influence of the subjective. Fuzzy Sets. (1992). pp. (1998). and Folger. Cliffs. REFERENCES : Klir. Fuzzy sets and systems I.. if n is chosen to be T (as defined in Eq. Nawari. pp. Heft 4. 2844. Proc. Determination of the Characteristic values with respect to the new European Codes in Civil Engineering using Fuzzy Modeling. Hartman. (1988). A.177200. 1997. Inst. Prentice HallEnglewood Cliffs. Porec. Fuzzy variables. 0. .5). Symp. No. (1978). Nahmias. A. (1997b) Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes with the Direct Sliding Blocks Method”. Vol. (1973).From Eq. This result would changing the state of safety in our example from safety state III (more or less safe) to failure state I. L. O. Berlin.
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The map will be based on the analyses for both the possibility and the extended length of each rock block falling from the Distinct Element Method with taking the Image Processing Method into consideration. This prediction has been carried out under the following conditions: 1. 2. geology. slope conditions and the risky aspects of present slope location. the road$ is very important in practical engineering to exactly predict a path and an arrival distance of rock block falling. Yamagami & Jiang (0 7999 Balkema. However this evaluation method is not now perfect. because the contents of it cannot clearly determine both the influcnce zone and the degree of rock block falling on the road nearby the toe of dangerous rock slope.1 SIMULATION OF ROCK BLOCK FALLING Puth of rock block fulling Photo. Japan.159 along the Sea of Japan in the Noto Peninsula. Rotterdam. a risky rock block may 2 2. volcunic brecciu and tuj"brecciu in geology have slope angles of 40 to 50 degrees on average and can be especially found either large or small dominant discontinuities in site by site. Jupun f f ABSTRACT : In Japan. Topically. rock slopes which consist of rhyolite.Ishikawu.1 Near entrance of Haseno Tunnel On the occasion that dangerous rock block of discontinuous rock may fall down toward . Kawamura & M. in each local region since Toyohama Tunnel in Hokkaido largely failed in 1996 and consequently a number of passengers suddenly died. as shown in Photograph 1. Nishioka Department o Civil Engineering. As a general rule. 1 INVESTIGATED ROCK SLOPES The discontinuous rock slopes investigated for the risk analysis are located in about 250m between Sosogi Tunnel to Haseno Tunnel in the traffic road Route No. etc. The direction range of rock block falling may he generally indicated to be about 45" each zone to both wings under the condition of a flat surface on rock slope. There.Slope Stability Engineering. Kanuzawa Institute o Technology. The purpose of this paper is to propose an original procedure for drawing up a road hazard map along the toe of dangerous rock slopes. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Stability evaluation of discontinuous rock slope K. the evaluations of many dangerous discontinuous rock slopes have been urgently carried out from viewpoints of geography. the 50m near the Wajima side entrance of Haseno Tunnel can be recognized as the most dangerous zone of rock block falling and sliding highly possible to occur in the near future. Yagi.
except that it is also possible to jump over a low ridge line in case of a shallow valley line.Fig.0 X 1O6 41. and each size is also able to be determined from several clear photographs of rock block induced into the Image Processing Method. dangerous discontinuous rock slope can be counted from the distribution of dominant discontinuous planes. 3. can be shown in Figure 2.0 10 3 (m) ks r) 2.0 23.5 9. Figure 1 shows each predicted result of falling path of dangerous rock block according to the abovementioned rulc.8 35. The actual path of rock block falling along discontinuous rock slopes in the past may be registered as a path again in the future. The simulation of rock block falling is carried out with the Distinct Element Method under the following conditions: Table 1 Input data for the Distant Element Method I Vertical elastic modulus (kN/m2) Lateral elastic modulus (kN/m2) Coefficient of viscosity (kN s/m2) Internal friction angle kn I 26.5 Cohesion C (kN/m2) Unit weight y (kN/m3) Time interval A t (sec) x m5 362 .0 X 1 O6 1 9. It can be determined that the topical rock blocks on the most dangerous discontinuous rock slope are highly likely to fall down along either Path 1 or Path 2 in this figure.1 Path of rock block Palling mainly fall down along the nearest valley line on rock slope surface. such as the cracks and the fissures. Each rock block consisting of 4 ("1 0. along which the most dangerous rock blocks may probably topple and roll down along either Path 1 or Path 2 of Figure 1.2 Simulation by using the Distinct Element Method The section of rock slope.
but also they come to Route No. because several large rock blocks falling will not only easily jump over the steel nets on retaining wall which was constructcd in order to protect against the falling. it is highly possible to destroy the steel nets by the large impact of dangerous rock falling. although almost all rock blocks will probably stop over this dam.2 Investigation sheet for rock slope stability Fig. However. a simulation has been continued until either dangerous rock block behaviors stop perfectly or the falling rock block arrives at a road lower down. 249 road.2 Simulation rcsults That is. While if along Path 2. That is.3 Sim it L t ion result s An example of simulation results by the Distinct Element Method is shown in Figure 2.be demonstrated that almost all dangerous rock blocks will fall down along Path 1 and soon stop by the small dam below the rock slope which was constructed in order to protect against the mud outllow and also store it. so that this falling energy through Path 2 Table. Both the distribution of dangerous rock blocks divided by some dominant discontinuous planes of the Image Processing Method and the input data of the Distinct Element Method for the material characteristics determined based on comparing a few results of actual cases with the simulations of rock block falling can be indicated i n T a b l c l ~ a 2. the rock block falling along Path 1 makes the downward road much dangerous. where it can more than lOOm height of rock slope 50m to lOOm 30m to 50m 10 7 4 7/(10) 363 . their behavior may be predicted to be more serious than Path 1. a few large blocks will jump over it and arrive at Route No. 249 road. Especially.
* . Hb. Ha.Needful to urgently make measure against dangerous rock block falling and sliding ma mx .3 Road hazard map 364 .% 1 Risk for rock block falling and rock slope sliding EZZ3 Any possibility for rock block falling and jumping in near future Any possibility for rock block falling and arrival in near future 5 Any possibility for rock block falling and arrival in near future q % 2 Effective action of protector structure against falling and sliding No expectant structure IlTTrmOl A part of expectant structure Effective structure % 3 Integrated judgement for road hazard Needful to urgently make measure for road safety Needful to make measure for road safety E Needless to make measure and only observation for road safety % 4 Examples of unsafe degree of dangerous rock blocks and slopes. Hd._3  Needful to make measure in near future against dangerous rock block falling and sliding Needful to make measure in future against rock block falling and sliding Needful to observe behavior Fig.Hn .
H. . Slope failure in major Tertiary mudstone zone.3 15871590 Kawamura. NoS68/ 39 175185 (in Japanese) Kawamura.H. the possibility of slope sliding and the other of Table 2. can be proposed in engineering practice. Topographical consideration for landslide prediction. It is easy from this proposed road hazard map to not only keep a road safe but also to make i t possible to carry out meaningful measures against rock block falling and sliding in the case of extreme danger. (1997). and to predict the influence of damage by rock block falling and slope sliding. Conclusions obtained from this study are summarized as follows: 1.K. to the original simulation results of an arrival length and a falling path of dangerous rock block falling determined from the Distinct Element Method. and Kondo. It is possible from a proposed road hazard map to comprehensively evaluate the road safety while simultaneously taking both the danger of rock block falling and the effectiveness of structure in order to protect against rock block falling and slope sliding. 12th I C M F E V01. 2. in other words. Applicability of Distinct Element Method t o failure prediction of discontinuous rock slope based on an actual slope failure. a road position where there is any possibility for dangerous rock block either falling or passing is defined as increasing the degree of safety by one rank. A original road hazard map. where either the hard protection measure of any structures should be constructed in the near future or the soft protection measure of traffjc control rapidly carried out against rock block falling and rock slope sliding. 3. in order to protect against rock block falling. 3 ROAD HAZARD MAP A road hazard map against rock block falling of the most dangerous slope area can be concretely illustrated in order to maintain a safe road. This road hazard map can illustrate the unsafe degree by three bands shown in Figure 3.will be not able to be decreased because there is not the same small dam as Path 1. Finally. Proc. which is based n on not only several results for any possibilities of rock block falling and rock slope sliding determined from the conventional investigation method but also results of an arrival length and a falling path of dangerous rock block obtained by simulation of the Distinct Element Method. It is easy by using a proposed road hazard map to select a extreme dangerous road position.S. in which the first band described on the mountainside can indicate any possibilities of dangerous rock block falling and discontinuous rock slope sliding.!SCE. such as the shade of reinforced concrete and the steel net.K. . Making a road hazard map is based on adding the results of conventional investigations. the unsafe conditions of discontinuous rock slope surface. the central band demonstrates an improved and effective structure in order to protect against rock block falling and rock slope sliding. and Ogawa. Proc. The second band. 5 ACKNOWLEGMENT The authers are grateful to Ishikawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Office for their valuable data and comments in this study.K. and Ogawa.( 1997). 4 CONCLUSIONS This paper proposes a valuable road hazard map from the practical views of how to keep a road safe 365 Dejbrmation and Progressive Failure Geomechunics in ISNagoya 701706 in . which have been composed of the position and the size of dangerous rock block.Murayama. In this paper. the third band on the seaside is examined to show an integrated hazard judgement while taking both the first and the second bands into consideration. This simulation can fully consider the effective actions of structures. 6 REFERENCES Kawamura. Path 2 is assumed to be more dangerous. (1989).R.
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consequently back analysis is used to give some indication of the shear strength properties of the rock mass. Two limiting cases are evident in this figure. the effects of seepage and earthquake loading are investigated herein. In the case of a closely jointed rock mass neither of these approaches is feasible. an earthquake with a peak ground acceleration at about the maximum expected in the region is likely to move the mobilised shear strength curve out to the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope. it seems reasonable to assume that the upper bound of all the points in Figure 1 is a contour of constant factor of safety. Because of the complex tectonic history of NZ these greywackes are closely jointed. there is a temptation to consider all the points on Figure 1 as the result of slope instability. As the context of this paper is stability analysis. are likely to be responsible for at least some of the points in the diagram. The modified version of the criterion (Hoek at a1 1992). a 72 m high slope at 60". is shown in Figure 1. As this envelope lies well below the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope for the rock mass. Yagi. Therefore. Pender 1990) in which back analysis of existing slope height . The particular slopes are those around the city of Wellington in New Zealand in which the rock type is greywacke a highly indurated sandstone of Mesozoic age. Greywacke (an indurated sandstone of Mesozoic age in which the unweathered rock material is very strong and hard) is one of the principal basement rocks in New Zealand. However. GrantTaylor emphasises that other mechanisms. the heights of the slopes adjacent to the Wellington Fault must be controlled either by the properties of the fault zone or by a gradual surface deterioration of the rock. It is found that earthquake effects are more severe than seepage. or. an upper limit for the best material and a lower limit for the material near the Wellington Fault. The slope height . As this friction angle is considered too low for a typical closely jointed rock mass. The mobilised shear strength curve obtained (Pender & Free 1993) for a dry rock mass when under static conditions is plotted in Figure 2. it is expressed in terms of principal stresses and has the form: 367 . The standard method for assessing the strength of a geotechnical material is to recover a sample and test it in the laboratory. Unlike the upper bound in Figure 1. for example erosion. in fact. The HoekBrown failure criterion is.slope angle data was used to obtain a lower bound on the shear strength envelope of a closely jointed rock mass. as near the Wellington Fault the rock is likely to be more closely jointed with interlocking much reduced. ISBN 905809 079 5 Earthquake and seepage effects on the mobilised shear strength of closely jointed rock ABSTRACT: This paper continues a longstanding interest of the author on the shear strength parameters for closely jointed rock masses. in principle. Yamagami & Jiang (o 1999 Balkema. and a 188 m high slope at 45". The majority of the work reported in this paper was based on three points along the upper bound curve in Figure 1 : a 17 m high slope at 75".Slope Stability Engineering. In a previous paper the Casagrande resistance envelope for greywacke slopes in the Wellington area was estimated from the back analysis of existing stable slopes. Clearly the rock close to the Wellington Fault cannot be expected to stand as well as material remote from the fault. Preliminary back analysis shows that it is not possible to model these three combinations of slope height and angle with a single linear c and @ failure envelope. The upper bound curve leads to the highest values for the mobilised shear strength of the rock mass that can be obtained by back analysis of the data. capable of describing rock masses such as those in closely jointed Wellington greywacke.slope angle relation (GrantTaylor 1964). 1 INTRODUCTION This paper continues work reported earlier (Pender & Free 1993. the data for slopes near the Wellington Fault can be matched reasonably well with a single set of MohrCoulomb shear strength parameters: c = 30kPa and @ = 26". Rotterdam. used herein. alternatively. conduct i situ n tests. assumes that a closely jointed mass has zero cohesion.
by the joint system. This comment restricts the consideration herein to 368 . Similarly. it is of note that the shear and normal stresses in the rock mass are a very small fraction of the assumed unconfined compression strength for the intact rock. In these rock masses. very much smaller than the scale of the cut slopes which are up to several tens of metres high. that the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope is appropriate for the rock masses. this gives a lower bound on the mobilised shear strength curve. is plotted in Figure 2 along with the mobilised shear strength curve for the Wellington slopes. The relevance of these two classes of action is thus investigated in this paper. The cuts in the greywacke slopes in and around the city of Wellington provide a good example.) Using the guidance given in the Hoek et a1 (1992) paper. perhaps the greatest assumption of the whole paper and the one that is most difficult to verify. However. obtained after calculations outlined by Hoek et a1 (1992). A basic input parameter is the unconfined compression strength. The previous back analysis (Pender & Free 1993) was done on the assumption that the slope is dry and that there is no earthquake acceleration present.5 and 1. but earthquake shaking may be the key to understanding the observed slopeheight slopeangle data. The rainfall in Wellington is such that seepage is likely to be a significant effect on slope behaviour. 2 TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Closelyjointed rock masses A rock mass is described as closely jointed when the joint spacing is small in relation to the scale of the project in question. Figure 2.Figure 1. a particular joint cannot exert a dominant effect on the rock mass behaviour. (It is of interest that independent work on the shear strength properties of greywacke rock masses (Read et a1 1999) found that a value of 60 MPa for the unconfined compressive strength was needed to achieve a reasonable HoekBrown failure envelope. The behaviour of the mass is thus a consequence of the combined action of a large number of individual joints. This does assume. The corresponding MohrCoulomb failure envelope for the rock mass. As the individual joints do not seem to have great continuity. There is the possibility that inclusion of other effects on the slope might go some way to spanning the gap between the two curves in Figure 2. The parameters a and mnb depend on the intensity of jointing in the rock mass. At stress levels of interest in slope stability assessment. In passing. of the unweathered rock. and at many other locations throughout NZ. at many locations there is no clearly defined characteristicjoint direction (notwithstanding that plotting a large number of joint directions may indicate other than random joint orientations). in a complicated way. therefore. the strength of the intact rock between the joints is usually so high that failure of the mass is controlled. the joint spacing is a small fraction of a metre. for NZ greywacke this is frequently well in excess of 100 MPa. of course. Furthermore. Wellington slopeheight slopeangle data. It is. oc.2). Mobilised shear strength curve for dry Wellington greywacke under static conditions and the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope. and the comments of Hoek (1998). in the earlier paper it seemed more appropriate to use a smaller value of 50 MPa. values were chosen for the parameters a and mb (0. as NZ is in a seismic region the effect of accelerations on slope stability is a legitimate question. The conclusions reached are that water pressures will not explain the difference between the two curves in Figure 2.
for example. The envelope of a number of separate resistance envelopes gives a better bound on the failure envelope for the material in the rock slope. which was made to give a lower bound on the mobilised strength curve. This diagram shows that seepage through the slopes. SimilarIy most of the prebored holes for piles on the Shell Gully structures for the Wellington Urban motorway were dry. with roughly parallel ranges of hills separated by steep sided valleys. As originally formulated (Casagrande 1950) the resistance envelope refers to one particular slope geometry. The topography of the Wellington region. along with the curves from Figure 2. (1988). it will have more curvature than the actual failure envelope. gives rise to only a . Finally. For slopes subject to earthquake accelerations the logarithmic spiral approach of Prater (1979) is adapted to the back analysis. means it is unlikely that the highest slopes will ever be completely saturated. but may approach the failure envelope from below. the higher less steep slopes are mantled by a layer of weathered greywacke having a low permeability. Using the curves developed by Baikie the effect of having the slopes completely saturated with water is easily investigated. If. The stability charts of Hoek and Bray (1981) have been replotted as resistance envelopes by Baikie 369 There is little information about the water conditions in the steep slopes in Wellington greywacke. With this assumption of homogeneity it is necessary to search for the critical case of each type of failure mechanism. i. along with the curves from Figure 2. 3 EFFECT OF SEEPAGE 2. These provide a method for generating mobilised shear strength curves both for dry and saturated slopes. Assumptions about the type of failure mechanism are also required. It should be noted that the mobilised shear strength curve is not the failure envelope of the rock mass.I f I Normal stress (MPa) Figure 3. even when the slopes are fully saturated. Furthermore water was not a particularly difficult problem during the construction of the Terrace Tunnel in the late 60’s and early 70’s or during the construction of the investigation drive several years earlier. It is not common to see water seeping out of slope faces around the city. Mobilised shear strength curve with.4 g. hard rocks that are unweathered or only slightly weathered. The resulting mobilised shear strength curve is plotted in Figure 3. Mobilised shear strength curve with a pseudostatic horizontal acceleration of 0. This relation tells us nothing more than the stress combinations required to satisfy equilibrium in the slope. there are no clearly defined joint planes or joint sets which control the form of the failure mode. a circular failure mode is under investigation then a search has to be made until the critical circle is found. In closely jointed media it seems appropriate to assume that the material is approximately homogeneous. as pointed out by GrantTaylor.e. Herein the term resistance envelope is confined to information derived from a single slope geometry and the term mobilised shear strength curve is used when information gained from the back analysis of slopes with different geometries is combined. These comments provide another perspective on the assumption in the earlier back analysis that the rock masses are dry. so water falling on the slopes will runoff rather than infiltrate the unweathered and closely jointed rock mass below.2 Resistance envelopes und mobilised shear strength curves A further point of terminology needs clarification. Normal stress (MPa) Figure 4. However. many of the concepts developed are also valid for slopes in weathered rock and soil.
These steps. One thus obtains from Prater's equations a range of linear c.modest change in the mobilised shear strength curve which remains far short of the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope in Figure 2. Current assessment of the earthquake risk in the Wellington region suggests that peak ground accelerations in the 0. The horizontal acceleration of 0. 4 EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS The Hoek and Bray charts do not include inertia forces in the slope generated by earthquake accelerations. It is apparent from Figure 4 that a peak horizontal acceleration in the 0. to assess the effects of horizontal and vertical accelerations in the slope. which will just have a slope of a certain height and angle at limiting equilibrium. Prater ( 1979) presents a pseudostatic approach. However. In the work herein the range of the tabulated values was extended by coding in Mathcad the expressions given by Prater. lead to the mobilised shear strength curve plotted in Figure 4. k.. The pseudostatic calculations have been done with horizontal acceleration only.4g has a more severe effect on the Wellington slopes than seepage. This will be another effect on the mobilised shear and normal stresses. However. any shearing. although he uses a logarithmic spiral rather than a circular failure surface. Clearly. Unfortunately we have no direct information about slope deformations during and after these earthquakes.6 to 0. Thus we cannot reach a definite conclusion that they are responsible for the existing slope configurations. In particular we need information about the long term effect of the earthquake accelerations on the slopes. It appears that earthquake loading with a peak ground acceleration of the magnitude that could be expected in the Wellington region in a major event would mobilise shear strengths approaching the estimated HoekBrown failure envelope in Figure 2. whereas the above calculations have been done in a pseudostatic manner.6 to 0. of the rock mass will lead to a short term reduction in water pressures.8g range would scale the mobilised shear strength curve into the proximity of the estimated HoekBrown envelope in the figure. Even so we are still some way short of being able to conclude that the mobilised shear strength curve for kh = 0.4g. and even more so any loosening..4g used in the calculations is thought to be representative of the peak ground acceleration to which slopes in the Wellington region will have been subjected a number of times in the past. The resistance envelope for the particular geometry is then obtained by plotting the linear failure envelopes and sketching an inner envelope to them. when saturated. then. A closely jointed mass behaves as a very dense medium. 5 DISCUSSION It is clear from Figures 3 and 4 that a psuedostatic horizontal earthquake acceleration of 0. seepage will not explain the difference between the two curves in Figure 2. Once again we are hampered by lack of information about slope damage during large earthquakes. with a horizontal acceleration of 0.4g. horizontal accelerations of this magnitude will have a more severe effect on the slopes than 0. For given values of friction angle and cohesion Prater tabulated values of the horizontal acceleration coefficient. Baikie has investigated this and found that it is not of great significance for slope inclinations 60" or less. 6 CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions are reached: Extending the Casagrande resistance envelope concept to encompass different slope geometries.4 in Figure 4 is the failure envelope for the Wellington greywacke rock masses. means that the lower bound on the shear strength properties of the rock masses is also extended. Cp failure envelopes corresponding to the limiting equilibrium of a particular slope configuration at a given horizontal acceleration. The following points preclude this: The earthquake shaking of the slopes is a transient process. If the earthquake causes loosening of the rock mass then long term deterioration may follow. Another possibility would be to combine earthquake and seepage effects to further expand the mobilised shear strength curve. which is incorporated into the Hoek and Bray charts. This has not been considered herein as the simple addition of the two effects is most unlikely. Although less frequent. Prater does not include a vertical tension crack at the top of the slope. The effects of pseudostatic earthquake loading at 370 . thus.8g range could occur for a major earthquake on the Wellington fault. in reality vertical accelerations will accompany the horizontal. The pseudostatic analysis discussed in this paper indicates the stresses that will be generated during earthquake loading. the above two paragraphs indicate that we cannot decide if the geometry of the greywacke slopes around Wellington is defined by relatively infrequent major earthquakes or a series of more frequent events with a smaller peak ground accelerations. From this it is apparent that the demands on the slopes of earthquake accelerations of this level are considerably more severe than those of water seeping through the slope.
25: 4249. it is not possible to conclude definitely that earthquake shaking can account for the observed slope height . Rock slope engineering. E. Stability of slopes in closely jointed rock masses. Notes on the design of earth dams. Boston Societ). 1998 Reliability of HoekBrown estimates of rock mass properties and their impact on design. Hoek. Perrin 1999. J. there is still considerable uncertainty about the actual shear strength properties of the closely jointed greywacke rock masses in Wellington. A 1950. Thomas Telford. D. 1990. J. M. Balkema: Rotterdam. Herein a smaller value (5OMPa) was used.. Geotechnical Engineering. Min. Richards. Jour. Stability assessment of slopes in closely jointed rock masses. Pender. Prater. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Read.the level of 0. Applicability of the HoekBrown failure criterion to New Zealand greywacke rocks. The range of shear and normal stresses in the slopes associated with the mobilised shear strength curve is a small fraction of the assumed unconfined compression strength of the intact rock material. 1964. Hoek. Proc. The actual unconfined compression strength of unweathered greywacke gives what seems an unreasonable HoekBrown rock mass failure envelope. J. New Zealand Engineering. RRRU Bulletin 84: 1 15126. 371 . 35( I): 6368. Int. 7 REFERENCES Baikie. G. Shah 1992. 105(GT5): 682687. Pender. E. Wellington: RRU. & M. W. In as much as the pseudostatic analysis performed herein tells us nothing of the deformations in the slope. Eurock’93: 863870. Proc. T. L. A modified HoekBrown criterion for jointed rock masses.D.4g are much more demanding of the shear strength behaviour of the jointed rock masses than seepage under fully saturated conditions. Casagrande resistance envelopes for rock and rockfill slopes having circular slip surfaces. 37: 405429. Jnl. London. Although the this paper extends the mobilised shear strength curve obtained by Pender and Free (1993). 9”’ Congress of the ISRM. & N. L. W. Stable angles in Wellington greywacke.slope angle relation. S. London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. M. & J. R.. A. 1988. Free 1993. Hoek. E. Yield acceleration for seismic stability of slopes. NZ Road Research Unit Bridge Design and Research Seminar. & S. Casagrande. Civil Engineers. Paris. D. Proc. Bray 1981. Rock Mech. Wood. L. 1979. E. Sci. Eurock’92: 2092 13. L. 19: 129130. GrantTaylor.
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4 Effects of rainfall and groundwater .
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This project has been carried out in view of tlie partial saturation with other related parameters involved in tlie stability of slopes in residual soils. should however be extended to incorporate unsaturated soil mechanics. The partial saturatioii of the soil allows the negative pore pressure (matric suction) to exist aiid develops an apparent cohesion. University of Malaya. The analysis when linked to shallow failure. being assumed zero. To identify tlie different hydrological. physical. To use the predicted hydrological condition (steady state and transient state analysis) as input slope to a physically based two diiiiensional (2D) stability sub model (SLOPEIW) to study tlie changes in factor of the safety of slopes based on the various parameters determined above. Subramaniam KTA Tenugu Sdn Btid. 375 . To apply the combined seepage and slope analysis to arrange a slope form aiid antecedent condition for the production of design chart for partially saturated soils which summarizes the effect of a particular storm event on slope stability.Malaysia ABSTRACT : In the past. geometrical aiid strength parameters that affect tlie stability of slopes in unsaturated residual soils. Mulaysia EH. Yagi. Many researcher have produced chart that enable the stability of simple slopes to be assessed without the necessity of coiiipletiiig detailed calculations. 1 INTRODUCTION The relatively steep cut slopes in residual soils are initially stable aiid partly saturated. which in iiiajority of the cuts is the predominant stabiliziiig factor. The rain initiates the absorption of water by the surface layers causing the degree of saturation to increase. Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5809 079 5 Design chart for cut slope in unsaturated residual soils R. The following objectives have been o u t l i d . Yamagami & Jiang 0 7999 Balkema. Kualu Liinzpur.Slope Stability Engineering. deep ground water conditions or climatic fluxes. 2. 2 DEVELOPMENT OF SLOPE STABILITY CHARTS Standard approaches to stability analysis usually simplify consideration of the hydrological condition to that of a static. fixed grouiidwater level. tlie effects of soil suction . 4. Stability analysis procedures are then used to determine the factor of safety for the slope. given the distribrrtion of positive pressures along the slip surfaces. This study has been carried out in view of partial saturation with other related parameters involved in the stability of slopes in residual soils using a combination of seepage and slope stability programs. To produce a physically based coupled dimensional ( D dynamic slope hydrological 2) condition (transient) model controlling stability due to various parameters identified above using tlie available SEEP/W software. 3. Soil suctions are generally ignored in such analysis. The saturation zone advances to greater depths. rainfall and conductivity of soil were not considered in the coiiveiitioiial slope stability analysis that were carried out using parameters based on saturated condition. They are a1v ~tscfu!fgr prcliiiiinary aiialysis and enable 1. The advancing saturation front alters tlie hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic Conductivity thus changing the flow patterns and the distribution of moisture content in the soil.Ali Civil Engineering Department.
m/s (Figure 2).d s ) .3. To find a linear relationship between the f ctor of safety and the diinensionless factor tan $ for unsaturated residual soils. This output model is later used as input to SLOPE/W programme for stability analysis. 5 .25. 9s = I ~ I o .1 Factor of Safety vs Permeability (ks) for various slope heiglits(H) ~ For a fixed qs = 1 ~ 1 0 m/s (Figure I).25. Again when the saturated permeability (ks) is l ~ l O m/s. 3:2 tan p C’ = 0. Figure 1 Factor of Safety vs Permeability (lts) for various slope heiglits(H) 2.~ the factor of safety is the lowest at permeability value of ks = 1x107 m/s and increases at ks = 1 ~ 1 0 m/s and ‘~ 6 1x10. 50.m/s. When the rainfall intensity is close or equal to the saturated permeability the lowest factor of safety is achieved. t To establish a design chart for approximation of preliminary design.3 Results 2. 2.~m/s or 8 1xl0. 1OltPa = 20. 1.~ m/s. 1989). Determination of the critical condition Before the slope stability charts are produced a table is formed to study the different rainfall intensity and conductivity f~inction. A transient analysis is carried out and the respective profile changes in tlie suction are then observed. . whereas there is not much changes in factor of safety when the rainfall intensity (qs) is M O . A typical initial condition is simulated with the groundwater table to be at 10 meters perpendicular distance from the toe of the slope. However the lowest value is obtained at qs = 1xl 0p6 m/s wliicli means the liiglier the permeability the lower is the factor of safety. H = 10.~ni/s for a ~ duration of 24 hour. The following parameters are identified as these values represent the comnion values for residual soils at the Kuala Lumpur . The difference between the threc different rainfall intensity do not 2 376 . ks = 1x10.60 meters = 1:1. 30.O . 30.~ .M . 35. the factor of safety seems to decrease with increasing saturated m/s conductivity.~ . 1% = MO~MO~M O . 40. O$O. the lowest value is obtained at ks = 1xlOb8 m/s.2 Factor of Safety vs Heiglit(H) for various rainfall intensity (qs) For a ixed saturated permeability of the soil. This signifies that the lowest factor of safety is achieved when the infiltration rate is alinost or equal to the permeability of the soil. The critical case is to be found and to be used for the development of slope stabilitp charts. 0.2:1. the factor of saftty tends to drop ~ also with tlie increase in height.Karak highway project and these values can also be used at other residual soils in Malaysia (Othman.00 Yb = 18 kN/ni’ 2. A maximum suction value of 100 1.3. 0. the factor of safety seems to decrease with increasing slope heights.the designer to quickly assess the sensitivity of a problem to changes in different input parameters. The main objectives of this exercise is to :To find the critical condition where the landslide could occur or the combination of permeability of the soil and the rainfall intensity which will be critical.75. For all the various heights ranging from 20 meters to 50 meters.2 Procedure A homogeneous slope model is developed with the respected parameters using tlie SEEP/W programme and the various iiifiltratioidrainfall intensities is used as input to run the transient condition. 20.Pa is fixed to siniulate tlie site condition. 1 x 1 0 .40 degrees $b Q. the factor of safety tends to decrease with the increase of permeability of the soil. For qs = l ~ l O . or qs = 1 x 1 0 . = 0.
1.00 c’/yH = 0. the factor of safety tends to decrease with increasing s!ope angles.030 pore water pressure = SEEP/W Heads o9 377 . The drop in the factor of safety is very much greater for slope 1V:lH compared to slopes 3V:2H and 2V:IH.m/s did not vary much for each slopes.0. the factor of safety tends to decrease with increasing saturated permeability .4 Factor of Safety vs slope angle (tan various rainfall intensity (9s) p) for For a fixed height (H = 50 meter) and saturated 6 permeability (ks = 1x10 m/s) as in Figure 4. the various ~ rainfall intensity tends to be close to one another.m/s and 1x10. However when ks = ~ x I O m/s. The critical condition occurs when qs = ks and the worst case is for slope 2V: 1H. 1:1.0.4 Discussion p) for 1 2.25. the difference is not very much. In the computation of the data for the development of stability charts it has been assumed that the slope is homogeneous and constructed of a single material with effective stress strength parameter c’ and 4’.3.015.0.0.75. The lowest factor of safety is obtained when the rainfall intensity is close or equal to the permeability of the soil.0. The critical condition qs = ks is chosen when ks = l x 106m/s because of its high permeability and the duration of rainfall intensity is fixed at 24 hours as determined from the analysis. The soil can only infiltrate the maximum value of ks = 1x108 m / s and the excess water acts as surface runoff.3. 3:2 tan p = 0. The ks = 1x 106 m/s was found to give the lowest safety factor during the sensitivity analysis for the slope of Kuala Lumpur Karak Highway. Figure 4 Factor of Safety vs slope angle (tan various rainfall intensity (qs) 2. However when qs is less than or more than the saturated permeability.0. The range of the parameter are as follows:= 2:l .3 Factor of Safety vs Saturated Permeability (ks) for various slope angle (tan 0) For a fixed rainfall intensity (qs = I X ~ Om/s) and ~ height (H = 50 meters) as in Figure 3. 2.Figure 2 Factor of Safety vs Height(H) for various rainfall intensity (9s) Figure 3 Factor of Safety vs Saturated Permeability seem to be big when compared to when ks = 1 ~ 1 0 (ks)~ various slope angle (tan p) ~ for d s .50. However the drop in the fact r of safety whe the rainfall intensity is (qs 9/ = 1x10.
Tlie intermediate values for c’lyH can be interpolated as shown in Figure 5 for a particular slope angle and strength value.00 for various 4’ values process using the blicrosoft EXCFL programme \\it11 an a\ erage standard error.U*).4. 0. Figure 6 Linear relationship between factor of safety and dimensionless tan $b value for = 30 degrees and c’/yH = 0. 0. 9 shoib the f m d s coefficients 370 . It should however be renieiiibered that for cross sections of natural slopes or wide embankments some errors inay be iiicurred due to the neglect of tension cracks whose effect on stability becomes more pronounced at higher values of c’lyH. whilst all other parameters being held constant and inay be expressed in tlie form of equation (1 ).the tangent of the slope angle.0. For these problems. 2. the factor of safety.75. $ for unsaturated residual soils. expressed as tan p.1 Dimensionless iiuiiiber c’/yH For a given value of tlie dimensionless number c‘lyH. R. Considering that tlie cohesion intercept in terms of effective stress is gradually somewhat lower than the cohesion intercept in total stress. and s where geometrically. 0. the factor of safety depends only on tlie geometry of the section.tan ( 1) where f and s are termed the stability coefficient for a particular slope and soil properties. 011 the porepressure given by SEEP/W and on the aiiyle of B shearing resistance. f is the intersection with factor of safety (F) axis of me describing the relationship between F aiid tan 4 and corresponds to the v 1 of tlie factor of safety for zero suction value (4 = O).$’ aiid suction resistance..03. 8. 6 4 These two parameters f and s are determined from tlie fitting curve passing through all or near all the b respective points where $ /$* = 0. Since the slope of this line is always positive (Fredlund.4. 1.0. and s is the slope of this line.9 (Fredlund. these values have been selected as represeiitiiig the range coiniiioiily encountered in effective stress analysis and also a range within which a linear interpolation can be used without significant errors. To reduce the amount of computation cn!y three(3) values of c’/yH have been used that is 0. Figures 7. 19 4).2 Factor of safety (F) varies linearly with the magnitude of tlie tan $b F = f + s.value of 0. 0.015.is the rate of change in shear strength with respect to suction (ua .005 for various slope angle Linear relationship between F and tan$b for a givcn value of c’lyH.50. it had been found that to a closer approximation. for varying $‘ bet\veeii 30 degrees to 40 degrees. f. (F) varies linearly with the magnitude of the tan 6b (dimensionless value of rate of change in shear strength with respect to suction).An accurate and extensive general solutions is made possible by these factors: For a simple soil profile and specified shear strength parameters. Figure 5 Linear relationship between factor of safety and dimensionless number c’/yH for a particular = 30 degrees and = 15 degrees for various slope angle The values of the stabilit) coefficients f and s Lire then plotted again