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MODERN TRENDS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES JOURNAL

Published by American Councils Moldova Chișinău, February 2013

American Councils for International Education Moldova

January 2013 Volume 1

Modern Trends and Resources for Teachers of Foreign Languages Journal
Message from the editing team
Dear readers, We are proud to present American Councils Moldova first Teacher Journal. The publication was conceived to celebrate our 20th anniversary in Moldova and offer Moldovan teachers and university professors the opportunity to learn from our expertise. In 20 years of experience in teaching English, Russian and Romanian and administering exchange such programs as Carnegie, FLEX, LFP, Access and Open World we accumulated valuable teaching techniques the Journal would help sharing with you. The Journal is designed to serve as a practiceoriented quarterly publication for all those involved in the field of teaching English as a foreign language devoted to publishing practical papers in various aspects, fields and scope of the English Language, such as but not limited to teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). It encourages a variety of practical cross-disciplinary interests, especially in the following areas: psychology and sociology of language learning and teaching, testing and evaluation, professional preparation, curriculum design and development, instructional methods, materials, and techniques and professional standards. The electronic version of the publication will also be available online. We hope this publication will keep you informed of the most recent in the field of teaching modern languages.
Inside this issue

Reflections on Effective ProjectBased instruction Designing, Evaluation and Implementation

      

Genul Neutru în viziunea unui vorbitor de rusă WebQuests for Business English Teaching Leadership Through Movies (Re)Tired Teacher on Adult Learning & Adult Teaching Creating a Capzles Project Best Moldovan Brands: Facebook Group Project Business Vocabulary Exercises Based on Film Script “You’ve Got Mail” by Nora and Delia Ephron

Authors:
 Olga Morozan  Cristina Cornovan  Daniela Munca-Aftenev  Corina Ceban  Natalia Alhazov  Valeria Guivan  Marina Chirnițcaia  Olga Malcov

Kindest regards, Journal Editing Committee Daniela Munca-Aftenev Dorina Calinovscaia Valeria Guivan Marina Chirnițcaia

SECTION 1: METHODOLOGY ARTICLES
1. Reflections on Effective Project-Based instruction Designing, Evaluation and Implementation, Olga Morozan 2. Difficulties of teaching Business Romanian to Russian speakers, Cristina Cornovan 3. WebQuests for Business English classes, Daniela Munca-Aftenev, PhD 4. Teaching leadership through movies, Corina Ceban 5. (Re)tired teacher on adult learning & adult teaching, Natalia Alhazov 6. Designing an ESP course: challenges and outcomes, Valeria Guivan

Modern Trends and Resources for Teachers of Foreign Languages Journal
The first edition of the Journal is dedicated to teaching modern languages for specific purposes, such as Business English and Romanian and teaching to special groups of students, such as adult learners and high school students.

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structuring meaningful tasks. problem-solving.  Craft the driving question. The program is financially supported by US Embassy. issues. Working backward from a topic.md/ access/ 4 .  Map the project: Decide how to structure the project.” Thus. implementing and evaluating a project. working with students to frame worthwhile questions. content-based instruction and internet-based instruction.americancouncils. Moldova and run by the American Councils. the teacher plays the role of a facilitator.. or investigative activities. Developing a project idea as a teacher.  Plan the assessment and define outcomes and assessment criteria. MA.” When students realize the meaning of what they are leaning the instruction becomes more purposeful for each of them. In this context. beginning with the end in mind and planning for this end result improves “the ability to plan projects. authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks. work backwards to shape the idea to meet your curriculum outcomes and standards. Access Micro-Scholarship Program a free English teaching program for teenagers from economically Moldova educational project-based disadvantaged on 3 environment of the regions of based approaches: instruction. the students are asked to learn concepts. apply information.1. 1994). decision making. teachers. collaboration among students. based on challenging questions or problems. Evaluation and Implementation OLGA MOROZAN. For this reason. Often they emerge from discussions between members of a teacher team. and culminate in realistic products or presentations. and use of cognitive tools that help learners represent ideas by using technology (Marx et.  Manage the process: Find tools and strategies for successful projects (Ravitz et al. Project ideas come from articles. 2008). John Thomas (2000) explains that project-based learning requires “complex tasks. .. The personal teaching experience showed that to provide a Project-based Instruction in any level classes requires a good teacher’s preparation and competence in developing a well-designed and carefully thought project. I usually start: 1. and others in the community so that participants can learn from one another. Reflections on Effective Project-Based Instruction Designing. meant to engage students in acquiring new knowledge and skills through a meaningful inquiry that leads towards a purposeful research of the real-world. such as:  Begin with the end in mind and plan for this end result. and represent knowledge in a variety of ways. KEY TERMS Project-Based Instruction a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex. select and refine a central question. give students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over extended periods of time. PhD student The experience as an English teacher and program coordinator of Access Micro-Scholarship Program proved that one of the most efficient and integrative approach in EFL teaching is Project -Based Instruction. there are have to considered some effective principles to follow in creating. Moldova www. Once an idea comes to you. modeling. keeping them highly motivated to acquire new skills and achieve goals. and carefully assessing what students have learned from the experience (David. al. conversations. that involve students in design. 2004) According to a group of researchers from The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University (2008). current events. as well as communicate the purpose and context of a project to students. coaching both knowledge development and social skills. and wonderment.

. http://www. 20 students per each site. or through traditional methods. Finding projects and ideas on Internet. This can be a very exciting and informative way to begin asking questions and developing project themes.com/e-reading-worksheets/schoolproject-ideas/. as outside the classroom lies a multitude of projects.wordle. and vocabulary of a topic. “How it could be improved…?” etc. Conceptualize the meaning of Internet by creating word clouds on www. 5. I address open questions such as: “How could we…?“. and developing digital skills for constructive online activity. Focusing on community service. such as tests. http://mygreenapple.marylandpublicschools. “What if…?”. some topics will require multiple Driving Questions. Connecting projects to local and national events.sciencebuddies. How well do the students know the content of the topic of the project? Core content can be assessed in presentations.Sample of a project ideas Project: "Does the Internet Develop Ourselves?" Problem: the risk of internet addiction among adolescents (80% stay online uselessly more than 5 hours per day) Goal: to reduce the Internet addiction by enforcing students’ awareness about negative and positive impact of the Internet on their personality. they get interested to have their own contribution to these problems solving. Projects can be modeled on questions and problems people face in their work and day-by-day life.skype. Good assessment practices mean that students should know exactly what will be required of them.org/ideas. http:// www. but often just a simple brainstorming with colleagues could generate a series of good Driving Questions on a particular topic. The following sites usually inspire me in finding original project ideas for any subject and detailed descriptions of successfully implemented projects: http://www. and what criteria will be used to evaluate their performance. Planning the assessment in a project is a step that comes before the project begins in the classroom. I usually practice involving my students to examine their local community for some project ideas. “What is the impact of…?“. As for me. http:// www. core principles. Mapping the community my students live. ” How different is…?“. Flex assistant.com/projects. thus trying to approach the project idea to authentic domain. Time: 1 month Resources: educational online tools and platforms. Then. thus developing my students’ responsibility to have a certain attitude towards a particular event and not being indifferent of what is happening around. that it is important that students be required to master the conventions.org/projects. They represent the indices for projects assessments. 3. especially relating to students’ close people. Authentic projects can be developed easily around community needs.org/science-fair-projects/ project_ideas.shtml. creating Drafting Questions takes time and careful thought. This way. Matching what people do in their daily work.net 5 2. “What are the possibilities of…?“.htm 4. Remember. https://education. in formulating the questions I usually ask myself how the studied content relates to real-life situations. Assessments should be designed to help you find out how well they have done in this important task. 6.ereadingworksheets. Although it is usually easier to focus students' attention on a single question. They have to address to 3 main questions: 1. Using the standards and competences my students have to acquire at the end of course. 7. It requires multiple activities and the synthesis of different types of information before it can be answered.org/MSDE/programs/servicelearning/ project_ideas. Action Plan: 1. This way. “What are the sources/causes of …?”. Crafting the driving question is central to the inquiry process which comes before drafting the project activities. exhibitions.gysd.

 Their own written scripts and made podcasts on http:// audacity.com. and comments http://www.  Created diagrams on http://www. This way.sourceforge. word-finds.wordle.  Converted English text to any several comic dialects on http:// rinkworks. (Morozan. for example. But skills cannot be assessed through a paper and pencil test—they need to be demonstrated. and design a commercial on Internet addiction and publish it online on www.bitstrips. 2011) Analyzing instructional needs.  Designed new magazine cover on http://bighugelabs.xtranormal. brochures on http://www.  Created timelines and embed into Blogs and Wikis on http:// www.tumblr. adults) use Internet in their community.com. Some examples of the online products I used to ask my students to perform while realizing the project are:  Written stories. but the process of a project can also be assessed.  Created digital books on http://www.pimpampum.net.com/downloads/mac. cloze sentences and tests on http:// plasq. the collaborative character of the online tools make the students interact while expressing their feedback on an online published media file. or rubrics.mapwing.com/dialect.com. the teacher has the possibility to observe the progress of the person to post the comment and the one who created the media file. To address all these questions I usually prefer developing a balanced assessment plan including multiple formative and summative tasks performed online for recording the evidence of students’ progress.readwritethink. 6 .mystudiyo.com.slideshare.com/Home. Additionally. planning activities.drawanywhere.com/landing . and preparing resources are key tasks in a project.  Created funny newspapers on http://www.org/ files/resources/interactives/essaymap. such as records of their research efforts or interview notes that document their efforts and progress in a project (The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University. Students can be required to submit artifacts.  Crosswords.net.  Designed quizzes on http://www.com/magazine.2.com.asp.on.  Their own digital stories on http://www. that measure each skill to be learned in the project. rubrics can include measures of ‘progress over time’ or improvement.toondoo. Plus. http://www.fodey. This section represent the mapping of the project.magmypic. Sample project ideas Develop online portfolios on www. leaving online comments is an effective method of peer-assessment. teens.com. 3. and reports on http://www.  Generated “word clouds” from a provided text on http://www. images.com/makemovies.com.  Turned photos into virtual tools including interactive maps.0 applications. How well have they mastered the key skills learned in the project? Teaching skills is central to every good project.  Posters. quizzes. and present the data in a media file published on www.net/bubblr. There are many ways to do this.com Organize a community survey on how different age-group people (children.com/generators/ newspaper/snippet. Projects should include performance assessments. http://www.  Made movies on http://www. 2008).zoho.net Analyze the risks of the Internet addiction.wikispaces. estimating time. This way.com. How well did they apply their knowledge and skills as they prepared their products? Projects require students to provide products for assessment.  Created cartoons and comics on http://www.dipity.youtube. the traditional activities become more innovative and technically assisted due to the use of WEB 2. essays.php. For example.

effective is the students’ self-reflection rubric/checklist which orients in planning certain activities and analyzing the achieved performance. when conducting research. 2008). Among multiple tools for project implementation. including people who will help them to achieve that. develop the timeline for the project. special-needs students. To have a successful project planning it is necessary to: organize tasks and activities. As a project moderator. Check the boxes that best describe group member participation. decide how to launch the project. Group Evaluation Checklist) When starting a new task. Managing a project requires not only to be competent in teaching. Of course. where students have the possibility to plan for one week activities. To control the whole group participation. group members: Consult primary sources Take notes Have relevant conversations Evaluate the significance of new information □ □ □ □ □ Stay on task When discussing project work. or when discussing a project work. proposed by the experts of The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University (2008). or students with diverse learning styles. but also having strong leadership skills. and gather resources to support critical learning activities in the project (The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University. group members: □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Share responsibilities When conducting research. which provides the information about group members’ behavior when starting a new task. At the end of the week. group members Ask clarifying questions Give each other a chance to speak Make decisions efficiently Record decisions and plans Share essential information Stay on task □ □ □ □ □ □ 7 . it should be compulsorily considered the preparations for the needs for differentiated instruction for ESL students. and draw the project detailed storyboard. Agree on an agenda or plan Begin work promptly Get out project materials Figure things out without teacher assistance Group Members: All Most Members Members Date: Some Few MemMembers bers Not Applicable (Figure 1.A map helps you identify the requisite skills that your students need to perform. a very useful tool for me serves the Group Evaluation Checklist. they have to write a short paragraph on new things they learnt. I usually have to develop a set a management tools that help me keep the project focused and moving forward. A good example might serve “Student Weekly Planning Sheet”. products to work on and the investigations to carry out. Project: Observe a group for five to ten minutes. gather all available and necessary resources.

P. M. (2008) . (2008) . K. : CEP USM. Chicago. imagination and flexibility. Dimensiuni ale educaţiei centrate pe cel ce învaţă: Din experienţa de succes a cadrelor didactice / Univ. originality. (2000). 94(5): p. de Stat din Moldova. B... retrieved from: http://pbl-online. This is due to the fact that it unconditionally requires to acquire new knowledge and skills and to apply them in a problem-solving context of everyday situations. Project-Based Learning. J. Volume 65(5): p. K. Markham. & Meyer. principal: Guţu Vladimir.. S.. T. B. 265-272.. A Review of the Research on Project-Based Learning. consultant şt. Association for Educational Communications and Technology Annual Meeting. J. O..: Chicu Valentina. Rice. Online professional development for project based learning: Pathways to systematic improvement. Krajcik. (1994).. but mine as a teacher as well. 8 . receiving a permanent feedback on project implementation through the analysis of self /peer and group observation.org/default. S. coord. Educational Leadership. Project-based learning. Aportul integrarii aplicaţiunilor on-line şi a inteligenţelor multiple în asigurarea calitaţii Intruirii Centrate pe Copil în cadrul lecţiilor de limba engleza. M. J. Snelson.L. The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University. Morozan... (2011). it is possible to emerge immediately in challenging situations. supplemented by the upcoming number of expected achievements and project results. C. Blumenfeld. assisting and moderating the activity into the right frame and direction. Facultatea de Psihologie şi Ştiinţe ale Educaţiei. Thorsen. (2004). C. Blunk.. C.. References David. Crawford. W. Ravitz. Elementary School Journal. Marx. The Autodesk Foundation. 80-82. Enacting project-based science: Experiences of four middle grade teachers.This way. J. 518. IL. R. & Reberry. Kelley. Mergendoller. manifesting critical thinking. Finally I would like to conclude that for me Project-based Instruction is an intriguing perspective to provoke not only students’ thinking.htm Thomas. – Ch.. J..

Din experienţa acumulata am observat ca pentru un vorbitor de rusa este foarte greu sa raspunda la întrebarea: “Ce este genul neutru în limba romana?”. pentru a-i putea raspunde la aceasta întrebare complexa. Acesta reprezinta una din temele cele mai dificile pentru un student de nivel începator sau elementar. feminine (“-e”. consider importanta împartaşirea unei experienţe concrete din procesul de predare. de diferenţele dintre limba materna şi cea studiata. fotolii. Iar terminaţiile genului neutru sunt: . Modul de percepţie a limbii atît ca imagine generala. Este vorba de genul neutru. Exemple: telefon. ca un gen care este masculin la singular şi feminin la plural şi poate fi verificat cu ajutorul numeralului.pentru singular. fotoliu etc.2. într-o proporţie considerabila. Prin urmare. Şi pentru ca orice profesor de limba romana se va confrunta cu aceste lucruri (îndeosebi în Republica Moldova. birou. Cînd însa un student este pus în faţa unei teme gramaticale inexistente în limba sa de origine. sarcina devine cu atît mai dificila. Exemple: telefoane. Numai aşa se explica faptul ca cea mai mare parte din greşelile comise în procesul de studiu sunt de obicei aceleaşi. cît şi prin prisma unor teme specifice nu se deosebeşte de la o persoana la alta. Articolul de faţa îşi propune sa prezinte viziunea vorbitorilor de rusa asupra unei teme gramaticale din limba romana. tot ce ţine de singularul substantivelor neutre va fi de gen masculin. Şi acestea sunt identice la toţi vorbitorii unei anumite limbi. de obicei. Dificultatea respectiva este resimţita şi de profesorul care se pomeneşte în situaţia de a explica un concept care nu exista în limba vorbita de studenţii sai. pentru plural. prin testul “un-două”: Singular Masculin Feminin Neutru un elev o masa un scaun Plural doi elevi doua mese doua scaune KEY TERMS Genul neutru — genul substantivelor care sunt masculine la singular și feminine la plural. acesta difera dupa forma (terminaţiile) şi dupa conţinut. unde predarea acestei limbi nu beneficiaza de un sistem integrat). masculine (consoana sau “-u”). “-ii”) sau specifice genului neutru plural (“-uri”). birouri. Genul neutru în viziunea unui vorbitor de rusă CRISTINA CORNOVAN In procesul de studiere a unei limbi straine. indiferent de vîrsta. iar ceea ce ţine de pluralul acestora. Chiar daca în limba rusa exista conceptul de gen neutru («среднии род»). va fi de gen feminin: 9 . dificultaţile cu care se confrunta orice persoana ţin. am structurat o strategie în cinci paşi care permite elucidarea treptata a acestui concept: I. Inainte de toate trebuie prezentata paradigma genului neutru. nivel de educaţie sau domeniu de activitate. dar şi sa ofere un suport practic profesorului care urmeaza sa o predea. Or.

III. litru. bujor. “-ii”). pantof. computerul tău – computerele tale etc. 2. kilometru. sîn. Nu se refera aproape niciodata (excepţie facînd unele neologisme) la persoane. Ex: fularul – fularele. ban. “Cum ne dam seama care substantiv e neutru şi care e masculin?” 4. parametru. adjectivele ce urmeaza dupa substantivele neutre se acorda cu ele în gen şi numar.) la feminin (pl.   articolul hotarît.). Ex: creionul meu – creioanele mele. Dar pentru ca majoritatea obiectelor sunt sau feminine sau neutre. Din cauza ca substantivele masculine (la singular) ce denumesc obiecte. 10 . ci întotdeauna la obiecte. biscuit. pentru a evita confuziile. metru. “Sunt multe substantive neutre în limba romana?” 2. stup. liceul – liceele. colţ (dinte). cilindru (figura geometrica). fulg. Apoi. un animal sau un copac. O sugestie ar fi dicţionarul online www. palton elegant – paltoane elegante etc. Propun în acest scop urmatoarele substantive masculine ce pot fi confundate cu substantivele neutre: copac. Genul feminin la singular denota faptul ca substantivul este feminin şi la plural. sunt masculine. ci are terminaţii masculine la singular (consoana sau “-u”) şi feminine la plural (“-e”. de cele mai multe ori sunt feminine la plural (deci neutre). neg. pluralul obiectelor din limba romana este preponderent feminin. adidas. cercel.dexonline.ro IV. cactus. virus. umăr. fior. clopoţel. adjectivele posesive. “-uri”. ci este un gen fix. majoritatea covîrşitoare a substantivelor ce denumesc obiecte şi sunt masculine la singular. niciodata. 2. papuc. astru etc. este nevoie de explicat ce NU ESTE genul neutru: 1. lucruri sau concepte abstracte. arbust. De cele mai multe ori. Nu. parcul – parcurile. 3. este bine de raspuns la întrebarile de clarificare (mereu aceleaşi) ale studenţilor (sau de anticipat aceste întrebari): Întrebare 1. daca denumesc o persoana. Consultam dicţionarul explicativ. obraz. ciulin. restul sunt neutre. ciorap. Nu este un gen care fluctueaza de la masculin (sg. In al doilea rînd. De unde sa ştim cînd la plural este terminaţia “-e” şi cînd “-uri”? Răspuns Da. mac. Nu are o terminaţie aparte prin care poate fi determinat ca gen neutru (cum ar fi în limba rusa «среднии род»). ghiocel. bocanc. codru. Ex: birou spaţios – birouri spaţioase. etc. morcov. şlap. “Genul feminin de la singular trece vreodata în masculin la plural?” 3. colac. pas. consider ca este mai rezonabil de memorizat o lista cu cele mai uzuale substantive masculine. adica neutru prin definiţie. cartof. trandafir. II. covrig.

Dar factorul cel mai important ce contribuie la aceasta ramîne a fi.) nu pot fi niciodata substantive neutre. doi dulapi” etc. practicarea limbii romane vorbite. dinte. ardei. sistematizarea lor şi stabilirea unor repere de ordin teoretic (dar mai ales practic) în procesul de predare.Substantivele masculine care la singular au terminaţia “-e” (preşedinte. 11 . însa. deci nu risca sa fie confundate cu genul neutru. Ma refer aici la determinarea genului unui substantiv şi a formelor corecte de plural. Deci. V. burete. mai presus de memorizarea unui numar mare de substantive neutre. Cu parere de rau. muşchi. Dar de asemenea am constatat ca. nu are niciodata terminaţia „-i” la plural. frate.). cînd întîlnim un cuvînt nou. în Republica Moldova vorbitorii de limba romana înşişi comit multe greşeli în utilizarea corecta a substantivelor şi din aceasta cauza nu pot constitui un model pentru verificarea cunoştinţelor unei persoane ce studiaza limba romana.dexonline. cîine. genunchi. KEY TERMS www. Şi pentru ca. De aceea devine necesara clarificarea aspectelor dificile. pe de o parte şi în cel de învaţare pe de alta. pieptene.) sau “-i” (ochi. etc. acesta poate fi înţeles şi interiorizat. pui. printr-un efort individual susţinut.ro Dicționarul explicativ online al limbii române Pe parcursul predarii limbii romane am observat ca genul neutru reprezinta o reala provocare pentru un vorbitor de rusa şi chiar multiplele explicaţii şi repetiţii înca multa vreme nu clarifica nelamuririle aparute. în vederea eficientizarii acestuia. fluture. urmam algoritmul de mai jos: Este foarte important de înţeles şi de reţinut ca un substantiv neutru. totuşi. iepure. perete. etc. este înţelegerea principiului dupa care acest gen funcţioneaza. în virtutea faptului ca el nu este masculin. cu multa perseverenţa. nasture. Iar informaţia prezentata mai sus este orientata tocmai în aceasta direcţie. daca am dedus ca substantivul în discuţie este neutru. scai. Prin urmare. recomand explicarea logicii care trebuie urmata în procesul de lucru cu cuvintele noi. putem evita o greşeala comuna comisa de un vorbitor de rusa ce studiaza limba romana: formarea pluralului unui substantiv neutru cu terminaţie masculina („doi scauni. arici.

3. social inclusion. mainly working with corporate clients. I had taught Business English at the American Language Center for over 5 years. My business English students sought to acquire linguistic tools to function in a business setting. a web-based software for creating WebQuests in a short time without writing any 12 . present and exchange information. To make their research task easier and help them organize their work within the project. select five which they considered to be the most important for our country. Involving the confident and critical use of information. (iii) helping students become multi literate. summarize them and create a digital newspaper with an original name. produce. One of the projects I developed for my business students which addressed all three issues above was based on a WebQuest activity requiring them to explore various online sites which publish business news in Moldova.KEY TERMS WebQuests: an inquiryoriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet. which challenged me to take into consideration three important issues: (i) empowering students with the linguistic knowledge and skills that will enable them to use languages to communicate effectively with other business professionals. store. JTI Tobacco International. Philip Morris International. skills and attitudes necessary for personal fulfillment and development. and train them in the active and strategic processes of meaning construction that they will need in order to understand and produce the high variety of texts of society today (including electronic texts). such as Mobias Banca. and to communicate and participate in collaborative networks via the Internet. active citizenship and employment. so that they can cope in a world where communicative situations are constantly changing. I used Zunal. digital skills refer to basic skills in ICT: the use of computers to retrieve. WebQuests for Business English classes DANIELA MUNCA-AFTENEV In 2006 the European Parliament and the European Council published a recommendation on eight key competences for lifelong learning [1] which represent a combination of knowledge. (ii) preparing students for lifelong and autonomous learning. access.

Language teachers should invest a considerable amount of effort in creating the task in order to align it to the instructional objectives established by the curriculum.KEY TERMS Zunal: a web-based software for creating WebQuests in a short time without writing any HTML codes HTML codes. The interactivity and multimedia aspects are provided by the files and videos which you can add from Youtube and GoogleVideos. in one link. Off-line resources like visiting lecturers. Second. which I shared with them. most WebQuests are group-work with the task frequently being split into roles. emphasizing information processing and use rather than information gathering. a WebQuest is defined as an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet [2]. interviewing experts and field trips could The 8 key competences for lifelong learning published by European Parliament and the European Council:         communication in the mother tongue communication in foreign languages mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology digital competence learning to learn social and civic competences sense of initiative and entrepreneurship cultural awareness and expression 13 . enhancing student autonomy and encouraging strategic thinking. often associated with one or more roles modeled on adult professions. and conclusion. For university professors not used to handling Web 2. the task should appeal to students’ interests. The most important part of the WebQuest is the task.[3]" A WebQuest can be created in many ways: using a Wiki. focusing students’ attention to the final product of the activity. As a rule. or programming directly with HTML. rather than to the grammatical. resources.0 tools. evaluation. features which are crucial in language learning. which refers to the formal description of what the students will produce in the end. language learning becomes a meaningful process. Google Sites. task description. When it comes to teaching business English. using the university group email. the teacher preselects the sources. enhance creativity and challenge their critical thinking. lexical or morphological aspect of language instruction so overly used in traditional teaching. WebQuests have proven effective in meeting all the three targets of teaching a foreign language in the 21st century: equipping students with multi linguistic skills. resources available for my students. Finally. WebQuests distinguish from other Internet-based research tools by three major characteristics. process. The introduction provides background information and gives meaning to the task. a typical WebQuest has six essential parts. The introduction should have a motivational component to excite the students. Philip Benz describes a WebQuest as a constructivist approach to learning when students not only collate and organize information they have found on the web. hiding or showing the different pages it contains. First. The creator of a Zunal WebQuest can manage the privacy of its contents. The platform allowed me to create a step by step guide which included a detailed introduction. Thus. The task is followed by process. Zunal makes it possible to create a Webquest as a test and get a preview before its publication. they emphasize higher-order thinking (such as analysis. IT and other valuable skills: introduction. details regarding the evaluation and other useful information. This tool allows a WebQuest to be created with an unlimited number of pages and an attractive design from 100 available templates. The focus here should be on processing information rather than just locating it. In addition to being meaningful. Google maps and games. but also orient their activities towards a specific goal they have been given. which establishes the steps the students should take to accomplish the task followed by a list of resources the students should use. each developing a specific linguistic. creativity or criticism) which are as important to business students as linguistic skills. a blog. Created by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University in February 1995. using free online software like Zunal would be much more time efficient and user friendly. task.

. i. including business English. which meets the first condition for successful language learning. Johnson. requires both teachers and students to comment on each other’s work. WebQuests can also work on students’ linguistic skills. WebQuests could function as effective teaching tools. the evaluation. which states that learners need to have opportunities to interact and to negotiate meaning [4]. The last stage of the WebQuest. and thus giving them sufficient time and feedback while working in an atmosphere with an ideal stress/anxiety level. a language which is alive. WebQuests also meet the second and third conditions defined by Egbert et al. WebQuests do not simply extend students' thinking to the higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. and relevant to the world outside the classroom. learning new vocabulary. synthesis and evaluation and support critical thinking and problem solving through authentic assessment. As part of the final stage.access. Processing the texts. according to which learners need to interact in the target language with an authentic audience while involved in authentic tasks. which meets the first condition for successful language learning. as they develop several digital skills included in the basic recommendations: they require students to: . according to which learners need to interact in the target language with an authentic audience while involved in authentic tasks. suggest improvements and edit the final project to fit the requirements established in the „task” section.develop an interest in engaging in communities and networks for cultural. Webquests support most of the eight requisite conditions for successful language learning defined by Egbert et al in 1999 [4]. Johnson and Holubec explained that classroom activities that employ collaborative problem solving seem to have the potential for teaching students how to deal with complex tasks they would encounter in real. analysis.successfully complement the digital component of the task.search.produce. adult life outside the classroom [5].have a critical and reflective attitude towards available information and a responsible use of the interactive media. encourage independent thinking and motivate students to learn language structures actively used in professional networks. The last stage of the WebQuest. which suggests that language learners should be exposed to and encouraged to produce varied and creative language. As they require students to work with authentic resources posted online. while working independently at home or in the library for example. skills which are so important for content based instruction. collect and process information and use it in a critical and systematic way. in action. . reputable publications and real world situations. the evaluation. present and understand complex information. . suggest improvements and edit the final project to fit the requirements established in the „task” section. as students work with online resources. search and use Internet-based services. which is essential for final reflection through group discussion and student feedback [3]. WebQuests also meet the second and third conditions defined by Egbert et al. 14 . students need to submit a project which would be original and individual. The last two steps of the method include a well organized. As they require students to work with authentic resources posted online. They are valuable language teaching tools as they foster cooperative learning through collaborative activities with a group project. thus respecting the fifth condition. clear and concise evaluation and conclusion. which can be accomplished online. social and/or professional purposes. In addition to developing digital skills.e . Webquests support most of the eight requisite conditions for successful language learning defined by Egbert et al in 1999 [4]. . WebQuests allow students to monitor and plan their own work. requires both teachers and students to comment on each other’s work. which states that learners need to have opportunities to interact and to negotiate meaning [4]. KEY TERMS Within the key competences framework developed by the European Council. writing reflective papers and sharing feedback on peer work motivate students to learn a new language from authentic resources.

Educational Broadcasting Corporation. and to consider how they would need to use language in real communication. Alexandria. 1–13. P. Chapelle. a Constructivist Approach. Digital Agenda. and E. 31 May 2011. European Commission.sdsu. Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning. Hanson-Smith. Language Learning & Technology. Dodge. C. ed. This qualifies them as powerful Web 2. Chao. References 1.edu/courses/edtec596/ about_webquests.htm 4. and Ccritical Iissues. 2. Webquests. (1998). J. Some Thoughts About Webquests. (1995). students need to submit a project which would be original and individual. 2(1). (2001). such as authentic input/output.ac-grenoble. (2004). Egbert and E. WebQuests can effectively work as valuable Business English teaching tools as they develop students’ digital skills and enhance language learning according to the recommendations established by European Council by facilitating many of the key characteristics of second language acquisition. Computer-enhanced language learning environments: An overview.0 applications which can open up new opportunities in teaching business courses while supporting authentic and varied language interaction in a digital era. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 6. creativity and learner autonomy. Concept to Classroom Workshop: Webquests.fr/ english/tice/enwebquests. 21-39. Brussels. C. L 394/10. thus respecting the fifth condition. social interaction.html 3. http://www. Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA. (1999).As part of the final stage. VA: TESOL. Egbert. Official Journal of the European Union. Practice.ardecol. J. (2006). B. Benz. "WebQuests Explanation". In CALL Environments: Research. 5. http://edweb. Hanson-Smith.. 15 . which suggests that language learners should be exposed to and encouraged to competencies that will be necessary to complete the task.

Children and adults feel their interest quicken when language is experienced in a lively way through television and video. There are many practical reasons and interesting ways of approaching this method. p. [1. p. such as the gestures used and the distance maintained between the people involved. They can reflect on their own reactions to those behaviors and whether the behaviors are conducive to good leadership. It is a replica of natural conversation in the real world. Video is a valuable and possibly underused classroom tool. A growing number of business leaders. emotions. 3]. This is often necessary in the limited confines of the language school and sometimes justifiable. There is always the temptation to simply put a video on at the end of term and let our students watch a film without even challenging them to be actively involved. participants can key into leadership behaviors that are both positive and negative. Video as a listening tool can enhance the listening experience for our students. the 21st century skills movement will require keen attention to curriculum. However. [2. we can add a whole new dimension to aural practice in the classroom by using video. As technology develops. action. They can appreciate cross-cultural relationships by asking themselves if this piece of business would be conducted in the same way in their country. Movie watching is also a great way to model complex ideas for people who are more visual in their learning preference. They can hear the linguistic registers and the appropriateness of the language within the situation. Video can present a communicative transaction in its totality. written materials tend to get ever less popular for learning foreign languages. for example. the skills students need in the 21st century are not new. They can see and hear the attitude of the persons involved (the interlocutors). teacher quality. and assessment. But in fact.4. The activities involve pre-viewing. The learners can see the people and the situation (the setting where the interaction is occurring). We very rarely hear a disembodied voice in real life but as teachers we constantly ask our students to work with recorded conversations of people they never see. and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st century skills" to be successful today. “Leadership is the wise use of power. gestures. CORINA CEBAN Movies are a great way to learn about leadership. This combination of moving pictures and sound can present language more comprehensively than any other teaching medium. The art of applying the new technology to practical language learning problems may be very well demonstrated during the lessons with rewarding and motivating results. etc. People seem to no longer find pleasure in reading books. provide an important visual stimulus for language production and practice. politicians. 151]. when we give students telephone practice. Using videos in English class is a very helpful and stimulating method to motivate our students to get the most of the subject. Using purposeful viewing. Teaching leadership through movies To work. They will become aware of other cultural aspects. And more realistically too." Warren Bennis 16 . It's exciting to believe that we live in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. that our students can observe in a video clip. The setting. while-viewing and post-viewing tasks. Power is the capacity to translate intention into reality and sustain it.

activities focusing on sounds.  To pinpoint the purposes of using movie/video. First of all. Another idea would be to simply let just a part of the class watch a small part of the movie. not boring. » Braveheart Braveheart is a classic movie by Mel Gibson about how William Wallace of Scotland rallied his men to fight for freedom from the oppression of the English invaders. then ask students to predict what may happen next. Thirdly. Before watching a movie it is useful to play with imagination. there are some rules to follow in order to get good results. One suggestion might be to turn off the sound and ask students to make up a dialog from a scene they've just watched. imitate the language and gestures. the pictures. listening. The teacher can also freeze certain moments of the video. both songs and videos play an important part in teaching and learning a foreign language. Will it be to help the learners repeat the language.  Pronunciation . note-taking and written composition. as they employ real-life situations with real-life expressions and other particularities [5]. There are plenty of ideas to use when trying to teach English and leadership with the help of videos.  To know the level of the students. it is advisable to make a correct prediction of the time students might take to perform the tasks. Purpose of this kind of activities:  Active viewing .  Grammar . Undoubtedly.  Vocabulary . there is another sense involved: that of seeing. oral composition. the movie part or video should not be longer than 5 minutes. one should also mind the context in which the video is used. leaving very little left for our imagination.  Listening/speaking skills . KEY TERMS Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.grammar presentation and review. by watching and pausing at very exciting moments. speaking and discussion. The main difference between songs and videos is that in the latter. because it's all there. List Of Leadership Movies » The Pursuit of Happyness The pursuit of happy-ness is a story about a man’s fight from survival all the way to financial and career success.vocabulary development and review.cultural awareness and cross-cultural comparison [3. or predict what may happen next.4]. guessing words from context or from using gestures and facial expressions.  Cross-cultural concerns . in order to help them understand properly what it is about and what their tasks are. the characters. stress and intonation.active involvement. but won't happen unless those ideas can be communicated to others in a way that engages them.  Reading/writing skills .  To think how to teach the English language in an interesting way. but still. then have them describe to the others what they've seen and understood. The main functions of using videos during the English classes are that of motivating and helping students to understand this language.  To collect appropriate movie/video.As teachers agree. the video should be part of the whole lesson management.reading. Secondly.viewing comprehension. An essential element is to have a clear aim for using the video and also to be able to understand students' needs like: vocabulary explanations. 17 . the script. However. simply watching TV does not account for too good a means to teach English. the teacher has some responsibilities:  To view the movie/video before attempting to use it. Effective leadership is based upon ideas.

It’s a story of a nobody who had done wrong in the past but eventually became a great general who defended the state of Jerusalem against the Muslims. so assigning an article or asking students to read a handout is a hard lesson. The movies can add a dimension to teaching that may change how you teach forever. I challenge all instructors to incorporate video in their teaching and conduct classroom research on the effectiveness of the techniques they use. to increase memory. who also co-wrote the screenplay based on a story by John Logan. truth and justice in a world of greed and corruption. 102]. unless the teacher can show students how to look at the movie in a new way that teaches something about the subject of the class or about life and while there are usually no assignments with films. There is a match between the media and the students’ intelligences [2. Most of the class has not seen the film.» Kingdom of Heaven Kingdom of Heaven is one of my favorite movies of all time. » Forrest Gump Forrest Gump is a powerful movie about the simplicity of life and how one man can achieve great things just by being himself. Examples of research in a variety of content areas were identified. Then they can play and relive those magical teaching moments. and artistic gifts in applying these clips and those of your own choosing to your teaching. » The Thin Red Line The Thin Red Line is an academy award winning movie which is about the horrors of war and man’s pursuit of beauty. and deeper learning. understanding. The teacher should not spend more than ten minutes introducing the movie. When using a film. your view of teaching and your students will never be the same. Follow her story and learn the importance of persistence and hunger as key to success. In the years to come. It is also valuable in using the movies listed to discover what the students think about what is reality. It’s a beautiful story of courage. the teacher has to set the expectations at the beginning and resist any requests to watch a movie with educational value [3]. Learn about the principles of life through the messages hidden in the life of the Jedi. The research on videos and multimedia learning provides an empirical foundation for their use in teaching. just maybe. or raises interesting questions. This award winning film is set in a jury room where one man's doubt about a case eventually swings the decision of a whole room of men. It was also clear that additional evidence needs to be collected in all disciplines to support the various uses of video clips in college teaching. It's a great story about brotherhood. especially with introductory courses and novice learners. Gradually. 18 . Movie houses love strong leaders because they can tell great stories. students will request DVDs of your classes to download onto their iPhones and PCs. Beautiful story to teach people integrity and about being yourself. You only have to decide how you want to use the videos and where and when to embed them. Draw on your creativity. sacrifice and leadership in action. teaches something important. That will inevitably make the greatest difference in your classroom. movies that involve children or young adults are favored by students. Students will be drawn into the film. » The Star Wars Trilogy Star Wars is an award winning movie trilogy that was won critical acclaim and a huge following since its release in the mid 1900s. you will accumulate your own pool for use semester after semester. Movies can teach students a lot about leadership because they can give students concrete models of behavior for observation and discussion. paradise and peace in a world of chaos. maybe. » The Million Dollar Baby The Million Dollar Baby is a story of a young girl with a big dream to become a professional boxer. The technology requirements and the sources for selecting appropriate videos were also described. so it is interesting to see how students respond to a leadership portrayal. » The Last Samurai The Last Samurai is a 2003 drama film/ war film directed and co-produced by Edward Zwick. there can be spirited class discussions afterwards. Movies are a major resource for teaching the Net Generation and for drawing on their multiple intelligences and learning styles to increase the success of every student. » Twelve Angry Men Twelve Angry men is a simple but powerful leadership movie about influence. This generation of students is not getting its information from text. comprehension. This article was designed to acquaint the teachers/instructors with the potential value and uses of video/ movies in the classroom. The experience of watching the film expands horizons. imagination. p. » Saving Private Ryan This movie is another academy award winning war movie which is about the D-Day invasion of France.

Retrieved November 15. » Remember the Titans Remember the Titans is an inspirational story about a black and a white coach overcame racial segregation within the football team to achieve triumph in the competition. Finocchiaro. Retrieved November 19. based on the Biblical story of Moses.cgi? Video: Englishclub: Teacher's room: Teacher's workshop: Using video in the EFL/ ESLclassroom.net/teachers/workshop/video. Real English: Our ESL/EFL video and CD-ROM methods. New York: Prentice Hall. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.References Stempleski. was discovered by his adopted mother and groomed to become one of the best football players in his high school. » 300 300 is adapted from the historical Battle of Thermopylae where 300 men from the Spartan elite army held off a million advancing Persian forces at a choke point at Thermopylae Pass. English as a second foreign language: Making effective use of video.englishclub. Retrieved November 19. 2000 from the World Wide Web: http:// www. Retrieved November 15. the Witch and the Wardrobe This movie is about how the four Pevensie children discover the magical world of Narnia through a wardrobe. S. (1990).members. M. 19 .htm Video rising on line: Using video to teach the four skills. » Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion. » The Blind Side The Blind side is based on the true story of how Michael Oher.htm » Ip Man This a story of Wing Chun Grandmaster Ip Man who stands up for what he believes in against its Japanese oppressors and how he ultimately rallies his townsfolk behind him.fr/videos. » Lion King Lion King is a beautiful story of the lion Simba and his journey to kingship. It takes place in the animal kingdom of Africa.tm.html Dave's ESL Cafe: Idea cookbook: Video.com/~jalt_video/vr_OtOg. Video in action.com/ideas/sefer.eslcafe.tripod.. B. an NFL player. » Facing the Giants Facing the Giants is a Christian movie about how an average underdog team's road to victory was paved by the coach's conversion to Christ. 2000 from World Wide Web: http:// www. 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www. They go on to join in the adventure with Narnia to battle the evil reign of the White Witch.realenglish. & Tomalin. (1989). 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.

student-centered instruction. or communication. practically all my adult learners went through the system of formal. Here the golden rule of “moderate novelty” advocated by Howard Gardner in his “Multiple Intelligences” [3] is applicable and appropriate. Over four years I have been teaching business English at one of major banks in Moldova to individual and group corporate clients – certainly. but not proper study. after a hectic working day role play. analyzing. and communicative method. and/or evaluating information gathered from. life proves that students get knowledge and skills better not only by receiving information from the teacher. taking notes and reproduction were the three supporting pillars of studies. They received secondary and higher education at the time when memorization. and other interactive activities are accepted. mostly traditional instruction. there is a certain suspicion on the part of adult learners to less traditional teaching. she has more time and inclination for metacognition and introspection. Teaching and learning were more about acquiring knowledge than developing skills. life experience. adult language learners. (4) content-based and task-based instruction. This practice yielded multifarious experience and multiple thoughts that I would like to sort and share within the framework of this article. synthesizing. especially if the instructor is young. temperament and reaction. audio-lingual. reasoning. depending on their individual language ability. skill development. or generated by.is both the means and the final goal of study (communicative/ interactive approach) [2]. mood and wish. debates. a typical pattern of teacher-centered lesson being Presentation – Practice – (Re)production. applying. Thus. (3) grammartranslation. PhD When a teacher reaches a certain age. Therefore. and especially (7) pedagogy vs. Being university graduates. Informality gradually finds its way and appreciation (“We get only about 25 percent or less of what we use in our jobs through formal learning”) [4]. At the initial stage. However. andragogy. but also by using critical thinking. i. observation. Moreover. The latter – communication . reflection. through "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing. Student-centered teaching meets the needs of adult participants who get an opportunity to shine when each of them can. sociability level. she may fall into a habit of pondering on what.e. (6) knowledge acquisition vs. why and how she has been doing in the classroom and formulating some tips for herself and others ready to take them. though doubted at the beginning. as a guide to belief and action"[9]. experience. informal education. various competitions. elements of informal learning with relaxed atmosphere when everybody is an equal participant are often perceived as a childish game. 20 . (5) interactive and collaborative learning. (Re)Tired teacher on adult learning & adult teaching NATALIA ALHAZOV. An attempt is being made to place some of the ideas on adult language learning and teaching into the context of (1) formal vs.5. (2) teacher-centered vs. Lecturers used to provide necessary information. which is suspected as not serious enough.

the actual “father of androgogy/andragogy” [6]. banking professionals are primarily comprehension-oriented: they are happy or worried if they understand or don’t while hearing or reading English. let us turn to andragogy – a study of adult learning (to be contrasted to pedagogy . adult learners of English. c) Self-evaluation is characteristic of this approach.the science and art of education in general). team competition are indispensable in problem solving and assessment activities. it is content-based [10] by definition and involves a lot of problem solving and task-based instruction [10]. By the way. the better. due to scarce international communication and . At the beginning of the course their production and pronunciation are pretty poor – due to not being exposed to audio-lingual method. The latter is much more effectively carried out in small groups than individually. In a democratic classroom opinions are manifested and solutions are found in the process of interactive and collaborative learning. proficiency in French and Romanian are very helpful because up to 75% of the word-stock in English are Romance borrowings. Pair work. Interaction creates a sense of community and team spirit among peers. therefore. Involve me and I will understand.the younger. Show me and I may remember. and attitude to learning: 1. experience. The instructor coaches students to facilitate their learning by designing experiences through which students not only acquire knowledge but also develop skills." Developing communication skills is the principal goal of teaching our corporate clients.Andragogy started in Europe in 1950's. The Learner: a) The learner is self-directed. small group activities.even more . He proposed five key factors involved in adult learning . 21 . b) Adults are a rich resource for one another. which is a better environment for active classroom behavior. "Tell me and I will forget. 2. My adult students like using communicative language teaching . as the subject of general business is mostly familiar and they can try and express their opinion.due to studying as a foreign language at school French and not English. The role of active involvement is hard to overestimate. 3. In this connection. Readiness to Learn: a) A change triggers readiness to learn. b) They need to know in order to perform more effectively. Let us see how they were developed [8] and adapted to demonstrate the specifics of adult learning in terms of the agent’s characteristics. c) Different experiences assure diversity in the group. Initially they have a strong impulse to translate every word and stop functioning if they stumble over an unknown word – result of their previous learning by means of grammar-translation method. and then developed into a theory in 1970's mostly by Malcolm Knowles. The course taught at the bank is business English and. 2. As a Chinese proverb says. c) Ability to assess gaps between the present and desired position is there. b) The learner is responsible for his/her own learning. Talking of mood and wish. Role of the Learner’s Experience: a) The learner brings a great volume and quality of experience.the five assumptions describing the adult learner as someone who:  has an independent self-concept and who can direct his or her own learning  has accumulated a reservoir of life experiences that is a rich resource for learning  has learning needs closely related to changing social roles  is problem-centered and interested in immediate application of knowledge  is motivated to learn by internal rather than external factors These assumptions laid the foundation for the theory of andragogy and its principles. facilitates developing multiple learning abilities.

I must manage it too”. Professional and personal growth. age. b) Learning must have relevance to real-life tasks. previous exposure to English. Getting a certificate – “official acknowledgement” The process viewed by a grown-up student as “adult learning” in the classroom facilitated by an instructor is perceived by the latter as “adult teaching”. Evening time away from home and family: “unsocial hours” 6. family members and acquaintances. because it is easier to say something personal and sensitive to a neighbor than to the whole class.ex-pat colleagues. who is absent. “To keep the face I may try to cheat if I can” 5. Snatching the opportunity to develop English language skills when the course is financed by the administration . recognition. and self-actualization. My practice of teaching banking staff mostly proves the above theory. (First. Lack of time for study because of working long hours and having family responsibilities 2. striving for progress/promotion in a current position. Third. changing activity as recreation . how prepared/ tired they are. 5.“enjoyable pastime” 7. of different age and gender. Second.“I passed a selection and I can communicate with English speakers . What should you as a teacher expect in an adult classroom [1] and what should be taken into account to meet expectations of adult learners? Here are several keys and teacher tips to keep in mind when instructing adults: 1. such as: 1. Retraining to change a work place in the future – “back-up plan” 4. Use pair work as much as possible. and current life situations. adult learners suffer certain inconveniences.“economical reason” 2. developing foreign language skills – “career reason” 3. but be ready to change it to plan B. solve a problem in order to live in a more satisfying way. adults have reasons for resuming studies. life experiences. past formal education. everybody should get a chance to have a say and the shy ones should be stimulated to participate.” 5. Contract condition: failing to pass the exit exam or leaving the job one pays back the course cost 3. Though no generalization is fully true. Acquiring self-esteem . Welcoming informal communication: meeting people from various departments. Orientation to Learning: a) Learners want to perform a task.) KEY TERMS Besides positive motivation. b) Some external motivators: increase quality of life. Boss vs. self-confidence.4. adapt your teaching style and modify it if needed. c) Learning is organized around life/ work situations rather than subject matter units. Be prepared for diversity of cultural background. “The noisy and arrogant” dominate in class and “the quiet and polite” feel unhappy 22 . and in our case it may be: 1. Building confidence and responding to a challenge – “I made it!” 6. subordinate psychological syndrome: “I am the boss and have to be the best in the group” and “I don’t dare to be better than my boss” 4. my (grand) children). Always have a lesson plan. Peer pressure and kid pressure: “If others manage (my group mates. Motivation for Learning: a) Dominance of internal motivators: self-esteem. Adult classrooms may present great diversity. Moments of despair: “I’m too old to do it” 7. depending on who comes. while others overworried by not coping with teacher’s requirements and even drop out. this diversity prompts the multi-level class strategy with giving optional additional tasks: some may be under-challenged.

the saying goes. Adults. when skills and concepts are developed for the first time. it will finally pay off. on the other hand. but also culture (of English speaking countries) language through culture. regular tests are necessary to revise what was not digested or missed. If a student asks a question which you cannot answer. give them a chance to teach you their professional subjects – business. to complete optional tasks or not. You must be comfortable with the subject matter you are teaching and communicate enthusiasm for the content and your role as a teacher. distinguish between mistakes and errors. Do not hesitate to appeal to them for qualified help. but say it patiently again and wait for the bulb to light. “I told you about it a hundred times”. Secondly. The more relevant and useful the subject matter. they are certain to appreciate your language proficiency. Provide them with the right information as well as resources. but check next time how they did it. Readdress the questions to the group for collective discussion. in adult learning and teaching student’s self-evaluation is vital. etc. Be a good listener. problem finding and solving. Trust but verify. correcting only the latter.) 4. they decide “to do or not do” (home work). Adults also tend to have a lot on their minds and limited time to practice English. Trial and error should be encouraged in language learning. We are considering the group study and.. Let them compare. (Doing case studies is a perfect teaching activity for adults. marketing. finance. Teach not to the students but rather with them. thus. Though the learners’ needs are taken into account while creating the curriculum. though do not treat them like children. in the process of studies participants are functioning within its framework. etc. are extending and refining their knowledge based on existing knowledge and beliefs. Never say. which class to attend and which not. the teacher should provide control of the learners’ progress and they can interpret it horizontally (compared to peers) and vertically (monitoring own dynamics). "I don't know." (Firstly. independence of the learner is relative. but I'll find out for you. The teacher should always find something to praise every student for. therefore. Learning in childhood is said to be formative. In assessing quizzes and tests it may be better to use percentage than grades – 75% is a pass. Adults need repeated practice of a concept or a skill. (Teach them not only English. Personalize as much as possible. If they have already developed bad habits with English errors. We use relevant cases and adapt them to everyday bank reality. and they want to be able to apply what they are learning in the real world. Adults learn well with question asking and answering. erudite knowledge and skillful methods. help them develop humane attitude and relationship. Adults will take more risks in an environment where it is safe to make mistakes without embarrassment. Adults enjoy materials that relate to their personal experiences and interests. Have a part of your class time as informal. Moreover. Adults need a comfortable and safe learning atmosphere. Using first names and remembering personal details about every student helps building a rapport and making relations personalized. do not be afraid to say.) 6. (Make sure they know how to build questions and provide grammar correction.) 7. Turn everything into a discussion and pump for the participants’ experience and opinions.2. Adult learning is transformative and educational. even in a democratic class the leading role is yours. They are changed or transformed by learning experiences. but do not nip in the bud their curiosity. Being self-guided.) 3. Refer them to other sources. These activities require mature thought processes which stimulate and motivate adult minds. Adults want practical contexts simulating real life. make conclusions. Do not interrupt speaking and postpone correction. Adults respond well to knowledgeable and enthusiastic teachers.) 23 . This will help you gain respect. these will take time and effort to break. However. Secondly. Stimulate it and reward. Adults need patience and repetition to solidify new language concepts or skills. You may want to minimize asking students to stand in front of the group to speak. sending e-mail messages to the group gives them a possibility to be informed about every class and come prepared next time. (Be always ready with friendly attitude and timely encouragement as there is never too much of it. the more motivated your learners will be. management. To help make it more objective. go from individual facts to generalization. (Firstly.) 5. contrast.

Thus. Retrieved January 3. Something New: Adult Learning Theory for the Twenty-First Century. adult learners benefit by content-based and task-based instruction that is student-centered and performed by means of communicative method making it interactive and collaborative. New York: New York Association Press. Something Old. H. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Washington: Georgetown University Press. The modern practice of adult education: Androgogy versus pedagogy. Retrieved January 3. and Paul. How to Teach English. NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION. (1987). S. see the relevance and immediate usefulness of the learning. and Leaver. Remember that your adult students need to have a safe and friendly learning environment. 2013 from http://writing.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped. 2013 from http:// agelesslearner. (1970).colostate.W. Pedagogy vs. be challenged and engaged in their studies. References Adult classroom.com/articles/watercooler_dgrebow_tc600. (1983). (1998). H. New York: Basic Books. (1994). Retrieved January 3. Pages: 93–96. At the Water Cooler of Learning. Stephen B.. 2013 from http://www.edu/guides/teaching/esl/ adults.criticalthinking. Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. M. England: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. (1997). The outcome is not mere knowledge acquisition but skill development. Betty Lou.html Harmer. .S. D. (2001). Volume 2001. Issue 89. Knowles. Andragogy. NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.pdf Scriven.org/pages/ defining-critical-thinking/766 Stryker. Gardner. Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. be respected and heard.cfm Brown. B. Grebow. M. Jeremy. 2013 from http://www. D. Retrieved January 3. Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Models and Methods. R. Merriam.floridatechnet. Englewood Cliffs.

e. There were a lot of materials they wanted to read and use in class. qualifications and experience? • Are they paying for the course themselves or are they being sponsored by their employer? If they are being sponsored. Everything I have learnt while working on various ESP courses along my career was by crashing around. This article reflects some of the teaching tips I in the area of ESP teaching. then the chances of delivering a quality ESP course that will satisfy its participants are very high. I shall start with identifying the steps necessary in any ESP course shaping. and course design. different levels of ability and performance in speaking. making a lot of mistakes and learning from other people. Technical English. writing. English for waiters. I worked out a checklist of 9 basic question sets to be included in a good needs analysis: • Am I expected to deliver a tailor-made ESP course or can I adapt or modify an existing course? • Who are the learners in my ESP group? Are they university students or a group of professionals employed by a specialist company? Where do they come from? How much information do I have about their age.  Do the learners in my group expect to be consulted in the process of the syllabus design (in which case the final course will be delivered through syllabus negotiation) or will they ‘delegate’ this task to me in the hope that I get it right for them? • Are my ESP learners ‘homogenous’ in their skills or are they a mixed ability group? Does any member have a ‘spiky profile’ (i. English for medical professionals. reading. but no appropriate textbooks. the needs analysis will need to include the expectations of both the learners and their employers. and listening)? Are the learners self-aware enough to inform me of this in the needs analysis questionnaire? 25 . Having finished the course I gained a lot of experience in terms of course tailoring to clients needs. If a needs analysis for each and every learner is conducted well. but the experience with the City Hall group turned out to be a unique one. In my experience the first and one of the most important things to do was to carry out a need analysis. ESP can be also considered as an avatar of language for specific purposes.I keep six honest serving men ( They taught me all I knew) Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. etc. English for Art Purposes. There are many vital questions that an ESP teacher may need to ask to deliver a coursed signed according to the preferences of the learners. It is normally more comprehensive than a simple pre-course questionnaire for General English and includes many relevant details about the target learners and their needs and wants. all our English instructors from the American Language Centre are representatives of that brave group of teachers who expose themselves to the risk of humiliation and trauma by sometimes teaching the subjects that no one else wants to teach. English for tourism. Scientific English. In fact. Designing and ESP Course: challenges and outcomes VALERIA GUIVAN A few years ago I was given to teach an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course for the employees of the International Relations Department of the Chisinau City Hall . Prior to that I had taught Legal English and Business English for companies. Rudyard Kipling KEY TERMS ESP—English for Specific Purposes is a sphere of teaching English language including Business English.

selecting the materials for your ESP classes you have to be sure that they cover your learners’ needs: • listening exercises of realistic situational dialogues in which professionals are doing their job. applying the humanistic principle of ‘caring and sharing’) 26 .com/StudyEnglishNews. Asking myself ‘How can I teach professional communication skills? which I consider to be one of the major aims of my ESP course. Having conducted needs assessment I sadly realized that my learners have very specific needs that cannot be met by using a single course book. not just interviews with people about their jobs.I entitled the ESP course International Relations through news.voanews.english360. • authentic texts that represent the types of documents that your learners will need to read and write in their jobs and which they are likely to have problems with. • step-by-step guidance for learners on how to cope in similar situations and role-plays to practice those skills – what to say and how to act. The beginning went well. which may come from online news sites. • guidance on how to use the model texts to inform the learners’ own writing. KEY TERMS So. etc. • newspaper articles. • a grammar syllabus. which may come from a separate book • lists of vocabulary. And do not forget that the sources of your materials must be crediblethat’s crucial. which may come from online or printed dictionaries.).com/ BBClearningEnglish/BreakingNewsEnglish etc.com/earningenglish. thus I had to mix and match materials from several courses using a blended learning platform (such as www. I thought I’ll succeed • by creating an atmosphere in the classroom which is conductive to learning and teaching (in other words. This also illustrates a common feature of ESP courses: that they are often taught in a blended environment or online.

Another challenge to face was how to evaluate the learners? This all depends on your aims for the course. a particular subject or discipline. Some teachers of our centre say that during their ESP course they have become so familiar with certain areas that they almost feel as if their knowledge is as good as that of the clients they teach! KEY TERMS 27 . writing techniques and useful phrases. and at times a passion for. • set regular writing assignments during the course. Make sure all learners have a chance to play their own part and only assess them on that part of their performance. dependent prepositions.g. drilling. and ask learners to perform a role play or simulation of that situation (in a role play. diplomats meetings etc. • keep a note of vocabulary covered during the course. and assess them on such criteria as professionalism. successful communication and impact on the target reader. • keep a note also of other important language topics covered during the course. ‘find someone who’. workplace written correspondence and archived documentation) • by identifying and reinforcing aspects of communication most relevant for a particular profession (e. project work – to mention but a few • by providing learners with meaningful models of good practice to emulate (e.g. which in turn goes back to your original needs analysis. designed to simulate the type of writing the learners will have to do in their jobs. What is desirable is an interest in. e. the aims are subjective and learner-led. With some ESP courses. including grammar structures. in a simulation. or if you feel it would motivate your learners to study harder. and come back to it at the end with a matching task (words to definitions). gap-fill (fill in the blanks) or sorting exercise. here are some ideas which I used to test how much they had learnt throughout the course as continuous assessment: • choose some of the situations identified as priorities in the needs analysis. role play. learners play a ‘character’. Examples would include some officials negotiations. pair work. learners are themselves in an imaginary situation). so in many ways the assessment is related to their performance in the workplace: Do they feel better able to perform in the situations that they identified at the start of the course as their needs? Have they learnt useful skills and language that they can use in their work? Are they more confident or sophisticated in their use of English at work? If you need to provide an assessment of progress. TV or radio footage. So if you try to follow everything I have touched upon in this article then your ESP course won’t be less successful than mine.• by setting a memorable context. I tried to follow these points throughout the course and it really worked.g. opinion gap. On top of this I clearly understood that an ESP teacher does not need to know an ESP topic very well to begin with. and then the hands -on knowledge will be picked up as you go along. with meaningful activities and authentic activities to enhance learning • by applying a judicious mix of activities and techniques (depending on the level of the learners). identifying the kind of language used in professional communication internationally among diplomats and officials). group work. information gap.

Best Moldovan Brands: Facebook Group Project for Business English intermediate level.SECTION 2: LESSON PLANS 1. Business Vocabulary Exercises Based on Film Script “You’ve Got Mail” by Nora and Delia Ephron. Olga Malcov 2. Creating a Capzles Project. Marina Chirnitcaia 28 . Daniela Munca-Aftenev. PhD 3.

Chisinau. organize and present relevant materials for their project.Creating a Capzles Project OLGA MALCOV Last semester I taught a Pre-Intermediate Conversation group of teenagers at the ALC -American Language Center. So I decided to develop a lesson plan for the next semester that will include student’s projects dealing with slideshows. Google or Yahoo search engines. etc. To improve students’ writing and speaking skills. Usually I have not more then 7-8 students in class so we have possibility to watch each presentation and to discuss it at the final lesson. both in class and online (the students have to watch other projects and make appropriate comments and recommendations). microphones. Materials required   Language objectives     29 . They motivated me to use all possible Internet resources and online games. voice. pictures.Intermediate level ESL students Students familiar with word-processing. word editing. My students were very active and wanted something fresh because they were dealing with new technologies every day. to try to rouse their imagination.  Create a Capzles and save it online  Share the project with the rest of the class  Watch each others’ projects and post comments. and cell phones. To motivate personal work and to raise the competitive feeling in them to finish their projects) To motivate SS collaboration. Class size: 7-8 Age: 18-20 years old Students’ personal portfolios with materials they research on a particular topic and save in different formats Computer needs: PC lab with internet access. To develop students’ Web navigation skills. videos. quotes. Unfortunately the book didn’t give my students the whole range of necessary skills and knowledge to open their possibilities and to enhance their vocabulary.   Introduction:  Lesson plan background Objectives  Teacher  General outline of the Students’ Projects Class description    Pre. presentations. website access & pictures and sound recording and downloading. requiring them to research on various authentic sources and put together a project. videos. To develop students’ critical thinking required to select. For the end of the semester my students will have to work on an individual Capzles project requiring them to:  Choose a topic related to the given theme that they found particularly challenging or interesting  Research on that topic and put together a file of pictures. movies and etc. I wanted to integrate these tools and automatically save the projects online for further activities. I’ve noticed that their writing and speaking skills have improved a lot.

The students edit the information they put together in the project files. videos. The students watch each other’s presentations and add voice and text comments and recommendations. videos. To increase students’ awareness of effective web-based tools they can Computer literacy objectives use to improve their reading and writing skills (online dictionaries. 7. They analyze all the projects and decide which ones:  Were the best organized  Were the most creative  Provided the best materials 7. edit and improve their projects. what the order of the slides should be. etc. 5. 8. read and listen to the comments and constantly update. how to add music and text to the slides. 30 . 1. etc. The students work in group to decide on a project plan: what to start with.  To develop students’ authorship skills. The EFL students present their project to the rest of the class. what to include and what to delete from the project. The students create an original presentation and save it at the beginning in their own Capzles account and then online in the intentionally created Blog 6. The Instructor demonstrates how Capzles works. Procedures: a). screen captures.  To develop students’ basic research skills and encourage them to use the Web as an authentic reference. The EFL students choose a topic they want to research on. Procedures Closure – Conclusions and Reflections 3. games. online quizzes. etc). 2. 4. as they will have to create and save online a project available to a wider audience. interactive websites. pictures. The students navigate the Web and put together a file with relevant materials: word documents. The students go back to their projects.

 They watch each others’ presentations and leave written comments. what are the recent gossips are connected to their band or singer. 31 . To encourage my EFL students to continue learning outside the class by involving them in exciting. albums etc. as they have to evaluate each others’ projects. The students explore some of the Capzles projects available online. During the first week they identify the band or a singer they want to present and research the web for relevant materials: general information. like Capzles.b). They think how they will organize their presentation. what kind of videos or photos they would like to include. Conclusion: Introducing this project in my Pre-Intermediate EFL class I hope to accomplish the following objectives:      To develop my EFL students’ writing and speaking skills and to get to know them with other music styles and new music trends. what kind of information will be the most interesting for the other SS. authentic projects.  During the second week they create an original Capzles project reflecting their personal approach to the topic and share it with the rest of the class. c). The instructor guides the students through step-by-step instructions on how to create a Capzles project. authentic learning environments To support students’ creativity while researching on a specific topic (grammatical or lexical): the students have to create their own presentation reflecting proper point of view on the topic. To develop students’ critical thinking. To develop in every student abilities of Surfing the Net and finding relevant. pictures. videos. Tasks:  The EFL students have 2 weeks to work on their projects.

englishclub. group discussion.com/business-english/ vocabulary_marketing. reading. activities and student work will be posted on the American Language Center Facebook subpage created by the instructor (sample webpage 1).Best Moldovan Brands: Facebook Group Project for Business English intermediate level DANIELA MUNCA-AFTENEV. All tasks.”FLORIS” sunflower oil . read and discuss the information from the contest official webpage.”MoldTelecom” . They will analyze Moldovan brands advantages and disadvantages. PhD Title of lesson: Best Moldovan Brands: Facebook Group Project Business English intermediate – upper-intermediate Purpose: This is an integrated skills lesson which involves online research.”Niagara” fitness club . Learning outcome (s): By the end of the lesson the students will be able to explore Moldovan brand market in 2012.”Tricon” . discuss brands advantages and disadvantages.”Grand Hall” .”FRIGO” 32 . writing and publishing materials online. complete related vocabulary building exercises. Bridge-in / Warm-up / Ice-breaking activities (focus student attention) Students will work in teams to brainstorm best Moldovan brands The instructor will give students a list of brand mottos and the students will guess the brand (Handout 1) Students will learn the vocabulary from http://www. rank their favorite brand names and discuss what they like/dislike about them. During this lesson students will explore Brest Moldovan Brands of 2012 selected as part of the Trademark of the Year competition organized by Moldovan Chamber of Commerce. critique various methods to analyze brand effectiveness and write a press release based on their prediction of best Moldovan brands in 2013. It explores the area of 'brands' and the associations we have with particular brand names.”GreenHills Market” .”Banca de Economii” . Lastly students will predict best Moldovan brands of 2013 and elaborate a press release on the topic which they will post on American Language Center Facebook webpage .htm (Handout 2) Pre-test / Brainstorming / Introduction (activate and diagnose prior knowledge) Students visit the competition webpage Gold Mercuty (Marca commercială a anului) and name the category the following brands won in (Sample webpage 3): .

find the right information and guides students on how to use the online dictionary. agree or disagree with the predictions. Follow-up : Students place their press on the American Language Center Facebook subpage and choose two other that they most agree with or find most convincing. a sample context and an image to go with. Check for understanding: Students have to create a 250 word press release on their predictions regarding Best Moldovan Brands of 2013 The release will have to incorporate at least 5 new vocabulary words from their flashcards or from warm up exercises Assessment: The instructor will work individually with each student to discuss the press release: content. They post comments on each other posts.Input from you / Teacher activities The instructor helps the students navigate around the website. The instructor will explain what a press release is and will ask students to create one based on their prediction of Best Moldovan Brands of 2013 at the end of the lesson. Guided practice / Student activities Reading activity (Sample webpage 4): 2) Read the article on the 2011 Trademark of the Year Competition posted on ALLMOLOVA and answer the questions below: a) Who is Marian Petrova? b)How many files have been analyzed in the period from 19 till 25 of January? c)How many nominations does the competition include? d) When did the formal awarding ceremony of the competition take place? e) Whose initiative was it to establish the “Trademark of 2011”? f) What does the competition promote? g) What does the participation in the competition allow? h) What does AGEPI tell us about the international trade marks in Moldova? Vocabulary activity: Students work in teams to select new business words and expressions and then use an online dictionary to learn their meaning. grammar and spelling. suggest additional changes to the releases. They create “business vocabulary flashcards” which include the English word. explanation. 33 . its pronunciation. vocabulary used. Closure: Students discuss the winners in each category and propose their own winners when they disagree with the jury Students suggest improvements in competition rules and judging procedures and create Best Moldovan Brands of 2013 prediction Students exchange vocabulary flashcards among teams and learn new words. (See sample student work 1) .

Handout 1 Handout 2 34 .

society. people and planet. or economy Example: Business sustainability is often defined as managing the triple bottom line .a process by which firms manage their financial. Webpage 1 Webpage 2 Webpage 3 35 . social and environmental risks. community.Sustainable business (s -st n -b l) – an enterprise to be that has no negative impact on the global or local environment. These three impacts are sometimes referred to as profits. obligations and opportunities.

to open up. part-time job. [1. credit card. salespeople/salesmen. professional life. to have in possession. The film is about two e-mailing lovers who are completely unaware that their sweetheart is. independent. to deliver. discounts. to cost. cash cow. for sale. cash-only line. 36 . demonstration. to survive. to buy discount. customer. to buy. cash. to picket. to fire sb. to volunteer. decision-making ability. failure. to destroy. to go to war. store. to go under. Here are the words and word combinations from the script and the exercises to practice them [4]: book district. to offer smb a job. destroyer. development. children’s bookstore. to line up. to sell. meeting. to have a day off. [3] The most frequent vocabulary area in the script that has been detected is business. to pay. to discount. protest. broke. credit card machine.. project. competition. to do some work. work. to put smb out of business. it’s business”. brilliant businessman. to be in business. to fold. in fact. to have plenty of offers. flower shop. corrupt sands of commerce. cheap books. office. enemy. to pay the rent. starring Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan. cash register. to be driven by discounts. teachers often use films and short videos to accomplish various instructional objectives. worker. to provide service. tweaking. chain store. to spy. to lose jobs. flower district. rent control. 161-162] “You've Got Mail” is a 1998 American romantic comedy film directed by Nora Ephron. construction. to fight to the death. to own. to have a little money saved. well-oiled machine. dollar. “it’s not personal. and also integrates the four skills. a person with whom they share a degree of animosity. The suggested level is pre-intermediate and intermediate. to win. to be in trouble. to make decisions. [2. money. to take over.Business Vocabulary Exercises Based on Film Script “You’ve Got Mail” by Nora and Delia Ephron MARINA CHIRNIŢCAIA Since we live in an image-dominated culture. to crush. sales figures. to bite the dust. job. 52-53] Video material offers background information that activates prior knowledge and schemata.

She realizes that Joe is going __________ and out of __________. So she __________ __________ as __________ any longer can end up in a complete __________. All her books are __________ for two weeks and the people can purchase them with up to 50% __________.__________________________________ Fill in the right preposition: in to to under off in up up out of over to fight ______ death to put somebody _____ business to have ____ possession to open ___ to go ____ war to be ___ business to go ______ to have a day _____ to line ____ to take ______ ____________________________________________________________________ Fill in one of the words into the right place in the story: being in business to fold on sale is going under customers to put her out of business discount has a little money saved professional life makes a difficult decision children’s bookstore failure Kathleen has a charming __________ in a book district of New York and her __________ are loyal. __________________________ Match the antonyms: To fold To fire smb To have a day off To offer smb a job To be in business To go to war To deliver To sell To win To lose To work To fire smb To take away To be out of business To be in peace with smb To hire smb To open up 37 . Her business __________ and she __________. But everything changes when a new big shop opens down the street.

_____________________________________________________________________________ Which words are more positive and which are more negative and which can be both: Brilliant businessman To be in trouble To provide service Decision-making ability Enemy To lose jobs To bite the dust Cash cow Competition To be in business To go under Discounts To offer smb a job To win Failure Professional life To picket Development To fold Protest Broke 38 . figures f. job _____________________________ Find spelling mistakes: _________________________________________ Separate the words in sentences: a) TheentireworkforceofthestateofVirginiahadtohavesolitaireremovedfromtheircomputersbecausetheyhadn’tdoneanyworkinsixweeks. Cash-only 8. For 10._____________________________ Match the expressions: 1. Cash 2. To make a. Rent 6. line i. machine b. control c. decisions g. sale h. Well-oiled 5. Part-time 7. Sales 4. Chain 3. b) Wearegoingtoseducethemwithoursquarefootageandourdiscountsandourdeeparmchairsandourcappuccino. store j. business d. To put smb out of 9. c) ThewholepurposeofplaceslikeStarbucksisforpeoplewithnodecisionmakingabilitywhatsoevertomakesixdecisionsjusttobuyonecupofcoffee. cow e.

survive. being in business. Kamianets-Podilsky. competition. customers. Separate the words in sentences: The entire work force of the state of Virginia had to have solitaire removed from their computers because they hadn’t done any work in six weeks. up. customer. salesperson. deliver. 161-162 http://en. 2i. under. on sale. 9g. possession. 52-53 Sobetska O. out of. Fill in the right letter: volunteer. Match Antonyms: to fire smb – to hire smb. destroyer. commerce. to put her out of business. Goshylyk N. to be in business – to be out of business. 5b. 6j. 10f. has a little money saved. failure. 3e. to deliver – to take away.org/wiki/You've_Got_Mail http://sfy. professional life. up. in. (2012).ru/?script=youve_got_mail 39 . competition. volunteer. to fold – to open up. makes a difficult decision. 8c. 4a. Use of video in EFL classes//the materials from XVII TESOL-Ukraine International Conference “English in Globalized World”. Kamianets-Podilsky.wikipedia. independent. to sell – to buy.. 7h. to. The whole purpose of places like Starbucks is for people with no decision making ability whatsoever to make six decisions just to buy one cup of coffee. We are going to seduce them with our square footage and our discounts and our deep armchairs and our cappuccino. discount Match the expressions: 1d. to have a day off – to work. to go to war – to be in peace with smb. tweaking. to offer smb a job – to fire smb. References Goshylyk V. businessman. in. (2012). discount. over. Find spelling mistakes: picket. to win – to lose. Benefits of using films and short videos in the EFL classroom// the materials from XVII TESOL-Ukraine International Conference “English in Globalized World”. to fold. is going under. professional. Fill in one of the words into the right place in the story: children’s bookstore. independent.__________________________________________________________________ Teacher’s Notes Fill in preposition: to. off.