Question 1

One of the important and practical aspects of materials selection in the design, development and production of new components (or parts/ structures) is the possibility of failure of the component (or parts/ structures) under normal operation. a) In term of materials selection and design, define the failure of materials or components and give five (5) types of that failure.
[30 marks]
Answer Failure is defined as inability of materials or components to i) perform the intended function (5) ii) Meet performance criteria although it may still be operational (5) iii) Perform safely (5) and reliably even after deterioration. (5) Examples i) Fracture (2) ii) Corrosion (2) iii) Wear (2) iv) Yielding (2) v) Buckling (elastic instability) (2)

b) Explain why analysis of a failed component is important and what are steps taken in the failure analysis process
[70 marks]
Answer The important of failure analysis are as stated below i) Identify corrective actions based on a determination of the root cause of the failure. (4) ii) Minimize future failures of the same type. (4) iii) Tool that can be used to a) reduce maintenance costs, (4) b) increase system availability, (4) c) reduce the potential losses involved in catastrophic failures. (4) iv) Used to identify the party at fault. (4) v) Financial losses resulting from a failure can often be recovered when deficiencies in design, workmanship or materials can be identified as the root cause of the failure. (4) Steps should be taken in investigating the failure of 1. Collecting background data 3. (3) 4. 2. Visual Examination (3) the component NDT evaluation (3) Fractographic examination by SEM (3)

(3) Mechanical Properties (3) Macroscopic Examination (3) Metallographic Examination (3) Microhardness evaluation (3) 10. Recommendation to overcome future failure (3) 14. A brittle fracture surface typically appears shiny (4) with flat facets (4) which are created during cleavage fracture. Root cause determination (3) 12. As the crack approaches the surface. a) In term of plastic deformation. • The cavities coalesce (4) in the neck center. • . fibrous appearance (4) and often resembles a “cup-and cone” (4) configuration. 7. This redirection allows for the formation of the cup-and-cone (4) configuration and facilitates fracture. explain the characteristics ductile and brittle fracture. Report writing (3) Question 2 Generally. forming a crack (4) which propagates toward the specimen surface in a direction perpendicular to the applied stress.5. Summarize findings (3) 11. 9. forming a necked region (4) in which cavities form. [20 marks] Answer A ductile fracture surface has a dull (4). b) Describe the process of fracture of metals and differentiate between ductile and brittle fracture [80 marks] Answer The process of fracture: • The specimen elongates (4). Failure mechanism (3) 13. 8. its growth direction shifts to 45º (4) with respect to the tension axis. two types of fracture failure (ductile and brittle fracture) are based on the ability of a material to experience plastic deformation. Chemical composition analysis 6.

polymers (3) Brittle fracture Small/ no plastic deformation (3) Low energy absorption before fracture (3) Characterized by rapid crack propagation (3) Unexpected failure (3) Unstable crack (3) Eg: Ceramics. polymers (3) .Ductile fracture Plastic deformation (3) High energy absorption before fracture (3) Characterized by slow crack propagation (3) Detectable failure (3) Stable crack (3) Eg: Metals.