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1 Explain the features of book-building and different stages involved in book building. Ans;Features of Book-building: 1. Quantity Assessment:The number of shares to be issued so that company can get the maximum price is assessed and determined. Larger quantity of shares may reduce the share premium. To avoid this, the quantity is assessed by collecting the opinions of institutional investors. 2. Price Discovery: The investors are given a choice to bid different quantities at different prices. As happens in a public auction, the investors bid at different prices. Before public does this, the price preference of institutional investors is collected to determine the price band. 3. Documents: Instead of relying on a single document called prospectus as in the fixed price public offer, different documents can be used like notice, circular, Information Memorandum or a Red-Herring Prospectus (A prospectus that is incomplete regarding the price). The final prospectus is prepared after the allotment by including the issue price (cut-off price). 4. Category: The issue can be divided into two categories: a) Private Placement Portion: It is the portion that is offered to the syndicate members and to the institutional investors. Institutional Investors are called "Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIB)". They comprise mutual funds, financial institutions, foreign institutional investors etc. b) Public Issue: It is that portion which is offered to the public for bidding. It is known, as "net offer to the public" Originally 25% of the issue size was to be reserved for net offer to the public. From 2005, this portion is increased to a minimum of 35%. 5. Lead Book Running Manager: The main Merchant Banker is appointed as Lead Book Running Manager (LBRM). Other merchant bankers are called Co-Book Runners. For collecting the bids on behalf of their customers, syndicate members are appointed. Syndicate Members are those financial intermediaries who are eligible to be appointed as underwriters. Different stages involved in book building Financial Intermediaries involved: The number of financial intermediaries involved in book-building is less in comparison with fixed price public issue of shares. The activity is more focused with a lesser number of intermediaries operating under a sophisticated system of office management. As time of completion is very crucial, all the intermediaries operate under a system of a high-level
Collection of Bid-Cum-Application Forms: Once the public issue is open. appoints the Syndicate Members. Getting the shares listed on the stock exchange.. Important financial intermediaries and their functions are presented briefly. B. The Lead Book Runner has the following responsibilities: Advising the company in the appointment of other Book Runners Enabling the appointment of Syndicate Members Preparation and circulation of Information Memorandum among Syndicate Members. Preparation of a Red Herring Prospectus and Filing it with SEBI along with the Information Memorandum. The net offer to the public should be compulsorily underwritten. Total net worked system is essential for the successful operation of the system. A.band at which the shares are to be offered. Closure of Bid Collection. the syndicate members ensure the availability application forms to the public. Only those financial intermediaries who are registered with SEBI as underwriters can be appointed as the Syndicate Members. which is done by the syndicate members. Merchant Banker as a Book Runner A Merchant Banker is appointed as the Lead Book Runner. Enabling the Companies to appoint other financial intermediaries like Registrar to the Issue. Bankers to the Issue etc. 1. Other Merchant Banker may be appointed as Co-Book Runners. They pass on this information to the Merchant Banker to assess the total demand for the shares and the price. . Filing Due Diligence Certificate with SEBI declaring the satisfaction of all the regulation. 3. Determining the Price Band.Information Technology absorption. Syndicate Members collect the various prices and the respective quantities the institutions are willing to buy. They do this through their branch offices or through franchisees. Through the Syndicate Members. Preparing the Final Prospectus and filing it with SEBI and Registrar of Companies. Allotment of shares through Registrar after deciding the cut-off price. collecting information about the quantity and the price at which the institutions are willing to buy. 2. Syndicate Members: The issuing company. The Syndicate Members perform the following basic functions. Announcing the opening of the subscription and arranging the graphic presentation of bids received. Facilitating Quantity Assessment: From various institutions (QIB). on the advice of the Merchant Bankers. Underwriting: They underwrite that portion of the shares which will be offered to the public for subscription.
4. Many of the exporters import raw material. equipment and technology. strengthening the defence of the country and establishing basic industries require import of machinery. The same is supplied to various Syndicate members and their branch offices. there is always insufficiency of foreign exchange to meet the import demands.In turn. the central bank supervises the method of payment for .Objectives of Foreign Exchange Control and Management Generally. By managing the foreign exchange. Even during abnormal conditions as war. Therefore. Facilitating Economic Development: Developing the economy and country through providing infrastructure. For that matter imports cannot be curbed blindly. equipment and technology. The foreign exchange is controlled so as to make it available for strengthening the country basically in all its requirements. Ans:. Supplementing Trade Controls of Government: Trade Control aims at the control of foreign companies entering India. technology and such other things in order to manufacture and export. Red Herring Prospectus. c) Allotment: The net-public offer portion of public issue is allotted by the Registrar to the retail investors in consultation with the Lead Book Runner. Q2. This will help the Lead Book Runner to make available a graphic presentation of the details of bids received for the benefit of the public. d) Other Procedure: The Registrar also arranges to credit the Demat accounts of the allottees and dispatch allotment letters or refund orders. b) Printing & Supply of Forms: He arranges to print the Application cum Bid Forms. the central bank intervenes in order to control the imports without affecting the exports. Registrar to the Issue: The Lead Book Runner helps the company in appointing a Registrar who generally discharges the following functions. the Application Forms are collected from the public and uploaded in to the IT online system of a stock exchange. Rationing Foreign Exchange: Developing countries generally import more than what they export. Explain the objectives of foreign exchange control and management. Therefore. the Company and the Stock Exchange officials. The trade control has the objective of ensuring that foreign companies entering India are not setting up an adverse position against the interest of the economy. the country needs to import a lot of equipment including a higher quality of import of crude oil for the movement of troops and defence equipment. a) Appointment of Bankers: The Registrar helps the company in appointing bankers and opening Escrow A/Cs for accepting the Application money. This is done by way of rationing the foreign exchange among the various segments of the country that are in need of importing one or the other thing. the central banks have the following objectives in foreign exchange control and management. equipments. While the trade controls regulate physical transfer of goods. the central bank makes it available for such unavoidable purpose. base metals.
A bureaucratic set up and lethargic employees may cause delay to the extent of even more than 10 days. the central bank attempts to curb such activities. In the year 2007. With foreign exchange controls. In addition to that.3 Explain the concept of float. capital transactions and the invisibles. the central bank must encourage liberal usage of foreign exchange to meet such a situation. It will act as a parallel market defeating the efforts of the central bank. Curbing Activities of Terrorists’ Organisations: Both the World Bank and the IMF are very much concerned about the flow of the money of the terrorist organisations through the legal channel like banks through benami accounts. the problem for the RBI is to manage the huge inflow of foreign exchange into the country. the remittances made by NRIs have increased so much that India is accounting for about 20% of the total remittances taking place in the entire world in 2006-07. the RBI can do a good job in this respect. This is causing a huge inflow of foreign investments into the country. it takes a few days for it to reach the payee. Exchange control is more comprehensive encompassing all exports and imports. Both the world bodies introduced the „Know Your Customer‟ concept to prevent such transactions. the external value of rupee may go up affecting the exports of the country adversely. This is called a mailing float. India is regarded as a favoured destination for investment by major investors in almost all the countries. in recording the details of the cheques in the records of the firm and . Therefore. It is also defined as the difference between the bank balance as per cash book of the firm and bank balance as per bank records. Managing Excess Inflows of Foreign Funds: Excess inflows of foreign funds pose as many problems as shortage of foreign exchange. Through exchange control. Most of the transactions involve foreign exchange for buying the arms and ammunitions from different foreign countries. When the funds are coming in. the RBI has to release an equal amount in rupees to the recipient in India.Concept of Float Float is the delay in the credit or debit of bank accounts regarding cheques and other instruments already issued or deposited for collection. This will result in inflationary pressure on the economy. The Hawala market creates a distortion in the legal market. Moreover. How float can be managed effectively? Ans:. Trade control is concerned only with imports and exports. Q. Control of Hawala Transactions: Hawala market is a market for conversion of rupees into foreign currency illegally. a) Mailing Float: Even though cheques or drafts are posted. imports and repatriation of proceeds of exports through foreign exchange control. b) Processing Float: The efficiency of the payee‟s organization will determine the delay between receiving the cheques and depositing it with the bank for collection. There are three types of delays that create the difference.
Electronic Clearance of Cheques: Arrangements must be made with the banks to get the cheques cleared through National Electronic Funds Transfer or Real Time Gross settlement of the RBI. an employee of the firm should collect it early in the morning.depositing them into the bank account. The float can be managed effectively by way of: A. Decelerating Cash Outflows A) Accelerating Cash Inflows: Organizing an Effective Cash Department: The function of Cash Department should be organized well. the firm has issued cheques to its suppliers or others and delay is caused in debiting the firm‟s bank account. arrangements must be made with the banks to credit the proceeds even before collection. Quick Credit of Cheques: Wherever allowed. we call it a negative float. The firm can do its best to see that the positive float increases and the negative float decreases. Instead of relying upon the employee of the postal department. If the bank branch and its staff are known for inefficiency. If the firm has deposited the cheques for collection and delay is caused for crediting the effects. . it may take as much as even a month for the collection. Arrangements should be made to bring in the mail early in the morning by opening a separate mail box. Scanners can be installed to catch the digital image of cheques from which entries can be made in the books after sending the cheques to the bank. The float can be positive or negative. Accelerating Cash Inflows B. it is called a positive float. It must be made clear that the cheques received should be recorded in the books and sent to the bank well before the time the banks carry the cheques for the clearing. it will take a few days for the collection of the instrument. or by way of getting the instrument discounted with the banker. Making use of foreign banks or new generation private sector banks for clearing the cheques will reduce the time involved in collection of the cheques. Total of these three delays constitutes the float. On the other hand. c) Collection Float: Where the cheques are drawn on some other bank or some other branch.
an effective system can be installed for quick and . More and more banks are issuing such cheques. Disputes may arise and rectification has to be done periodically. Therefore. the delay in collection can be avoided. Alternatively. Instruments Payable at Par: Arrangements can also be made with the customers to receive the payments by way of Demand Drafts drawn on the bank branch with which the firm has an account. In addition. This will ensure the removal of all the delays and transfer the funds from the bank account of the customer to the bank account of the firm immediately. Though conventional practice regards this system to be very effective one. The credit is given instantly as soon as the cheque is cleared by the paying banker. Using Lock Box System: Arrangements are also made with the post office to open a lock box system from where the bank collects the cheques directly. the banks will charge heavily for this service. Concentration Banking: A corporate having branches spread throughout the country designates certain strategically located branches to collect the cheques on behalf of branches in different regions. One more and the most effective way is to encourage the customers to make payments online using a credit card or debit card. Differences may also arise in accounting for the cheques. These cheques are payable at par at any branch of the bank immediately. they have started issuing multi-city cheques or “At Par Cheques”. the firm has to depend upon the banks periodical statements in the management of accounts receivable that will create a delay in the monitoring of accounts receivable. Truncation is a process whereby the collecting banker sends only the digital image of the cheque to the paying banker. ATMS are also being developed so that cheques deposited into the ATMS for collection are accepted and the digital image is sent via the network to the paying banker immediately. the firm my have to depend upon the efficiency of the bank staff in prompt receipt of cheques from the lock box everyday. Cheque Truncation: Accounts can be opened with banks. Added to that. which are using cheque truncation for collecting the cheques. The branches inform the customers to make payment directly to the designated branch. Cheques are not sent physically for collection. This arrangement reduces the procedure of cheques received by the firm and sent to the bank for collection. after the adoption of core banking by the Indian banks whereby all the branches are networked.
Cheque Kiting: Cheques can be sent to the supplier even if there is no balance in the bank. and send them to the Branch Manager even for the payment of salary. Payments need not be made in the month of purchase. payment is made only on the 14th day or 15th day. the . the bank levies no interest. If payment is made within the date specified. They have to deposit all the receipts into the accounts of the Head Office opened with a bank in the locality of the branch. The Branch Heads are not given the powers to make payments. either there will be some receipts to take care of it or we can make arrangement to deposit the amount. The Head Office in turn will draw cheques on the banks in the locality of the branch. Using Credit Cards for Payment: Credit cards generally give a month‟s time for making the payment to the bank. There are many firms. This system removes the disadvantage of mailing delay involved in sending the customers‟ cheques of all the branches to the head office. it will entail delays resulting in conservation of cash. it will take anything between 7 days to 10 days for the cheque to be presented by the bank. For all payments. As it involves a float on the part of the payee. If highest cash discount is available for payment within 15 days. the Branch Manager must write to the Head Office. B) Decelerating Cash Outflows: The payments made are delayed as much as possible without attracting any extra cost or penalty. By that time. They are delayed as much as possible. In the second month. After that. The designated branches are nearer to customers than the head office. On receipt of cheques by way of presentation. which come to an understanding with the banker. Naturally. Even for payment of taxes. it avoids the inefficiency of each branch receiving the cheques and sending them for collection. the bank informs the firm. Payment on the Last Date: Payments are not made early. For power bill. At the same time. the payment is made on the last date allowed. payment is made on the last day without attracting penalty. the same system should be followed. they are paid only on the last permitted date. For purchases. the firm deposits the necessary amount into the bank account or uses the overdraft facility to make payment.speedy collection of cheques. Payment by Head Office: Payments on behalf of all the branches should be made by the Head office.
interest is saved for almost two months. This will make the cheque to come through more than one bank for collection. . Cheques can be drawn on accounts maintained with such banks. Every collection of outstation cheque takes more than 15 days. if the payment is made. There are banks known for very inefficient system of collection. By the end of second month. delay is caused and cash is conserved. Selection of Banks: The bank may be selected in such a way that we get the maximum positive float. a bank may be selected specifically because it has only a small network of branches. Naturally.bank sends the demand statement. Again.
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