Newsletter of the INSTITUT FÜR DIE WISSENSCHAFTEN VOM MENSCHEN, Vienna

and of the INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN SCIENCES at Boston University
No.
95
Jan. – Jun. 2007
www.iwm.at
Cosmopolitan Bargain:
Alan Wolfe on Liberalism
and Immigration
page 14
Reasons for Getting Scared:
David Victor on Russia and
the Energy Market
page 34
A Child Named…
Wie das IWM zu seinem Namen kam
page 3
Cosmopolitan Bargain:
Alan Wolfe on Liberalism
and Immigration
page 14
Reasons for Getting Scared:
David Victor on Russia and
the Energy Market
page 34
A Child Named…
Wie das IWM zu seinem Namen kam
page 3
2 No. 95 January – June 2007
Das Jahr 2007 steht für das IWM ganz im
Zeichen seines 25-jährigen Jubiläums; und weil
es ein besonderes Jahr für uns ist, auch ein sehr
projektreiches, erscheint die IWM Post heuer
leicht verändert und ausnahmsweise halbjähr-
lich. In Händen halten Sie eine Übersicht über
unsere Aktivitäten der ersten Jahreshälfte, die
vor allem durch zwei „Klassiker“ bestimmt
war: „Promoting Democracy“ im Januar war
die dritte Konferenz in einer Reihe über die
Zukunft der Nachfolgestaaten der Sowjetuni-
on, und Sie lesen in diesem Heft unter ande-
rem wie die ehemalige Außenministerin von
Kirgistan, Roza Otunbayeva, die politische
Lage in ihrem Land einschätzt, oder was der
Energieexperte David Victor zum europäischen
Umgang mit russischem Öl- und Gasexport zu
sagen hat. Auf der Konferenz „Enlarging Soli-
darity“ im Juni, ebenfalls die dritte Konferenz
dieser Art, ging es diesmal um Fragen der insti-
tutionellen Integrationspolitik in Nordameri-
ka und Europa. Der Essay von Alan Wolfe gibt
einen Einblick in die Diskussion. Zu erwäh-
nen sind ebenfalls zwei neue Vortragsreihen des
IWM: „Was ist öffentlich, und was ist privat?“
und „Der Untergang des Abendlandes?“ – was
in diesen Reihen bisher stattfand beziehungs-
weise stattfinden wird, erfahren Sie ebenfalls
in diesem Heft.
Das ganze Jahr 2007 trägt den Stempel 25,
wirklich feiern wird das IWM aber erst vom
9. bis 11. November mit einer großen
Jubiläumskonferenz. Über das Programm
informieren wir Sie im Verlauf des Jahres per
Zusendungen und auf unserer Homepage.
Und falls Sie sich wundern, woher der Säug-
ling stammt, den wir passend zu der Ge-
schichte „A Child Named IWM“ für unser
Cover gewählt haben: Er ist ein Ausschnitt aus
Philipp Otto Runges Bild „Der Morgen“ –
Symbol einer wahren Geburtsstunde.
Eine gute Lektüre wünscht
Andrea Roedig,
Public Relations
2007 is the year for celebrating the IWM’s 25th
anniversary , and since it is a special year, as
well as a very busy one, the IWM Post will be
published this time biannually. The IWM’s
activities in the first half of the year were main-
ly characterized by our two “classics”: “Promot-
ing Democracy” in January was the third in
a series of conferences on the future of the suc-
cessor states of the Soviet Union: you will read
in this issue about how former foreign minis-
ter of Kyrgyzstan Roza Otunbayeva evaluates
the political conditions in her country, or what
energy expert David Victor thinks of European
policies concerning Russian oil and gas export.
At “Enlarging Solidarity” in June, similarly the
third conference of its kind, social scientists from
North America and Europe gathered to discuss
and compare institutional strategies of multi-
cultural integration. An essay by Alan Wolfe
delivers an insight into the discussion. You can
also learn about what has happened so far and
what is to come in the IWM’s two new lec-
ture series “What is public and what is pri-
vate?” and “The Decline of the Occident?”
Although the whole year of 2007 is, literally,
under the postmark of 25, the main commem-
oration will take place during November 9-11
with a big Anniversary Conference. We will
inform you about the conference program
through mailings and on our webpage.
And if you happen to wonder where the baby
on the cover page comes from, an accompani-
ment to the story „A Child Named IWM“: it´s
a cutout from Philipp Otto Runges „The Morn-
ing“ - a veritable symbol of the hour of birth.
Enjoy this Newsletter,
Andrea Roedig
Public Relations
Editorial
CONTENTS
25 Years
3 A Child Named IWM …
Conferences, Debates, Discussions
4 Promoting Democracy in
Post-Communist Countries
“We Badly Need the Close Attention”
Keynote Speech by Roza Otun-
bayeva on the Future of Kyrgyztan
8 Political Salon: James Hoge
9 Tischner Debates
10 Jan Patoˇ cka 1907 – 1977
11 Islam and Orthodoxy;
Boomerang 89?;
Citizenship Policies in the New Europe
12 Enlarging Solidarity – Cultural
Differences and Social Adjustments
“The Cosmopolitan Bargain”
Contribution by Alan Wolfe on
Liberalism and Immigration
Lectures and Lecture Series
16 Monthly Lectures
18 Lecture Series:
What Is Public, and What Is Private?
/ The Decline of the Occident?
Seminars and Projects
20 Dioscuri Final Conference;
Quing-Workshop;
Junior Fellows’ Conference
22 Institute for Human Sciences
Boston
24 Fellows and Guests
28 From the Fellows
Estonian Impressions by Tiiu Hallap
30 Varia; Travels and Talks
32 Publications
34 Guest Contribution
“Three Reasons For Getting Scared”
David Victor on Energy Markets
36 Upcoming Events
| 25 YEARS IWM
3 January – June 2007 No. 95
„Schreiben Sie doch einfach IWM“ sage ich
zu der Dame, die den Namen, den ich
zunächst in voller Länge ausgesprochen hat-
te, in ein Formular eintragen muss; sie nickt
erleichtert und sagt: „eben, das geht doch
auch einfach!“ – Der Titel Institut für die
Wissenschaften vom Menschen lässt man-
chen stöhnen, und die Mitarbeiter/-innen
können ein Lied davon singen, denn wenn
man das am Telefon langsam ausspricht,
dauert es Ewigkeiten, bis der ganze Satz
draußen ist, und am Ende ist der Anfang
schon wieder vergessen. Leiert man hinge-
gen „Institutfürdiewissenschaftenvommen-
schen“ ganz schnell herunter, versteht sowie-
so niemand etwas.
Am Institut existiert eine erkleckliche
Sammlung von kuriosen Briefen, die bele-
gen, dass der Name nicht nur zu lang, son-
dern auch irgendwie kompliziert ist. Das
IWM wird gerne als Institut für die Wissen-
schaften „am Menschen“, „von Menschen“
oder als „Institut für Menschen“ adressiert,
oder aber als „Institute Wissenschaft über
Leute“, „Institut für die Wirtschaften vom
Menschen“ oder „Institut für Wissenschaf-
ten von Mönchen“. Und überhaupt: „Wis-
senschaften vom Menschen“ klingt sympa-
thisch – aber was genau macht eine solche
Institution?
So kompliziert der Umgang mit dem
Namen ist, so einfach und ohne große Dis-
kussion wurde er vor 25 Jahren aus der Tau-
fe gehoben. Das IWM hatte damals ein
großes Vorbild und eine zentrale Idee: Das
Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton
gab das Beispiel vor für einen Ort, an dem
frei von unmittelbaren Verwertungszwängen
auf hohem Niveau geforscht werden kann.
Und die Idee war, über die klassischen
Fächergrenzen hinweg Wissenschaften zu
versammeln, die Aussagen über den Men-
schen machen. Das zu gründende Institut
wollte ein Ort sein, der Sozial- und Geistes-
wissenschaften - oder, in amerikanischer Ter-
minologie, „Social Sciences“ und „Humani-
ties“ - unter einem Dach vereint; ganz am
Anfang gab es sogar Pläne, eventuell Natur-
wissenschaften mit aufzunehmen. Das Neue
am IWM aber war der Schwerpunkt: es galt
vor allem, osteuropäische Wissenschaftler
und Wissenschaftlerinnen einzubeziehen –
also lange vor der so genannten „Osterwei-
terung“ gesamteuropäisch zu denken. Wie
nennt man nun ein wissenschaftliches Insti-
tut, das europäisch über den Menschen
nachdenken will? Man hatte Kontakte zum
Maison des sciences de l’homme in Paris, das
ebenfalls für die Verbindung verschiedener
Wissenschaften stand. „Science de l’hom-
me“, ganz einfach übersetzt, heißt „Wissen-
schaften vom Menschen“, und auch auf Pol-
nisch, der Muttersprache des Initiators des
IWM, klingt „Institut Nauk o Cziowieku“
recht gut. Also kei-
ne Frage – das Insti-
tut war getauft.
Sicher, ein prak-
tisch-klarer Name
wäre einfacher –
etwa ZEUS „Zen-
trum für europäi-
sche Studien“, wie
einer der Permanent
Fellows einmal vorschlug – aber wäre das
besser? Gerade in seiner Offenheit steht
„Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Men-
schen“ für eine Vielfalt an Perspektiven und
Inhalten; vieles ist möglich an diesem Insti-
tut und das Offen-Lassen ist Programm.
Zudem gilt, dass Hindernisse oft stark
machen. In dem Lied „A boy named Sue“
besingt Johnny Cash einen Cowboy auf der
mordlustigen Suche nach seinem gehassten
Vater, den er nie gesehen hat, der ihm aber
einen Mädchennamen gab. Der Vater, ein-
mal gefunden, erklärt, er habe dem Sohn
nichts anderes mitgeben können als genau
diesen Namen, denn er wusste, wer sich mit
solch einem Label durchsetzen müsse, wer-
de ein guter Kämpfer. So I give ya that name
and I said goodbye, I knew you’d have to get
tough or die.
In diesem Sinn mag man wohl auch die
These vertreten, dass „a child named IWM“,
nur das werden konnte, was es heute ist,
trotz - und vor allem wegen dieses Namens.
Andrea Roedig
The name of the IWM presents – particu-
larly in German - some difficulties, since ful-
ly spoken it is long, complicated and not
very precise in specifying what the Institu-
te’s concerns and purposes are. The IWM
has amassed over the years a collection of
peculiar letters which reveals how the Insti-
tute’s name can be misunderstood. For
instance, letters have been addressed to the
“Institute for Humans”, or “Institute for Peo-
ple”, or even “Institute for Monks” due to
the similar pronounciation of the German
word for “monks” – “Mönche” – and “Men-
schen”. How the its name came about, howe-
ver, was quite simple
and was agreed
upon, 25 years ago,
without much deli-
beration or discussi-
on. The name was,
among other influ-
ences, derived from
the French Maison
des sciences de
l’homme in Paris which was, aside from the
Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,
one of the role models of the IWM. “Scien-
ce de l’homme” literally translated in Ger-
man is “Wissenschaften vom Menschen”,
and also in Polish, the mother-tongue of the
main IWM’s initiator, “Institut Nauk o
Cziowieku“ sounds great. That was how the
IWM got its name – the broad title “Human
Sciences” served to bridge the gap between
the humanities and social sciences and to
provide space for both.
So it might be that the IWM’s name will
always lead to some difficulties, but it is also
true that obstacles can make one stronger.
As Johnny Cash reasons in his song “A boy
named Sue”, which chronicles a cowboy’s
quest for vengeance on his father who gave
him a female name: so I give ya that name
and I said goodbye, I knew you’d have to get
tough or die.
One could argue that just as a delicate
name makes you fight harder to prove your-
self, the Institute for Human Sciences – a
child named IWM – could only because of
its name become what it is today
A Child Named IWM
Wie das IWM zu seinem Namen kam
Das IWM wird gerne
als Institut für die Wissen-
schaften „am Menschen“,
„von Menschen“ oder als
„Institut für Menschen“
adressiert.
CONFERENCE |
4 No. 95 January – June 2007
In continuing its tradition of open scholarly-political debates
among academics, experts, politicians and entrepreneurs, the
IWM held the conference “Promoting Democracy in Post-
Communist Countries” on January 19 to 20 at the Hotel
Imperial in Vienna. The foci of interest at this debate were
the Caucasus and Central Asian regions, concerning Europe-
an strategies for promoting democratisation, the interaction
between democracy and Islam, as well as democracy and
energy markets. About thirty representatives from Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and the
Ukraine as well as the US, Germany and Poland took part.
In der Tradition der offenen wissenschaftlich-politischen Debatte
unter Gelehrten, Experten, Politikern und Unternehmern veranstaltete
das IWM die Konferenz „Promoting Democracy in Post Communist
Countries“ am 19. und 20 Jänner im Hotel Imperial in Wien.
Im Zentrum des Interesses standen die Regionen Kaukasus und
Vorderasien, diskutiert wurden europäische Strategien zur Förderung
der Demokratisierung sowie das Zusammenspiel von Demokratie und
Islam und Demokratie und Energiemärkten. Rund dreißig Vertreter
aus Armenien, Aserbaidschan, Georgien, Kasachstan, Kirgistan,
Russland und der Ukraine, sowie USA, Deutschland und Polen
nahmen teil.
A. Olechowski; B. Geremek; A. D. Rotfeld
E. Nowotny; K. Michalski
Promoting Democracy in Post-Communist Countries
Participants:
Emil Brix
Director General for
Foreign Cultural
Policy, Ambassador,
Vienna
Elmar Brok
Chairman of the
Committee for
Foreign Affairs of the
European Parliament,
Brussels/Strasbourg
Pavol Demes
Director of GMF
Transatlantic Center
for Central and
Eastern Europe,
Bratislava
Caspar Einem
Chairman of the
Committee on Foreign
Affairs of the Austrian
Parliament
Benita
Ferrero-Waldner
EU-Commissioner
for External Relations
and European
Neighbourhood Policy,
Brussels
Michael Fuchs
Ministerial Counsellor
and Head of Secreta-
riat to the Foreign
Affairs Committee,
Berlin
Jas Gawronski
Member of the
European Parliament,
Rome, Brussels/
Strasbourg
Bronislaw Geremek
Member of the
European Parliament,
Warsaw,
Brussels/Strasbourg
Stephen Grand
Fellow and Project
Director ‘U.S. Relati-
ons with the Islamic
World’ at The Broo-
kings Institution,
Washington, D.C.
James Hoge
Editor of Foreign
Affairs magazine,
New York
Andrey Kortunov
President of The New
Eurasia Foundation,
Moscow
Janos Matyas Kovacs
Permanent Fellow
at the Institute for
Human Sciences,
Vienna; Member of
the Institute of
Economics of the
Hungarian Academy
of Sciences, Budapest
Annette Laborey
Executive Director
of the Open Society
Institute, Paris and
Vice President of the
Open Society
Institute, New York
Dariga Nazarbayeva
Member of Parlia-
ment of the Republic
of Kazakhstan;
Co-chair of the
Kazakhstan Republi-
can Party „Nur-Otan“,
Almaty
Boris Nemtsov
Member of the
Federal Political
Council of the Union
of Right Forces,
Moscow
Ewald Nowotny
CEO and Chairman
of the Managing
Board of Bank für
Arbeit und Wirtschaft
und Österreichische
Postsparkasse AG,
Vienna
Andrzej Olechowski
Member of the
Supervisory Boards of
Citibank Handlowy
and Vivendi; Director
of Euronet; Former
Minister for Foreign
Affairs of Poland,
Warsaw
Roza Otunbayeva
Co-Chair of the
Political Party ASABA,
Bishkek; Former
Minister for Foreign
Affairs of Kyrgyzstan
Larissa Pak
Director General of
the Eurasian Media
Forum, Almaty
Ruprecht Polenz
Chairman of the
Foreign Affairs Com-
mittee to the German
Bundestag, Berlin
Franz Karl Prüller
Program Director
Social Responsibility
at ERSTE Foundation,
Vienna
Adam Daniel Rotfeld
Chairman of the
International Consul-
tative Committee at
the Polish Institute of
International Affairs;
Former Minister for
Foreign Affairs of
Poland, Warsaw
Armen Sarkissian
President of Eurasia
House International,
London; Former Prime
Minister of Armenia
Lilia Shevtsova
Senior Associate at
Moscow Carnegie
Center
Bernard Snoy
Co-ordinator of
OSCE Economic and
Environmental
Activities, Vienna
Hannes Swoboda
Vice-chairman of The
Socialist Group in the
European Parliament
and Head of the
delegation of Austrian
social-democratic
members in the EP,
Brussels/Strasbourg
Zurab Tkemaladze
Member of the
Parliament of Georgia;
Chairman of the
Faction ‘Industrialists’,
Tbilisi
David G. Victor
Director of the
Program on Energy
and Sustainable
Development at
Stanford University
Oskar Wawra
Director of Internatio-
nal Relations, City of
Vienna
Leyla Yunusova
Director of the
Institute for Peace
and Democracy, Baku
Pavlo Zhovnirenko
Chairman of the
Board of the Center
for Strategic Studies,
Kyiv
| CONFERENCE
5 January – June 2007 No. 95
L. Yunusova
L. Shevtsova
B. Ferrero-Waldner
P. Zhovnirenko
B. Nemtsov
CONFERENCE |
6 No. 95 January – June 2007
Dear Madame Commissioner,
Mr. Chairman,
For thousands of years we
in Central Asia have been gov-
erned by people and not by
laws. All those who rule today
also have unlimited and prac-
tically uncontrolled power.
In March 2005 and in
November 2006 the Tulip
Revolution took place in Kyr-
gyzstan in two stages – it was,
indeed, a Revolution as it
resolved problems which could
not be solved in an evolution-
ary way. We have tried to put
an end to authoritarianism and to uninter-
rupted power (in breach of the Constitution)
of one individual. Why?
In the past the rule in our country
seemed democratic on the surface (you may
remember how the phrase Island of Democ-
racy in Central Asia was coined). However
in reality, power was established as an offi-
cial-bureaucratic system
which was nothing else but a
modification of the earlier
command-administrative sys-
tem. The former Central
Committee of the Commu-
nist Party transformed itself
into the omnipresent Presi-
dential Administration; the president became
the sole chief. With the demise of the USSR
a liberalization of public and personal life
took place. Whether we like it or not, we owe
it to the leadership of President Akaev that
the Kyrgyz Republic went foot to foot with
the changes in the European part of the CIS,
that in my country the liberalization drowned
authoritarianism and the way to free entre-
preneurship was opened up. We kind of
entered the world rankings of freedom of
speech, meetings and our non-governmental
sector was developing fast. So we did not get
caught up in the chains of totalitarianism and
we did not get burned by the flames of civil
wars like some of our neighbors.
However, we have never experienced,
have never tasted the division of power, the
independence of judges, free and fair elec-
tions, public control over the national secu-
rity service and the police forces. We do not
really know what that is!
After centuries of khanates, Russian tsarist
rule and Bolshevik authoritarianism, my coun-
try has for the
first time expe-
rienced some
sort of what
could have
been democra-
cy during the
difficult past
15 years. Over these years presidential rule has
resulted in authoritarianism. Akaev conduct-
ed four referendums on Constitutional issues,
just in order to concentrate absolute power in
his hands.
With their manifestations after March 24
of 2005, the people of our country managed
to rid themselves of Akaev and parts of his
clan but this proved not to be enough. The
new structures after the former president’s
forced departure to Moscow quickly copied
his methods; it happened so that one fami-
ly has been replaced by another – we have got
a clone of Akaev at the helm. People’s dis-
appointment was huge: the new masters did
not live up to their promises. The massive
public manifestations of Novem-
ber 2006 resulted in significant
changes in the system of govern-
ment and forced the President to
accept the new Constitution
which limited his far-reaching
powers. From then on, the
country kind of entered into its
new parliamentarian-presiden-
tial way of governance. We were
the first in Central Asia, and sec-
ond after the Ukraine to try and
introduce the system of checks
and balances, and to subject the
executive branch of power to the
control of the people through
Parliament.
However, on 30 December 2006 the pro-
presidential forces in Parliament introduced
the amendments to the text of the Constitu-
tion that was approved just a month prior to
it, whereby they returned all super-authori-
ty back to the president. Thus, the uncom-
promising fight, far from the Sisyphus chal-
lenge, is ongoing in our country; the fight for
the replacement of the archaic authoritari-
an regime by democratic procedures, and
fight for the demounting of family gover-
nance. It is evident that the side effects of
such a change, especially in a poor country
like mine, can be extremely negative.
Kyrgyzstan, during the last 15-20 years,
has survived public and political changes that
would have been enough for the next two
centuries.
The democratic development is far ahead
of our well-being. The dilemma of democ-
racy and development, democracy and sta-
bility, is facing us in its full height. The effort
of modernization from the top in my coun-
try and in the neighboring countries did not
succeed. Only Kazakhstan has demonstrat-
ed tangible success in this direction.
There is a saying: too many cooks spoil
the broth. Indeed in the G8 line we have
been under the supervision of Japan, while
in the EU, it seems, priority is given to Ger-
many. In the IFIs we are under the watch of
the leading western countries, while we are
”We badly need the close attention …”
Keynote speech by Roza Otunbayeva, Former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan,
at the conference “Promoting Democracy …”
Russia for us is
and remains the outpost of
Europe, it provides the link
to European values.
| CONFERENCE
7 January – June 2007 No. 95
constantly patronized by Russia and the USA.
We are geographically close to or even bor-
dering three future giants of the world econ-
omy; there is no doubt that BRIC (Brazil,
Russia, India and China) are on their way up.
Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan is the only coun-
try in the CIS that is faced with entering
HIPC (Highly Indebted Poor Countries pro-
gram of the World Bank and IMF)!
Russia remains for us the closest country
on the European continent. Despite the
physical separation and demise, the actual
line of contact and – if I may say so –
“togetherness” of our people has widened
more. Between 300.000 to one million peo-
ple of nearly every CIS country now work in
Russia which thus equals for them European
civilization. This trend, which exists because
of Russian as lingua franca of this region,
because of common educational systems and
traditions, will most likely persist, but also
because the borders of the EU are complete-
ly closed for our migrant labor.
But there is also another trend these days
that we should all be aware of. The farther
away we are from the time when the enor-
mous multinational country USSR col-
lapsed, the more Russians, Ukrainians, Ger-
mans, Greeks, and others that we call the
people of European nationality leave our
countries for good, being replaced by the
Chinese, Uighurs, Iranians, Turkish,
Afghans, the more we get pulled into the
insides of Asia going back to our sources and
start to feel close to our Asian roots. How-
ever, ballet and opera, choir and music
schools, modern visual art and theatres, all
sports where women can take part, European
clothing including the décolleté or mini-skirt
– all this remains part of our life, and actu-
ally is absent thousands of kilometers from
all our borders in surrounding countries.
Russia for us is and remains the outpost
of Europe – it provides the link to European
values. A dynamic development of a sound
democracy in Russia could mean for all CIS
countries a real breakthrough to democrat-
ic development in the entire region. Russia
has been and remains the key country with
enormous economic and political influence
on our countries. With its economic growth,
with the wars of the USA in Iraq and
Afghanistan, and tension in US-Iranian rela-
tionships, Russia’s actual grip on the region
gets ever tighter.
Mr. Chairman,
the presence of
Europe in Kyrgyzs-
tan unfortunately
remains scarce. We
have only one Euro-
pean Embassy, the
German, which rep-
resents the EU in its
entirety. The Ambassador of the European
Commission, even if he is most efficient like
the current one, handles three countries -
Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The
low profile of Europe remains one of the
burning issues of public and political devel-
opment as this leaves us, the democratic
forces, one to one with the sensitive chal-
lenges. I am afraid, there is no ground yet to
say that thanks to enlargement and the ENP
(European Neighborhood Policy) Central
Asia is coming closer to EU borders.
We welcome the new changed principle
of the EU’s approach, underlined, Madame
Comissioner, in your speech today: there is
no one-size-fits-all solution to democracy
promotion. To date, an enormous harm is
imposed by the EU view of Central Asia as
a unified economic and political space. In
the issues of democratization and human
rights this perspective looks even more
absurd. All these years diplomats and bureau-
crats of the European countries in fact assist-
ed us in every possible way to accept the
authoritarian longevity and rude violations
of human rights, freedom of speech and
expression, politely referring to the view that
democratic develop-
ment of my country
is far ahead of its
neighbors. But we
simply did not abide
by this approach.
We very much
welcomed the
appointment of the
EU Special Repre-
sentative, meanwhile one high-ranking
diplomat was replaced by another one, the
renowned Mr. Pierre Morel. Time goes on,
yet we did not have a chance to see the
progress in developing a EU strategy for
Central Asia. I do believe we never had and
to date do not have the full-size, deep dia-
logues between various circles of political,
human rights and NGO activists, academ-
ics, intelligentsia. We know very little about
each other. The EU was too busy over the
last decade with the enlargement “business”,
and Central Asia on her troubled way to
democracy has not once disappointed the
EU, or been made fatigued from the fail-
ures, slow success and often rejection of
democratic values. During all these years,
except for the focused interest on the ener-
gy recourses and the growing travel of Euro-
peans to these exotic destinations on the
Great Silk Route, the promotion of democ-
racy in Central Asia was kept on a very low
profile. Therefore with great enthusiasm we
welcome the new European Initiative for
Democracy and Human rights, you,
Madam Ferrero-Waldner, announced today.
It will enforce the potential and work of
thousands of organizations and individu-
als in our region in their fight for the
democratization of life and governance.
We are going our own way, accumulating a
I am afraid,
there is no ground yet to say
that thanks to enlargement
Central Asia is coming
closer to EU borders.
Info Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan gained its independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991. Askar Akajev
was elected President in 1990 and later re-elected in 1991 and 1995. A new Constitution
which defined the Kyrgyz government as a democratic republic was passed by Parlia-
ment in 1993. While Kyrgyzstan was seen as a prime example of the democratisation
among the former Soviet-ruled Central Asian countries, there were trends towards
autocracy in the late 90s; popular opinion saw President Akajev’s rule as increasingly
corrupt and authoritarian. According to observers from the OSCE, the 2005 parliamen-
tary elections were not up to par with international standards for democratic elections.
Political turmoil prevailed in Kyrgyzstan, and nationwide demonstrations culminated into
the Tulip Revolution of 2005. Following attacks by protestors on government buildings in
the capital city of Bishkek, President Akajev fled to Moscow, where he later agreed
to resign as President. In June 2005, former Prime Minister and opposition leader
Kurmanbek Bakiyev secured a landslide victory in the presidential elections.
Demonstrations organised by the political opposition in Bishkek in 2006 resulted in
amendments to the Constitution, which curtailed the powers of the President and gave
more authority to Parliament. However, Bakiyev reinstated some of his powers after the
government resigned a few weeks later, and currently still faces pressure to step down.
CONFERENCE | POLITICAL SALON |
8 No. 95 January – June 2007
„Die USA kommen vom Mars – Euro-
pa von der Venus.“ Diese These des
neokonservativen Politkommentators
Robert Kagan hat vor Jahren einigen
publizistischen Staub aufgewirbelt.
Kriegerisch und voll Tatendrang seien
die US-Amerikaner, während der alte
Kontinent auf feminine Art den Kon-
sens schätze und eher dazu neige,
bedächtig abzuwarten. Damals mar-
kierte Kagans Metapher eine klare Kri-
tik der ablehnenden Haltung Europas
zum bevorstehenden Irak-Krieg, die
verdeutlichte, dass die transatlantischen
Beziehungen auf einem historischen
Tiefststand angekommen waren.
Vier Jahre nach der kleinen diplo-
matischen Eiszeit scheinen die Zeichen
auf Tauwetter zu stehen. James Hoge
beschrieb unter dem Titel „USA-Euro-
pe: Friends Again?“ das gute Verhältnis
als wiederhergestellt, allerdings auch als
verändert in einer veränderten Welt.
Der „war on terror“ (den die USA
anders einschätzen als die Europäer),
die Bedrohung durch Nuklearmächte
und neu entstehende Großmächte im
fernen Osten, sind neue Variablen im
Spiel der Weltpolitik, die die Bündnis-
interessen der USA anders bestimmen.
Für die USA stellt sich die Frage, wie
mit neuen Großmächten zu verhandeln
sei und wie man agiere in einer multi-
polaren Welt, in der zunehmend auch
nicht-staatliche Akteure auftreten.
Die transatlantischen Beziehungen
dagegen sind heute nicht mehr - wie zu
Zeiten des Kalten Krieges - durch Not-
wendigkeiten bestimmt, sie sind viel-
mehr eine “Beziehung der Wahl“ unter
Berücksichtigung gemeinsamer Werte.
Eine erstaunliche Wendung brach-
te Hoge in die Diskussion, als er auf
Religion zu sprechen kam. Der Islam
unterscheide sich nicht so sehr von
„unseren Auffassungen“, eine Zusam-
menarbeit sei möglich; und Hoge
betonte, dass in diesem Punkt auch die
Europäer am Zug seien. Europa gera-
te durch Migration zunehmend unter
muslimischen Einfluss auch muslimi-
scher Religion – ein Prozess der nicht
aufzuhalten sei. „Fürchtet euch, oder
lernt damit umzugehen“, war sein Rat.
Christian Beck / Andrea Roedig
Die Politischen Salons finden in Zusam-
menarbeit mit „Die Presse“ statt und
werden gesponsort von: Investkredit.
Diskussionspartner bei der Veranstal-
tung waren Michael Prüller, stellver-
tretender Chefredakteur von „Die
Presse“ und Krzysztof Michalski.
Wahlverwandtschaften
Die Zukunft der transatlanti-
schen Beziehungen war Thema
eines Politischen Salons mit
James Hoge, dem Chefredak-
teur von Foreign Affairs, am
18. Jänner im IWM.
The future of the transatlantic
relationship was the topic of
a Political Salon discussion
held on January 18th with
James Hoge, editor in chief of
Foreign Affairs. Hoge maintai-
ned that the USA and Europe
can be seen as “friends again”
and relations are relaxed, but
that they have changed under
the changed conditions of
world politics in general.
Nowadays the connection is
no longer one of necessity –
as it has been in the times of
the Cold War –, but is rather
a relationship of choice, based
on shared values.
democratic experience, new political culture, and
changes in our stereotypes despite the significant
difficulties and barriers that try to keep our coun-
tries in the routine of the traditional lifestyles
and governance, conserved economic and cul-
tural backwardness, and our low competitive-
ness. We are in the initial phases of our democ-
racy. We do not have illusions about problems
and difficulties on the next part of the way. In
my country the authorities and the opposition,
together with people, have learned a lot. Crowd-
ed with thousands of people, our meetings of
2006 have shown that we can resolve our
sharpest issues through peaceful ways and means.
For a week streets of Bishkek were flooded with
people, and the government was unable to stop
people or to use force. Now we are able to deal
even with the most extreme situations as no one
else in our region.
Yes, democracy is not instant coffee; the
steady, large assistance of Europe in the mod-
ernization of public institutions would be of
very critical significance. An institutional sup-
port for the building up of the political parties,
the Parliament, and the independent courts is
needed. Central Asia, without any doubt, is one
of the few areas where there is no multi-party
system and parties do not participate in the for-
mation of power. We are behind in party devel-
opment compared to other CIS countries per-
haps almost by one decade. Not a single EU
country is helping us in this at this very impor-
tant point in our lives. The political competi-
tion of the parties, their programs, their solu-
tions for the most challenging social and eco-
nomic problems would leave so much less room
for the massive islamisation of the society, and
would fill and lead the minds and hearts of mil-
lions of young, who are otherwise losing their
belief in a better life in their country.
We are desperate for the expertise of the
Council of Europe that has rich experience and
knowledge in the cross-border lives of neighbor-
ing people, in cultivating tolerance and peace
between ethnic groups in the country, practical-
ly realizing the various freedoms, including the
freedom of consciousness. We badly need the
close attention of the Council of Europe!
Political reforms cost dearly! Our people have
proved that it can and must decide about its des-
tiny without any mediators. The revolutions of
March 2005 and November 2006 – it is the first
independent historical choice made by my
nation to lead its own way in its post-Soviet his-
tory. The Island of Democracy in Central Asia
should remain alive much, much stronger!
Roza Otunbayeva
| CONFERENCES, DEBATES, DISCUSSIONS
9 January – June 2007 No. 95
This year’s series of Tischner Debates was
inaugurated on March 7th in Warsaw with
a discussion “On Morality and Market”. The
floor was given to Michael Sandel, Professor
of Government at Harvard University and
the author of books such as “Liberalism and
the Limits of Justice” and “Democracy’s Dis-
content: America in Search of a Public Phi-
losophy”.
Sandel challenged the connection bet-
ween democracy and capitalism, and sub-
mitted for further consideration the tension
between market values and spiritual and civic
virtues. The latter, according to Sandel, are
being eroded, corrupted, and degraded by
the former.
Sandel’s opponents in the discussion were
Hanna Gronkiewicz Waltz, Mayor of War-
saw, one of the leaders of the opposition par-
ty Platforma Obywatelska (Citizens’ Plat-
form) and Vice-President of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development;
Jacek Holówka, Professor of Ethics and Ana-
lytical Philosophy at Warsaw University; and
Wojciech Kostrzewa, former adviser to
Leszek Balcerowicz, and now President of
the Board of Trustees and Managing Direc-
tor of the ITI Group, Poland’s leading media
and entertainment holding.
Gronkiewicz Waltz insisted that the mar-
ket as it is does not have moral features. She
focussed mostly on the positive aspects of
the market, and pointed out that nothing
triggers human creativity as well as compe-
tition. Referring to the downside of the mar-
ket, she argued that both society and the
state are not helpless: the market is a prod-
uct of man’s hands, she argued, and resem-
bles its author in everything.
For Jacek Holówka, the market is as nec-
essary as oxygen. According to him, a ‘thick
market’ would enable us to feel safe and thus
allow us to focus on the most important
things in life.
In his final statement, Sandel asserted that
the market is only a part of freedom. He
referred to Holówka’s metaphor of the mar-
ket as oxygen and pointed out that too much
oxygen can make it impossible to breathe,
and, noticing the Poles’ desire to embrace a
free market, he expressed his hope that
Poland would build a system that uses the
market but not celebrate it.
El`zbieta Ci`zewska
El ` zbieta Ci` zewska is Ph.D. candidate at
Political Philosophy at the Institute of
Applied Social Sciences, Warsaw University.
Further Tischner Debates:
Debate 9: Poland and Europe,
with Timothy Garton Ash (April 26)
Debate 10: Others Among Us
with Giuliano Amato (June 4)
Debate 11: The Left United
with Alfred Gusenbauer (June 11)
Market and Morals
The 8th Tischner Debate in Warsaw
Invitation to the 25th Anniversary Conference of the IWM
Conditions for International Solidarity
9-11 November 2007, Vienna/Austria
MAK – Österreichisches Museum für angewandte Kunst / Gegenwartskunst, Wien
Lectures and discussions will address international solidarity as a political challenge, the role of international
institutions, the effects of markets on global community, and the conditions of intercultural understanding.
Due to the generous support by several foundations we are able to offer travel grants
to former Junior Visiting Fellows, participants of our Summer Schools, Visiting Fellows and Guests wishing to
attend the IWM’s anniversary celebration.
Deadline for application: 15 September 2007
Please download the application form from the website: www.iwm.at/anniversary.htm
CONFERENCES, DEBATES, DISCUSSIONS |
10 No. 95 January – June 2007
Jan Patocˇka is one of the most interest-
ing representatives of the second gen-
eration of phenomenologists after
Husserl and Heidegger, with whom he
studied in Freiburg in the 1930s. He
applied his phenomenological thought
in an innovative way to problems of pol-
itics, history, art, and literature. With a
few short exceptions, Patocˇka was
banned from teaching and publishing in
communist Czechoslovakia. However,
he became an intellectual and moral
authority through his legendary under-
ground seminars. Patocˇka was a co-
founder and speaker of the civil rights
movement Charter 77. He died after a
series of police interrogations on March
13, 1977. The significance of his work
for the political idea of Europe is only
fully appreciated today.
The Prague conference, held in the
Carolinum, brought together Patocˇka
scholars from all over the world. The
IWM’s participation in this event was part
of the two-year project „Responsibility
and Freedom: The Idea of Europe in the
Political Philosophy of Jan Patocˇka.“ Sup-
ported by the Austrian Science Fund
(FWF) and the Andrew W. Mellon Foun-
dation through the Council of American
Overseas Research Centers.
Main organisers of the conference
were the Center for Phenomenological
Research (CFB), the Institute for
Human Sciences (IWM), and the
Husserl Circle.
Jan Patocˇka 1907 - 1977
An international conference in Prague
commemorated the Czech philosopher and human
rights activist.
Program
April 23
Opening Addresses by Ivan
Chvatík (Director of Jan
Patocˇka Archive) and
Václav Havel (Former
President of the Czech
Republic)
Krzysztof Michalski
(Rector of the Institute for
Human Sciences, Vienna);
Opening speech:
Nihilism and Religion
Martin Palousˇ (Former
Ambassador of the Czech
Republic in USA): Jan
Patocˇka’s Socratic Message
for the 21st Century
Pierre Rodrigo (France):
Platonisme négatif et
existence maximale chez
Jan Patocˇka
Emilie Tardivel (France):
Europe et soin de l’âme
chez Patocˇka
Josef Chytry (USA):
Jan Patocˇka and Central
European Polis Thought
Evening Lecture in the
Senate of the Parliament
of the Czech Republic
Petr Pithart (Vice-Presi-
dent of the Czech Senate):
Questioning as a Pre-
requisite for a Meaningful
Protest
April 24
Burt Hopkins (USA):
Patocˇka’s Phenomenologi-
cal Appropriation of Plato
Tamas Ullmann (Hungary):
The Problem of Negative
Platonism
Eddo Evink (Netherlands):
Patocˇka and the Metaphy-
sical Tradition
James Mensch (Canada):
Patocˇka’s Asubjective
Phenomenology, Artificial
Intelligence and the
Mind-Body Problem
Rochus Sowa (Belgium):
Wesen und Wesensgesetze
in der deskriptiven Eidetik
Edmund Husserls
Evening Lecture in the
French Embassy, Buquoy
Palace
Marc Crepon (France):
La peur, le courage, la
colère: la leçon de Socrate
April 25
Miroslav Petrícek (Czech
Republic): Jan Patocˇka:
Phenomenological
Philosophy Today
Burt Hopkins (USA):
On the History of Husserl
Circle
Carolinum, Aula Magna:
Awarding the Honorary
Doctorate to Erika Abrams
Villa Lanna: Awarding the
Patocˇka Medals of the
Academy of Science of the
Czech Republic to Ivan
Dubsk´ y (Czech Republic),
Klaus Nellen (Austria)
and Jirí Polívka (Czech
Republic)
Roundtable on Personal
Recollections of Jan
Patocˇka: Helmut Kohlen-
berger (Austria), Jaroslav
Kohout (Czech Republic),
Radim Palousˇ (Czech
Republic), Jan Vladislav
(Czech Republic), Josef
Zumr (Czech Republic)
Polish Institute Prague:
Ewa Fagas and Piotr
Mielech (Poland): HERETYK
– a film on Jan Patocˇka
April 26
Jean-Francois Courtine
(France): L’idée de
phénoménologie transcen-
dantale et asubjective chez
Jan Patocˇka
Renaud Barbaras (France):
Phénoménologie et héno-
logie chez Jan Patocˇka
Alessandra Pantano
(Italy): La Constellation de
L’Epoche
Ludger Hagedorn
(Germany): Jenseits von
Mythos und Aufklärung.
Religion bei Patocˇka
Sandra Lehmann
(Germany): Der Tod des
Homo Divinus - Patocˇka
und Derrida
Hans Rainer Sepp
(Germany): Sprung in die
Freiheit. Patocˇkas Epoché
Evening Lecture in the
Austrian Culture Forum,
Prague: Michael Staudigl
(Austria): Entzogene Welt,
zerbrochenes Wir. Über
Gewalt im Rahmen a-sub-
jektiver Phänomenologie
| CONFERENCES, DEBATES, DISCUSSIONS
11 January – June 2007 No. 95
Islam and Orthodoxy:
Confrontation, Cohabitation,
and Comparison
A conference held on March 12 – 13 at the IWM
was devoted to Islam and Christian Orthodoxy,
mainly with regards to Russia. In his keynote
speech, Canon Michael Bourdeaux described new-
ly developing Christian and Muslim religious ways
of life in the Russia of today, and pointed out that
the less secular institutions interfere, the better
relations between different religions are.
The conference was sponsored by the Institute
on Culture, Religion, and World Affairs, Boston
University, and the J. M. Dawson Institute of
Church-State Studies, Baylor University, with
funding provided by the Harry and Lynde Bradley
Foundation.
Participants of the conference:
Alexander Agadjanian,
Russian State University of the Humanities
Michael Bourdeaux, Keston Institute
Ingeborg Gabriel, University of Vienna
Daniela Kalkandjieva, St. Kliment Ohridsky University
Vyacheslav Karpov, Western Michigan University
János M. Kovács, IWM
Elena Lisovskaya, Western Michigan University
Christopher Marsh, Baylor University
Charles McDaniel, Baylor University
Norton Mezvinsky, Central Connecticut State University
Paul Mojzes, Rosemont College
Jerry Pankhurst, Wittenberg University
Daniel Payne, Baylor University
Sebastien Peyrouse, Kennan Institute
Victor Roudometof, University of Cyprus
Alexander Verkhovsky, SOVA Center
James W. Warhola, University of Maine
Andrei Zolotov, Russia Profile
Boomerang 89?
Unexpected Calamities in the
Political Life of East-Central Europe
Since 1989, the region of East-Central Europe has served
as a model for countries in transition. The democratic
virtues of these countries were clearly acknowledged by
Brussels since the region was the first in Eastern Europe
to be invited to join the Union. But today, one witnesses
violent demonstrations in the streets of Budapest, a lengthy
government crisis in Prague, and a coalition government
in Warsaw which challenges important rules/habits of
political life in Europe. Throughout the region MPs are
being bought off and corruption cases are mushrooming.
A panel discussion on March 27, held in cooperation with
the Renner Institute, explored the significance of these
adverse developments, and questioned whether problems
of “instant democracy” might return as a boomerang today.
Panel speakers were György Csepeli (Public Policy Direc-
tor and State Secretary, Hungarian Ministry of Econo-
my and Transport, Budapest), Pavol Demes (The Ger-
man Marshall Fund of the United States, Bratislava),
Lena Kolarska-Bobinska (Director of the Institute for
Public Affairs, Warsaw ) and Jacques Rupnik (Directeur
de recherche FNSP/CERI, Paris).
Citizenship Policies in the New Europe
The EU-Enlargement in May 2004 has greatly increased
the diversity of historic experiences and contemporary con-
ceptions of statehood, nation-building and citizenship with-
in the European Union. In contrast with the older mem-
ber states, most new ones have not existed as independent
states within their present borders for more than two gen-
erations. At a panel discussion on May 4, experts and
authors of the new book “Citizenship Policies in the New
Europe” (Amsterdam University Press, spring 2007) com-
pared Western and Eastern European citizenship policies
and discussed the prospects for common European stan-
dards. The discussants were: Rainer Bauböck (European
University Institute ), Andrea Barsova (Human Rights Depart-
ment, Prague), Ivan Halasz (Hungarian Academy of Sci-
ences) , Andre Liebich (University of Geneva) and Janos
M.Kovacs (IWM, Vienna).
April 27
Filip Karfík (Czech Repu-
blic): Vorhaben und Resul-
tate: Patocˇkas philosophi-
sche Entwicklung
Balazs Mezei (Hungary):
Jan Patocˇka’s Place in
Classical Phenomenology
Johann Arnason (Iceland):
Negative Platonism:
Between the History of
Philosophy and the Philo-
sophy of History
Domenico Jervolino (Italy):
Epoché et traduction, une
réflexion sur la philosophie
de la traduction en partant
de Patocˇka
Nathalie Frogneux (Belgi-
um): Les trois commun-
autés du mouvement de la
vie humaine chez Jan
Patocˇka
Steven Crowell (USA):
„Idealities of Nature“:
Patocˇka on Reflection and
the Three Movements of
Human Life
Evening Lecture in the
Goethe-Institute Prague:
Ilja Srubar (Germany):
Patocˇkas Sicht der Ethik
April 28
James Dodd (USA):
The 20th Century as War
Marcia Schuback
(Sweden): Sacrifice and
Salvation – Patocˇka and
Heidegger on the Question
of Technique
Lubica Ucník (Australia):
Patocˇka on Techno-Power
and the Sacrificial Victim
Kwok-ying Lau
(Hong Kong): Patocˇka’s
Concept of Europe: an
Intercultural Consideration
Josef Moural
(Czech Republic):
Time and Responsibility
Martin Matustik (USA):
More Than All the Others:
Meditation on Responsibili-
ty
City Gallery Prague, House
at the Stone Bell: Closing
Concert with Peter
Schuback, Composer and
Cellist (Sweden)
Participants of “Islam and Orthodoxy”
CONFERENCE |
12 No. 95 January – June 2007
A working conference on June 1 and
2 gathered specialists from Austria,
Germany, the Netherlands and the US
to discuss how liberal societies should
deal with cultural religious, and ethnic
diversity as an effect of immigration.
The topic was related to very specific
areas of public affairs, including school-
ing, housing, and employment. To
compare experiences and perspectives
from the different continents, was the
main interest of the discussion, which,
for example, contrasted the US’ open
labour market as “integrationmachine”
to Europe’s reliance on the welfare
state. “You Europeans have got this
cosy welfare state, but you can’t deal
with immigrants” was one of the quo-
tations. Another topic was the differ-
ent approach to the question (and the
term) of “race” in the US and Europe
as well as the ongoing “dilemma of
recognition”: When and under which
circumstances does it make sense to
segregate groups to treat them differ-
ently? Once you refer to differences
you create and fix them too. Counting
people based on race aspects seems sen-
sible, “but only for the time being”.
Also the impact of neighborhood and
schooling on life quality was broadly
discussed (“the reproduction of class
runs through schools”), and the
immense significance of “second
chance education”. Further themes to
be covered in a subsequent discussion
could be “membership” (who gets to
be a member of liberal polity?), “trans-
formation” (how long is an immigrant
population an immigrant population?)
and “fear” (which is the non-rational
part of political discourse), conclud-
ed Ira Katznelson from Columbia Uni-
versitiy in his summary. The confer-
ence included a special section on the
Netherlands and on the evening June
1, a public Debate on Solidarity with
contributions from the Mayor of Ams-
terdam, Job Cohen, the Austrian Min-
ister of Social Affairs, Erwin Buchinger,
and Alan Wolfe from Boston College.
“Enlarging Solidarity” was organized
in collaboration with the Duitsland
Instituut (Amsterdam) and the Renner
Institute (Vienna).
Die Konferenz „Enlarging Solidarity“ am 1. und 2. Juni
verknüpfte die Themen „Solidarität“ und Integrations-
politik. Wie gehen moderne, liberale Staaten politisch
(und ethisch) mit kultureller, ethnischer und religiöser
Vielfalt um? Eingeladen waren Fachleute aus den USA,
Deutschland, Österreich und den Niederlanden, die Fra-
gen des sozialen Zusammenhaltes konkret auf Bildungs-
wesen, Stadtplanung, Wohnungs- und Arbeitsmarkt bezo-
gen und im Vergleich Europa/USA diskutierten. So wur-
de beispielsweise das offene Arbeitsmarktkonzept der USA
als „Integrationsmaschine“ dem europäischen Wohlfahrts-
staat entgegengesetzt. Weitere Themen waren das „Dilem-
ma der Anerkennung“ (wann ist es sinnvoll, Gruppen als
solche gesondert zu behandeln?), der unterschiedliche
Gebrauch des Begriffs „Rasse“ in Europa und den USA.
Diskutiert wurde ebenfalls der Einfluss von Wohnum-
feld und Schulwesen auf die Lebensqualität und die
immense Bedeutung von „zweiten Chancen“ auf Bildung
und speziell die Integrationspolitik der Niederlande.
Teil der Konferenz war eine öffentliche Debatte über
Solidarität am Abend des 1. Juni mit Beiträgen des
Amsterdamer Bürgermeisters Job Cohen, des Österreichi-
schen Sozialministers Erwin Buchinger und Professor
Alan Wolfe vom Boston College.
Das IWM hat „Enlarging Solidarity“ in Zusammenarbeit
mit dem Duitsland Instituut (Amsterdam) und dem
Renner Institut (Wien) veranstaltet.
Enlarging Solidarity
Cultural Differences and Institutional Adjustments
| CONFERENCE
13 January – June 2007 No. 95
Participants:
Jutta Allmendinger,
President of the Social
Science Research Center
Berlin; Professor of
Sociology, Humboldt-
University of Berlin
Paul Attewell, Professor of
Sociology, Graduate Center,
City University of New York.
Miroslaw Bieniecki, Expert,
Migration and Eastern
Policy Programme, Institute
of Public Affairs, Warsaw
Gudrun Biffl, Senior
Research Fellow, Austrian
Institute of Economic
Research (WIFO), Vienna
Erwin Buchinger, Austrian
Minister for Social Affairs,
Vienna
Dimitria Clayton, Ministry
for Inter-Generation and
Family Affairs, Women and
Integration in North Rhine-
Westphalia, Düsseldorf
Job Cohen, Mayor of
Amsterdam, former Dutch
Deputy Minister for Justice
Maria Cuartas, Head of
Cabinet of Mayor Cohen,
Amsterdam
Karl Duffek, Director,
Renner Institute, Vienna
Han Entzinger, Professor of
Migration and Integration
Studies, Faculty of Social
Sciences, Erasmus
University Rotterdam
Georg Fischer, Head of
Unit, Social Protection,
Pensions and Health; Direc-
torate General for Employ-
ment Social Affairs and
Equal Opportunities, Euro-
pean Commission, Brussels
Erich Fröschl, Head of the
Academy for International
Politics, Renner Institute,
Vienna
Hartmut Häußermann
Chair, Department of Urban
and Regional Sociology,
Institute of Social Sciences,
Humboldt-University of
Berlin
Anton Hemerijck, Deputy
Director of the Netherlands
Council for Government
Policy, Amsterdam; and
Senior Lecturer, Leiden
University
Jennifer L. Hochschild,
Henry LaBarre Jayne
Professor of Government,
and Professor of African
and African American
Studies, Harvard University
Ira Katznelson, Professor
of Political Science and
History, Columbia Universi-
ty, New York; Vice-Chair-
man of the IWM’s
Academic Advisory Board
Janos M. Kovacs, Perma-
nent Fellow, IWM, Vienna
Robert C. Lieberman,
Professor of Political
Science and Public Affairs,
Columbia University,
New York
Krzysztof Michalski,
Rector, IWM, Vienna
Rainer Münz, Head of
Research, Erste Bank der
oesterreichischen Sparkas-
sen AG, Vienna
Katherine S. Newman,
Professor of Sociology and
Public Affairs, Princeton
University
Ton Nijhuis, Director,
Duitsland Instituut
Amsterdam
Philippe van Parijs,
Professor of Economic,
Social and Political Scien-
ces, Catholic University of
Louvain; Hoover Chair of
Economic and Social Ethics;
Visiting Professor of Philo-
sophy, Harvard University
Rinus Penninx, Professor
of Ethnic Studies and
Director of the Institute for
Migration and Ethnic
Studies (IMES), University
of Amsterdam
Ken Prewitt, Carnegie
Professor of Public Affairs,
School of International and
Public Affairs, Columbia
University, New York
Jelle Visser, Professor of
Sociology, University of
Amsterdam
Alan Wolfe, Professor of
Political Science, Boston
College; Director of The
Boisi Center for Religion
and American Public Life,
Boston
K. S. Newman; J. L. Hochschild
H. Entzinger; A. Hemerijck H. Häußermann
I. Katznelson; P. v. Parijs; K. Prewitt
D. Clayton J. Allmendinger
CONFERENCE |
14 No. 95 January – June 2007
[…] Immigration is now an
issue facing all liberal soci-
eties, not just the United
States, and Europeans are
just as uncertain as Ameri-
cans about how to react to
it. They have welcomed
guest workers to take low-
paying jobs, but they have
also been generally unwill-
ing to grant the benefits of
citizenship to them – or
even to their children and
grandchildren. As much as
the leaders of these societies
protest those who carry out acts of genocide,
they are not especially generous in granting
asylum within their countries to genocide’s
victims. As they have opened themselves up
to each other through the European Union,
they have grown increasingly closed within,
rediscovering their Christian identity in the
face of Muslim immigration or reasserting the
uniqueness of their individual national cul-
tures. When it comes to time-tested policy
considerations such as how and whether to
regulate the economy, European societies have
a history of liberal theory upon which they
can rely. But the same is not true when it
comes to dealing with
immigrants; in this espe-
cially contentious arena of
public debate, there is not
all that much in the liber-
al tradition to which they
can turn.
As a result of this lib-
eral vacuum, a substantial
part of the public debate
over immigration has been dominated by
illiberal voices. The most insistent of such
voices in both Europe and the United States
belong to those politicians who promise to
protect the presumed cultural integrity of the
homeland against the presumed degeneracy
of the alien. There can be little doubt the bulk
of the messages conveyed by right-wing
Republicans in the United States, a Jean Marie
LePen in France, or a Filip Dewinter in Bel-
gium are illiberal through and through. One
finds in them no generosity of spirit toward
people whose conditions of life have been dif-
ficult in the extreme; no heart-warming
accounts of their courage in leaving one land
to try and achieve success in another; no sense
that all cultures have something to value; no
appreciation of the underlying universality of
all people whatever their national differences;
no recognition of the fact that peace among
cultures is a worthier objective than war
between them; and no acknowledgement that
the society being protected, far from being
flawless, could use an injection of new ideas
and entrepreneurial energy. Nowhere do con-
servatives of this particular inclination – there
are other con-
servatives who
are strong sup-
porters of
immigration –
seem more de-
serving of the
epithet “reac-
tionary” than
when it comes
to immigration; mobility of people around
the globe is a fact of life, and they react to it
out of anger and fear.
Xenophobia may offer an illiberal way of
thinking about immigration from the right,
but multiculturalism offers much the same
thing from the left. To be sure, multicultur-
alism has more in common with historically
liberal values than xenophobia; there is some-
thing decidedly open-minded about welcom-
ing people whose beliefs, customs, and atti-
tudes differ, sometimes widely, from the coun-
try they make their adopted home. Multi-
culturalists are right about one important
thing: the benefits immigrants bring to their
new country are cultural as well as econom-
ic. Because they represent so many differ-
ent faiths, immigrants expand the religious
pluralism that serves as the best protection of
religious liberty. And because they bring with
them a different perspective on such mat-
ters as family, friendship, and community,
immigrants frequently rejuvenate the literary,
musical, and artistic sensibilities of the coun-
tries to which they move; one way of know-
ing when immigration has been successful
is when novels written by immigrants on their
children win literary prizes or dominate best-
seller lists. Immigration does not guarantee
that a society will be open. But no society can
be considered open unless it welcomes new-
comers, frequently and enthusiastically.
Unfortunately, a considerable number of
multicultural theorists, although committed
to openness toward immigrants, are not com-
mitted to the openness of immigrants to their
new home. It is axiomatic among many of
them that newcomers, living in an environ-
ment hostile to their way of life, need to pre-
serve many of the cultural practices they bring
with them, even if some of those practices –
arranged marriages, gender segregation, reli-
gious indoctrination, to name three – can
stand in conflict with liberal principles.
Group survival counts more than individual
rights in the moral accounting of many mul-
ticulturalists, and while at least one important
theorist in this tradition, the Canadian polit-
ical philosopher Will Kymlicka, has tried to
make the case that considerations of group
solidarity are not inherently illiberal, his argu-
ments are not especially persuasive. If John
Stuart Mill’s emphasis on the importance of
determining one’s own life plan means any-
thing, it is that we not only get to choose for
ourselves the best way to live, but that such
choices frequently bring us into conflict with
the ways of life into which we were born.
Because multiculturalists welcome immi-
grants, it is generally believed that their most
effective critics can be found among conser-
vatives. But given their tendency to privilege
groups over individuals, the most scathing
The Cosmopolitan Bargain
Contribution by Alan Wolfe at the Conference “Enlarging Solidarity”
Xenophobia may offer an
illiberal way of thinking
about immigration from the
right, but multiculturalism
offers much the same thing
from the left.
| CONFERENCE
15 January – June 2007 No. 95
criticisms of multiculturalism come from
thinkers strongly influenced by the liberal tra-
dition, especially the British-American polit-
ical philosopher Brian Barry.
Can liberals maintain a commitment to
openness when dealing with the vexing ques-
tion of national borders? One way to do so
is to recognize that cosmopolitanism is a two-
way street. Immanuel Kant is a helpful guide
here. Kant teaches us that the circumstances
in which we find ourselves always have to be
judged against the circumstances in which,
but for an arbitrary role of the dice, we might
have found ourselves. From this perspective,
it is inherently unfair that someone who hap-
pens to be born in the
United States is likely
to live longer and bet-
ter than someone born
in Kenya. This does
not mean that the
United States has to
open its borders to
everyone from Kenya
who wishes to come. But it does mean that
a New Yorker should recognize that any
advantages he may have over the Nairobian
are as much due to an accident of birth as they
are to any notion that he may be a more
deserving person. No system of perfect jus-
tice is ever possible, but, from the perspective
of Kantian cosmopolitanism, the least an
American can do is to welcome a certain
amount of immigration from Africa. Not
only will such actions make the world a bit
more fair, but the intermingling of one cul-
ture with the other will work to the benefit of
both.
If cosmopolitanism is something we val-
ue in one direction, however, it is also some-
thing we must value in the other; once a soci-
ety admits new members, those members are
also under an obligation to open themselves
to their new society. This second phase of the
cosmopolitan bargain is what multicultural-
ists are reluctant to endorse but what liber-
als must. Liberalism must be contagious. If
a willingness to expose oneself to strangers is
not met on one side with an equal willingness
on the other, there will never exist the kind of
pluralist promise multiculturalism offers. One
can understand why, living in a foreign coun-
try they may perceive as hostile, immigrants
may opt to close themselves off from others,
and some host countries, especially France,
may be too hasty in demanding from immi-
grants an acceptance of new ways of life. But
it also the case that attempting to live a closed
life in an open society is bound to be self-
defeating and not something that a liberal
society should encourage.
A particularly instructive example of cos-
mopolitanism’s two-way street came to pub-
lic attention in 2006 when Great Britain’s for-
mer foreign minister, Jack Straw, raised con-
cerns about the bhurka, the full-body cover-
ing worn by some Muslim women. (As
Home Secretary in 1997, Straw had launched
the Runnymede Trust’s report on Islamopho-
bia). Straw made clear in his remarks that he
defended the right of any woman to wear less
intrusive headscarves and that he was con-
scious of the fact that men ought not to tell
women what to
wear. Yet he also felt
that something is
seriously wrong
when, in conversa-
tion with another
person, he cannot
engage in face-to-
face interaction.
Without explicitly using the term, Straw was
saying that a decision to wear the bhurka is
a decision to close yourself off from everyone
around you. He was not, like a xenophobe,
saying that Muslims do not belong in Great
Britain. He was not saying, as many multi-
culturalists do, that Muslims should be
allowed to wear whatever traditional garb they
believe best expressed their cultural and reli-
gious sensibilities. Nor was he asking for the
full assimilation of immigrants to British cus-
toms. Straw was instead, though a carefully
chosen example, illustrating what it means to
open to others while expecting a certain open-
ness in return.
Straw’s comment nonetheless provoked
considerable controversy, and one of the
points made against him was that, in suggest-
ing to Muslim women what they should wear,
he was interfering with their freedom of reli-
gion. There are, in fact, times when liberal
values will contradict each other; Islam has
historically permitted certain forms of
polygamy, but no liberal society is under an
obligation to extend freedom of religion in
ways that so conspicuously undermine its
commitments to gender equality. Fortunate-
ly, the Straw illustration does not pose such a
sharp dilemma, for, as Straw himself pointed
out, the decision to wear the bhurka is not
commanded by any text or authority and rep-
resents a cultural choice rather than a religious
duty. So long as other ways are available for
Muslim women to cover their heads, agree-
ing not to wear the bhurka is a way of signi-
fying one’s membership in a liberal society at
minimal cost to one’s own religious commit-
ments.
Liberals believe that the freedom to live as
one chooses, especially if one grows and
matures in the exercise of that right, ought to
be available to all people wherever they hap-
pen to live. But they also know that rights
mean little or nothing unless they are enforced
by nation states which, by their very nature,
allow citizenship only to some of the world’s
people and perforce must deny it to others.
Liberalism is simultaneously suspicious of
national borders in the name of cosmopoli-
tanism and welcoming of them in the name
of rights. For liberals, caught between these
two inclinations, the question is never whether
borders should be completely open or com-
pletely closed; a society open to all would have
no rights worth protecting, while a society
closed to all would have no rights worth emu-
lating. If one is looking for an abstract prin-
ciple to follow on questions of immigration,
liberalism cannot provide it.
But liberals can offer other things. One is
a guideline: a liberal society will allow people
in and make exceptions for conditions under
which they must be kept out rather than
keeping people out and making an occasion-
al exception for when they ought to be
allowed in. Another is a willingness to view
the world as teeming with potential that, how-
ever threatening to ways of life taken for grant-
ed, forces people to adopt to new challenges
rather than trying to protect themselves
against the foreign and unknown. And the
third is a focus, not on what we can offer
immigrants, but on what they can offer us.
Immigration has overall been good for immi-
grants, offering them opportunities to enrich
themselves both economically and culturally.
Fortunately, it has also been good by the soci-
eties that welcome them, bringing new ideas,
new cultures, new foods, new music, new
forms of worship, new explorations of expe-
rience. Immigration may not follow the usu-
al left-right lines that divide liberal societies,
and it also frustrates those looking for clear
and unambiguous rules that can resolve the
tensions immigration brings. But the goal
immigration seeks –openness – is a goal worth
preserving, especially if both the demands it
makes and the promises it offers apply across
the board.
Alan Wolfe
Alan Wolfe is professor at Boston College
One way of knowing
when immigration has been
successful is when novels
written by immigrants win
literary prizes.
LECTURES |
16 No. 95 January – June 2007
January 16
Nicolas Baverez
Du ‘declin français’ à la ‘panne
de l´Europe’ – que faire?
L’histoire n’est pas
linéaire mais connaît
de brutales accéléra-
tions au rythme des
mutations du capi-
talisme, de la démo-
cratie et du système
international. La
géopolitique du
chaos et la mondia-
lisation sont ainsi à
l’origine d’une nou-
velle donne qui
déstabilise toutes les sociétés et les nations,
mais qui met particulièrement en difficulté
l’Europe, et au sein de l’Europe, une France
qui décroche. Afin de pouvoir agir, il est
indispensable de dresser un constat parallèle
du déclin de la France et de la panne de l’Eu-
rope et d’en analyser les causes profondes.
Nicolas Baverez, parallèlement à une
activité d’avocat, poursuit des travaux d’hi-
storien et d’économiste.
En cooperation avec
L’ Institut Français de Vienne
February 27
Ludwig Nagl
Pragmatismus
– Philosophie
der Zukunft?
Eine der wesentli-
chen Pointen des
Pragmatismus be-
steht in seiner em-
phatischen Zuwen-
dung zur Zukunft. Diese Zuwendung hat
mindestens drei Dimensionen: eine tech-
nisch-instrumentelle, eine, die sich auf prak-
tisch institutionelle Reformen bezieht, und
eine, die dem Umgang mit dem Auf-uns-
Zukommenden gilt, das der Gestaltbarkeit
letztlich entzogen ist. Der Vortrag zeigte, wie
die sehr unterschiedlich strukturierten Prag-
matismen von Rorty und Dewey, von James,
Peirce und Royce diese Facetten des
Zukunftsbezugs auf sehr differente Weisen
gewichten.
Ludwig Nagl ist Professor für Philosophie
an der Universität Wien.
Der Veranstaltung vorangestellt war eine
Präsentation des Buches Glauben und Wis-
sen. Ein Symposium mit Jürgen Habermas
Herausgegeben von Rudolf Langthaler und
Herta Nagl-Docekal (Oldenbourg-Verlag
2007)
March 20
Rosi Braidotti
Bio-Power and Necro-Politics:
New Ways of Dying
In her lecture Rosi Braidotti looked at devel-
opments in social and political theories of
‘bio-power’ since Foucault’s ground-break-
ing work. Braidotti explored the implications
of the politics of ‘Life itself ’, stressing the
many paradoxical ways in which post-post-
modern vital politics blurs and redesigns the
boundaries with death and processes of
dying. She expressed a critical, but not fatal-
ist attitude towards biotechnologies and
argued for a “post anthropocentric” and neo-
vitalist conception of understanding life.
In the discussion, she mentioned that it is
fine to mourn for loss, but that we “need a
memory that is in love with the future.”
Rosi Braidotti is Distinguished Professor in
“The Humanities in a Globalised World“ at
the Arts Faculty of Utrecht University.
In cooperation with the
Royal Netherlands Embassy
March 22
Dacia Maraini
The Writer -
Witness, Reporter or Accuser?
Much has been demanded from writers: to
be a warrior in the name of his people, a real-
istic painter, depicting in detail her time;
to be a peasant on a small field where he
grows the fruits of collective fantasy; to
become an ascetic prisoner of herself and,
separated from mortal human beings, turn
into an impressive prophet of her time. In
her lecture, Dacia Maraini reflected upon
how a writer feels in the light of such expec-
tations. Maraini referred in particular to
women’s writing and the value of sincere and
honest description. “Details”, she said, “are
the basis of the comprehension of reality.”
Dacia Maraini is author of many novels,
plays, poetry and literary criticism. She was
awarded a number of literary prizes, among
others the Premio Strega for her collection
of short stories “Buio” (1999).
In cooperation with the
Istituto Italiano di Cultura
April 17
Thomas Angerer
Politische Kultur und
Europäische Integration.
Unterschiede zwischen Frank-
reich und Österreich
Einige Schwierigkeiten, die Frankreich und
Österreich im Europäischen Integrationspro-
zess miteinander haben, stammen weniger
aus Interessengegensätzen als aus den Unter-
schieden der politischen Kultur. Angerer ver-
glich Frankreich und Österreich hinsichtlich
Monthly Lectures / Monatsvorträge
| LECTURES
17 January – June 2007 No. 95
vier solcher Aspek-
te: der geopoliti-
schen Kultur, der
Integrationskultur,
der Staatskultur
und der Sicher-
heitskultur. Er
zeigte auf, wie die-
se Unterschiede zu
einer jeweils ande-
ren Haltung bei-
der Länder zum
europäischen Integrationsprozess führen, und
umgekehrt wie eine andere historische Stel-
lung im Integrationsprozess Rückwirkungen
auf die politische Kultur hat, etwa auf das
Grundverständnis von Europa, von Integra-
tion und von nationaler Unabhängigkeit. Mit
kontrastiven Vergleichen nationaler politi-
scher Kulturen, so das Plädoyer des Vortrags,
kann man einige Grundprobleme Europäi-
scher Integrationspolitik in Vergangenheit
und Gegenwart besser verstehen.
Thomas Angerer ist Assistenzprofessor für
Neuere Geschichte an der Universität Wien.
Mai 8
Jean Baubérot
Religion et laïcité dans la
société post-secularisee
La laïcité a impliqué que la religion, „affai-
re privée“, était séparée du politique, à un
moment de développement historique des
Etats/nations. Cela permettait l’exercice de
la liberté de conscience, de la liberté de reli-
gion et de conviction et l’égalité de tous
devant la loi. On peut dire que beaucoup de
pays, en Occident, sans forcément utiliser le
terme de „laïcité“ se sont plus ou moins laï-
cisés. D’ailleurs John Locke peut être consi-
déré comme le premier théoricien de la laï-
cité („Lettre sur la tolérance“, 1689) Aujour-
d’hui, les idéaux de la modernité sont en cri-
se, la distinction privé/public se trouve remi-
se en cause, l’Etat/nation est relativisé par le
renouveau du local et le développement de
la mondialisation. Les religions retrouvent
un poids politique important.
Pourtant certains demandent l’instaura-
tion d’un „pacte laïque international“. Dans
ca conférence Jean Baubérot se demandait
quel est l’avenir des religions et de la laïcité
dans des sociétés post-sécularisées et, notam-
ment, s’il est possible d’envisager une laïci-
té européenne.
Jean Baubérot est directeur d’études de la
chaire „Histoire et sociologie de la laïcité“ à
L’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE),
Section des Sciences religieuses, à Paris.
En cooperation avec
l’ Institut Français de Vienne
Mai 31
Philippe van Parijs
Linguistic and Global Justice
The fast spreading of English as a global lin-
gua franca raises unprecedented problems
of justice between the members of the thou-
sands of linguistic communities that make
up mankind today. Linguistic justice, so
understood, forms a significant dimension
of global justice, whether interpreted as fair
cooperation, as equal opportunity or as equal
dignity. Addressing linguistic injustice head-
on is also arguably a condition for global jus-
tice itself to make ethical and political sense.
Philippe van Parijs is Professor of
Economic, Social and Political Sciences
at the Université Catholique de Louvain and
Visiting Professor of Philosophy at Harvard
University
In cooperation with the Renner Institut
June 12
Christoph Conrad
Europäische Geschichts-
schreibung – zwischen
Nationalstaatlichkeit und
globaler Herausforderung
Wie soll und kann europäische Geschichte
der Moderne geschrieben werden? Trotz eini-
ger exemplarischer und breit diskutierter
Gesamtdarstellungen aus den letzten Jahren
wird diese Frage zumeist programmatisch,
das heißt als noch zu realisierende Aufgabe
oder ideologiekritisch, das heißt in Abgren-
zung gegen eine EU-offizielle Identitätspo-
litik behandelt. Christoph Conrad dagegen
näherte sich dem Thema von der Seite der
Historiographiegeschichte um zu skizzieren,
welchen Konjunkturen und Determinanten
die Geschichtsschreibung Europas im 20.
Jahrhundert unterlag. Darüber hinaus dis-
kutierte er, wie sich gesamteuropäische histo-
rische Forschungen und Darstellungen im
Verhältnis zu gegenläufigen Trends in den
Humanwissenschaften positionieren kön-
nen. Was wird aus der europäischen Ge-
schichte, wenn sich 1. nationale „Meisterer-
zählungen“ behaupten, 2. einflussreiche
methodische und thematische Orientierun-
gen den Ansätzen zu großflächigen Synthe-
sen eher feindlich gegenüber stehen, 3. die
innovative Forschung sich transnationalen
oder sogar globalen Problemstellungen
zuwendet?
Christoph Conrad ist Professor für
Geschichte an der Universität Genf, von
März bis August 2007 ist er Körber Visiting
Fellow am IWM
LECTURE SERIES |
18 No. 95 January – June 2007
January 23
Cornelia Klinger
Übergriffe:
Zum Verhältnis von Privatsphäre
und öffentlichem Raum
In ihrem Einführungsvortrag zur Reihe wies
Cornelia Klinger auf die fehlende Aufmerksam-
keit verschiedener gesellschaftstheoretischer
Ansätze für die Einteilung des sozialen Raums
in öffentliche und private Sektoren hin. Ihre
These war, dass die Integrationsleistung, die gera-
de moderne Gesellschaften dem Individuum
abverlangen, Eigenschaften und Fähigkeiten vor-
aussetzt, die die Individuen nur in ihrer Privat-
sphäre erwerben können. Zwischen Öffentlich-
keit und Privatheit bestehen Unterschiede, die
für das Funktionieren von Gesellschaft notwen-
dig erscheinen. Diese Unterschiede verdecken
allerdings das wechselseitige Abhängigkeitsver-
hältnis, in dem die beiden Sektoren zu einander
stehen.
Kommentator: Karl Öllinger, Sozialsprecher
und stellvertretender Klubobmann der Grünen
im Nationalrat
January 30
Kurt Imhof
Das Intime im Öffentlichen.
Scham und Schamlosigkeit in der
Moderne
Der Beitrag ging aus von Trennung der zwei
„Seinsordnungen“ Öffentlichkeit und Privatheit
im perikleischen Athen sowie in der Aufklärungs-
bewegung. Mit der Aufklärung wurde der Bereich
des Privaten in die bürgerliche Intimsphäre einer-
seits und die private Verkehrswirtschaft anderer-
seits aufgeteilt; und bereits zuvor, in der frühen
Neuzeit, wurde das Intime mit jenem Schamge-
fühl besetzt, das es zum peinlichen Geheimnis
macht und dadurch mit mit Spannung auflädt.
Diese Spannung ist Voraussetzung für das, was
Imhof als „spätmoderne Durchdringung des
Öffentlichen mit dem Intimen“ bezeichnet.
„Gerade weil wir gehemmt sind, haben Massen-
medien eine Chance, das Intime als Ventil zu nut-
zen.“ Öffentliche Kommunikation sei mittlerwei-
le intimer geworden als die private, sagte Imhof
– „in Fernsehsendungen werden Dinge diskutiert,
die wir mit unseren besten Freunden nicht bespre-
chen würden.“ Das Intime erreicht den höchsten
Nachrichtenwert und wird zum Geschäft der
Medien.
Kommentator: Wolfgang Zinggl, Kulturspre-
cher der Grünen im Nationalrat
Kurt Imhof ist Professor für Soziologie und
Publizistik an der Universität Zürich und Leiter
des Forschungsbereichs Öffentlichkeit und
Gesellschaft
What Is Public, and What Is Private?
Was ist öffentlich und was ist privat?
In addition to monthly
lectures held at the
Institute’s library by
fellows, guests and invited
speakers, two lecture
series - “What Is Public,
and What Is Private?”
and “The Decline of the
Occident?” - have been
organized in 2007 to
elaborate on broader
general themes which
are approached from dif-
ferent disciplines and
research perspectives.
Zusätzlich zu regelmäßi-
gen Vorträgen, die ein-
mal im Monat in der
Institutsbibliothek von
Fellows, Gästen und
eingeladenen Vortragen-
den gehalten werden,
organisiert das IWM in
diesem Jahr zwei Vor-
tragsreihen - „Was ist
öffentlich und was ist
privat?“ und „Der Unter-
gang des Abendlandes?“
- zu thematischen
Schwerpunkten aus der
Perspektive verschiedener
Disziplinen und For-
schungsinteressen.
In Kooperation mit der
Grünen Bildungswerkstatt
Kurt Imhof Cornelia Klinger
| LECTURE SERIES
19 January – June 2007 No. 95
Mai 24
Charles S. Maier
Impossible Cities?
The Search for Public-Private
Reciprocity in 1989
What were the implications for the balance
between the private and the public in the
ideas of the Eastern European movements at
the end of the Communist era? The lecture
proposed that these movements were not just
attempts to reassert the validity of the priva-
te sphere versus the Party-permeated public
sphere, but to achieve a new, authentic
balance of private and public. It was the idea
of “civil society” which became a hope and
a promise then to bridge both spheres; civil
society as a new imagination of community
played a key role at the end of socialism.
However, this ideal could not last: once the
old regimes disappeared, conventional forms
of political participation reemerged. “If civil
society still plays a useful role, it is increa-
singly on the international level where we
see the limits of nation-states in internatio-
nal action,” Maier maintained.
Charles S. Maier is Leverett Saltonstall Pro-
fessor of European History at Harvard Uni-
versity.
June 5
Beate Roessler
Der Wert des Privaten und die
Kritik der Gesellschaft.
Überlegungen zur Funktion des
Privaten in der spätmodernen
Gesellschaft
In der politiktheoretischen und philosophi-
schen Diskussion der letzten 20 Jahre gab es
unterschiedliche Versuche, das Private nor-
mativ zu fassen. In diesen Versuchen wird der
„Wert“ des Privaten jeweils verschieden
bestimmt und begründet. Es lässt sich aber
auch, neben diesen theoretischen Bemühun-
gen, eine eher diagnostisch orientierte Analy-
se darüber erstellen, wie sich das, was gesell-
schaftlich als privat begriffen wird, in den letz-
ten Jahren geändert und verschoben hat:
Unter dem Einfluss neuer Technologien eben-
so wie mit den rechtsstaatlichen Entwicklun-
gen nach 9/11 scheint der Wert des Privaten
eine zunehmend geringere Rolle zu spielen.
Der Vortrag zeichnete sowohl die theoreti-
schen wie die gesellschaftlich-diagnostischen
Linien nach und ging der Frage nach, wie sich
- und ob überhaupt - eine normative Konzep-
tion des Privaten übertragen und übersetzen
lässt in eine Kritik an gesellschaftlichen Ver-
hältnissen, in denen das Private offenbar
zunehmend weniger relevant wird.
Beate Roessler ist Professorin für
Philosophie an der Universität Amsterdam;
Socrates Professorin.
The Decline of
the Occident?
Der Untergang
des Abendlandes?
February 13
Harold James
Europe and the Legacy of
the Holy Roman Empire
The lecture considered ways in which
modern Europeans have tried to build a
European identity as opposed to natio-
nal identities. In particular, it examined
Europe as a „postmodern state“, as an
alternative to market economics, as a
peaceful answer to security dilemmas,
and as a cultural alternative to other ways
of seeing and organizing the world. It
concluded with an examination of the
links and tensions between European
identities and religious conceptions of
world politics.
Harold James is professor of History at
Princeton University. He is an expert on
economic and financial history, with a
focus on German history during and
between the two world wars.
In Zusammenarbeit mit dem
Harold James Beate Roessler
Charles S.
Maier
QUING-Workshop
From May 12-14, 2007, fifty-two members of the
QUING research team gathered in Vienna for the
second workshop within the research project
QUING – Quality in Gender+ Equality Policies
– to evaluate the work done so far by all team
members and to plan the steps ahead. The main
objective of this workshop was to discuss current
theoretical and methodological issues, such con-
cepts seeking to address various forms of inequa-
lities (intersectionality). A second focus was to
familiarize researchers with the methodology that
will be used for the five activities of QUING and
to discuss how to develop it further in order to
accommodate the ambitious goals of the project.
SEMINARS AND PROJECTS |
20 No. 95 January – June 2007
Program:
20 April 2007
Opening remarks by Viola Zentai
and Janos Matyas Kovacs
Keynote speech: David Stark,
Department of Sociology,
Columbia University
Politicized business ties: Party
affiliations and corporate net-
works in Hungary
21 April 2007
Research Field 1:
Entrepreneurship
Drago Cengic: Raiffeisen Bank
in Croatia: are there limits to
growth?
Ildiko Erdei & Kamil Mares:
From local to international and
vice versa. Comparing five case
studies of privatization in food
and beverage industry
Irena Kasparova:
Zivnostenska Bank in the Czech
Republic: reason, charisma and
the legacy of the past
Mikolaj Lewicki:
“Lost in transformation”. Cultural
encounters in multinational
corporations investing in Central
and Eastern Europe
Davor Topolcic: Successful rural
entrepreneurs in the transition
to capitalism: Hungary, Croatia
and Bulgaria
Vesna Vucinic: Intercultural
experiences of Hauzmajstor:
A case study of repatriate
entrepreneurship in Serbia
Viola Zentai: The rise of a
banking empire in Central and
Eastern Europe. The Raiffeisen
Bank International
Ulrich Brinkmann:
Intrapreneurship: promises,
ambiguities and limitations.
The case of East-Germany
Research Field 2: Governance
Tamas Dombos & Alice
Navratilova: The European Par-
liament from a Central European
perspective: MEPs narratives
Petya Kabakchieva & Katalin
Kovacs: Transmitting Western
norms to the East:
The Sapard program as a tool for
adjustment or as a hybrid
Mladen Lazic: Becoming
European – hard lessons from
Serbia. The Topola Rural
Development program
Slobodan Naumovic: Muddles
in the model: Who gained what,
how and from whom in an
agricultural twinning project?
Florian Nitu:
SAPARD in Romania
Matevz Tomsic: Slovenian
members of the European Parlia-
ment: between the national and
the European political space
Ines Hofbauer: From ‘Austro-
Keynesianism’ to ‘Austro-Neo-
liberalism’. Austria’s adaptation
to European economic cultures
22 April 2007
Research Field 3:
Economic Knowledge
Roumen Avramov: Think tanks
in the world of applied econo-
mics. A comparative view across
Eastern Europe
Vojmir Franicevic:
New institutionalism in Croatia:
An essay on its reception
Jacek Kochanowicz: A bumpy
road to the West: Reforming
economic education in Eastern
Europe
Janos Matyas Kovács:
Beyond the basic instinct?
On the reception of new
institutional economics in
Eastern Europe
Balazs Varadi: Marx Károly
learns Microeconomics
Media
Zsuzsa Vidra:
The press representation of
multinational companies in
Eastern Europe - a comparative
study.
The object of collective desire?
The images of the EU in Eastern
Europe during the pre-accession
period
DIOSCURI Final Conference
There is still much talk about Eastern-Enlar-
gement – but what about the other side of
the coin, the Western enlargement of Eastern
European societies? Since 2004 the IWM and
its partners have been investigating ways of
cohabitation between the twin economic cul-
tures of the „East“ and the „West“. The pro-
ject whose name DIOSCURI invokes the
mythological twin figures of Castor and Pol-
lux, has explored the development of entre-
preneurship, governance and economic kno-
wledge in four East-Central European coun-
tries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland
and Slovenia) and in four countries of South-
Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania
and Serbia). At a final conference on April
20 – 22 the researchers of the project presen-
ted their findings at the IWM.
J. M. Kovács; D. Stark
| SEMINARS AND PROJECTS
21 January – June 2007 No. 95
Junior Visiting Fellows Conference
The final difference between Kafka and Nietzsche shown by Shai Biderman
The party´s motto: Being a pirate
The spring meeting of the Editorial Board of
Eurozine was hosted by IWM whose journal
Transit – Europäische Revue is a founding
member of this network of European cultu-
ral journals, currently linking up 70 partner
journals and many associated magazines and
institutions from nearly all European coun-
tries. Eurozine (www.eurozine.com) is also
a netmagazine which publishes outstanding
articles from its partner journals with addi-
tional translations into the major European
languages. A selection of articles feeds into
thematical debates like “Changing Europe:
Fifty Years of European Integration”; “Post-
secular Europe”; and “European Histories:
Towards a Grand Narrative?”
The agenda of the meeting included dis-
cussion on new partners and associates, fur-
ther cooperations, fundraising and prospec-
tive focal points, as well as on the next annual
conference. After Istanbul (2005) and Lon-
don (2006) the 20th meeting of European
cultural journals will take place in September
2007 in Sibiu, Romania.
At the end of each term,
the Junior Visiting Fellows
present the results of
their work.
The conference on June 13
was entitled „Time, Memory,
and Cultural Change“
Program
Session I
Andreas Gémes: American Intelligence
Organizations in Post-War Austria
Viktoria Sereda: Politics of Memory
and Urban Landscape: the Case of Lviv
after World War II
Session II
Sean Dempsey: The Genesis of
Responsibility: Aesthetic Education and
the Neighbor
Vern Walker: Precarious Poverty
and Other Words Without Delicacies:
Building a Lexicon for a Poetics of
Pacifism
Thomas Carroll: Wittgenstein and
Method in the Study of Religion
Session III
Shai Biderman: The Metaphysics of Self:
K and the Overman
David Nichols: Antigone’s Autoch-
thonous Voice: Echoes in Sophocles,
Hölderlin, and Heidegger“
Session IV
Christina Kleiser: Avishai Margalit’s
Idea of an ‘Ethics of Memory’ and its
Relevance for a Multicultural Europe
Svetla Kazalarska: Contemporary Art
as ars memoriae: Curatorial Strategies
for Challenging the Post-Communist
Condition
Roundtable Discussion and Party
Eurozine Editorial Board Meeting, Vienna, 9-11 March 2007
IHS BOSTON |
22 No. 95 January – June 2007
During the spring of 2007, the
Institute for Human Sciences at
Boston University organized seven
events – a photo-documentary on
the Roma of Slovakia by Milena
Jesenská fellow Julie Denesha,
a lecture on global healthcare
challenges by Dr. Stefan Winter,
Professor of Medicine and Secre-
tary of State for Labor, Health, and
Social Affairs in the government
of North Rhine-Westphalia, poetry
readings by Adam Zagajewski
and Hans Magnus Enzensberger,
two panel discussions on the
European Union at 50 featuring
members of the local diplomatic
corps, and a Europe Day lecture by
Germany’s former foreign minister
Joschka Fischer.
Julie Denesha’s February 13 presentation,
“The Outcasts of Europe: Life Among the
Roma of Slovakia,” provided a window into
the lives of Roma people, whose plight
Denesha revealed with journalistic acumen
and caring sensitivity. As the European
Union expands eastward, the haunting
images of Europe’s forgotten citizens present
a dilemma to a polity that requires candidate
countries to demonstrate institutions guar-
anteeing human rights and respect for and
protection of minorities.
Stefan Winter’s March 6 lecture on “Global
Health Care Challenges in the 21st Centu-
ry,” moderated by Professor Mark Allan, Fac-
ulty Director of Boston University’s Health
Sector Management program, focused on
the changes in health care practice and man-
agement in the United States and Europe
and raised such questions as: What is the
price we are willing to bear, as a society, to
maintain social cohesion? Winter, whose
research interests include applied health pol-
icy, prevention and health promotion, inter-
national biomedical ethics, and global devel-
opment of new technologies in health care,
stressed the role of prevention in mitigating
the economic challenges.
As part of its popular “Poetry and Politics”
series, the Institute hosted renowned poets
Adam Zagajewski and Hans Magnus
Enzensberger. Zagajewski spoke on March
19, Enzensberger on April 17; both discus-
sions were led by Institute director Irena
Grudzinska Gross.
On March 28, in commemoration of the
50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, the
Institute organized a panel discussion entitled
“The European Union: United in Diversi-
ty” featuring the local consuls of England, Ire-
land, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy
and Greece. A follow-up discussion on “East
Central Europe and the European Union” fea-
turing the honorary consuls of the Czech
Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia was
held on April 26. Alan Berger, Senior Edito-
rial Page Editor at the Boston Globe, moder-
ated both discussions. Finally, on Europe Day,
May 9, Joschka Fischer delivered the Max
Kade Lecture at Boston University on “Ger-
many and the Future of Europe.”
Looking at the ordinary
The March 28 and April 26 panel discus-
sions took place as part of a larger project of
the Boston Institute entitled “Getting to
Know the European Union: Member States
in Focus.” The goal of the project, which is
generously supported by the European Com-
mission Delegation in Washington DC, is
to generate knowledge of everyday life in the
member states of the European Union, to
analyze the various ways European Union
membership has influenced life in those
countries and to raise local awareness in the
US of the European Union’s growing eco-
nomic and political importance, in particu-
lar as partner to the United States. The pan-
el discussions will be followed, during the
fall, by a series of public debates with the
Ambassadors of France, Germany, Spain,
Portugal, Bulgaria and Romania. The
debates will center on the question: “What
does it mean, in practice, to be a member of
the European Union?” While many of the
Institute’s previous activities, including lec-
tures by European Commissioners, have
addressed this question from the vantage
point of Brussels, these debates, in an effort
to engage ordinary citizens and to highlight
EU Member States in Focus
H. M. Enzensberger; I. Gross
| IHS BOSTON
local economic, social, and cultural connec-
tions to Europe, bring individual member
state perspectives into focus.
In addition to the public forums, the
project will involve the creation of a new
website (www.euforyou.org), featuring an
audio archive of IHS events, interviews, pod-
casts, and stories from Europe. During the
first year, stories will be selected according
to the following themes: borders, forgotten
citizens, and solidarity. The website will also
have an interactive component, including
a blog and a virtual forum, in order to facil-
itate ongoing discussion of the EU on the
part of the public, both in the United States
and in Europe.
The new European story
In a column written immediately follow-
ing the January 1 accession of Romania and
Bulgaria into the European Union, IHS
Board member Timothy Garton Ash
described the European Union as “27 states
in search of a story.” In subsequent columns,
he has pursued the issue, suggesting Europe
can construct a political narrative in terms
of shared goals of freedom, peace, and pros-
perity. According to Garton Ash, the EU at
50 is in a state of malaise, and the remedy
he proposes is a new narrative, even though
it cannot be a single one. He understands
the new European story will be character-
ized by local and particular elements, by
diversity, and he appreciates what the Slovene
poet Ales Debeljak has referred to as Europe’s
“multicultural competence.” The new nar-
rative will have common threads and com-
mon values.
Deeper meanings of citizenship
Our goal in the program “Getting to
Know the European Union” is to look at the
changes in the every day lives of European
citizens. In this way, we hope to engage the
public in a serious debate on the European
Union that goes beyond its political and
structural aspects and considers instead the
deeper meanings of “citizenship” in a com-
munity, nation, and beyond. The emphasis
on the local, the particular, is a deliberate
attempt to find one of the meanings, not to
impose it from above. That meaning could
not be found in the repetition of the old nar-
rative from the pre-European Union past,
but by allowing citizens to tell their new sto-
ry, the story of living in and constructing a
new European reality. The individual stories
will also allow Americans to understand,
anecdotally, the European Union and the
principles that underlie it. For all its short-
comings, the European Union presents
Americans with an alternative model of cit-
izenship – albeit still in formation – that is
both local and regional. We hope that in the
encounter with Europe, Americans will gain
additional tools with which to evaluate their
own place in the world. Although focused
on Europe, the project envisions the emer-
gence of a global non-confrontational cul-
ture with a revitalized transatlantic part-
nership at its core. Americans are connected
to Europe in myriad ways – culturally, eco-
nomically, and historically – and Americans
value these connections. Yet, while there have
been some signs of convergence recently,
public opinion on both sides of the Atlantic
remains deeply divided. Facing the promis-
es and threats of the future will require deep-
er understanding on both sides.
Elizabeth Amrien
0der dech. lch Iese, aIse deake ich. Wie man
es auch dreht und vendet. Iakt hIeiht:
УK STAMÐAKÐ ist die Zeitung Iür Leser.
\nd die heveisen HaItung. Beim Ðenken
und erst recht heim Lesen.
4 Wochen gratis Iesen:
derStandard.at/Aho oder 0810 /20 30 40
Ðie Zeitung Iür Leser
Ich denke, aIso Iese ich.
24 No. 94 Fall 2006
FELLOWS & GUESTS |
Gudrun Ankele
Doktorandin in
Germanistik und
Kunstgeschichte,
Universität Graz;
Akademie der
Bildenden Künste, Wien, ÖAW
DOC-Team-Stipendiatin
Junior Visiting Fellow
(September 2006 - June 2007)
Manifeste und Feminis-
men. Politische Potenziale
einer Text-Geste
Meine Arbeit beschäftigt sich
mit Manifesten, in denen
Geschlechterkonzepte ange-
griffen und neu entworfen
werden. Feministische Mani-
feste markieren politische
Prozesse der Subjektivierung.
Wie kann die Text-Geste
„Manifest“ für diese Prozesse
produktiv werden? Die Dis-
sertation ist Teil eines von
der ÖAW geförderten Doc-
Team Projektes, das nach
feministischen Praktiken und
deren Wirksamkeit fragt.
Shai Biderman
Ph.D. candidate in
Philosophy,
Boston University
Junior Visiting
Fellow
(February - June 2007)
Nietzsche and Kafka on
Self, Language and Art
Friedrich Nietzsche and Franz
Kafka are both commonly
identified with the philoso-
phical current of Existentia-
lism, which deals with questi-
ons of personal identity. Kaf-
ka presents the protagonist K
as an archetypal model of the
incomprehensible self;
Nietzsche, on the other hand,
creates the image of Zarathu-
stra as the self which overco-
mes the absurdity and affirms
life. In both cases, however,
the discussion of selfhood and
identity is that of an ongoing
metamorphosis, which corre-
sponds to questionably-roo-
ted metaphysical dispositions,
or their lack of.
Anselm Böhmer
Lehrbeauftragter
der Pädagogi-
schen Hochschule
Freiburg
Guest (February
2007)
Asubjektivität bei
Jan Patoˇ cka
Jan Patocˇka’s concept of
asubjectivity deals with the
problem of appearance as its-
elf. He emphasizes a “field of
appearance” which opens an
area of phenomenality before
subjectivity as well as objec-
tivity can occur. The project
asks for asubjective perspec-
tives of polyvalent connec-
tions between ego and res-
ponsive forms of ethics and
alternative relationships of
politics and history.
Stefanie Bolzen
Editor of
Die WELT, Berlin
Milena Jesenská
Fellow (March -
May 2007)
The Generation
Transit: Youth in Central
and South Eastern Europe
in a reuniting Continent
The last three years have
witnessed a significant
expansion of the European
Union to 10 new countries
of Central and Eastern Euro-
pe. This has led to much
media comment about a
„Generation €“ of young
ambitious Europeans from
„the East“ eager to conquer
the „old Europe“. The rese-
arch focuses on three coun-
tries - Slovakia, Romania and
Kosovo - at different stages
of European integration in
order to explore the Europe-
an identity of a generation
that is set to mould the futu-
re shape of the EU.
Thomas Carroll
Ph.D. candidate in
Religion, Boston
University
Junior Visiting
Fellow (January –
June 2007)
Isolation, Trust and Iden-
tity: Themes in Reading
Wittgenstein on Religion
At IWM I am studying
Ludwig Wittgenstein’s re-
marks on religion. To better
appreciate Wittgenstein’s reli-
gious context, I am research-
ing the history of Viennese
Jewish culture and the social
conditions under which
some families converted to
Catholicism. A second part
of my research concerns the
concept of social trust, a pre-
condition for linguistic com-
munication in Wittgenstein’s
philosophy.
Christoph
Conrad
Professor of
Contemporary
History, University
of Geneva
Körber Visiting Fellow
(March – August 2007)
A Trans-National Focus
on national historio-
graphies: Europe in the
20th century
Historians transform the past
into a mostly national
history. How can these
various historiographies be
compared and related? I am
attempting to define some
perspectives for such a trans-
national study: the functions
of historians in the service of
the state and civil society
constitute one such axis, the
spread of schools or “para-
digms” is another. Finally, I
will consider the tensions
between methodological
nationalism and Europea-
nization empirically.
Sean Dempsey
Ph.D. candidate in
Religion, Boston
University
Junior Visiting
Fellow
(January - June 2007)
„A Neighbor Within
the House“: The State
of Emergency and the
Emergence of Political
Consciousness
Building upon recent articula-
tions of the “neighbor” as a
political category that shifts
the political topography away
from an inside / outside dyna-
mic of friends and enemies,
this project investigates how
modern political consciousn-
Visiting Fellows
ess emerged out of the logic
of the sovereign exception,
and how a more neighborly
political world may require
the reformulation of traditio-
nal concepts about tolerance,
secularization, and belief.
Julie Denesha
Photojournalist
Milena Jesenská
Visiting Fellow
(June – August
2007)
Outcasts: The Roma of
Slovakia
Of Slovakia’s half million
Roma, one quarter live in
ghettoes lacking safe drin-
king water and basic sanitati-
on. In the summer of 2003,
I spent four months living
with families in four different
Roma communities both
urban and rural, documen-
ting daily life in the isolated
settlements of Slovakia. I
intend to return to continue
my documentation with an
interest in some of the chan-
ges since Slovakia joined the
European Union.
James Dodd
Assistant Profes-
sor of Philosophy,
New School for
Social Research /
Eugene Lang
College, New York
Guest (May 2007)
Towards a Phenomenology
of War
While at the IWM I will be
researching the historical and
theoretical contributions of
phenomenological philoso-
phy to an understanding of
war. The focus of the project
will be part historical, tracing
the influence of the experien-
ce of war in the 20th century
on the phenomenological
movement, and part theore-
tical, evaluating the potential
contributions of phenome-
nology towards formulating a
viable philosophical perspec-
tive on the problems of vio-
lence.
Andreas Gémes
Doktorand in Geschichte,
Universität Graz, ÖAW DOC-
Stipendiat
Junior Visiting Fellow
(March – August 2007)
Entlang des Eisernen
Vorhanges.
My dissertation
project deals
with the evoluti-
on of the relation
between the two
neighboring
states Austria
and Hungary from 1955 to
1958 and focuses on the
Hungarian revolution of
1956. The intention of my
project is to thoroughly ana-
lyze Austria’s role before,
during and after the Hunga-
rian revolution on the basis
of Austrian and Hungarian
primary sources. Special
attention is given to border
issues and the role of secret
services.
Saskia Haag
Doktorandin in
Germanistik,
Universität Wien,
ÖAW DOC-
Stipendiatin
Junior Visiting Fellow
(September 2006 – March 2007)
The Poetics of Private
Space. Investigating a
Narrative Paradigm of
Nineteenth Century’s
German Literature.
From around 1800 on the
disintegration of the classical
episteme can be typically tra-
ced in literary notions of the
house, the home and the pri-
vate. Most prominently, the
writings of Adalbert Stifter
(1805-1868) deal with the
aporetic status of private spa-
ce in early modernity. By
focusing on Stifter’s novels,
my project investigates in
what way the poetics of pri-
vate space are not only rela-
ted to but also effective in
nineteenth century’s literary
discourse.
Martin Hala
Freelance journa-
list, Prague
Milena Jesenská
Fellow (March –
June 2007)
Modernity and its
Discontents. Counter-
Enlightenment in
Europe’s Intellectual
History
My project is to explore the
negative conceptual reactions
contemporaneous with the
onset of European Enligh-
tenment and Modernity as
described by Isaiah Berlin
and others, and to see how
this counter-current discour-
se influenced later critics of
the Enlightenment tradition,
like Immanuel Wallerstein or
Michel Foucault. The aim is
to achieve better understan-
ding of intellectual processes
that shaped the identity of
modern, secular and demo-
cratic Europe, now seemingly
again confronted with some
of the previously disputed
issues, such as the role of reli-
gion(s) and limits to free
expression.
Tiiu Hallap
Lecturer in
Philosophy of
Science, Tartu
University
Paul Celan Fellow
(January – June 2007)
David Hume: Treatise of
Human Nature
(English > Estonian)
During my stay at the IWM
I will work on the Estonian
translation of David Hume’s
(1711-1776) Treatise of
human nature. Hume’s Trea-
tise is one of the great works
in the history of philosophy
which influenced, among
others, Adam Smith, Imma-
nuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham
and Charles Darwin.
Contemporary thinkers
recognize Hume as one of
the most thoroughgoing
exponents of philosophical
naturalism.
| FELLOWS & GUESTS
25 No. 94 Fall 2006
FELLOWS & GUESTS |
Daniela
Kalkandjieva
Scientific Secre-
tary, Center for
Interreligious Dia-
logue and Conflict
Prevention, St. Kliment
Ohridsky University of Sofia
Andrew W. Mellon Visiting Fel-
low (January – March 2007)
The Impact of Orthodoxy
on the Euro-Integration
Process
The project analyzes the
impact of Orthodox Chris-
tianity on the Eurointegra-
tion. It is aimed at identifying
the ways in which Orthodoxy
could enhance or block this
process. Its first part analyzes
the structure and specific fea-
tures of the Orthodox
Church that makes her an
important factor in interna-
tional affairs, while the second
part is focused on her teach-
ing and practice and discusses
the compatibility of Ortho-
doxy with European values.
Kristina Kallert
Freelance transla-
tor and lecturer
in Czech langua-
ge, University of
Regensburg
Paul Celan Fellow (February –
May 2007)
Jirí Langer: Devet bran
(Czech > German)
Jirí Langer (Prag 1894, Tel
Aviv 1943) steht an der
Schnittstelle zwischen lateini-
scher und jüdisch-orientali-
scher Tradition. Die neun
Tore gehen zurück auf seine
Studienjahre bei den Chassi-
den in Belz (1913-1918), die
durch ihre Berührung mit der
italienischen Renaissance
(Luzzatto) eine Sonderge-
meinde bildeten. Das Werk
versammelt religionsgeschicht-
lich einzigartige Zeugnisse,
dokumentiert jedoch auch
den „westlichen“ Versuch
einer symbiotischen Alternati-
ve. Nicht zuletzt darüber will
die erste vollständige Überset-
zung das Gespräch anregen.
Svetla Kazalarska
Teaching Assis-
tant of Cultural
Anthropology and
Cultural Heritage,
St. Kliment Ohrid-
sky University of
Sofia
Körber Junior Visiting Fellow
(January – June 2007)
Contemporary Art as ars
memoriae.
Curatorial Strategies for
Challenging the “Post-
communist Condition”
The project looks at thematic
group exhibitions of contem-
porary visual art from Cen-
tral and Eastern Europe, set
up both in the East and the
West after 1989, as a possible
medium carrying the memo-
ries of the communist past.
I am interested in the specific
curatorial strategies and artis-
tic practices for re-inventing
the past and negotiating
post-communist identities,
mapping the new geogra-
phies of art and re-position-
ing the “former East”.
Christina Kleiser
Ph.D. candidate in
history, University
of Vienna
Junior Visiting
Fello (January –
June 2007)
Constitutive Conditions of
a Culture of Memory in
the European Context
My project aims at initiating
a critical discussion about
the relevance of memory
work that is motivated by
the historical experiences in
the 20th century as a centu-
ry of wars, genocides, mass
extermination, and expul-
sions. For this purpose I
focus on two main dimen-
sions of the concept of
memory work: the ethical
and the political, by examin-
ing their significance in the
philosophical and literary
works of Avishai Margalit,
Paul Ricœur and Jorge
Semprún.
Sandra Lehmann
Habilitandin (Philosophie),
Franz Rosenzweig Minerva
Research Center Jerusalem,
ÖAW APART-Stipendiatin
Visiting Fellow
(August – January 2007)
Grundlagen einer Ontolo-
gie aus dem Glauben
Ich versuche in
meinem Projekt
zu zeigen, dass
die Ebene der
menschlichen
Welterschließung
vorprädikativ
liegt. Der Umgang mit dem,
was in der Welt begegnet, ist
also primär ein solcher
unmittelbarer Seinsgewis-
sheit, die noch vor sachli-
chem Verstehen oder begriff-
lichem Wissen liegt. Die
Strukturen dieser Seinsge-
wissheit oder dieses Seins-
glaubens, insbesondere seines
Verhältnisses zum Zeitlich-
keitscharakter der weltlichen
Erfahrung, gilt es auszulegen.
Die Bezugspunkte dafür sind
eine existentiell ansetzende
Philosophie (später Schelling,
Kierkegaard, Rosenzweig)
sowie die Phänomenologien
Husserls und Heideggers.
David Nichols
Ph.D. candidate in
Religious and
Theological
Studies, Boston
University
Junior Visiting Fellow
(January – June 2007)
Antigone’s Autochtho-
nous Voice: Echoes in
Sophocles, Hölderlin, and
Heidegger
Martin Heidegger’s 1942 lec-
ture course, Hölderlins
Hymne »Der Ister«, facilitated
a confrontation with Greek
tragedy by way of Friedrich
Hölderlin. Heidegger draws
upon Sophocles’ theme of
autochthony in order to
„ground“ western philosophy
in the Greeks. He also roots
human identity in poetry as a
primordial experience of lan-
guage. I challenge whether
Heidegger’s encounter with
Greek tragedy, centered upon
the poet, provides an ade-
quate alternative to the dislo-
cation of modern subjectivity.
Astrid Peterle
Doktorandin in
Geschichte,
Universität Wien,
ÖAW DOC-Team-
Stipendiatin
Junior Visiting Fellow
(September 2006 - February 2007)
Subversiv? Körper-
inszenierungen von
Künstlerinnen im 20. und
21. Jahrhundert.
My dissertation project is part
of a DOC-Team sponsored
by the Austrian Academy of
Sciences (DOC-Team: „Viel
versucht, nichts erreicht? Kör-
per und Sprache als Medium
der Subversion. Eine Genea-
logie feministischer Interven-
tionen im 20. Jahrhundert.“).
I analyze the stagings of bod-
ies by three artists: the French
26 No. 94 Fall 2006
multidisciplinary artist Claude
Cahun (1894 – 1954), the
New York-based performance-
artist Karen Finley (*1956),
and the Danish/Brussels-based
choreographer and dancer
Mette Ingvartsen (*1980).
Martin Reisigl
Habilitand in
Sprachwissen-
schaft, Univer-
sität Wien, ÖAW
APART-Stipendiat
Visiting Fellow
(January - June 2007)
Diskurs, Diskurstheorie
und Diskursanalyse.
Eine kritische Bestands-
aufnahme und Weiter-
entwicklung
The first principal aim of my
project is to elaborate a his-
torically, (meta)theoretically
and methodologically reflect-
ed synopsis of selected dis-
course theoretical and dis-
course analytical approaches
in linguistics, sociology, phi-
losophy, history, political sci-
ence, psychology and literary
studies. The second goal is
the integrative further devel-
opment of the linguistically
grounded Viennese approach
of Critical Discourse Analysis
on the basis of the evaluation.
Dirk Rupnow
Habilitand, Institut
für Zeitgeschichte,
Universität Wien,
ÖAW APART-
Stipendiat
Visiting Fellow
(April – September 2007)
„Judenforschung“ im
„Dritten Reich“: Wissen-
schaft – Propaganda –
Ideologie – Politik
Antisemitic research on Jew-
ish history and culture
(“Judenforschung”) estab-
lished itself in the Nazi state
as a transdisciplinary but dis-
tinct scholarly field. This
project will examine anti-
Jewish scholarship in the
Third Reich, its institutions
and actors, as well as its
goals, themes, and methods
in a concentrated and
exhaustive manner. It will
also analyze its function and
practices within the coordi-
nates of scholarship, propa-
ganda, ideology and politics,
and consider both, the begin-
ning of “Judenforschung” as
well as its repercussions and
reception after 1945.
Alexandra Starr
NPR correspon-
dent, contributor
to Slate
Milena Jesenská
Visiting Fellow
(April – July 2007)
Reconfiguring European
Identity: Immigration
in Austria, Ireland,
and Spain
During my stay at the IWM,
I will be studying the impact
of immigration in Austria,
Ireland, and Spain. These
three countries have adopted
quite different federal
responses to the migration of
foreigners into their borders,
and I will compare and con-
trast the various policies.
In addition to analyzing
these federal prescriptions,
I will also provide an on-the-
ground look at the impact
immigration is having on
communities, and how it is
affecting countries’ historical
identities.
Meline Toumani
Freelance jour-
nalist, (contribu-
tor to The New
York Times, The
Nation,
Salon.com, n+1 and others)
Milena Jesenská Visiting Fel-
low (February – March 2007)
Reform and Backlash in
Turkey, and the Role of
the European Union
During my stay at the
IWM, I’m studying Turkey’s
membership negotiations
with the European Union,
and how the EU’s demands
for changes to Turkish laws
on minority rights and free-
dom of expression have con-
tributed to a cycle of reform
and backlash in Turkey, as
groups with starkly different
ideologies struggle to define
the country’s future. My
research here is part of a larg-
er project, a book that will be
published by Random House,
about Turkey and Armenia.
Vern Walker
Ph.D. candidate
in Comparative
Literature, Bing-
hamton Universi-
ty, New York
Fulbright Visiting Fellow
(October 2006 – June 2007)
Poetics of Pacifism:
A Literary Development
Toward the Necessary
Problem of Pacifist
Thought – Wittgenstein,
Bachmann, Blanchot
Outside the rhetoric of polit-
ical and religious justifica-
tions of historical and pres-
ent day pacifist movements,
this project seeks to develop
the concept of pacifism
through the study of lan-
guage and literature. Its
intention is to construct the
problem inherent in the
thought of pacifism as it is
akin to the uses and limits of
language. More specifically, it
focuses on the literary works
of Ingeborg Bachmann who
wrote of post World War II
Austria, as well as how her
thought was influenced by
the philosophical writings on
Wittgenstein, Simone Weil,
and related to that of Mau-
rice Blanchot.
Andrzej
Waskiewicz
Associate Profes-
sor of Political
Philosophy, Uni-
versity of Warsaw
Andrew W. Mellon Visiting
Fellow (April - June 2007)
Living Aside.
A Study in the History of
A-Social Philosophy
The project pursued at the
IWM is part of the whole
book which develops the
Simmelian concept of
strangeness. The strangers
presented in the subsequent
chapters live ‘aside’, that is
neither inside the communi-
ty, nor apart from other peo-
ple. They have steady, estab-
lished relationships with
community members and get
along with them on friendly
terms, without being strong-
ly bound to them or by
them. Physically, they live
close to other people, their
neighbors, but spiritually
they are rather far away from
them. Strangeness of this
kind, represented also by a
Stoic Philosopher, a Christ-
ian Pilgrim, a Man of
Nature, and a Natural Scien-
tist, is shown in the book as a
specific social condition.
| FELLOWS & GUESTS
27 No. 94 Fall 2006
FROM THE FELLOWS |
28 No. 95 January – June 2007
When you travel to a new country or city, your
perception of the place will depend on many
things. Some of them have nothing to do with
the place itself. For instance, your impressi-
ons will depend not only on who you yourself
are and what your current situation is, but also
on how much you have travelled elsewhere and
on what you know. With this trivial but neces-
sary introductory remark I will describe some
features of my experience in Vienna.
Chronologically, the almost ubiquitous
presence of the Balkans was one of my first
impressions. My previous notion of Vien-
na contained the usual ingredients: the Aus-
tro-Hungarian Empire, the opera, Strauss,
psychoanalysis, “the Viennese Circle” etc. It
also included an almost self-evident idea that
people speak German in this city. So it was
a surprise to notice that in some districts,
instead of German, some Southern Slavonic
language – Serbian or Slovenian – prevails.
At the visual level, on the contrary, the stre-
ets look more homogenous than I expected,
except for those many women with long
robes and headscarfs which seem to be worn
on every occasion, even when jogging.
Balkan and Bones
The Balkans are also there on a more intel-
lectual level. In a bookshop I happened to
skim through a collection of reflections by
Serbian architect and writer Bogdan Bog-
danovic entitled “Die grüne Schachtel” which
immediately seemed interesting. Several
newspapers discussed the latest book by
Bosnian writer and philosopher Dzevad
Karahasan “Berichte aus der dunklen Welt”.
Then, there have been seminars at the IWM
devoted to topics concerning South-East-
ern Europe, and some fellows and guests of
the institute come from this region as well.
Alongside the presence of the Balkans,
there is the presence of all kinds of great
names. There is an old Jesuit joke. Someone
claims to have found the bones of Jesus. High
priests gather around the alleged grave to
watch the excavations. One of the Jesuits,
secretly, whispers to another: “Also hat er doch
gelebt!” A similar thought often occurred to
me during my first weeks in Vienna – when
walking around, looking at the monuments
and memorial plates, and, especially, when
studying the city map to find a walking route
and noticing an abundance of streets carry-
ing all kinds of famous names. So they all did
indeed exist ... “Also hier haben sie gelebt!”
This feeling is of course a bit irrational. When
I started to reflect on which of the celebri-
ties “cartographically” present in Vienna have
an actual connection to the place, it became
evident that many of them may have none.
I am not sure whether Dürer, Rembrandt,
Goethe or Spinoza have ever set foot in Vien-
na. Some others, however, undoubtedly have.
In retrospect, this initial feeling and a quite
literal interpretation of the names on the map
seem to me comical but nevertheless the “also
hier!”-experience retains some of its charm.
You may almost forget the sea
Then there is the Danube. The Danube is
important. For someone who has grown up
by the sea getting used to the inland is diffi-
cult. The sea gives you a feeling of breadth
and freedom. It has specific sounds and smells
which are hard, if not impossible, to imitate
elsewhere. But still! On the banks of the
Danube – especially when you ride a bicycle
along Donauinsel – you may almost forget
that you are far from the sea. This river, too,
is capable of arousing those feelings of breadth
and freedom; the fresh wind, the thought of
its two-thousand-kilometre-length and of the
Black Sea into which the river finally flows …
And of course, the Danube is large in anoth-
er sense. On a Sunday ride, I stopped for a
while on the Steinspernbrücke, near the row-
ing centre, to watch a boat. There was a man
sitting in the boat, motionlessly, waiting for
something, or thinking a thought. I waited
with him, and a comparison came to mind.
In Tartu, where I live, there is also a river run-
ning through the town. It is one of the biggest
in Estonia, and it has a rowing centre on one
of its banks as well. So in Tartu I also some-
times stand on a bridge and watch a boat. But
A Certain “also hier” Experience
Estonian impressions from Vienna. By Tiiu Hallap
| FROM THE FELLOWS
the proportions of the river and the boat are
entirely different. From the Steinspernbrücke,
this boat in the middle of the Danube looked
really tiny, even frighteningly small. It was
only at this moment of comparison that I
became completely aware of the grandeur of
the river.
Finally philosophy
Finally, there is the presence of philosophy. In
general, I think I encounter philosophy more
often in the media than I am used to. In a
weekly newspaper supplement you may find
the reflections of a cultural philosopher, an
educational debate contains an overview of a
philosopher’s latest theory, and a review of
new fiction informs you that an author has
a degree in philosophy. Here again, questions
arise. Can this perception be reduced to the
mere fact that in the Estonian culture the
philosophical tradition is quite young and,
accordingly, the impact of philosophers on
society is insignificant? Is the apparent pres-
ence of philosophy in general discourse char-
acteristic of the Austrian cultural tradition?
Naturally, one also comes to ask whether, in
the end, this is not all just an illusion.
On the day of the marathon, when I was
watching the first echelon of runners cross
the Friedensbrücke, an elderly Viennese lady
engaged me in conversation. It turned out
that she had also studied physics, as I had
myself. The name of David Hume on whose
“Treatise of Human Nature” I have been
working at the IWM was familiar to her as
well. Forty years ago, when she had attend-
ed university, philosophy had been an
inevitable part of a physicist’s education. The
way she said this made me think it is prob-
ably not so anymore.
How do I perceive the general atmosphere
of Vienna, the style of this city? I would sum
it up by saying that Vienna seems a good
place for peaceful existence. It may not be a
city stormed by young people in pursuit of
intensity or success. There is a lack of aspira-
tion in the air. People do not aspire to be any-
where because they are already there. They
have achieved the goal. They already live, and
indulge in pleasures – in some quiet, moder-
ate, Aristotelian way. And indeed: the har-
monious architectural environment, the great
blue river with excellent picnic areas on its
banks, the parks and promenades for walk-
ing and jogging, all those concert halls, muse-
ums and cafés – maybe it really would be
foolish to strive for more in a place like this?
Just be. Live.
Tiiu Hallap is Lecturer in Philosophy of Sci-
ence at Tartu University, Estonia. From Janu-
ary to June she was Paul-Celan Fellow at
the IWM working on a translation of Davie
Hume’s “Treatise of Human Nature” from
English to Estonian. The Paul Celan fellow-
ship-program is dedicated to the exchange
of relevant literature from East- to West-
Europe and vice versa. We especially thank
the Erste Foundation for supporting this fel-
lowship-program.
Für die, die selbst entscheiden.
diepresse.com
VARIA |
30 No. 95 January – June 2007
Varia I
Behind the scenes nothing but skulls – on May 23 a group of IWM fel-
lows was given the opportunity to visit a non-public part of the Natu-
ral History Museum. Dr. Margit Berner, who works as a curator at the
NHM, led a “behind the scenes” tour through the anthropological
collection. The impressive and somehow disturbing depot raises que-
stions about the ways of collecting and exhibiting human remains –
especially since the involvement of the museum’s anthropological depart-
ment with the Nazi racial policy after 1938. ■ At times gory was
the collection of films shown by Junior Visiting Fellow Shai Bider-
man at the Institute’s library. During his stay Biderman established a philosophical film-club; the screenings, among them Ingmar Berg-
man’s “Cries and Whispers”, Francis Ford Coppola’s “Rumble Fish”, and – due to its setting in Vienna – “The Third Man” with Orson Wel-
les, were followed by intense discussions, and the Institute hopes to find a successor for this picture-driven initiative.
Varia II
Wien ist eine Räuberhöhle: Im vergangenen Jahr sind Diebe in die Wohnung des IWM Direktors einge-
brochen, und sie nahmen als Wertgegenstände fast ausschließlich seine Orden mit. Für den Orde pour le
Merite kamen sie allerdings zu früh: Diese Auszeichnung für Verdienste um den österreichisch-französi-
chen Kulturaustausch erhielt Krzysztof Michalski in diesem Jahr; am 22. Februar überreichte der fran-
zösischen Botschafter in Wien, Pierre Viaux, den renommierten Orden. - Ebenfalls ausgezeichnet wurde
Klaus Nellen; er erhielt (zusammen mit Ivan Dubsky and Jiri Polivka) die „Patoˇ cka Medaille“ der Aka-
demie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik. ■ Dank einer großzügigen Spende kann
das IWM in diesem Jahr ein journalistisches Stipendium mehr als gewohnt ausschreiben. Gerfried Sperl,
Chefredakteur der Tageszeitung „Der Standard“, erhielt den Kurt Vorhofer Preis und spendete das Preis-
geld für ein zusätzliches Milena Jesenská Fellowship; eine weitere (anonyme) Spende ermöglicht, dass
die Schriftstellerin und Journalistin Slavenka Drakulic ein zweites Mal für längere Zeit am IWM arbei-
ten und schreiben kann. ■ Im ersten Halbjahr 2007 sind Persönlichkeiten verstorben, die mit dem
Institut verbunden waren, Carl-Friedrich von Weizsäcker († 28. April 2007) war Mitglied des wissen-
schaftlichen Beirats des IWM und langjähriger Unterstützer; Richard Rorty († 8. Juni 2007) war 1993
Gast-Fellow am Institut, aus seinen IWM-Vorlesungen zur modernen Philosophie entstand das Buch „Hoff-
nung statt Erkenntnis“ (Passagen-Verlag, 1994); Ryszard Kapuscinski († 23. Januar 2007) gehörte zu den
wichtigen Beitragenden der IWM Vorlesungen zu den Wissenschaften vom Menschen.
| TRAVELS AND TALKS
31 January – June 2007 No. 95
Travels and Talks
Christoph Conrad
Körber Visiting Fellow
Vorträge: „Ein historio-
graphischer Sonderfall?
Die nationalgeschichtliche
Tradition der Schweiz in ver-
gleichender Perspektive“ und
„Das Robotbild der Konsu-
ment/inn/en: Marktfor-
schung in den ersten Nach-
kriegsjahrzehnten“, sowie
Leitung des Panels „Schlüssel-
phasen schweizerischer
Sozialpolitik im 19. und 20.
Jahrhundert“ beim Kongress
1. Schweizerische Geschichts-
tage, Universität Bern (15.-
17. März 2007)
Vortrag: „Wenden in der
jüngeren Geschichtsschrei-
bung“, Institut für Wirt-
schafts- und Sozialgeschichte,
Universität Wien (17. April
2007)
Participation in workshop
“Studying Historical Audien-
ces’ Reception,” European
University Institute, Florenz
(14.-16. Juni 2007)
Ludger Hagedorn
Patoˇ cka Project
Vortrag: „Jan Patocˇkas
(Nach-)Europa“, Workshop
des Collegium Carolinum,
München (26. März 2007)
Vortrag: „Jenseits von
Mythos und Aufklärung.
Religion bei Patocˇka“, auf
der Konferenz Jan Patoˇcka
1907 – 1977, Prag
(26. April 2007)
Cornelia Klinger
Permanent Fellow
Vortrag: „Vom Interieur via
Innerlichkeit zum Eigen-
heim. Eine Besichtigung pri-
vater Innenräume in Beglei-
tung von Walter Benjamin“,
im Rahmen der Ringvorle-
sung Öffentlichkeit/Privat-
heit/Geschlecht. Alte Kate-
gorien - neue Verhältnisse?,
Gender Kolleg der Univer-
sität Wien (11. Januar 2007)
Vortrag: „Geschlecht als
prominentes Beispiel für
binäre Kategorien im abend-
ländischen Denken“, im
Rahmen der Ringvorlesung
Geschlecht in Wissenskultu-
ren, Graduiertenkolleg der
Humboldt Universität Berlin
(13. Februar 2007)
Vortrag: „Achsen der
Ungleichheit“, im Instituts-
colloquium der Berlin
Graduate School of Social
Sciences, Institut für Sozial-
wissenschaften, Humboldt-
Universität zu Berlin (14.
Februar 2007)
Vortrag: „Science Talk“,
Neue Galerie Graz
(1. März 2007)
Teilnahme an der Diskussion
Geisteswissenschaften –
„Schlüsselqualifikationen für
demokratische Gesellschaf-
ten?“, 9. Ernst Mach Forum
im Wiener Rathaus
(18. April 2007)
Kommentar zur Wiener
Vorlesung von Eric Kandel
zum Thema „Biologie und
Kultur der Erinnerung“
im Wiener Rathaus
(30. Mai 2007)
Vortrag: „Maskulinität und
Subjektivität“, interdiszi-
plinäres Forschungssymposi-
um Maskulinität als perfor-
mative Praxis, Universität
Hamburg (16. Juni 2007)
Kompaktseminar:
„Figurationen des Anderen
im Denken der Moderne:
Orientalismus - Primitivis-
mus - Exotismus – Erotik“,
am philosophischen Seminar
der Universität Tübingen
(28. - 30. Juni 2007)
Sandra Lehmann
Visiting Fellow
Vortrag: „Theologische
Denkfiguren in der Philoso-
phie“, Universität Wien
(25. Januar 2007)
Krzysztof Michalski
Permanent Fellow
Interview: „Inny Punkt
Widzenia” (Another Point of
View) with Polish TV chan-
nel TVN24 (8. April 2007)
Interview: „Plomien
Wiecznosci” with Pawel
Dybel, in: Nowe Ksiazki
(Mai 2007)
Discussion: „Czy Nietzsche
by religijny“ (War Nietzsche
ein religiöser Denker?) with
Leszek Kolakowski and Jan
Andrzej Kloczowski; in:
EUROPA (DZIENNIK),
9 June 2007, no. 23 (166)
Discussion: „Co Po
´
Smierci
Boga“ (Nach dem Tod Gott-
es) with Krystian Lupa in
Cracow Theatre, published
in: Gazeta Wyborcza,
12/13 May 2007
Klaus Nellen
Permanent Fellow
Participation in the conferen-
ce Jan Patoˇcka 1907 – 1977,
Prague (22.-28. April 2007)
Dirk Rupnow
Visiting Fellow
Vortrag: „Judenforschung.
Die nationalsozialistische
Aneignung jüdischer Ge-
schichte“, im Rahmen der
Ringvorlesung Wissen –
Macht – Wissensmacht, Uni-
versität Wien (Mai 2007)
Michael Staudigl
Visiting Fellow
Vortrag: „Gewalt: Begriffe –
Formen – Genese“, Pädago-
gisches Institut der Stadt
Wien (29. März 2007)
Vortrag: „Zerstörter Sinn –
Entzogene Welt – Zerbroche-
nes Wir. Über Gewalt im
Rahmen einer a-subjektiven
Phänomenologie“, auf der
Konferenz Jan Patoˇcka.
1907-1977, Prag
(26. April 2007)
Vortrag: “Sur la violence
dans le cadre d’une phé-
noménologie a-subjective”,
at the conference Monde et
existence humaine. En
hommage à Jan Patocˇka,
Centre d’anthropologie
philosophique, Université
Louvain la Neuve, Belgien
(26. Mai 2007).
Lecture: “The Subject and
the Frontiers of Sense”, at the
workshop Investigating Sub-
jectivity, Charles University
Prague (21. Juni 2007)
TRAVELS AND TALKS | PUBLICATIONS
32 No. 95 January – June 2007
Karin Tertinegg
QUING Project
Präsentation: „Die Bedeu-
tung der UN-Konvention
zur Beseitigung jeder Form
von Diskriminierung der
Frau für Österreich“ auf der
Präsentation des CEDAW-
Berichts, im Parlament,
Wien (13. März 2007).
Participation in the research
workshop “Contesting multi-
culturalism: Gender, Culture
and Sexuality”, Vienna
University (4. Mai 2007)
Mieke Verloo
Permanent Fellow
Lecture: “Policy, quality
and gender equality: using a
QUING-lens on ‘Frauen in
die EU-Forschung’ ”, bei
Das 7. EU-Forschungs-
rahmenprogramm - Europa
auf dem Weg zur Spitze.
Nationale Auftaktveran-
staltung, Bonn
(15 – 16 Januar 2007)
Lecture: “Lessons from a
former EU gender-project”,
at the FEMCIT Kick-Off
Meeting, Bergen
(9-11 February 2007)
Lecture: “Politique,
Qualité et égalité des genres”
Enseignements du 6ème
PCRD – Regard sur le 7ème,
à la conférence Femmes
scientifiques dans l’espace
européen de la recherche de
2007 à 2012, Nouveaux
programmes et projets
européens, Paris
(20 March 2007)
Lecture: “Changing Institu-
tions through Gender Main-
streaming: Lessons from the
Netherlands”, at the EU
Symposium European Year
of Equal Opportunities for
All, Berlin (20 April 2007)
Lecture: “The Politics of
Expertise: Questions for a
European Gender Institute”,
at the EUSA Conference,
Montreal (16-20 May 2007)
Lecture: “Missing Opportu-
nities: A Critical Perspective
of the European Union’s
Initiative to Address Multiple
Inequalities”, at the
ATHENA3 Annual Meeting,
Budapest (1 June 2007)
Publications
Shai Biderman
Junior Visiting Fellow
Rope: Nietzsche and the
Art of Murder, (with Eliana
Jacobowitz) in: David Baggett
& William A. Drumin
(Eds.), Hitchcock and Philo-
sophy, Dial M for Metaphy-
sics, Chicago & La Salle,
Illinois: Open Court, 2007
Stan’s Future Self and Evil
Cartman, Personal Identity
in South Park, in: Robert
Arp (Ed.), South Park and
Philosophy, You Know, I
Learned Something Today.
Oxford: Blackwell
Publishing, 2007
Thomas Carroll
Junior Visiting Fellow
The Traditions of Fideism,
in: Religious Studies,
forthcoming
Christoph Conrad
Körber Visiting Fellow
Die Dynamik der Wenden.
Von der neuen Sozialge-
schichte zum cultural
turn, in: J. Osterhammel,
D. Langewiesche, P. Nolte
(Hg.), Wege der Gesell-
schaftsgeschichte (=Geschich-
te und Gesellschaft. Sonder-
heft 22), Göttingen: Vanden-
hoeck & Ruprecht 2006
Tymofiy Havryliv
Literary scholar and writer from
Lviv, and a former Celan Fellow
Where is your Home,
Odysseus? (in Ukrainian),
Lviv: Piramida 2007.
A German translation is
forthcoming in 2008 with
Ammann Verlag, Zurich
Christina Kleiser
Junior Visiting Fellow
Zur Rede vom ‘europäi-
schen Gedächtnis’ – oder
wer spricht? Eine Erörte-
rung, ausgehend von der
politischen Essayistik Jorge
Semprúns, in: Carola
Sachse, Edgar Wolfrum,
Regina Fritz (Hg.), (Re-)For-
mulierung nationaler Selbst-
bilder. Postdiktatorische
Gesellschaften in Europa,
Göttingen: Wallstein, 2007
Erinnerungspolitik durch
Erinnerungsarbeit. Wei-
mar-Buchenwald als ‘Erin-
nerungsort’ in den Reden
und literarischen Texten von
Jorge Semprún, in: Benoît
Majerus, Sonja Kmec, Michel
Margue, Pit Peporte (Hg.),
Nationale „Erinnerungsorte“
hinterfragt. Neue methodi-
sche, interdisziplinäre und
transnationale Ansätze, Brüs-
sel: Lang, 2007
Cornelia Klinger
Permanent Fellow
Auf ’s Ganze Gehen.
Bescheidene Nachgedanken
und Vorüberlegungen zum
unbescheidenen Projekt der
Philosophie, in: Ludger
Heidbrink, Harald Welzer
(Hg.), Das Ende der Beschei-
denheit. Zur Verbesserung der
Geistes- und Kulturwissen-
schaft, München: Beck, 2007
Krzysztof Michalski
Permanent Fellow
Plomien Wiecznosci.
Eseje o myslach Fryderyka
Nietzschego (Die Flamme
der Ewigkeit. Essays über
das Denken Nietzsches),
Krakau: Znak, 2007
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Woran glaubt Europa?
Religion und politische
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Verlag, 2007
Plomien Wiecznosci.
Nietzsche o czasie, ´ smierci
i milo´ sci, in: Europa
(Dziennik), 21 no. 159
(April 2007)
Wola Mocy, in: Zeszyty
Literackie, no. 1(97) (2007)
Nienasycone pragnienie
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Perspektiven der Phänome-
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2007
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Differenz. Beiträge zu einer
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Jan Sokol Jan Patoˇ cka und die Charta 77
Jacques Rupnik Das Erbe der Charta 77 und die Entstehung einer
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Ivan Krastev Die Heraufkunft des Populismus
Krzysztof Michalski Nihilismus und Religion
Jan Werner Mueller Europäische Erinnerungspolitik Revisited
GUEST CONTRIBUTION |
34 No. 95 January – June 2007
Let me apologize at the beginning for the pes-
simistic nature of my analysis, but seriousness
about gas supply in the Russian and European
context requires a large measure of pessimism.
There is an enormous amount of gas in the
world, particularly in Russia, but a crisis in
gas supply is building, I believe, for three basic
reasons. The first is the unusual nature of
Gazprom. It is not a gas company; it is a
political colossus that happens to be in the gas
business, but does not behave like a business
or a normal gas company. The second reason
is that the EU, like America, does not actual-
ly have an energy
policy or energy strat-
egy that is coherent
in any respect. And
the third reason is
that the post com-
munist countries
themselves have no
energy strategy, and their difficulties in ener-
gy and in achieving political independence
are made much worse by the lack of an EU
energy strategy.
Let me address each of these three parts in
turn. It was mentioned that Gazprom is a
political animal that exists because of its
monopoly position and is organised complete-
ly to preserve its monopoly. In particular, it
has a monopoly on gas exports, but its invest-
ment pattern reveals a much wider reach.
Data show very clearly that only one quarter
of Gazprom’s capital investments, from 2000
to 2006, was in new gas production. The
majority of their investments were in activi-
ties outside the gas sector completely, includ-
ing media companies and banks.
This is a company that despite large rev-
enues from gas production does not actually
go out and find and produce more gas. The
result is the brewing natural gas crisis that, ever
since a year ago, has been the talk of the town.
Gazprom is unable to produce sufficient quan-
tities of gas to meet its internal demand and
export obligations. So far that crisis has been
forestalled because of Turkmenistan, but our
group at Stanford has calculated that Turk-
menistan has already sold perhaps as much as
twice the gas as it is actually able to produce.
The Turkmen clock will stop some time in the
not distant future, and that will magnify the
troubles as Russia tries to live up to its gas sales
obligations at home and abroad.
It is important to watch the internal effects
from the gas crisis. Within the next two to four
years, there could be significant shortages of
natural gas inside Russia. There is already evi-
dence of this from the power sector; new pow-
er plants, even in St. Petersburg, are unable to
get the gas supply that they need.
I think it is an open question how Russia
will respond to this
crisis. They can
respond by strength-
ening the hand of
Gazprom; or, at the
other extreme, they
can liberalize it com-
pletely. My hunch is
that so long as the internal gas crisis does not
cause widespread and systemic economic
trouble that the outcome will leave Gazprom
stronger—national champions always find
special new roles for national champions in
times of crisis. I don’t know what is going to
happen, but I do know that most of the large
gas consumers in Western Europe will prob-
ably have no influence whatsoever on the
outcome. This is largely an internal Russian
affair.
I would like to make one last point about
Gazprom that is particularly critical for the
longer term. If you look at the engineering
costs of new gas supplies, it is not clear that
Russia (ie, Gazprom) is in a good position
to be the largest gas supplier to Europe in
the distant future. The actual engineering
costs of developing the new gas fields in Rus-
sia (notably the fields in Sthokman and
Yamal Peninsula) are perhaps twice the costs
of developing new gas fields in North Africa
and in the Middle East. The market is
already responding. Over the long term, I
think this is potentially enormously danger-
ous for Russia. Russia, by allowing the gas
crisis to fester, is putting itself out of the gas
business.
The second thing I want to talk about is
European energy policy. I am very sceptical
that the EU is on any track to develop its
own energy policy, and one clear sign that
they do not have an energy policy is the con-
stant and increasing supply of white papers
coming from Brussels about this subject.
When you look at the details of these white
papers and compare them to what has to be
done, there is often no connection whatso-
ever. The EU has no coordinated strategy
on gas and they don’t really have a viable
strategy on climate change. The goal of
reducing the carbon content of fuels is
extremely important as we all know, but if
you look at what people are really doing in
the EU, and the projects they are putting in
place, they are not going to deliver on their
goals. Let me apologise for being very neg-
ative about this. The US also has no energy
policy, so you are in very good company.
Let me take the example of Germany,
which has the largest economy in the EU. If
you look at the power plants the German
utilities are actually building, it is still coal
and in particular, it is the dirtiest and most
inefficient form of coal, brown coal. There
are now some new natural gas power plants
being built, but there is no strategy that links
this construction with the EU concern about
the large and growing dependence on
imported gas from Russia. Nuclear power is
now being discussed, but if you look at real
nuclear power plants that are being built
there is again little connection between state-
ments and action. So far, there is one new
reactor being built in Finland, and one new
reactor being planned in France. The scale
of planning and building is not commensu-
rate with the need for new supplies. Even if
there were a large building program of
nuclear power, it would take between 10 to
15 years before we have a significant num-
ber of new reactors on the way. Renewable
power is playing a larger role, but it is still
small and faces serious limits because of cost
and intermittency.
In terms of gas, if you again consider not
what the EU is saying but real actions, the
Three Reasons for Getting Scared
Energy markets and the tremendous lack of political strategies.
By David G. Victor
Gazprom is not a gas
company; it is a political
colossus that happens to be
in the gas business.
| GUEST CONTRIBUTION
35 January – June 2007 No. 95
absence of a coherent
strategy becomes clear.
Let’s look at contracts. A
year after the gas crisis
(almost to the day), EON
and Ruhrgas were off to
sign their own new spe-
cial contracts with Russia.
Similarly, Gas de France
was off to sign a new spe-
cial contract with Russia,
and ENI and Italy were
off to sign their own new
special contracts with
Russia. And so at the
very moment when com-
mon market Europe
should best behave like a
single entity, in fact all the
individual major players
have proceeded separate-
ly to develop their own
special relationship with
Russia. In doing so, they
have undercut their abil-
ity to speak with a single voice.
Let’s look at what Gazprom is actually
doing downstream in the gas markets of
Western Europe. What they are doing is
gathering large amounts of market intelli-
gence, and establishing a large presence in
the gas markets that will make it nearly
impossible for the EU to actually create a
truly competitive, liberalized gas market.
The European authorities claim that they are
creating a competitive
market, but they have lit-
tle capacity to gather the
information they need to
understand this market or
the forces that control it
– in the jargon, they have
no way to spot and
enforce against the abuse
of “market power.” (I am from California,
and what undid our electricity market was
exactly such abuse.)
In theory, there are some very interesting
projects to bring gas and oil around the
Ukraine, around Belarus, and around Rus-
sia—to transport them directly to Europe,
which could multiply Europe’s energy
options and improve its energy security. But
what is really happening? Let’s look at the
most important of these new projects, the
so-called “Nabucco Project”, which is
designed to bring gas from central Asia and
Middle East directly through Turkey, Bul-
garia and Romania into
the European market
through Austria. The
problem with Nabucco is
that it has no gas supply.
Gazprom, by expanding
its capacity on the Blue
Stream Project which goes
across the Black Sea into
the same market, is poised
to undercut the Nabucco
Project. I am now very
sceptical that Nabucco –
which is one of those great
theoretical ideas – will
actually serve to improve
energy security in Europe.
The third and final area
of my remarks concerns
the energy strategies in the
post communist countries.
Their continued ties to
Russian energy suppliers
hinder their own inde-
pendent policy develop-
ment. And I think the lack of the European
energy policy contributes to this problem
because it makes it much harder for them to
develop the autonomy that they need for
democratisation, for market reforms and for
their own energy strategies.
I think we need to do a better job work-
ing with these countries to help them. In
principal, the job is not that hard. Let me
use the example of the Ukraine. The Ukraine
could over time develop a
much more sound energy
policy. It would involve
energy efficiency. The
Ukraine, by our calcula-
tions at Stanford, is one of
the most inefficient of the
large energy economies in
the world. The natural gas
the Ukraine consumes right now is used dis-
proportionally for heat. We think that 25 %
of the energy that goes to the Ukraine heat-
ing system is lost. That’s even more than is
lost in Russia. And if you look at the tech-
nologies involved right now, the inefficien-
cy in the Ukraine is extraordinary.
We estimate that over the period of one
generation Ukraine could cut its consump-
tion of gas and heating by perhaps half—
maybe more. That would be enough to com-
pletely offset dependency on the Russian
supply. Looking at the Ukrainian electricity
system, there is much greater potential for
improving the diversity of supply in both gas
and coal. The EU would be upset about that
because they are worried about global warm-
ing—and conventional coal is the worst
offender from its emissions of CO2, which
are about double those of advanced gas pow-
er plants—but I think there is no better way
to get the attention of the EU than to start
planning to build coal plants. It would force
the EU to be serious about whether it is
going to help improve the energy strategy in
the Ukraine.
There are very few examples where the
West has actually been extraordinarily help-
ful. One of them might be the new power
plants in Moldova. I think Moldova is a very
special case. It is a very small country and
if I can put it cynically, the EU has to be suc-
cessful in Moldova because if it is not, then
the extension of the EU, to include Roma-
nia, would be a complete disaster.
The last thing I want to talk about is oil.
First, oil is fundamentally different from gas
because oil is liquid at normal temperatures
it is a much more fungible commodity. Nat-
ural gas is much more infrastructure-depend-
ent and the infrastructure is fundamentally
connected to the ground and to the geogra-
phy.
The second is the question of oil prices.
Whenever oil prices are high the people in
the oil business publicly talk about how oil
prices are going to be still higher in the
future. And everybody becomes focused on
the impact of high oil prices on global,
regional and local economies, and on democ-
racy. This may be misguided.
For years or so I have been talking about
lower oil prices, and I think we need to focus
increasingly on the geopolitical consequences
of lower prices. By low I don’t mean $20 a
barrel, which seems unlikely. I mean in the
$40 range, which is particularly low given
the rising costs of production, which have
risen substantially in the last few years – by
a factor of two in much of the world.
I think we need to anticipate what will
happen if oil prices stay low, at least relative-
ly low, in Russia and possibly Azerbaijan.
This could be the big, unexpected shock to
the systems of the oil exporting nations. It is
going to be unexpected, because we have
come to assume that the oil prices are going
to be high and continue to climb. But I
don’t see any fundamental reason why oil
prices should remain permanently as high as
they have been for the last 3 years.
David Victor is Director of
the Program on Energy and
Sustainable Development at
Stanford University. His guest
contribution is based on a
speech given at the IWM-
Conference “Promoting
Democracy”.
Turkmenistan has
already sold perhaps
twice the gas as it is
actually able to
produce.
FUTURE |
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