Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Turkey's first President and the leader of the Turkish War of Independence Mustafa Kemal

Ataturk was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. He was a division commander during the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915 and was instrumental in preventing the partition of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace through his political and military leadership in the Turkish War of Independence. The successful anti-imperialist resistance drove out the various Allied occupying forces, and ultimately led to the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. Ataturk then instituted reforms in the political, economic and cultural aspects of life in Turkey, which led to the creation of a democratic secular nation-state guided by educational and scientific progress.

Founding & History of the Turkish Republic
Atatürk is internationally known as an outstanding statesman, soldier, commander, reformer, and nation-builder who introduced many reforms with the aim of founding a new secular democratic and modern republic after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. As a visionary, revolutionary figure, and political thinker, he strove to set Turkey on a path from which Turks today vow not to stray (this path included a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic reforms, such as the emancipation of women, change in dress and alphabet). Ataturk's legacy and principles are deeply embedded in the Turkish national consciousness, while the results of his reform and modernization movement are firmly rooted in all realms and dimensions of life in Turkey. The Turkish people's enduring respect and gratitude for Ataturk's grasp of the future needs of Turkey, along with his nobility of purpose, is demonstrated by the love of nation and patriotism, and is a reason why his statues and photographs are so widely displayed. Turks, regardless of political party affiliation, desire to protect the national ideals which are founded on Ataturk's legacy and principles.

* The founding principles of the Turkish Republic are often referred to as "Kemalizm,"
"Atatürkçü Düşünce," or "Atatürkçülük" (in addition to "Atatürk İlkeleri ve İnkılap Tarihi"). (Cumhuriyetin Temel İlkeleri)

CHRONOLOGY 1881
Birth of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk to Ali Riza and Zübeyde at Salonika.

following a Greek threat to annex Crete.1883 German military mission established in Ottoman Empire. 1905 11 January. 1896 Revolt by students of Military Medical School in Istanbul suppressed. 1898 State visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to Ottoman Empire. 1893 Young Mustafa enters Military Secondary School at Salonika and is given the additional name of Kemal. Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army. based in Damascus 1906 . 1902 Mustafa Kemal graduates as Lieutenant. General Staff College in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal enters War College in Istanbul. 1895 Mustafa Kemal enters Military Training School at Monastir. 1897 17 April. Ottoman-Greek war commences. Peace settlement by intervention of the European Powers. 1899 13 March.

Mustafa Kemal sent to Paris with military mission to attend French army manoeuvres. Mustafa Kemal promoted Adjutant-Major. 1908 24 July. 1909 13 April. . 1907 20 June.October. Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mustafa Kemal helps to found Fatherland (Vatan) Society in Damascus. Mustafa Kemal attends Congress of Union and Progress Party in Salonika. Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Third Army and later Commander of Thirty-eighth Infantry Regiment. 5 October. Union and Progress striking force. 'Young Turk' Revolution in Salonika. 7 October. Crete votes for Union with Greece. marches on the city from Salonika. Deposition and exile of Abdulhamit. 27 April. 6 September. with Mustafa Kemal as divisional chief of staff. 12 October. Mustafa Kemal posted to Third Army at Salonika. Counter-revolution in Istanbul. September. Bulgaria proclaims independence. Committee of Union and Progress forces Abdulhamit to restore Constitution of 1876 and recall Parliament. Mustafa Kemal sent to Tripolitania on mission for Committee of Union and Progress. 1910 Mustafa Kemal serves as Chief of Staff in suppression of revolt in Albania. Succession of Mehmet V as Sultan.

with a view to possible later intervention against Bulgaria and the Central Powers. 1913 30 May. Serbia and Rumania. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo. Treaty of Bucharest restores territory to Ottoman Empire.20 July. 27 November. Italian invasion of Tripoli. . Mustafa Kemal leaves Cyrenaica and returns to Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal sends despatch to War Minister from Sofia. Second Balkan War. 27 October. Mustafa Kemal is posted to the General Staff in Istanbul.1911 13 September. Mustafa Kemal promoted to Major. Bulgaria and Greece at war with Ottoman Empire. 27 September. urging a policy of Turkish neutrality in the event of war. Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations for relief of Adrianople. Salonika falls to the Greeks. Beginning of First Balkan War. Severe Turkish defeats. Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attaché in Sofia. 5 October. Treaty of London between Ottomans and Balkan states. Bulgaria attacks Greece. Mustafa Kemal promoted Lieutenant-Colonel.3 December. 1914 1 March. 28 June. Fall of Adrianople. Ottomans recovers Adrianople. Mustafa Kemal with Turkish Forces at Tobruk and Derna. 1912 8 October . 30 June . Montenegro. 25 November. Coup d'etat against Government by Union and Progress officers. Serbia. 16 July.

Ottomans purchase German warships Goeben and Breslau on arrival in the Bosporus. Ottomans shells Russian Black Sea ports. Mustafa Kemal appointed to command of Sixteenth Army Corps. 25 February. 1 June. with support of Germany. 1915 2 February.28 July. 14 January. Austria declares war on Serbia. Advance checked by Mustafa Kemal with his outstanding leadership of the Nineteenth Division. Mustafa Kemal appointed to reorganize and command Nineteenth Division in Thrace. 5 November. Transfer to Caucasus front. 8 . 25 April. Mustafa Kemal establishes Headquarters of Nineteenth Division at Maidos on Gallipoli Peninsula. Mustafa Kemal promoted Colonel. 28 October. 1916 9 January. Ottoman leadership signs secret alliance with Germany. . Unsuccessful Allied naval attack on Dardanelles. Allied evacuation of Gallipoli Peninsula complete. 18 March. Allied navy fails to force the Turkish Straits. Allied military landings at Ariburnu (Anzac Cove). Checks second Allied advance on Gallipoli Peninsula. 11 August.9 August. Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire. Britain and France declare war on Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal posted to Adrianople in command of Sixteenth Army Corps. 3 November. 19 February. 2 August. Mustafa Kemal demonstrates outstanding skills as a soldier and commander throughout the battle at Canakkale.

Sherif of Mecca proclaims independence of Arabia. Mustafa Kemal sends report to Government on the poor state of the army and the country. 31 October. Mustafa Kemal recaptures Bitlis and Muş from Russians. Mustafa Kemal takes over command of Army Group at Adana. British forces capture Baghdad. 7 August. 11 December. 15 December . Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Seventh Army in Syria. 7 November. British forces capture Jerusalem.5 January 1918. Dissolution of Army Group. Mustafa Kemal appointed second-in-command effective Commander of Second Army.7 August. . Armistice signed between Ottomans and Britain at Mudros. Mustafa Kemal visits Germany with Crown Prince Vahdettin. 6 . 5 July. 1918 3 July. 27 June. Mustafa Kemal returns to Istanbul. 1917 5 March. October. 30 October.30 September.1 April. under General Allenby. Mustafa Kemal defends frontier north of Aleppo. Death of Sultan Mehmet V. Mustafa Kemal reappointed Commander of Seventh Army in Palestine. British forces. and relinquishes his command. 19 . 11 March. 20 September. Vahdettin succeeds him as Mehmet VI. drive Turkish forces out of Palestine and Syria. Mustafa Kemal promoted General and Pasha.

5 October. with Representative Committee. Mustafa Kemal ordered by the Ottoman Government to return to Istanbul. 21 June. 19 May. Mustafa Kemal issues 'Declaration of Independence' at Amasya. 23 June. Dissolution of Parliament. Nationalist Congress meets at Sivas under presidency of Mustafa Kemal. Confirmation of National Pact. with Allied approval.13 November. Opening of Peace Conference at Versailles. Allied fleets enter Istanbul. 7 November. 27 December. 21 November. Establishment of Representative Committee. Nationalist Congress meets in Erzurum under presidency of Mustafa Kemal. Mustafa Kemal establishes headquarters in Ankara. Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector-General of Ninth (later Third) Army in Anatolia. 23 July . 1919 18 January. 8 July.13 September. 1920 . 30 April.7 August. New Parliament elected in Istanbul with Nationalist representation. Summons Nationalist Congress to be held in Sivas. Declarations of National Pact are issued. 4 . 15 May. Mustafa Kemal returns to Istanbul. Resignation of Government. Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. Mustafa Kemal resigns from the army and is dismissed by the Ottoman Government. Greek forces land in Izmir.

24 August. 20 January. 16 March. Treaty of Sevres presented by Allies to Sultan's Government. Treaty of Moscow between Nationalist Government and Soviet Union. Mustafa Kemal condemned to death by Sultan's Government. 22 June . London Conference fails to reach agreement with Nationalists on modifications to Treaty of Sevres. Greeks resume offensive in Anatolia and are checked at Second Battle of Inonu . Evacuation of French garrison from Maraş and start of general withdrawal from Cilicia. Greek advance checked at First Battle of Inonu. 2 December. 11 May. 23 March . 16 March. 9 February. 3 December. Draft treaty initialled in Moscow between Soviet Union and Nationalist Government. 23 February . Military occupation of Istanbul by Allies.12 March. First Grand National Assembly meets in Ankara. 28 September . based on popular sovereignty. National Pact adopted by Istanbul Parliament.1 April.2 November. 11 April. 10 June. Greek army advances into Anatolia and captures Bursa.10 January.9 July. 10 August. Treaty of Sevres signed by Sultan's Government. Dissolution of Istanbul Parliament. Grand National Assembly at Ankara adopts Constitution Act.28 January. 23 April. Soviet Union establishes Armenian Republic at Erivan. Treaty of Gümrü settles Turco-Armenian frontiers. . Nationalist forces invade regions with Armenian revolts and capture Kars. 1921 6 .

1922 26 August . Resignation of Lloyd George and his Government. 20 October. Mustafa Kemal given full powers as Commander-in-Chief by Grand National Assembly. Death of Mustafa Kemal's mother. 1 November. 3 . Turks check Greek advance before Ankara. Greeks thrown back at battle of Sakarya. Turks launch final offensive against Greek forces in Anatolia. 19 October. Nationalist forces defeat Greeks in counter-offensive and capture Izmir. Treaty of Ankara between Nationalist Government and France. Flight of Sultan Mehmet VI from Istanbul. which is destroyed by fire. in Izmir. 5 August.10 July. 29 January.11 October. break through the following day. . 1923 14 January. 23 August . Mustafa Kemal proclaims abolition of Sultanate.13 September. 23 September. Mustafa Kemal marries Latife in Izmir. Opening of Peace Conference at Lausanne.9 September. Battle of Sakarya. Conference at Mudanya agrees on Armistice between Allies and Nationalist Government. Mustafa Kemal given title of “Gazi”and rank of Marshal by Grand National Assembly. 17 November. Treaty of Kars between Nationalist Government and Transcaucasian Soviet Republics. 19 September. 20 November. 26 August. Greeks resume offensive and capture Eskişehir. win decisive victory on 30 August. Nationalist forces enter the Turkish Straits Neutral Zone. 13 October.

Foundation of People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi. 2 October. Ankara becomes capital of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal opens Economic Congress in Izmir. following Allied evacuation. Foundation of Progressive Party. Revolt in eastern region. Breakdown of Lausanne Conference. 11 August. Resumption of Lausanne Conference. and organized Islam becomes regulated by the state. 1924 3 March. Proclamation of the Turkish Republic. with Mustafa Kemal as President. this treaty recognized the Republic of Turkey as a sovereign nation. religious schools are closed down. Abolition of religious courts. Turkish forces occupy Istanbul. Treaty of Lausanne signed in Switzerland by Turkey and the Entente powers that fought in World War I. 5 August. 8 April. 29 October. 4 March. 9 August. 24 July.12 April. Second Grand National Assembly. Law for Maintenance of Public Order gives Government exceptional powers. 9 October. the Ottoman dynasty is exiled. 17 November. After the conclusion of the Turkish War of Independence. 1925 11 February . The Caliphate is abolished. 3 June. Suppression of Progressive Party.4 February. 23 April. 17 February. CHP). Mustafa Kemal divorces Latife. .

1930 12 August. Introduction of Latin alphabet. 15 . 15 June . 1 November. Trial and execution of 'Young Turk' leaders and others in Ankara. Attempted assassination of Mustafa Kemal in Izmir is uncovered. suppression of religious brotherhoods. Treaty of Ankara between Turkey. . Maintenance of Order Law repealed. Adoption of new Civil Law code. 13 May.30 August . Britain and Irak.20 October. National schools open to teach new alphabet. Mustafa Kemal reelected President of the Republic. Foundation of Free Party.26 August. 1928 3 November. Mustafa Kemal makes historic speech to Congress of People's Party (CHP). 1929 1 January. Mustafa Kemal revisits Istanbul. 1927 1 July. New commercial law adopted. announcing abolition of fez. andclosing of sacred tombs as places of worship. Agreement on Mosul. Mustafa Kemal tours Kastamonu province. Trial and execution of ringleaders. 1926 17 February. 5 June.2 September. 4 March.13 July. Third Grand National Assembly. 1 .

Fourth Grand National Assembly. 1933 1 February. Ataturk re-elected President of the Republic. Women made eligible to vote in Parliamentary elections and to become members of Parliament. 4 May. Foundation of Turkish Linguistic Society. 1931 15 April. 23 December. Mustafa Kemal re-elected President of the Republic. Foundation of Turkish Historical Society. 12 August. 29 October. Trials and executions. 1935 1 March. 31 May. Greece. 24 November. Celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic. Dissolution of Free Party. 8 December. 9 February.17 November. Disturbances in Bursa over decision to recite the call to prayer in Turkish. Istanbul University is established. Balkan Pact concluded between Turkey. 1932 12 July. 1934 9 January. Fifth Grand National Assembly. First Five-Year Plan for industrial development. . Turkey becomes member of League of Nations. Religious riot at Menemen. Mustafa Kemal adopts the surname "ATATÜRK" which is given to him by the Turkish Parliament. Rumania and Yugoslavia.

Montreux Convention signed.” the leader of the Turkish War of Independence and founder of modern-day Turkey. Saadabad Pact signed. Franco-Turkish agreement to send French and Turkish troops into Hatay. Dispute regarding future status of Hatay (Alexandretta) referred to the League of Nations. Irak. 9 July. Grand National Assembly votes nominal Republic of Hatay. between Turkey. 3 July. Illness of Ataturk is officially announced. Succession of Ismet Inonu as President of Turkey. Autonomy of Hatay agreed between Turkey. Second Five Year Plan for industrial development. 4 September. France and Syria. CHRONOLOGY A BRIEF SUMMARY 1876 Accession of Abdulhamit II. 20 July. Abdulhamit proclaims Parliamentary Constitution. Visit of King Edward VIII to Ataturk in Istanbul.1936 29 May. regulating the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus and Dardanelles). 1938 11 March. to supervise elections. 11 November. The death of Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk. 10 November. 18 September. 1937 27 January. with Turks in effective control. 2 September. Iran and Afghanistan. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. .

September 1907 Mustafa Kemal is transferred to the Third Army and travels to Salonika. September 13. based in Damascus. January 9. October 1906 Mustafa Kemal and his friends become active in the little known "Fatherland and Freedom" society in Damascus.1877 Russia invades Ottoman lands. Treaty of Berlin replaces Treaty of San Stephano on July 13 1878 after Congress ends. 1895 Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir. 1912 . 1878 Russian victory confirmed by Treaty of San Stephano. 1893 The young Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name "Kemal" by his teacher. 1899 Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul. 1881 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is born in Salonika. Abdulhamit suspends Constitution and dissolves Ottoman Parliament. 1902 Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and continues his studies at the General Staff College. 1911 Mustafa Kemal is transferred to the General Staff in Istanbul. January 11. 1905 Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army.

August 6-7. 1915 Mustafa Kemal is appointed Commander of the Anafartalar Group on the Gallipoli Peninsula. May 19. 1918 Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander. a city located on the Black Sea.. November 25. 1919 Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul for Samsun on the Bandırma vessel. October 27. . 1919 Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. April 30. October 31. Mustafa Kemal demonstrates outstanding skills as a soldier and commander throughout the battle at Canakkale. April 1. 1912 Mustafa Kemal is appointed Director of Operations (Mediterranean Straits Special Forces).Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya. 1915 Allied troops land at Arıburnu (Anzac Cove) along the Dardanelles. 1915 Allied navy fails to force the Turkish Straits. 1913 Mustafa Kemal is appointed Military Attaché in Sofia. April 25. This date marks the beginning of the Turkish national liberation movement. 1916 Mustafa Kemal is promoted Brigadier-General. August 9. May 16. 1919 Mustafa Kemal is appointed Inspector of the 9th Army based in Erzurum and is granted extensive powers. 1916 Mustafa Kemal wins Bitlis and Muş back from the enemy. and is an official holiday dedicated to the youth of Turkey. 'Lightning Group' of Armies. Mustafa Kemal plays a major role in stopping their advance. March 18.

1922 Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive from the hill of Kocatepe. 1919 Mustafa Kemal is elected Chairman of the Erzurum Congress. September 4. 1919 Mustafa Kemal resigns from his post of Inspector of the 3rd Army. 1922 Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir. May 11. 1921 Mustafa Kemal is appointed Commander-in-Chief by the Grand National Assembly. 1919 Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Excutive Committee.July 8. 1922 . December 27. 1921 The battle of Sakarya. July 23. August 30. and from the army. 1919 Mustafa Kemal is elected Chairman of the Sivas Congress. 1921 The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi (Victor). 1920 Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul. 1920 Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara. 1922 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa wins the battle of Dumlupınar. September 19. led by Mustafa Kemal. September 10. November 1. April 23. August 26. August 5. begins. August 23.

Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat at Sarayburnu in Istanbul. 1923 Mustafa Kemal's mother Zübeyde Hanım dies in Izmir." November 10. Dignitaries from many countries attended Atatürk’s state funeral. 1938 Atatürk died at five past nine in the morning on November 10 in Dolmabahce Palace. 1934 The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk. . was taken in procession to Sarayburnu. an official funeral was held on November 21. it was transported to Izmit and later placed on a specially designated train which travelled at a slow speed throughout the country to enable mourners to pay tribute to their leader.The Grand National Assembly accepts Gazi Mustafa Kemal's proposal to abolish the Sultanate. August 24. until November 19. April 12. 1931 Gazi Mustafa Kemal establishes the Turkish Historical Society. 1924 As part of Turkey's modernization. The coffin was moved in a solemn procession by gun carriage from the Grand National Assembly to the Ethnographic Museum. which had been selected as a temporary resting place until a mausoleum for Atatürk could be constructed. covered by a Turkish flag. After it was placed onto the battleship Yavuz. July 12. June 16. Gazi Mustafa Kemal educates the public on the new Turkish alphabet at Sarayburnu. Mourning Turkish citizens came to Istanbul to pay their last respects to Atatürk. 1932 Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society. Once the coffin arrived in Ankara on November 20. Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected Turkey's First President. January 14. when the coffin in which his body rested. 1923 Proclamation of the Turkish Republic. 1928 As part of Turkey's reform process. October 29. August 9.

1914. By August 16. But instead of swinging west around Paris. A small left wing would defend Germany alongs its frontier with France. Atatürk’s remains were taken from the Ethnographic Museum in a Turkish flag-draped coffin for burial at Anıtkabir. On July 28 Austria declard war on Serbia.November 10. The Causes of World War 1 The 3 main things that caused WW1 were:    The Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand The rise of Nationalism The building up of the Military and Aliances Beginning of the War On June 28. and Turkey) and the Allies. and them move east. Hostilities were precipitated by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 1953 At five past nine on November 10. and Russia) to incorporate 27 Allied and Associated powers. Because of Austria's alliance with Germany. This plan called for two wings of the German army to crush the French army in a pincers movement. The Archduke's assassination triggered the outbreak of World War 1. The German Army swept into Belgium on its way to France. Bulgaria.1914. Austria-Hungary. Two days later Germany declared war on France. by a Serbian nationalist. The invasion of Belgium caused Britian to declare war on Germany on August. Germanys plan for a quick defeat of France while Russia slowly mobilized was called the "Schlieffen Plan". towards the end of the war. 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand. 1. one part of the right wing pursued retreating French toops toward the Marne River. 1953. In 1914 Russia vowed to stand behind Serbia. It drove back French and British forces in southern Belguim and swept info France. This maneuver left the Germans exposed to attacks form the rear. . an alliance that grew from the three members of the Triple Entente (Britain and the British Empire.was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist named Gavrilo Princip. Serbia try to get help from Russia. A much larger right wing would invade France through Belgium. World War I alliances The two opposing groups that fought in World War I were the Central Powers (Germany. Archduke of Austria. the right wing of Germany could begin its pincers motion. The incident led to unreasonable demands being made upon Serbia by Austria-Hungary and the eventual outbreak of war. in response to Russias mobilization. France. Germany declared war on Russia on Aug. heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire. the USA. including Italy and. Belgiums army fought bravely but held up the Germans for only a short time. close in and capture Paris. but first Russia gained support from France.

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