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My observation: Aim: The aim of the project is to study, how the baffles and its layout in a reactor [w=

5m, h=2m] affects the flow nature and residence time. The advantage of having baffles is that it dissociates flow and imposes turbulence in it thus enhanced mixing which is necessary for many chemical reactions. So the position of the baffles affects the flow pattern, mixing, dead zones etc. For this purpose, a chemical species is injected in the baffled reactor with a concentration c and with a concentration burst. Observations were made to understand the above mentioned properties in both 2D and 3D model. The turbulent flow is solved with a stationary model and the transport of the chemical species is done in a time-dependent manner. Governing equations The flow takes place is turbulence. The governing equation is RANS equation.

The model is k-, it requires two additional equations to be solved along with the RANS equation. The k represents the total kinetic energy of the flow and the denotes the rate of dissipation of velocity fluctuation [the turbulent energy].

There are lot of models are in use to govern turbulence, but the choice is depend on the desired accuracy and available computation time. The species transport is governed by the mass transport equation and based on Eulers approach the random component is included in the equation and the molecular diffusion is neglected.

The random components are,

Because of random component solving becomes impossible. So, Closure approximation using eddy diffusivity is introduced,

Results in, The boundary region is solved by assuming wall function; it increases the mesh refinement near the wall where maximum dissipation of turbulent energy takes place. The inlet velocity is 0.1 m/s and at the outlet the pressure is zero. The turbulence length scale is a quantity used to describe the size of large energy- containing in a turbulent flow. For flow through pipes, it is chosen between is 3.8% - 7% of the hydraulic diameter. Here it is chosen as, Tl =0.07 * Dh = 0.028m. A chemical species of concentration, c0 = 1 mol/m^3 is injected in the flow, with a concentration burst at the 3rd second, C = co * exp (-(t-3) ^2) (a)

The exponential term controls the concentration burst, it can be altered by replacing the term 3 with desired time in (a). [Is equation (a) is a time varying boundary condition?]

Turbulent flow profile: The stationery velocity profile obtained by solving the turbulence flow is displayed below. The figure shows that, the turbulence nature of the flow increased whenever it crosses baffles, i.e. increases as the disturbance in the flow field increases. For our choice of layout, the flow nature changed drastically between the 3rd and 4th baffle, as you can see that the stream lines got intensified. The dead zones were created in corners near the entrance and near the 1st and 2nd baffle. The eddies formed inside the domain will enhance the mixing so it is desirable for most of the reactors to work efficiently but the eddy that formed in the exit affects the flow rate at the output and is undesirable. So, while designing a reactor, these kinds of facts should be given more importance to choose baffles layout.

Turbulent viscosity The turbulent kinematic viscosity plays important role in the flow. Because, a small change in the turbulent kinematic viscosity can bring a considerable change in the turbulent energy dissipation and in the diffusion of species. The surface plot for turbulent kinematic viscosity is shown in above figure. The figure also shows that, the velocity collapses in the smaller length scales. Analysis of concentration after different time of burst: The analysis of concentration was carried out with different burst timing and it was observed that the maximum concentration at the outlet decreases as the time of burst increases and also affects the average residence time of the injected species. The graph obtained for varies burst time is shown below. The line averaged concentration at the outlet is computed by

Comparison of 2D with a 3D model: For 3D analysis, the modification done is nothing but a depth, D=0.8 m is added to existing 2D model. The plot obtained by solving a 3D model is shown below. In 3D, the rate of change in turbulent energy dissipation, happens in a rapid way and becomes more complex to predict specifically at the corners, where the three walls intersect. This demands extremely refined mesh for the wall function. The notable change in the 3D model is Increase in residence time

Increased mixing Increase in size and number of dead zones.

It seems that the most possible region for dead zones to take place is the front and back depth. The parameters such as inlet velocity Uin, baffle layout and Dh/W ratio brings up a noticeable change in size of dead zone. The 3D model gives a relatively accurate result than a 2D model at a price of increased computational time, memory and cost.

[Doubt: Is there any chance of formation of non-coplanar concurrent eddies eddies in 3D model? Because the eddy b/t 3rd and 4th baffle resemble like that. ]

Redesigning of reactor for improved efficiency: My opinion on this is, the efficiency might get increase when we decrease the distance between the baffles and also by increasing the length of the baffle.

Line Average Concentration = \frac{ \int C * U_o_u_t dy}{\int U_o_u_t dy}