Author Duncan

Year 2002

Shimp Kotler et al

2000 1999

Betts et al.,

1995

Reported in Schultz

1993

Definition IMC is a process for managing the customer relationships that drive brand value. More specially, it is a cross-functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to those groups and encouraging datadriven, purposeful dialogue with them. An organization’s unified, coordinated effort to promote a brand concept through the use of multiple communications tools that “speak with a single voice”. IMC is the concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear consistent and compelling message about the organization and its products. IMC is the strategic choice of elements of marketing communications which will effectively and economically influence transactions between an organization and its existing and potential customers, clients and consumers. IMC is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines – for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion and PR – and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maximum communications impact (American Association of Advertising Agencies).

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Creative integrity Consistent messages Unbiased marketing recommendations Better use of media Greater marketing precision

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Operational efficiency Cost savings High-caliber consistent service Easier working relations Greater agency accountability

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Lack of real growth in advertising expenditure. Shrinking employee base New promotional agencies setting up in competition with traditional advertising agencies Growth in media independents Clients moving to management consultants for strategic advice and planning Increasing sophistication of client managers Perceived competitive advantage and financial benefits of offering integrated services Growth in international communications Locus of retail power Recognition of the need for a strategic view of marketing communications – growth in acceptance of relationship marketing and recognition of internal audiences Technological advances especially in database technology Integrated marketing communications perceived to provide extra benefits

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Mind-set Taxonomy and language Structure of organizations Elitism Magnitude of task Adequacy of budgets Manager ability Agency remuneration systems Dimensions of integration