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Author Year Definition

Duncan 2002 IMC is a process for managing the customer relationships that drive brand value.
More specially, it is a cross-functional process for creating and nourishing
profitable relationships with customers and stakeholders by strategically
controlling or influencing all messages sent to those groups and encouraging data-
driven, purposeful dialogue with them.
Shimp 2000 An organization’s unified, coordinated effort to promote a brand concept through
the use of multiple communications tools that “speak with a single voice”.
Kotler et al 1999 IMC is the concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its
many communications channels to deliver a clear consistent and compelling
message about the organization and its products.
Betts et al., 1995 IMC is the strategic choice of elements of marketing communications which will
effectively and economically influence transactions between an organization and
its existing and potential customers, clients and consumers.
Reported 1993 IMC is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added
value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of
in Schultz
communication disciplines – for example, general advertising, direct response,
sales promotion and PR – and combines these disciplines to provide clarity,
consistency and maximum communications impact (American Association of
Advertising Agencies).

● Creative integrity ● Operational efficiency

● Consistent messages ● Cost savings
● Unbiased marketing recommendations ● High-caliber consistent service
● Better use of media ● Easier working relations
● Greater marketing precision ● Greater agency accountability

● Lack of real growth in advertising expenditure.

● Shrinking employee base
● New promotional agencies setting up in competition with traditional advertising agencies
● Growth in media independents
● Clients moving to management consultants for strategic advice and planning
● Increasing sophistication of client managers
● Perceived competitive advantage and financial benefits of offering integrated services
● Growth in international communications
● Locus of retail power
● Recognition of the need for a strategic view of marketing communications – growth in
acceptance of relationship marketing and recognition of internal audiences
● Technological advances especially in database technology
● Integrated marketing communications perceived to provide extra benefits
● Mind-set
● Taxonomy and language
● Structure of organizations
● Elitism
● Magnitude of task
● Adequacy of budgets
● Manager ability
● Agency remuneration systems
● Dimensions of integration