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NICOLAS RIMSKY-KORSAKOW

PRINCIPLES
OF

ORCHESTRATION
WITH MUSICAL EXAMPLES DRAWN FROM HIS
EDITED BY

OWN WORKS

MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG
ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

EDWARD AGATE

E. F.

KALMUS ORCHESTRA
209

SCORES, INC.

WEST

57th STREET
N. Y.

NEW

YORK,
Printed

in U. S. A.

MUSIC LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY or COUi^^CTlCUT

STORRS, C0.*4N^CriCUT

rc\T

no

CONTENTS
page

Editor's Preface

VII— XII
1

Extract from the Author's preface (1891)
Extract from the Preface to the last edition

5

T'hapter

I.

General review of orchestral groups
6
12 21
little

A. String-ed instruments
B.

Wind instruments: Wood-wind
Brass
sustaining power:

C. Instruments of

Plucked strings
Pizzicato

26 27
27

Harp
Percussion
instruments

producing determinate sounds,

keyed
29 30 32 32

instruments

Kettle-drums

,

,

Piano and Celesta
Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone

Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds

Comparison

of

resonance

in orchestral

groups, and combination

33

of different tone qualities

Chapter

II.

Melody
36 39
in

Melody in stringed instruments Grouping in unison
Stringed instruments doubling
octaves

40
44 45 45 46 47
49
51

Melody
«4

in

double octaves
in three

fX
~"^

'^

and four octaves Melody in thirds and sixths Melody in the wood-wind Combination in unison Combination in octaves Doubling in two, three and foiir octaves Melody in thirds and sixths Thirds and sixths together Melody in the brass Brass in unison, in octaves, thirds and sixths
Doubling

52

53 53

.......

55

IV
page

Melody in different groups of instruments combined together A. Combination of wind and brass in unison B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves C. Combination of strings and wind D. Combination of strings and brass E. Combination of the three groups

.

56

56
57

58
61 61

Chapter

111.

Harmony
63
of

General observations

Number
String

Duplication harmonic parts Distribution of notes in chords

64
67

harmony Wood-wind harmony
Four-part and three-part harmony

69
71

72

Harmony
Remarks

in

several parts

76
77
78

Duplication of timbres

Harmony

in the

brass

82 82

Four-part writing

Three-part writing

84

Writing in several parts
Duplication in the brass

84
85
88
.

Harmony
1.

in

combined groups
. . .

A. Combination of wind and brass
In unison

88
88

2.

Overlaying, crossing, enclosure of parts

90
94

Combination of strings and wind C. Combination of the three groups
B.

95

Chapter

IV.

Composition of the orchestra
ways
of orchestrating the

Different
Full

same music

97
101

Tutu wind
two and three parts

Tutti in the

103 103

Tuiti pizzicato Tutti in one,

104 104
106

Soli in the strings

Limits of orchestral range

Transference of passages and phrases

107
108

Chords

of different tone quality

used alternately

Amplification and elimination of tone qualities
Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo

109

110

Sforzando-piano and piano- sforzando chords Method of emphasising certain notes and chords Crescendo and diminuendo
Diverging and converging progressions

HI
Ill

112 113
114

Tone

quality as a

harmonic force.

Harmonic basis
rhythm and colour

Artificial effects

116

Use

of percussion instruments for
in orchestral

....

117

Economy

colour

118

in unison 144 145 145 Progression in octaves 145 146 Voices divisi. 119 119 The Stage band Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices General remarks Transparence of accompaniment. — Combination of the human voice with orchestra. quartet etc 139 139 142 142 Chorus A.V page Chapter V. Harmony 120 122 125 126 128 Doubling voices in the orchestra Recitative and declamation Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus Solo voice with chorus Instruments on the stage and in the wings 129 Chapter VI (Supplementary) Technical terms Soloists — Voices 132 133 Range and Vocalisation register 133 134 Vowels Flexibility 136 137 Colour and character of voices Voices in 137 139 combination Duet Trio. Men's chorus and Women's chorus 148 . Range and register Melody Mixed chorus Chorus. harmonic use of the mixed chorus B.

.

The writing it be more exact. or. containing a monograph on the question a classification of wind instruments and a detailed description of the construction and fingering of the different kinds of flute. I had be that not yet thought of the second part of the book which was to devoted I to instruments in combination. In (1) his "Memoirs of my "1 musical life" (li* edition. My manual was to begin with a detailed list of instruments. be placed there. clarinet and horn. and This manuscript is was gfiven to it me by Alexander Glazounov. the oboe. all p. far. had gone too With wind instruments the different systems were innumerable. Rimsky-Korsakov had long been engrossed orchestration. 1873—1874.ST0RI»» Editor's Preface. including a description of the various systems in use at the present day. Tyndall and Helmholtz. from the years of acoustics. in his treatise on We have in in our possession a thick note book of dating some 200 pages fine hand writing. To end made several rough copies. But 1 soon realised in particular. 1 After reading the to works work. classified in groups and tabulated. and each manufacturer favoured pet theory. to down explanatory notes detailing What intended to present to 1 was to include everything. if a Rimsky- Korsakov museum ever founded will . jotting the technique of different instruments. 120) the following passage occurs: to the compilation of I had planned treatise to devote my energies this a full on orchestration. the world on this subject. the sketch for took up most of of in my time in the years 1873 and 1874. his his own By the addition of a certain key the maker endowed (I) instrument with the possibility of a new trill. framed an introduction my which I endeavoured to expound the laws of acoustics as applied to the principles governing the construction of musical instruments. of this treatise.

he gave up They composition for a while. full contain the unfinished preface of 1891. Since as 1891 the plan of the work had been still entirely remodelled. For these reasons finally I my book gradually waned. the progress of his work was hampered at by certain troublesome events which draft. Dissatisfied with his rough it. and getting no he would interest in my massive work aside. the Mlada. volumes occasionally referred to Memoirs. He became was not entirely engrossed composition. and 1891 Rimsky-Korsakov. What value would such a be to the student? Such a mass of detailed description of their the various systems. the performance Mlada. to would wish throw the know what instrument to employ. were happening 1894 he of his the time. 297). could not Naturally he its but fail to confuse the reader only too eager to learn. I the mechanism varying according the make. a paragraph thoughtful writing. in his These notes. and Sheherazade. Obviously. and Articles on Music Petersburgh. are in three of manuscript-paper.. besides. In the brass. musical output remaining in abeyance through no fault of his own. the extent of satisfactory information capabilities etc. proved by the rough drafts extant. a master had been teaching instrumentation." In now an artist of standing. the comof poser of Snegourotchka. gave up the task. of could not hope to cover so treatise large a field. 1911). this task. advantages and drawbacks.VIII made of s^nic difficult passages more playable than on an instrument another kind. the author tells us in his Memoirs (p. he destroyed the greater part of In and once more abandoned his Christmas Night. to returned to his handbook on at after He would seem to have made notes different first times from 1891 of 1893. composed most The was the beginning in fertile period. to and five valves. * to There was no end instruments with such complications. four. orchestral technique he for twenty years. I found three. . during which period. and reprinted in this book. The author had given up the idea of describing different instruments from their technical (1) This preface had already been published in his Notes (St. returned to It until 1905 his that his thoughts the treatise on orchestration. making plans for a fresh opera as soon as the in one hand was completed. (1) As" of clear.

its recovered from a third severe attack of inflammation began final to work on the first chapter of the treatise in finished on night. I On first point will say but little. about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. that order to give some examples from work" (p. Rimsky-Korsakov explains the and a and general feeling of fact by lack of interest in the treatise work in weariness: "The remained abeyance. This chapter was June 7/20. and kept him busy treatise all and the of 1907. the same composer was seized with a fourth attack which proved fell The honour Korsakov for on me I to prepare that this last work of Rimsky- publication. present. The composer experienced The Golden Cockerel that winter another rush of creative energy. Among the the author's papers several forms of the book have been At last. and materially affected his energy. his opera. in awaited the production of Kitesh. following summer. In his Memoirs. in found. the fatal. and having just of the lungs. I To start with. and. and outlined the six chapters which form the foundation of the present volume. He spent the greater part of his time reading old notes set classifying examples. form. he could not bring himself broach the latter part of the book. in spite of the entreaties to his pupils and friends. and to the upon me the in my capacity as editor. in the autumn thoughts reverted little the on orchestration. not merely by . the form of the book was not a success.IX standpoint. in Now it Principles to of Orchestration has appeared to print think necessary devote a few words labour imposed the essential features of the book. Then came the autumn of 1906. When to it was finished. summer of 1905 Kimsky-Korsakov brought his plans to a head. made his rapid strides. About the 20*li of May he out for his summer residence in Lioubensk. 360). and was more anxious to dwell upon the value of tone qualities and their various combinations. each widely differing in detail from the other. laid and the sketches were once more aside. But the work made adequacy of progress. Towards in the end of 1907 Rimskythis Korsakov was and constantly ailing health. The author had his doubts as to the of the plan he had adopted. But the work suffered a further interruption. The reader will observe from the Contents that the work differs from others.

is Chapter was comfive by the author. and I have no wish to overcrowd the edition of this if book with extra matter which can be added later. not according to orchestral division in for instance). this book may reveal much Korsakov has often to the student of instrumentation. save for a few unimportant alterations ters. The author's death prevented him from discussing a few questions. Rimsky- repeated the axiom that good orchestration of tone-colours means proper handling of parts. may also be taught. but. in . considered separately. I in style. to it is found be necessary. Rimsky-Korsakov altered the title of his book several I times. but there the science of instruction From these standpoints the present book will furnish the pupil with nearly everything he requires. "prin- me to be the one most suitable to the contents of the ciples" in the truest sense of the word. but. I had first of all to prepare and amplify the sketches made by Rimsky-Korsakov it in 1905. But these questions can be partly solved by the principles laid down first in Chapters II and III. II The and orchestration III) of melodic and harmonic elements (Chapters receives special attention. as does the question of orches- tration in general (Chapter IV). and his final choice was never made. to The last two chapters are devoted a operatic music. and one or two point The sketches made between 1891 and to 1893 were too disconnected be of much use." Yet. and the sixth takes supplementary form.reaston of its musical examples. as he himself reminds us in his preface. Some may expect to find the "secrets" of the great orchestrator disclosed. and have only made a few changes indispensable additions. and this is something which cannot be taught. as invention. having no direct bearing on the previous matter. chap- tried to keep to the original drafts as far as possible. in all art. As regards the other in the order. and their The simple use combinations ends. but accord- method adopted by Gevaert ing to each constituent of the musical whole. to The title have selected seems work. these form a connected I summary throughout pleted the whole six chapters. "to orchestrate is to create. is closely allied to technique. but more especially in the systematic of arrangement groups (the material. have published as it stands. amongst full which I would include polyphonic orchestration and the scoring of melodic and harmonic designs.

Richard Wagner. partly The reasons preface this decision are other his explained in the unfinished If 1905. in turn. The musical examples are drawn Borodin choosing of greater importance. he would have had to some account of of their individual. RimsT^y-Korsakov's "school" here displayed. whose orchestration Rimsky-Korsakov so greatly admired? hardly fail Besides. and the scoring of the younger French musicians are largely dev^opments of the methods of Rimsky-Korsakov. no was fixed to the length of quotation.XI of fact. they corresponded very closely to the final form of the work. highly-coloured orchestration of Russian composers. looked upon Glinka as his spiritual father. was guided by the the the following considerations in which agreed first with opinions of author himself: the place the to distract examples should be as simple as possible. This would have to justify the undertaking. each may examine it for himself. later. This is not is place to criticise his method. those of of to and Glazounov were be his added The idea only examples solely from own works for of came but Rimsky-Korsakov by degrees. finding difficult tp keep those stipulated by the composer. how exclusion of West-Eu- ropean composers.. others. the latter afforded could to realise that his own compositions manner sufficient material to illustrate every conceivable of scoring. Rimsky-Korsakov had chosen examples from the works of these four composers. who. and which the full examples limit left to indicate the study of score. further. some portions were badly explained. not all. so as not . The brilliant. as noted on the 1891 MS. motives may be give mentioned. and often strongly been a difficult marked peculiarities style. editor's discretion. The composer had not mentioned which musical quotations to were were be printed in the second volume. as every page of the fnaster's works abound appro- priate instances of this or that I method of scoring. According to the original scheme. and then. they were to be from the works of Glinka to and Tschaikovsky. I All this was to therefore to the selected the examples only after it much doubt in and hesitation. examples emanating the frorfl one great general principle. The table of examples found among the author's papers was far at from complete. for example.

in the second volume. . if The Golden Cockerel observed in bars 10 the the — the marks of expression are the brass. December 1912. all ways of scoring full my additions to the text are marked with use asterisks. since operatic full-scores are less accessible than those of symphonic works. mention two which were of pointed out by the composer himself: 220 71ii The Legend Tsar Saltan bar— the theme 233 in the (a brass is not sufficiently prominent easily rectified). tacet mistake 14. the majority of quotations should be those mentioned by the author. as far as possible. These amount to 214. and lastly. memory of a master. an intention expressed in his preface to the last edition. 63. counter. They are drawn. the remaining 98 were added by me. 2.XII the student's attention from the point under discussion. rent II I have added three tables showing chords. the trombones being . Broadly speaking. I will confine examples. is not for me to select these examples. refers. diffe- At the end of Vol. The composer nations. secondly. and 1 shall only 1. Petersburgh. Example 75 may In conclusion also be mentioned. the present work should of full be studied together with the reading scores in general. to I which the note on page to these in the text. A few words remain to be said regarding Rimsky-Korsakov's intention to point out the faulty passages in his orchestral works. it was necessary that one example should serve to illustrate several sections of the book. held so deeply in reverence. often referred to the instructional value of such examiIt His purpose however was never achieved.melody on the violas and hardly violoncellos doubled by wood-wind myself will be heard. thereby my deep gratitude to Madame for having entrusted me with the task of editing providing me with the opportunity of performing a desire to express duty sacred to the St. I consider that the careful study of the examples contained in the second volume will be of the greatest to the student without replacing the need for the study of other composers' scores. Rimsky-Korsakov this work. MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG. from Rimsky-Korsakov's dramatic music.

Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn. principles of construction. school — Borodin. reduced these questions briefly and clearly in short I general principles. I how acquire uniformity of structure and requisite power. formal arrangement. new russian — Delibes. Never- do not claim him as to to how such information should be put to artistio use. Weber. Berlioz. In writing nevertheless. character of have specified peculiar certain melodic figures and and designs each instrument or orchestral to group. or form presents the student with harmonic or polyphonic matter. 1 the study of tonal resonance and have tried to to show the to the student how to obtain a certain quality of tone. so a treatise on orto chestration can demonstrate how produce a well-sounding chord 1 . and sound technical methods. those of modern the french composers others. Our epoch. and have devoted considerable space to orchestral combination. nor establish of my examples in their rightful place in the poetic language music. Glazounov and Tschaikovsky art to its — have brought this side of musical zenith. book my chief aim has been to provide the well-informed reader with the fundamental principles modern orchestration I from the standpoint of brilliance and imagination. with matter and have endeavoured carefully to furnish the pupil material as theless I and minutely studied as to instruct possible. whose genius. Liszt. the post-Wagnerian age.Extract from the Author's Preface (1891). but will never endow him with the talent for composition. as colourists. counterpoint. is the age of brilliahce and imaginative quality in orchestral tone colouring. their prede- cessors. to Bizet and Balakirev. Wagner. just as a handbook of harmony. For. Glinka. they are indebted for their this own of progress. they have eclipsed.

the composer's rough directions. an undesirable practice. He who undertakes such work into the spirit of the in all their essential should enter as deeply as he try to realise his intentions. to orchesof Does trate? it follow that these composers do not know how Many among them have had mere colourist. that composition well orchestrated. it.— of 2 — distributed. It is a great mistake to say: this composer scores well. to score a composition never intended for the orchestra. his mind did not exact this secret The power mit. in -greater knowledge the subject than the tration? Was Brahms his ignorant of orchesfind evidence of And yet. certain tone-quality. its uniformly setting.) . is or. but will never be able is to teach the art of poetic orchestration. Many musicians have made In this mistake in- and persist in (1) any case this is the lowest form of (1) In the margin of the MS. is To orchestrate to create. a question mark is added here. A work is thought out in terms of the it certain tone-colours being inseparable from in the mind of its creator and native to of it from the hour of its birth. the secret of has remained outside range of his creative faculty. Though one's own is personality be subordinate to that of another. The truth is that his thoughts it. for orchestration is part of the very soul of the work. how to detach a melody from harmonic correct progression of parts. such orchestration nevertheless creative work. of subtle orchestration is a secret impossible to trans- and the composer who possesses and never debase it should value it highly. did not turn towards colour. orchestra. More than one colour classical and modern composer has lacked the the capacity to orchestrate with imagination and power. nowhere works do we brilliant tone or picturesque fancy. and this something which cannot be taught. (Editor's note. and solve all such problems. Here I may mention the case of works scored by others from composer. to the level of a mere collection of formulae learned by heart. may and develop them features. Could the essence tration? Wagner's music be divorced from is its orches- One might as well say that a picture well drawn in colours. But on the other is hand.

When effects cannot be brought off except with the greatest care and attention on the part (1) A. though of course the may be well or badly done. in 3. the works Beethoven. quite competently. of conductor and players. the phase during which he puts his entire percussion instru- has well expressed the various degrees of excellence in which he divides into three classes: 1. and In has been fortune to belong I have acquired tha most varied exhave had the opportunity of St. Glazounov scoring-. different directions. In the third place. for the size of orchestra that is to perform persist not for some imaginary body. be II. 1* (Author's note. pupils. Glinka. (1) A work should be written it. the best chance when the parts are well written. it to As regards orchestration a first-rate school. etc. having experienced leanings towards sizes. When the orchestra never sounds well. after a few rehearsals. The student will probably pass through the following phases: faith in 1. 2.— process 3 — my good strumentation. I burgh Opera. As a general rule it is best to advance by degrees from the simplest scoring to the most complicated. When the orchestra sounds well. Finally I formed an orchestra very young and succeeded of in teaching them to play. is as many composers it in doing.) . and ending with the I most advanced. akin to colour photography. perience. is Evi- dently the chief aim Orchestration to obtain the first of these results. introducing brass instruments in unusual keys impracticable because is upon which the music in the It not played key the composer intends. starling-point I lay down is the following fundamental axioms: In the orchestra there Orchestral no such thing _^as ugly quality of tone. Mendelssohn. magnificent. writing should easy to play. As a I. playing from sight. to All this has enabled me present this work to the public as the result of long experience. have scored for orchestras of different beginning with simple combinations (my opera The is May Night written for natural horns and trumpets). difficult is to devise any method of learning orchestration without a master. conducted the choir of the Military Marine for several years and was therefore able to study of wind-instruments. all the first place I hearing Peters- my works performed by the excellent orchestra of the Secondly. a composer's work stands III.

ments. but. It — these will is useless for a Berlioz or a Gevaert to quote examples of Gluck. viewed remains much inferior to his titanic conception. it the period when he chord. Wagner. believing that beauty of sound emanates entirely from this — this is the earliest stage. certainly. Mendelssohn. when he has come try is to recognise that the string group of all. On the contrary. muted or pizzicato. the difficult and unhappy intervals he gives to the horns. in that of Wagner and to others. clearer. such examples are of no further use The same may be orchestration). acquires a passion for the harp. Fairly modern music will will teach the student how to score — classical Liszt. Glinka. cult to and listen to an orchestra. standing out above the rest of the orchestra. that which is fairly modern.— these to features will combine causing the student in Beethoven stumble upon a thousand and one points It contradiction. the distinctive features of the string parts and his often highly. and better examples are in be the found amongst modern composers than what is called range of classical music. is a mistake to think that the beginner will light upon no simple in and instructive examples modern music. of to modern ears. score hand. technique. the more advanced is period. the richest and most expressive to When of the student first works alone he must avoid the pitfalls the three phases.coloured employment of the of wood-wind. which he adores the wood-wind and horns. and of Haydn (the father modern The his gigantic figure of Beethoven stands apart. principally. using stopped notes in conjunction with strings.— branch of the orchestra 4 — 2. modern French and Russian composers guides. Music of all ages. Weber. and prove his best Meyerbeer (The Prophet). His use of the trumpets. But it is diffi- decide what music should be studied and heard. His music abounds in countless leonine leaps of orchestral imagination. Berlioz. The best plan in to study full- scores. 4. from the works The musical idiom said of Mozart is too old-fashioned and strange today. but in detail. . music prove of negative value to him. using the stage during in every possible 3.

and. Sometimes the respect which great composers' will names command cause inferior examples to be quoted as casfco of carelessness or ignorance. They will attribute to a plain a too closely philosophic. (Editor's note. given have quoted examples to my own compositions. principles in orchestrating have followed these to my own or works. fact.) . This book is written for those who have treatise. or excessively poetic meaning and simple good. A short review of these various questions forms the first chapter of the book. the sub-division of parts. variety of colour and expression in scoring. easily explained by the give rise to whole pages of imperfections of current technique. appears to me far from satisfactory. My aim modern in undertaking in this work is to reveal the principles of orchestration a somewhat different I light than that usually brought to bear upon the subject. and the practice of explaining the intentions of a composer. range. en- deavouring is show. what successful and what not. so prevalent amongst annotators. fingering. in defence. wishing I impart some from of my to ideas to young composers. already studied instru- mentation from Gevaert's excellent or any other well-known of a manual. —the (1) whole. emission of sound (1) The present work deals with the combination of instruments in separate groups and in the entire orchestral scheme.— 5 — Extract from the Preface to the last edition. shall therefore only just touch on such technical questions as etc. No one can know except the author himself the purpose of and motives which governed him during the composition certain a work. and tral I who have some knowledge number of orches- scores. in all sincerity. or even in admiration of a faulty passage. laborious exposition. the different means of producing strength of tone and unity of structure. references is them. principally from the standpoint of dramatic music. however reverent and discreet.

The following is the formation of the number of players required in present day theatre or concert-room. A. GENERAL REVIEW OF ORCHESTRAL GROUPS. either in the .Chapter 1. Stringed Instruments. string quartet and the orchestras.

Division into four and it rare. some explanation as I method of dividing strings will follow in in order to due course. Where necessary. the respective r61es of 8 and Violas (12 4) the two groups are more closely 6) — — allied. Violas div. playing the upper part. well mark how more parts the passage div. . f'Ce ^ Violas div. 'Cellos div. 6 etc. as the number one group not always divisible by three. and the effect obtained is never the one required. b preferable since the number of Vni II (14 — 10 — practically the same. leaving it to the to I. and so on. ^ I D. ^ I D. or even is more (divisi). one or more of the principal parts split up. dwell on the subject here of the string quartet show how the usual composition may be altered. basses div. ^ I 'Cellos div. 3 desks. divided thus: div. but may be used in piano passages. 5 etc. and 2. Possible combinations less frequently used are: fVn^I ^ I div. 2. Still Note. three and four sections. ' rVnill I div. 4. Generally. violas 1. conductor to ensure equality of tone. f Violas div. Nevertheless there are cases where the composer should not hesitate to employ this method of dividing the strings. or violoncellos. of players in less easy. the first or second violins. String parts may be . is is is evident that the tone quality in b and e will be similar. basses div. on the right-hand left of each desk plays the top Dividing by threes is is the one on the the bottom line. all manner of divisions in the musical examples given in Vol. 6 'Cellos is a 3.. The players are then divided by desks. fact that second violins generally sit nearer to the violas than the thereby guaranteeing greater unity in power and execution. It 'Cellos div. It is always as the score. div. parts are very greatly reduces In volume of tone in the group Note.— — Whenever a group parts of 7 — is strings written for more than five —without taking double notes or chords fnto consideration these parts may be increased by dividing each one into two. will The reader to the find II. of strings. the lower. numbers 3. and hence the difficulty of obtaining proper balance. or else the musician line. (Vnill I /Violas div. and from the first. small orchestras passages sub-divided into many hard to realise. is to be divided in Vni as 1. ^ rVni I I Vni II div.

sforzando. portamento. In jyactice the notes of the viola. should only be used with caution. quick passages for stringed instruments long chromatic figures are never suitable. saltando. . either the octave note or the ninth of the open string. morendo — natural realm of the string quartet. flowing melodies. A limit should be set to the use of a high note on any one of the three lower strings on violins. (1) To give a list of easy three and four-note chords. light staccato. diminuendo. they are difficult to play and sound indistinct and muddled. or to explain the different methods of bowing does not come within the scope of the present book. being of an They can pass. nn H all this and V V V (down belongs to the bow and up bow). other instruments from one shade of expression to another. not too rapid sequence of scales. Note. The fact that these full instruments are capable of playing double notes and chords across three and four strings parts — to say nothing of sub-division of — renders (1). for 'cellos: V' . and in passages of repeated notes. spiccato. fortissimo. to say when in they are of long value. This note should be the one in the fourth position. Species of bowing such as legato. in order. staccato. the varieties infinite number. crescendo. In Skips should always be avoided.— Stringed instruments possess 8 — of more ways producing sound than better than any other orchestral group. detached. for violas: ^ ^ u. Such passages are better allotted to the wood-wind. for double basses: Higher notes given that is in Table A. pianissimo. attack at the nut and at the point. violas and 'cellos. in every degree of tone. 'cello and double bass. martellato. extreme limit in the string quartet should be fixed as follows: for violins: (fe . in tremolando. then. them not only melodic but also and the violin harmonic in character point of From come the view of activity flexibility takes pride of place among stringed instruments. slow.

from « upwards. or else is independent heard by part. and notes on the double bass below the range of the bass voice. Except in the case of pedal notes. Speak- weaker violin than others. that portion of their range situated of beyond the higher than the human voice. on the viola and the ing generally. medium melodic At the same time. group of of instruments far and away the best orchestral expression. the of vibration qualities stopped strings combined with of their above-named this — warmth "limits and nobility tone — renders e. and more penetrating on the upper ones Note. Comparing the range the of each stringed instrument with that of assign: to the violin. we may and . or a series of sounds. Covered strings (G)y on the 'cello (G and C).Nobility. descending from (written sound) lose in expression and warmth of tone. (D and G). and equality of tone from one end of the scale to stringed instruments. the other are qualities common to all them each in essentially superior to instruments of other groups. string has a distinctive character of its own. The top string on the violin (E) is brilliant in character. double bass is equally resonant throughout. the soprano human voice. usually doubling the bassoons. g. Open strings are clearer and more powerful but less expressive than stopped strings. The rare ability to connect sounds. difficult to define words. and render Further. The quality of the double bass tone itself therefore seldom and the character of its different strings is not so noticeable. that of the viola (A) is more biting in quality and slightly nasal. the highest string on the 'cello (A) is bright and possesses a "chest-voice" timbre.in octaves or in unison with the 'cellos. slightly duller on the two lower strings (E and A). the double bass rarely plays an moving. The the A and D strings on the violin and the D string in on the violas and tone 'cellos are somewhat sweeter and are rather harsh. warmth. notes on the violin the extreme top note of the soprano voice.

the flute they Owing to a certain tonal affinity with may be said to form a kind of link between string and wood-wind instruments. Note. harmonics are employed on sustained notes. much higher range. there of is any surviolins. Playing with the bow close to the bridge (sul ponticello). tremolando. cold and brilliant in loud ones. singing tone of the strings becomes dull in passages. the bass voice plus a lower range. the con- and tenor voice plus a much the tenor and bass voices plus a higher register. their and are used simply ornament. chiefly used tremolando. should never be overpowered by As a or rule other instruments. the clear. frequently used to day.. to the 'cello. producer a metallic sound. playing on the finger-board (sul tasto. is discussed under the heading of instruments of little The plus of five sets fairly of strings with number of of players given If above produce a even it balance tone. in all Besides an extra desk of first violins is usual orchestras. soft little Cold and transparent passages. here and there for brilliant effects. When soft muted. flautando) creates a veiled effect. and the volume of tone is always greatly reduced. Harmonics. the mute. Owing to lack of resonant power they should be used sparingly. turns to a slight hiss or whistle in loud ones. and offering but chance for expression. strength must be on the side the of first as they must be heard distinctly on account the this.— contralto voice plus a tralto 10 — higher register. Another radical change is effected by the use of mutes. or wood Another absolutely different sound results from playing with the back of the bow {col legno). to the double bass. when employed. and as a general . dull. This produces a sound like a xylophone or It a hollow pizzicato. to the viola. and some special devices in difference in the resonance bowing produce great and tone quality of all these instruments. sustaining power. they are rarely used in extremely simple melodies. important part they play in the harmonic scheme. alter the timbre of a stringed in instrument to a very appreciable extent. The use of harmonics. they form no fundamental part of orfor chestral writing. The of position of the bow on the string will affect the resonance an instrument. and.

11 — • .

are enclosed in brackets. Instruments which do not require additional players. and here at will. the composer may choose The group may be divided 13). possess a more powerful tone than second a The stand with the violas. On the other hand the group number of parts wood-wind instruments varies both as regards and the volume of tone at its command. it is not advisable for them to turn from one mouthpiece parts written for piccolo.). The English horn. In distinctly. diatonic or chromatic difficulty. bass flute. Wood-wind. with its five fying the demands of of any orchestral score. they latter. but are taken over by one or the and other executant in place of his usual instrument. (see table Arabic numerals denote the number of players on each instru- ment. the string group in an orchestra may be as an harmonic element particularly rich in resource. who are more accustomed using these instruments of a special nature. . 2^ etc. constituent parts remains constant. roman figures. considering the importance of their parts to another. secondary part. Wind ' instruments. and easily divisible into numerous considered sundry parts.— rule 12 — violins. in three's and in four's. the parts (isl. and in the majority of cases conclusion it- may be said that the group of strings. the formation of the string group. B. play so prominently. first oboe. is able to perform manner of passages. as a all ipelodic element. character. small clarinet. As a rule the first flute. bass clarinet and double bassoon are taken by the second and to third players in each group. first clarinet first bassoon never change instruments. and do not out The 'cellos and double basses are form the bass heard more in octaves. into three general classes: wood-wind instruments on page in pair's. adapted the infinite variety of shades of expression. satisfull Apart from the varying number of players. Capable of sustaining notes without to of playing chords of three and four notes. rapid and interrupted phrases in of every description.

— Wood-wind 13 .

The lower still oboes and bassoons is and rough. They do not possess such a register and belong ments. piano. high and extremely high. different In 14 — they lack the vitality and power.. is middle. and are less capable of shade of expression. clarinets and may be ba^s generally considered to be of equal power. adjacent registers almost blend is scarcely noticeable. oboes. a wind instrument of more notable colour than for expression. sforzando. the very high compass of the flutes hard and dry. nasal in quality. to the body of of highly-coloured but non-expressive instru- The four kinds bassoons wind instruments: flutes. cresc. bass clarinet and double bassoon. each of which characterised define by certain differences of quality and power. the very high register becomes somewhat . horn. say the range in which the instrument best qualified to achieve the various grades of tone. said of instruments which fulfil a special purpose: flute. Eng. is Outside this range. The same cannot be piccolo. bass flute. does not apply to the piccolo and double bassoon which represent the two extremes of the orchestral compass. horn and double bassoon). and b) struments of "chest-voice" quality and bright tone and resonance — flutes and in clarinets (piccolo. The four of wind instruments may be divided into two classes: instruments of nasal quality and dark resonance— in- oboes and bassoons (Eng. small clarinet. Each of these instruments has four registers: low. piercing. etc. I am probably the originator of It the term "scope of greatest expression". yet shrill. small clarinet. The clear resonance in the and clarinets acquires in something nasal and dark it lower compass. morendo. {forte. These characteristics the middle and of colour — expressed too simple and rudimentary a form — are specially noticeable in register of the upper thick is registers. together and the passage from one to another It is difficult to the exact limits of each register. I each wind instrument that is to have defined the scope of greatest is expression. of dim. But when the instrument jumps from one register to another the difference in power and families a) quality of tone is very striking. in which admits for richness the most expressive the truest sense of the word.)— the register playing.— strings. bass clarinet).

and depends. C for the clarinets — I 1 . G fixes the register of flutes and oboes. partly on the quality of the instrument itself. The scope of greatest expression for each typical instrument is marked thus. The signs r==— =:: are not to be mistaken for crescendo and diminuendo. partly on theposition and application of the lips. In the very high compass those notes are only given which can really be used. in the next. In the following Table B the top note in each register serves as the bottom note The note and bassoons.Note to Table B. . they indicate how the resonance of an instrument increases or diminishes in relation to the characteristic quality of its timbre. anything higher and not printed as actual notes are either too difficult to produce or of no artistic value. The number of sounds obtainable in the highest compass is indefinite. under the notes the range is the same in each instrument of the same type. as the limits to each register are not defined absolutely.

3 O c GO .

.

rather than material exactitude. is my object to express artistic fitness in words. shrill. and I refer Jo them as such. a table of wind instruments limit of range. In comparing the technical indivitualities of the wood-wind the following fundamental differences should be noted: a) •n*in ' The rapid to all repetition of a single note by single tonguing repitition of a single note flute.— 18 — Note. these skips are easier on flutes. clarinets sense of the word. for in using the terms thick. giving my reasons. composite passages the latter pair. No condemnatory meaning however should be attached my descriptions. The nasal instruments. but for expressive tfiis power and subtlety nuances the clarinet supersedes them. Instrumental sounds which have no musical meaning are classed by me in the category of useless sounds. we must encroach upon the domain of sight. are their mobile and supple. but distinct and penetrating staccato passages are better suited to the oboes and bassoons. With the exception of these. defining different qualities of appended. dry. the reader is advised to consider all other orchestral timbres beautiful from an times. is Further on. outlining the approximate tone and indicating the scope of greatest expression (the piccolo and double bassoon excepted). of tone to instrument can reduce volume by a mere less breath. Though borrowed from these senses. while the sustained legato flutes and clarinets excel in well- phrases. is com- wind instruments. to effect all sorts of scales and rapid passages in and bassoons In very quick common with the flutes and clarinets. It is a difficult matter to define tone quality in words. having accounted for double reed. but. but. and even taste. The playing four equally capable to of legato and staccato and changing from one the other in different ways. . I have no doubt as to the appropriateness of my comparisons. oboes may be considered melodic instruments in the real more cantabile and peaceful character. only of a passages they often double the families are or strings. Flutes and clarinets are the (the in flutes most flexible wood-wind instruments in particular).o should be allotted to the first to two instruments. is by means double tonguing b) only possible on the a reedless instrument. as a general rule definitions drawn from other sources are too elementary to to be applied to music. at them to other uses. is On account of its construction the clarinet to not well adapted to sudden leaps from one octave another. Composite legato passages stacca'. oboe this is and bassoon. oboes and bassoons. although it is necessary. feeling. piercing. etc. but these general directions should not deter the orchestrator from adopting the opposite plan. flutes. to put artistic point of view.

— c) 19 — on oboes and bassoons. a melody of light character in the tenor register could not be given to the flutes. whether it be joyful or sadj mocking or distressed can be aroused by one single isolated timbre. upon the whole formation of a given piece of music. do not hesitate to make the following general remarks which apply generally to the middle and upper registers of each instrument: a) Flute. d) Bassoon. to to melodies and graceful character. rhythm. in the major key. slight touches of transient sorrow. or a sad. cold Brilliant b) c) Oboe— Clarinet— Ringing. In the endeavour to characterise the timbre of each instrument I typical of the four families. pathetic and sad in the minor. a sad. rest taken therefore to give them a is little from time This unnecessary in the case of string players. is true that meditative or lively. or mirth. and Note. In the extreme registers these instruments convey the following impressions to my mind: Low a) register Very high register Flute— Dull. players cannot manage extremely long sustained as they are compelled to take breath. care must be to time. ailing quality in the minor. The choice of instruments and timbre to be adopted depends on the position which m< lody and harmony occupy in the seven-octave scale of the orchestra. plaintive phrase in the high soprano register confided to the bassoons. Arpeggios and rapid alternation of two intervals legato sound well on flutes and clarinets. But the ease with which tone colour can be adapted to expression must not be forgotten. and in the first of these two cases it may be conceded that the mocking character of the bassoon could easily and quite naturally assume a light-hearted aspect. d) Bassoon— It no mood or frame of mind. in the minor. — In the major. careless or reflective. but not Wood-wind passages. specially suitable. in the minor key. c) Clarinet. it dep^ds more upon the general melodic line. — Pliable and expressive. to to outbursts of melodies of a joyful or contemplative character. — Artless and gay in the major. 2* . from a psychological point of view. and dynamic shades of expression. the harmony. an atmosphere of senile mockery. b) Oboe. suitable. for example. — Cold of light in quality. to sad and reflective melodies or impassioned and dramatic passages. dry Piercing Tense. in the major. Wild threatening Sinister Hard.

it is recognised that the double bassoon capable of supplying for colour valuable assistance. strument on which it is played is of special importance. effects. or to alto oboe (oboe low in F) is similar in tone its the ordinary oboe. and of the of piccolo and sm^ll clarinet the ordinary flute and is. the character of which is at variance with the written melody (for eccentric. when the to limits of the orchestral scale are considerably extended (up similarly. principally. Nowadays.). of darker colour in the low register and lacks the in silveiy quality the upper notes. grotesque effects. but the middle and upper registers of the latter are by no means so useful. to in extend the range clarinet the high its The is whistling. is colder in . characteristics. Note. In the dreamy quality of it timbre pene- being sweet trating. artistic feeling prompts him to employ instruments. but it possesses same features as the flute. the double bassoon are remarkably thick very powerful in piano passages. as the effect produced There are also moments when a composer's cannot fail to be successful. The following remarks illustrate the employment of special instruments: The duty register. clarinet. and down is to the low C. register is fairly The bass is though strongly resembling the ordinary clarinet. The small clarinet in its highest register is more penetrating than the ordinary clarinet The low and middle range but the tone regions. contra octave). the high C of the 7*h octave. is of the piccolo and small flute clarinet clarinet. etc. in the extreme. timbre. the piccolo forms an indispensable constituent of the wind-group. it The bass the an instrument seldom used even today. piercing quality of the piccolo in highest itself compass extraordinarily powerful.— 20 — in the second case. correspond to the same register so in the normal and much weaker register. still that it is of little service in those Tlie double bassoon in the extends the range of the ordinary bassoon low The characteristics of the bassoon's in low compass are range of the further accentuated the corresponding double bassoon. flute is it is incapable of joyful ex- pression. 16 ft. but does not lend to more moderate shades of expression. The small clarinet is rarely employed and only The English horn. that the slightly melancholy timbre of the flute is somewhat related to the feeling of sorrow and distress with which the passage is The case of a melody coinciding in character with the into be permeated. The very deep and dense in notes of quality. the listless.

21 — These their and crystalline in the middle and high regions. The muting of clarinets is artificial unnecessary. and others. first during the half of orchestra (Berlioz etc. horn and bass clarinet were employed initially the same century by Berlioz. was neglected after Beethoven's death and did not reappear until towards the The Eng. and in the revised version of "Ivan the Terrible". Very few attempts have been made to introduce the small clarinet into the end of the 191!l century. and Sadko. this instrument together with the bass flute is used in my opera-ballet Mlada (1892). the piccolo and double bassoon were the first to be used in the orchestra. Of the six special instruments referred to above. and also in my most recent compositions. Mutes deaden the tone it is of oboes. Mutes have no highest register of wind instruments. to become. Is has not yet been discovered great how to mute the flutes. the bass flute will also be found in The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh. however.). as they can play quite softly enough without means. permanent orchestral factors. horns. This done by inserting a soft pad. Note. The lowest note on the bassoon. often used in the orchestra. have and are own distinctive peculiarities of timbre. Meyerbeer.— colour. and in . Eng. and on the oboe and Eng. and bassoons to such an extent that for possible these instruments to attain the extreme limit of pianissimo playing. horn are impossible effect in the when the instruments are muted. apart from extending the low registers of the instruments to which they belong. in three's. into three general classes corres(in to those of the wood-wind pair's. like that of the wood-wind is not absolutely uniform. first in the theatre. three particular instruments. clearly exposed. Brass. later on. and varies ih different scores. the latter. The formation of the group of brass instruments. as solo instruments. then in the concert room. or a piece of roUed- up cloth into the bell of the instrument. and for some time retained their position as extras. The brass group may be divided ponding four's). The Christmas Night. Of late years the habit of is muting the wood-wind has come into fashion. such a discovery would render service to the piccolo.

wind in pair's .22 Group corresponding to the wood.

strength. the marks of expression in the horns should be one degree stronger than if in the rest of the brass. the the horns should be marked forte On other hand. from pianissimo and reducing the tone inversely. com- bined with wood-wind in three's. by this means the alto trumpet part 3. I have not brought its trumpet in ordinary theatres into play the last four notes of lowest register or their neighbouring chromatics. stirring — A). An in to instrument of my own it invention. alto and finer tone. the piano phrases the high notes are and low notes troubled. therefore. the sf =— p effect being excellent. to character and tone quality may in Trumpets (B\> tone. To obviate the difficulty of using: the and some concert rooms. played // the tone hard and "crackling". « Brass instruments are so similar in range and timbre that the is discussion of register unnecessary. in Invented by to me and used very the first time Mlada realise the high . but piano. the 23 — same force. and trombones play pp. (in Small trumpet for E\>—D). In used by me the opera — ballet Mlada. 3 in the trumpet scale) possesses clearer. are about one half as strong. the trumpets p. for swelling Played pp the resonance is Brass instru- ments possess a remarkable capacity to fortissimo. it have consistently written for in my later works. may be played by an ordinary trumpet in Bl> or A. The following remarks as be added: a) 1. and with a decrease in tone. 2. the deep register (notes 2 a fuller. Two ordinary trumpets with an trumpet produce greater smoothness and Satis- equality in resonance than three ordinary trumpets. Clear in full and forte fairly penetrating in and rousing passages. silvery. alto Note.— passages. as though threatening danger. cornets have not quite the horns. is sweet. brilliant as the higher register approached. in forte they have softly. same weight as other brass instruments played To obtain an equal balance. fied with I the beauty and usefulness of the alto trumpet. two horns are needed one trumpet or one trombone. As a general is rule quality becomes more vice versa. Alto trumpet first (in F). to obtain a proper balance in to passages.

The horn. Note. the forte powerful and sono- rous. the tuba eminently useful for doubling. serves as a link In spite of between the brass and wood-wind. though uniform in resonance is constituent -parts. less characteristic than the trombone. Trombone. is 24 — In difficulty. on the trumpet. therefore. it is dark and brilliant. Thick and rough in quality. round and The middle notes resemble those of the bassoon and the two instruments blend well together. the tuba is fairly flexible. but valuable for the strength and beauty of its low notes. and c) Horn and (in F). the bass of the group to which belongs. a scope of greatest expression may be distinguished . Valve trombones are more mobile than slide trombut the latter bones. of this instrument is soft. tonality and range similar to the soprano cornet in a mili- The small trumpet. brilliant is Dark and threatening in the in the deepest register. employed today in Expert players can imitate the cornet tone vice versa. are certainly to be preferred as regards nobility and equality of sound. b) Cornets (m B\> to — A). rarely is a beautiful theatre or instrument though concert room. an it octave lower. not so well adapted to expressive playing (in the exact sense of the word) as the wood-wind group. the more so from the fact that these. the lower register in the upper. {B\^ — A) sounding an octave higher than the ordinary trumpet has not yet appeared in musical literature.instruments are rarely required to perform quick passages. but softer and weaker. owing their tone. The piano full but somewhat heavy. The tone In full full of beauty. Possessing a quality of tone similar It the trumpet. poetical.— trumpet notes without the instrument tary band. e) to the special character of Tuba. the horn has but little valves to pro- mobility and would seem duce d) its tone in a languid and lazy manner. The group throughout its of brass instruments. is Like the double bass and double bassoon. Thanks to its valves. and triumphant high compass. Nevertheless.

25 — O u a 3 U o a E u CO (1> > 'So o - x: H .

stopped notes and mutes alters the character of Stopped notes can only be employed on trumpets. diffi- on instruments with a small mouth-piece. Stopped and muted notes are similar On the trumpet. the silvery tone of the instrument to lost and a timbre resembling that of the oboe and Eng. senza sordini. the shape of cornets and horns. tender and Resonance is greatly reduced. The remarks on of breathing. assuming a wild "crackling" character dull in piano. becomes my mind a new and inde- . the trombones and tubas prevents the bell. muting a note produces a better tone it. tubas rarely posses them. rhythmical repitition of a note by single tonguing all possible to members of the brass. single notes are stopped in short phrases. In company with of bassoon to is not given to the small trumpet (E\j( — D) The is and tuba rapid and play with any great amount expression. Vni II. hand from being inserted all into Though mutes are applied indiscriminately to brass instruments in the orchestra. I do not propose to describe the difference between the two operations in detail. say that the tone deadened by both methods. and to form an opinion as to Sufficient to its importance from his own is personal observation. Instruments of little sustaining power. apply with equal force The use brass tone. in the section devoted to the to the brass. in quality.— in the 26 — the piccolo and double middle it registers. but double tonguing can only be done cornets. horn -f- is approached. muted. wood-wind. and will leave the reader to acquire the knowledge for himself. trumpets and These two instruments can execute rapid tremolando without culty. produce an effect of distance. Plucked strings. Violas. basses) does not it make use of the bow. when C. but plucks to strings with the finger. Stopped notes (con sordino) are marked underneath the note. the usual orchestral string quartet (Vni I. thjC D. When 'Cellos. Brass instruments. than stopping In the horn both methods are employed. in forte passages. sometimes followed by 0» denoting the resumption of open sounds. muted in longer ones.

zither. hand playing pizz. pizzi- range of expression. it and used chiefly as a colour effect On open strings is resonant and heavy. (Translator's note. b) on double notes and chords. violins. Pizzicato. which produces sound in a similar manner. The majority scores require only but in recent times composers have written for two harps. must always be much slower than on the In pizzicato chords it is better to avoid open strings. in the high positions is rather dry and hard. the tone weak however. like the balalaika. with the harp. plucked with a be used in group may be classed the gmids. the speed of pizzicato playing depends upon the thickness of the strings. are far less agile than the passages therefore can never be performed as quickly as those played arco. Although capable of every degree of power from cato playing has but small // to is pp. In the orchestra. Chords attack. instruments such as the domra. sider it con- separatelyIn this under the heading of plucked strings. is better known abroad. Note.. the harp is almost entirely an harmonic or of accompanying instrument. for instance. create a charming effect. fingers of the right pizz. quill. which produce a more four there brilliant tone than of covered strings. Table D on page 31 indicates the range in which pizzicato may two be used on each stringed instrument. on it stopped strings shorter and duller. pizzicato comes into operation in distinct ways: a) on single notes. all of which may an orchestra.— pendent group with its 27 — Associated I own particular quality of tone. one harp or part. Moreover. which even three are sometimes compressed into the one part (1) A russian instrument which. but have no place in the scope of the present book. The bow. In the orchestra. Harp. it on the double basses. (1) the mandoline etc. of notes is allow oi greater freedom and vigour of as no danger of accidentally touching a wrong note. Natural is harmonics played pizz. balalaika. and they are chiefly successful on the violoncello.) .

florid and the figures springing from them. the transition from C flat. major to their minor subdominant chords or keys is not possible owing to double flats. For this reason. The special function of the harp lies in the execution of chords. the notes of a chord should be written close together. on which the most abrupt modulations are possible. in the and harder in tone. It is therefore sharps or double (I) A chromatic harp without pedals has now been invented in France (Lyon's system).) .— 28 — Note. and the mixture of one chord with another produces effect. the extreme in special notes in both compasses may be employed circumstances. In of the strings is slightly prolonged. is The harp essentially a diatonic instrument. (1) would remind the reader that the harp is not capable of double flats. where the strings are shorter rule. with not too great a space be- tween one hand and the (arpeggiato). and the orches- bear this fact in mind. certain modulations from one key to another one. but. adjacent to it can only be accomplished enharmonically. But the difficulty may be obviated by using two harps Note. the middle and lower octaves the resonance dually. and dies away gra- changes of harmony the player stops the vibration of the strings with his hands. in quick modulations. Full orchestras should include three or even four harps. My operas Sadko. I alternately. Mlada for three. It a discordant follows that more or less rapid figures can only be realised clearly and neatly in the upper register of *he harp. For instance. the harp does not lend trator is advised to itself to For this reason rapid modulation. (Translator's note. As only four notes at the most can be played by each hand. and for doubling in octaves. notify it other. and The Golden Cockerel are designed for t\yo harps. G flat or D flat. The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh. since all chromatic passages depend on the manipulation of the pedals. As a general whole range of the harp: 8 bassa first to only the notes of the the fourth octave are used. The chords must always be broken otherwise should the composer wish In he should (non arpeggiato). this is method not feasible.

the strings is sufficienty clear. and are only possible played quite softly. like the string quartet. therefore. yet not too Forte glissando scales. the harp. enharmonically as the above reservations is much more common. quite piano. nant keys. the louder will sound. as a purely musical glissando can only be used in the upper octaves.— necessary major. in the tonic and domito. is impossible to change from A sharp. more an instrument of colour than expression. D B sharp or flat. technical operation known as glissando is peculiar to the harp Taking for granted that the reader is conversant with the methods pedals. Chords in of three notes written close together^ two for the left hand and one for the right. in and middle Glis- sando passages obtained. on account double sharps. minor to their respective dominant major chords flat. if they are to be heard against a orchestra playing it The more rapidly a glissando passage played. The tender poetic quality of the it harp is adapted to every dy- namic shade. or keys. it start enharmonically from the of F sharp or C sharp. pizzicato. was the necessary attribute of an orchestra up and . Percussion instruments producing determinate sounds. Kettle-drums. Similarly. every dynamic shade of tone harmonics can only consist possible. is never a very powerful instrument. keyed instruments. forte. but At least three. are chords of the seventh and ninth. and do not apply. it of acquiring different scales will by means of double-notched be sufficient to remark and that glissando scales to produce time the a discordant medley to of sound owing the length of strings effect. and the it orchestrator should treat if with respect. to 29 — keys of B. E flat and A minor must be the starting-points. Harmonic notes on the harp have great charm but little resonance. continue vibrate. of where the sound prolonged. not four harps full is in unison are necessary. is Speaking generally. entailing the use of the lower strings are only permissible as embellishments. The alone. indispensable to every theatre and concert orchestra occupy the most important place ments. Kettle-drums. G sharp. in the group of percussion instru- A pair of kettle-drums (Timpani).

from. including Beethoven's* time. instrument gave the Z)> of the fourtii octave. . The composer can therefore tdke it for granted timpanist. from thundering fortissimo to a barely perceptible pianissimo. ballet A magnificent kettle-drum of very small size was this my opera- Mlada. To deaden the sound. advise the composer to select: CcMomaV. a piece of cloth is generally placed on the skin of the drum. permitting instant tuning in the majority of rally to is rarely met with.: — tury onward. certos) belongs almost entirely to the russian school The object two-fold: the quality of tone. good orchestras. having three kettle-drums at his that a good command. The dered limits to be: of possible change in Beethoven's time was consi- (chromaticatly) (cV»w»*^'^*'^ Big kettle-drura 4|.) are particularly interesting in this respect. still. will be able to tune at least one of them during a pause of some length. three screw drums are genebe found. If during the whole course or part of a work. In tre- molando they can execute the most gradual crescendo. as this of depends entirely on the size quality of the smallest one. either alone. according to the instruction: timpani coperti (muffled drums). Piano and Celesta. The use is of a piano in the orchestra (apart from pianoforte con(1).ca«V^ ^ made for Note. 4y P In these days is difficult define the precise extent of high compass and but I in the kettle-drums. the expensive chromatic drum. but. or combined with (1) Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Sadko and Moussorgsky's Boris Godounov (Translator's note. in western Europe 30 — in Russia. which there are many kinds. diminuendOy the sfp and morendo. Kettle-drums are capable of every dynamic shade of tone. ^.^ it — ^" to Small kettle-drum: . the middle of the WJl cen- and an ever-increasing need was felt for the presence of three or even four kettle-drums.

Celesta. ^ The black notes are dry and hard. * Table E. Violin. without resonance. and should only be used when doubled with the wood-wind. celesta. Glockenspiel (ordinary). •) This note is often missing. Glockenspiel. xylophone. .— 31 — Table D. Violoncello. Pizzicato. Glockenspiel (with keyboard!. Double bass. Viola. Xylophone.

The glockenspiel (campanelli) may be made type is of steel bars. plates take the place of strings. not as a solo instrument. cymbals. glocken- and xylophone. castanets. Instruments in this group. that is with the wood or back of The sound produced is similar to the xylophone. bells They have no intrinsic have been made of suspended metal plates possessing the (Editor's note. and Chinese gong do not take any harmonic or in melodic part the orchestra. small steel the celesta. and is gains in quality as the number of players increased. and which are sufficiently portable to be used on the concert platform.) rare quality of a fairly pure tone. similar trating. Glockenspiel. in the but tone of more and pene(1). It produces a and piercing. side or military drum. When the piano forms part is of an orchestra. the guzli. or a soft peal of bells. when it is not available should be replaced by an upright piano. tambourine. . and not the glockenspiel. celesta it The is only found in full orchestras.— that of the harp. Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds. To complete the bow. both powerful hammers. The xylophone is a species of harmonica composed of strips or little cylinders of wood. (1) Recently. and can only be considered as ornamental instruments pure and simple. such as triangle. and the hammers falling on them produce a delightful sound. struck with two clattering sound. bass drum. Gen). little bells. switch or rod {Rule. Xylophone. made to imitate a (as in Glinka). Bells. first used by Tschaikovsky. very similar to the glockenspiel. or played with a keyboard. but today the is gradually being superseded by In the celesta. The use is the glockenspiel brilliant to the celesta. A spiel table is appended showing the range of 'the celesta. this catalogue of sounds mention should be made of the strings playing col legno. Big bells shape hollow discs or metal tubes or real church bells of moderate size may be considered more as theatrical properties than orchestral instruments. is 32 — popular instrument. an upright piano it preferable to a grand. The its first the of more satisfactory is and posesses greater resonance.

). but. Wood-wind the horns.). of little is still harder form a comparison with instruments sustaining power. in 1 instruments. Comparison resonance in orchestral groups and combination of different tone qualities. to two 1 wind instruments. wind-instruments. As regards the glockenspiel. The influence of the timbre of one group on another is noticeable when timbre the groups are doubled. it may be taken for {all granted that 151 piano passages. are only one-half as strong. It (Violins to = 2 Flutes = Oboe + 1 Clarinet. more difficult to establish a comparison in resonance between wood-wind and strings. 1 passages the horns Trumpet = 1 Trombone = 1 Tuba = as 2 Horns. playing in corresponding registers. the wind thickens the strings . for instance. and brass on the other. The combined force of groups of sustained resonance col legno. are twice weak as Horn = 2 Clarinets = 2 Oboes = 2 Flutes all = 2 Bassoons.- 33 The first musical meaning. wood or brass are of fairly equal balance. and xylophone. in prte passages. three m^ay be considered as high. trombones and tuba. bells. the brass. This may serve as a guide their use with percussion instruments of determinate sounds. The same may be said of the kettle-drums with their ringing. the four following as medium^ and the to last two as deep instruments. piano passages. but. for too great a diversity in production and emission of sound exists. as everything depends on the number of the It is latter. in an orchestra in of medium is formation. Re-inforcing both. or softly. the strongest instruments In loud are the trumpets.) I equivalent in strength to one wind instrument. their emphatic tone will easily prevail over other groups in combination. in jorte passages. resounding quality. the whole of one department Violins or all 2!ii Violins etc. (Violins = 1 Flute I etc. and are just mentioned by the way. of of the respective In comparing the resonance groups of sound- sustaining instruments clusions: In the we arrive at the following approximate con- most resonant group. the easily overpowers the strings played pizz. and also of other subsidiary instruments. is when the wood-wind to the closely allied to the strings on the one hand. and. piano played or the celesta. etc.

hence. these wood- two instruments being somewhat analogous ^ . to the wood-wind in unison still sweet coherent the wood-wind timbre predominating. brass. the latter lending a touch to the tone of the wood-wind. +2 +2 Ob.D. + Vni + Violas. both qualities being heard independently. in the may be vaguely compared to and the lowest compass orchestral of of medium range. basses + + 1 F^g- Muted two tone strings strings do not combine so well with wood-wind. a point contact is established between the quartet of strings and the wood-wind. wood and strings. mellow and coherent tone. All. and the consequent increase in resonance yields an admirable exists effect. The strings do not blend so well with the side. brass. department added strings: 2 or: 2 Fl. kettle-drums of relief and percussion generally. strengthen and clarify pizzicato harp.34 and softens the brass." 4. but the addition of one wind instrument part latter. Uniting plucked and percussion with instruments of sustained resonance results in the following: wind instruments. One department produces a of strings added q^uality. 4- 'Cellos. The flute relationship which between string harmonics and the or piccolo constitutes a link between the two groups in the upper range of the orchestra. CI. as the remain qualities and separate. the timbre of the viola the middle register of the bassoon the clarinet. or: 2 CI. I. Ob. the two blend perfectly. only thickens the resonance of the lost in the process: II the wood-wind timbre being Vni I or: Violas + Vni + 'Cellos distinct -f 1 1 Ob. CI. Uniting plucked strings and percussion with bowed instruments does not produce such a satisfactory blend.. is The combination of plucked strings excellent. or several wind instruments in combination will absorb one of. with percussion alone. each is heard too in The combination of the three different timbres unison produces a rich. and when the two groups are placed side by distinctly.2 Fag. Moreover. or: 'Cellos -j. to all or of the strings in unison. the connection between The bassoon and horn provide wind and brass.

The groups principal part in of sustained music is undertaken by three instrumental resonance. and the expressive capacity of the other groups diminishes in the above order. eliminates characteristics of tone. serenades etc. are chiefly employed for ornament and colour. plucked strings. By glancing ducing will definite. the standpoint of general effect in strings for We can listen to an almost indefinite period of time without getting {vide tired. at the order in which the six orchestral groups are placed. the strings come group first. percussion pro- and those producing indefinite sounds. duces a dull. written for strings alone). the flute also. the quality of wind instruments soon becomes wearisome. in the lowest register. in pair's. representing the three primary eleInstruments of little ments. .in character 35 — its when played piano or mezzo. The addition of a single group of strings will add lustre to a passage for wind instruments. play no their functions being purely rhythmical. Stopped and muted notes instrument. the number of string quartets. the same and also percussion at may be said of plucked strings. in three's etc. brass. the reader art of be able to determine the part played by each in the orchestration. and proof simple. horns and trumpets are similar in quality to the oboe and Eng.forte. sustaining power. The same order obtains from orchestration. colour being the only attribute of the last of percussion instruments. instruments producing indeterminate sounds melodic or harmonic part. from the secondary standpoint of colour and expression. strings. wood-wind. horn. recalls in pianissimo trumpet tone. so varied are their characteristics suites. whereas the employment elementary combinations gives '" '=°"'"- infinitely greater scope for variety 7 (20) June 1908. melody. neutral texture. It reasonable intervals cannot be denied that the constant use of compound timbres. though sometimes used independently. As regards expression. On the other hand. and blend tolerably well with the latter Concluding this survey of orchestral groups I add a few remarks which seem to me of special importance. harmony and rhythm. of every kind in orchestral which should only be employed composition.

and the melody is detached by means of strongly accentuated dynamic shades. sent treatise. artificially. by selection and contrast of timbres.Chapter II. or crossing of parts (violon- cellos flutes. in tone The reader of find many examples of in predull With the exception little the double basses.. naturally. — is each of the other stringed qualified to struments. strengthening of resonance by doubling. Whether it be long or short. tripling. This may be done by artificial or natural means. oboes above the bassoons above the clarinets in Melody planned fact the upper parts stands out from the very of position alone. melody should always stand out in relief from the accompaniment. etc. sibility for the assume full respon- melodic line. above the violas and violins. . and likewise. a simple theme or a melodic phrase. when the question of tone quality does not come into consideration. chiefly employed in unison or in in- octaves the violoncellos. middle of the orchestral range is not so prominent and the methods referred to above come into operation. clarinets or etc. (in They may sixths) also be employed for two part melody thirds and and for polyphonic writing. taken independently. to In the a less degree when it is situated in the it low register. Melody Instances of the in stringed instruments. are the in- melodic use of stringed instruments will numerable. MELODY. — and with flexibility.).

Antar. or to both in unison. Pan Voyevoda. b) Violas. measure (Vnil con quality of tone. oriental in style. the mutes producing a dull ethereal No. Light graceful melody. in — Muted violas. piano D\> major. (The same theme in Eng. 1. Antar 12 . duet in Act II 145 . — Pianissimo melody (Vnil) parts. horn . Harmonic accompaniment (Vn?-!! and Vio- tremolando — middle 70 . a process which produces re- sonance without impairing quality of tone. in the violas. 4. Melody in the alto-tenor register and a still higher compass is assigned to the violas. Examples: The Tsar's Bride dramatic character. Cantabile melodies however are not so frequently written for violas as for violins and 'cellos. The Legend of the Invisible City of Kiiesh [283 Spanish Capriccio [T\. 6. Examples: No. partly because the is number of viola players in an orchestra las are generally smaller. No.— Melody 37 — and an extra-high compass sometimes to the 2ni Viofuller a) Violins. — Flowing cantabile. The Golden Cockerel Sadko. 193 . las [84j. Vni I in the upper register doubling the high register of the wood-wind. No. 2. A piano melody (Vnil) graceful in character. A long cantabile melody No. Vn^I con sor- No. 3. before dini piano. Melodies confided to the vio- doubled by other strings or by the wood-wind.). dolce. Symphonic tableau 12. A short dance theme. in unison with the mezzo soprano voice. forming the bass). the Violincellos of a troubled. in the soprano-alto register usually falls to the lot of the lins 151 Violins. partly be- cause the viola tone short characteristic is slightly nasal in quality and better fitted for phrases. 5. Choice resonance. a dance sord. Sheherazade 2iil movement B . — Descending melodic phrase.

8. double bass is capable of broad cantabile phrases and only in unison or 'cellos. in octaves with the of In my own compositions there is no phrase any im- portance given to the double bass without the support of 'cellos or bassoons. an instance of later by the bassoon. doubled This example by the double bassoon. Pan Voyevoda 134 . -{- Owing and its to its register— basso profondo the a still lower compass. d) Double basses. Legend of Kitesh 306 . basses + D. At the fifth bar.— in the 6i!i 38 — is ^ene of the opera Sadko slightly more penetrating in tone). imitating the first clarinet. Snegourotchka 231 . . affords the rare use of the alto clef (in the last few notes). 9. a melody on the A string cantabile ed espressivo. Double bass solo. c) Violoncellos. Examples: Antar Antar [56 [63 Cantabile on the A string. Examples: *No. The same melody in Dl> maj. Violoncellos. little — muffled resonance. broad violins melody dolce ed espressivo. No. Snegourotchka [274J. No. The Golden Cockerel 120 . No.bassoons. Such me- lodies are usually laid out for the top string (A) which possesses a wonderfully rich "chest" quality. on the D A string (doubled by the bassoons). 7. first 10. nocturne. — D. Melodic phrase with embellishments. afterwards doubled by the first an octave higher. 11. representing the tenor-bass range + an extra-high compass are more melody than with often entrusted with tense passionate cantabile distinctive figures or rapid phrases. "Moonlight". *No.

as in the preceding case. a third higher. Violas -[- 4" Eng. 39 — Grouping a) -j- in unison. — Same combination. the 'cello quality predominating. is more makes no essential differer'ce rest.— Vnil no Vnill. 15. — Vnil + of is II muted and and violas Violins Violas. mezzo-forte cantabile as its in Ex. beginning of the third movement. — Apparition of of Spring. No. brilliant resonance horn and tense. 12. 'Cellos Snegourotchka |T]. and the resonance rich full. and the tone quality remains quartet. The large number of violins prevents the wood-wind the string predominating. The same melody. Sfieherazade. 14. Examples: No. beginning cantabile and divided in octaves (vnsn]^) with florid em- bellishment. \ . the 'cellos stand out above the No. Quiet melody pp. but in a brighter key. gains in power and richness of of players. tone by reason of the increased number and is usually of the attended by doubling of the melody in some departments that of wood-wind. Cantabile for Vnil and I! on the D string. horn. full Violas + 'Cellos. The Golden Cockerel c) 142 . Examples: No. The Golden Cockerel -j- no . The addition to the Eng. — Produces a rich resonance. enriched and amplified. violins The remain predominant. cantabile Sadko [2O8J. Examples: No. — The combination violins presents no special characteristics. Quick piano melody. — Vnil + + Violas II (G string). Violas + 'Cellos muted. The May Night. in unison with the altos and tenors of the chorus. that this — It goes without saying it combination entails alteration in colour. 9. then on the A. overture later D . the compound tone. b) 13. 16. The Golden Cockerel [t^.

e) Vn51 -j- H -|- Violas is -f. Examples: No. a) Vnil and is Vn^-ll in octaves. 1 + + 'Cellos -f Eng.'Cellos. Sadko Legend 260|. full process unites the resonance the instruments into ensemble of complex quality. severe in No. basses. Examples: Nr.'Cellos. Act. violas and an 'cellos in this unison not possible except in the alto-tenor register. 19. The May Night. 21. extremely full and rich in piano.9. 20.nds of melodic It in particular those the very high register. has al- ready been stated that the £. a very common process used for in all k. more powerful of in resonance. — Energetic phrase //. before Mlada. is The same cantabile as in the Still in Ex. "Spring descends upon the lake. 2ni movement [adj. The combination of the solo 'cello with the violins gives the latter a touch of the 'cello timbre. 18. —A combination similar to the is preceding one. and 15. string diminishes in fulness of tone . No. Act III [T]. Lithuanian dance. Cantabile embellished in oriental fashion. III. Mlada. — A persistent forte figure. Snegourotchka Vni11 |288| . Examples: No." Vni. — Cleopatra's dance. of Kitesh [240] . The Eng. P . 40 . horn absorbed musical texture. character.E^- — A combination of rich full reso- nance. This figures. sinister and horrible in charaqter. very tense and powerful in forte passages. Stringed instruments doubling in octaves. used occasionally for nhrases in the very low register. the principal colour being that of the 'cellos. f) Violoncellos -|.40 d) Violins -). The 'cello tone prevails and the resonance fuller. Sheherazade. horn. 17. — A pianissimo phrase. Chorus Roussdlki. — Combining of violins.

— the higher it 41 — become of ascends from the limits of the soprano voice. The Legend Tsar Saltan \221j. The Tsar's Bride |206| . dolce and No. 22. Nevertheless the method can be used occasionally when the strings are doubled by the wood-wind. way the piercing quality of the highest notes will be diminished. * The Golden Cockerel 156 165 * Antar. and when the melody falls in a sufficiently high register. Cantabile. its Sadko. dolce. No. No. cantabile (the 3^ movement [T[. and the expressive tone quality of the lower octave will be strengthened. Such doubling secures expression. In this will the other 151 Violins can play the octave below. mezzo-piano. 6). piano The Tsar's Bride is Cantabile. Cantabile same as Ex. phrases. fulness of tone and firmness The reader a will find numerous examples of violins in octaves. Symphonic tableau phrase pianissimo. Melody with reite- rated notes. 166 . given (cf. e cantabile. Sadko. the melody acquire a clearer and more pleasant sound. Note. espress. Perhaps an unique example of kind. yUf-iJ] 8 muted. One or two desks all of the Isl Violins are sufficient to double the melody in the upper octave. to Ex. Sheherazade. 24. thei. 23. timbre. 12). This passage is difficult but nevertheless quite playable. . 25. A short dance the violins first to the violas. 1-^ movement 11 III * Ivan the Terrible. 12 . few are added below. the lower part in unison with the soprano voice. of in G major. More- over. melodic figures in the very high register of the violins too isolated from the rest of the ensemble unless doubled in octaves. Act [63 b) Violins divisi in octaves. opera 207 . violins playing in the very extremity of the high register. First and second violins divided in two parts and progressing in octaves will deprive the melody of resonance. since the number of players is diminished by half. chiefly broad and expressive Examples : No. the consequences being specially noticeable in small orchestras.

e) Violins and Violoncellos in octaves. The solo desk will be suffi- prominent owing to the general pianissimo. (Sopr. in the upper. 8).. [TsT]. ^• ^' on the violins. Of special use when the Violins are otherwise employed. 1. c) Violins and Violas in octaves. Ex. The flute and all the l^i except two play in the lower octave. 28. and Violoncellos in octaves. the two solo ciently violins. transmitted to the flute and clarinet d) Violas (cf. only.4 very expressive passages where the 'cellos have to play or on the D strings. I). horn. 27. Quick animated introducing reiterated notes. Snegourotchka in [^.Vnlll Vnl + ViolasJ^The first 1 „ These two distributions are not exactly the same. before forte. Partial Examples. Examples: No. — vns'iij ^ doubling of Coupava's song the melody. — yfjj^'s^ "] 8. two octaves.— Snegourotchka 42 — mezzo-forte espressivo. passage. VniOorlin. Used in . \^. I Vni I 2- + in J^ Violas ^"^ 3. — Chorus of Flowers — vn\""-f fi i] ^• earlier Pianissimo cantabile chorus (Sopr. This method produces a it more resonant tone than the preceding one. Example: * Legend of Kitesh [so]. Sadko. 26. in octaves First is and second Violins progressing with the Violas especially a common method. No. One flute and one oboe double No. Quick melody. [Ta?]. instances of are frequent. piano. second give the lower part a fuller and should be used to obtain greater brilliance in the upper part. . Snegourotchka finale to Act I — vSl n + vioiasj ^• Cantabile phrase. finale of Act -. to when the lower octave in string the melody happens go below the open G .). cSios] ^' ^^^^^^^ ^y bassoons. the to more cantabile quality. progressing with the women's and given out Violins by the Eng. Violas J Example: Snegourotchka ry [TaT] .

Examples of are to be found everywhere. is This combination seldom arises and only used when the 'cellos are Example: No. 29. not doubled. Eastern Sheherazade."^. 30. and produces a beautiful quality of tone. Act |b. before [p] '] 8- — ^[]J . somewhat severe Examples: Snegoarotchka\^. Pan Voyevoda bile nocturne "Moonlight" to 'cellos III — ^q'^I^^ Canta- melody given alone (cf. 8- The Mcy Night. simplified in Sometimes the double bass 'cello part. doubled in the feol. and ^liios The |i34| . 7).d] — ^0^. No. . origin. 43 — Cantabile of Examples: ^nfar [43].0+^"-"] A forte me- lodic phrase. [hI. 1). — X. then twice (mezzo-forte and forte). Ex.' ] 8. forte * S'-^ movement (cf. Shererazade. f) Violoncellos and Double basses in octaves. part is comparison with the Example: Snegourotchka [9]. is The bass it usually constructed in this manner.c. played twice pianissimo. in octaves with Violas and 'Cellos. 3'A movement. 31. allotted- Melodies situated in the middle orchestral range to 151 may be and is 22^ Vni. •CellosJ Cantabile mezzo- appassionato Ex. first first arrangement is rarely found. The same melody. This arrange- ment constantly found. Legend of Kitesh 223 h) Parts progressing in octaves. [65] and [is]. -y^"|l/^+V"^"]8. wood-wind. in octaves.— No.J ^ -cenos] ^ 8. g) Violas and Double basses otherwise employed. each part doubled in unison. in character. Fairy Spring's Aria.

does Note III. the those situated l2l extreme low register (below the middle of the octave) are doubled an octave higher. be used for full Vni I ] 8 a or vni. II. Snegourotchka Tumblers' dance. The following distribution is occasionally found: Violas D. 11 Violas + 'CellosJ ^* II ] Vni I ] 8 b) 'Cellos 'Cellos] g or 'Cellos 1 8 or Violas D. basses 11 D. Example: No. in such cases the parts are played on strings which do not is correspond. bassesj D. impaired. g. This. Ex. It Act of II 28 Note I. e. basses + 'Cellos + 'Cellos I] „ °' IlJ Melody a) in double octaves. Ivan the Terrible.~ Mlada. of Kitesh 66 . however. and unity of tone not apply to violins. Act piano theme. and in forte passages for choice. those exceeding the middle whilst of the octave. in are generally doubled an octave below. Progression in octaves of divided strings of the same Violas I Violas ir' D. basses D. basses IlJ generally to be avoided: 'Cellos 'Cellos I <j H ' ^' for. may be use to point out that melodies lying in the extreme upper 5t!L register. . 32. 33. Examples: Sadko Note kind is [207j (cf. 2iii Act. 44 — A lively the beginning of the Lithuanian dance. opening of the [2j5j. basses J II Vns + + + + Violas are employed into play. II. ° ViolasJ ° 'CellosJ I] Vns 8 Vni in nig may cantabile melodies extremely tense in character. when the low register of each instrument in brought to suit and also phrases of a rough and severe character. Violas Antar 8 65 Vni — Vni I I ] 8. Examples: Legend No. 24).

the of the other.} ^Jv.8 . In spite of the difference in the quantity of players. commercing Vnil Vns II lO'iibar. J when supported by wind instruments. 1 Cf. Vnlll 18 \ I The distribution only violas 'Cellos D. and sixths is usually regulated by the normal register of the respective instruments. -^ . the thirds will not in sound unequal. 31). basses is not of any great importance. of such cases. movement. Examples: •No. 'cello The same arrangement may obtain but it the viola and groups. in 'Cellos D. but in the case of a melody in sixths different timbres writing thirds doubled in octaves. 1 Violas 'Cellos D. partial har- monics one octave support the tone and vice versa. Examples: The Legend * of Kitesh 4i!i 150 (allargando) at the Sheherazade. is useless in the case of melody in sixths. also Legend of Kitesh 223 liii / Vni Vns Vni Distribution in octaves. * Legend of Kitesh Legend of Kitesh _ gI "i • Vn|. 45 — 8 g 1 The lack of balance in the distribution: Vni I +11 + Violas] J for. II \ . — Note. thirds. 34. basses + \ ^ °* \ ] Melody In in thirds and sixths.)^ ^j g Vni ViolasJ IS Vns n 8 (Ex. basses „ is ^ 8 very seldom found. In and second violins should be used. so as to avoid . the first may be employed. Doubling Vni 1 in three 1 and four octaves. and as a rule. it confiding a melody in thirds to the strings is frequently necessary to use the same quality of tone in both parts.

40. 3. (cf. 41. 4ln moveIII. Spanish Capriccio 'Cellos 1 Vnil + IlJ^- Melody *The choice melody is in the wood-wind. Piccolo: Serbian Fantasia [54] . Act of Kitesh [44]. 284). of instruments for and expressive based on their distinctive discussed minutely is left in the foregoing chapter. Ex. sixths and mixed intervals. a 2 in the low register). Snegourotchka The Tsar's Bride Cockerel 5. Sheherazade. 39. Flute: Antar [T|. [283 No. is in the following of writing in sixths the upper part allotted this to the 'cellos. the following are typical instances: Examples 1. [a]. before [ajn(F/. No. of — may be example mannerism resulting from the disturbance of But such a departure from the recognised order permitted in special cases. 42 and 43. characteristic qualities. and distributing a melody in thirds. arrangement produces a quality of tone distinctly original in character. of solo wood-wind: No. after 10 Bass flute: No. Ivan the Terrible. Sheherazade. 45. Servilia 80 Snegourotchka 163 79 183 Fairy Tale [l]. Sheherazade. 2ii^ movement [so]. The Cht^stmas Night No. No. Ex.. ment. after |T]. The May 112 Nighty 239 Act HI Kk . 38. 36. The Golden 57 and Eng. Snegourotchka (cf. For instance. in will be indicated section of the to Examples of the use of solo wood-wind are be found any score. 35. the lower part to the violins on the G string. [m\ [97" . F/ufe (double tonguing): Pan Voyevoda Legend 72 . 4. 44. Spanish 61 Capriccio The Golden Cockerel . Tsar Saltan 216 Snegourotchka 2. from the standpoint in this of reso- nance and tone quality work. to the orchestrator s own personal Only the best methods of using the wood-wind in unison or octaves. Oboe: No. 26). No. To a large extent the question taste.horn: Snegourotchkaf^. No. 46 any suggestion balance. 4^ movement. 37. ExampleNo.

Examples: No. (cf. T/i^ May 97 Night. 5ne[90]. Ex. and especially below the bassoons. 43). 9. the oboe the upper Example: No. the flute will predominate register. 5nd^ |^. before solo). 47 II Small Clarinet: No. Ex. placing bassoons above clarinets and oboes. Sheherazade. however. Mlada. + Clarinet. full Clarinets. Legend of Kitesh 1 330 also 339 . Capriccio [a]. 10. Combination The combination of in unison. sweeter than that of the oboe. gourotchka [227]. in unison two different wood-wind instruments yields the following tone qualities: a) Flute -\- Oboe. [231] (cf. Act I. 8. Vera Scheloga [36]. A quality fuller than that of the flute. also Ex. 46. 1. 3i^ 203 movement D . 84 289 . creates a far-fetched. [99]. Oboes. e. Bass clarinet: No. cf. I do not advise the student to make too free a use of this proceeding. The Golden Cockerel No. The flute will predominate in the lower. the clarinet in the higher register. bass of The normal order wood-wind instruments and is that which produces the most natural resonance the following: Flutes. Act [33].— 6. in Played in softly. beginning 249 . Double bassoon: Legend ~\- of Kitesh. Act III [37]. after [29]. A quality fuller than that of the flute. 40). Act also Ex. Sheherazade. 2n^ movement. The Golden Cockerel (lowest Ex. or flutes below oboes and clarinets.g. Snegourotchka b) Flute |TT3~|. 51. Mlada. [224]. the low. Bassoons (the order used in orchestral scores). 50. cf. 78. 52. cf. useful. >^ Ffliry To/e [m]. duller than that of the clarinet. in certain cases to attain certain special effects. 8). Clarinet: Serbian Fantasia [g]. 10 (D. unnatural tone. 49. before x . 47 and Bassoon: Antar [59]. bassoon D. III. 7. No. De- parture from this natural order. Snegourotchka 243 and [246- 2'47 No. T/ie Tsar's register. Spanish. M/flda. 53. 48.

[58] (2 Fl. Act Oboe. of the clarinet prevails in the lower register.sweetness and power. -f Small Bassoon + Clarinet.— lis] (Ex. h) rare. the oboe in the middle. +3 CI. 48 — [os]. the range of which third is practically restricted the limits of the octave. This combination is equally \ j The colour is rich. [iT] Cf. and will gain in power. of tone will lose The quality nothing of its individuality. The gloomy character after [49] . / The combinations and Bassoon certain -\- and g. possesses the disadvantage of restricting the variety of colour and expression. weak in the middle compass will not stand out prominently in this particular combination. and g) Bassoon + Flute. such as 2 flutes.Oboe -j. 199—201). lower third of and the high notes of the bassoon in the middle third. while endowing the music with greaterresonance. Snegourotchka |30i| The May Night. Examples: Russian Easter . 2 oboes. Act I [T]. the low notes of the flute will predominate in the this register. 2 bassoons. the beginning. f) Example: Mlada. No. e) Examples: Mlada. but its capacity for expression will be diminished accordingly. pression alone should be entrusted to solo instruments of simple timbres. d) Flute + Oboe + Clarinet. Individual timbres lose their characteristics when associated with others. CI. . 2 clarinets. Very Bassoon -f- full quality. Fite. the sickly quality of II. the bassoon in the higher. Sadko + 2 Ob. [to]. The clarinet. Hence such combinations should be handled with Phrases or melodies demanding diversity of ex- extreme care. also Legend of Kitesh — 2 Ob. Clarinet tutti. An . The tone of each instrument will be separated from the others or less in the more manner detailed above.Flute.Clarinet -\. and the * clarinet in the high compass. The same applies to the coupling of two instruments of the same kind. Act III Oqq of The process combining two or more qualities of tone is unison. and difficult to define in words. + Flute are very seldom found except in orchestral where they produce increased resonance But in such combinations. in Very full in quality.). Bassoon -\. 55. as well as Bassoon + Clarinet -{- Oboe. to without creating a fresh atmosphere. The flute pre- dominates the low register.

°LOb. such as placing the bassoon flute above the etc. in octaves. Examples: No. I cannot refrain from mentioning all how greatly I dislike jlhe method of dupli- cating out of the wood-wind..horn]8- Pan Voyevoda Tsar Saltan No. Deviation from the natural order. Fag. the usual arrangement producing natural resonance Fl.. also where expression and colour broad rather than individual or intimate in character. Spanish Capriccio [o] Snegourotchka \2m\ Sheherazade.J [ao] Vera Scheloga — pig. the instrument of lower compass playing in its high register and vice versa. When the melody «rFl. ^n^^homj^- *No. to suit the ever-growing dimensions of concert halls. reinforced I all reason. these super-concerts subject which cannot —a Combination in octaves. — q^J 8. that. CI. Ob.« — as a solo than 49 — and freedom when used of instrument enjoys greater independence when it is doubled. The lack of proper relationship between the different tone qualities then becomes apparent. -I 8. CI. The use in loud is doubling and mixed timbres soft is naturally more frequent passages than in ones. the clarinet above the oboe or creates an unnatural resonance occasioned by the confusion of registers. movement [e] — ^]-] 8. 3i^ — No. of two instruments same colour in octaves. Fag. 5arf/^^[l!3-Eng. a limit should be set to the size of both at room and orchestra. 57. 58.J in la ^• octaves is The combination of flute and bassoon fare on account of the widely separated registers of the two instruments. if likewise any number of examples in the scores of various composers. 39 [T£] — ^[-J ci. is entrusted to two wood-wind instruments is: CI.]^' of the etc. Ob. e. 59. 2 clarinets or 2 bassoons not exactly to be avoided . The music performed must be specially composed on a plan of its own be considered here. clarinet or oboe. g. Fag. Fag. 56. PI. The use 2 flutes. in order to balance a group of strings. artistically am convinced concert speaking.

Fag. Bass ^ cl. clarinet or bass clarinet an octave higher. in Thus the piccolo will be doubled by the oboe or clarinet an octaVe lower.1 „ Fl.Ex. Ex. horn effect. °Lf1. g. fFag. — . Picc.[] doubled by 8 pizz. [44] - ^^-^ it j^^ J 8. Cl. Picc.J Examples. ^ [Fag. The Tsar's Bride Tsar Saltan Sadko. after [2T6] [59] [Tii] — ^j"'] ^i-] — ^j|=''-] 8 (cf. a fPicc. same branch playing Ob. in octaves. 8. after * Servilia. Bass cl. the double bassoon will be doubled by bassoon. as the instruments. CI. 21). J®Fagr. in the strings. e. cl. Bass Fag. Mlada. Fag. Act Lithuanian dance [iFI — Small ^jf^:. an octave higher flute. Instruments of the f. Ex. Ob. Examples: The * May Night.}] 3.1 8 . * Tsar Saltan 39 ~ Pice"! « ^• Ob. strings. J II. jj] -f pizz. 8. Lc-Fag-. Flute Alto Fl. Cl. Eng. arco or pizzicato double the two wind. 15). basso ® J always produce a good Examples: Snegourotchka \^ — pj'^'''] 8 (cf. S^^" [240] Legend of Kitesh — c%g] before ^ (cf. The process is most satisfactory for repeated notes or sustained passages. Small Clar. Act III. Sadko. after [21] — gj. an octave lower the second. cl. Act [T59] I |T| — g. ^^|. 36). *No. No As in 60. strings. in the first case. LC-Fag.. ~| Fag. Mlada.1 ^ Cl. CI. 61. cl. playing correspond one with the other. Pice.J . Nesafely vertheless this method may be employed when stringed in- struments.— is 50 — certainly not to in different registers will not be recommended. so in the wood-wind in is advisable to double octaves any melody situated the extremely high or low compass. and especially in the members of the woodmiddle compass.

ci. 18 3 octaves: Ob. -4. \ g. bassoonJ ° *No. Fl.J J * 8.]8. melody 2 Gl. melody in 4 octaves (piccolo in the upper Fl. ]8 Legend of Kitesh 212 Bass cl. the above remarks still Examples Pan Voyevoda No. order: Ob.]8 Cl. *Mlada. Pice. to infringe the natural Fl.I : 8 — Sadko[i50\-^^^%. In 4 octaves: ^l]8 Fag.. 1 D. Ci.]^ Doubling in two. Ob. The Tsar's Bride [120] - ^ Fi- J + Ob^^ ^^^ ^ 8. 1^ Cl. after 42 18 ^^ Eng. horn] ^ (cf.] 8 Ci. Ill 8- Examples in melody doubled in five octaves are extremely rare. ]8 8. also ' (l5i version) 3:^ movement. . three and four octaves. 62. J8. Cl. „ Fag.' octaves).^. In rules. in 3 octaves. horn) Sheherazade. III.^^ No. In such cases the student should follow the above-mentioned and should take care not Fl. . 4' such cases the strings participate in the process. Fag. Ex. doubling in oc- taves. — melody 1 i in 4 octaves: 2 Fl.M/arf. Examples: No. ^^^ J8 ActIII0-S:i^rssci. [T34] Servilia -g [m] - j] ^„'^. 64. Fi.] Mixed timbres may also be employed. + C1. 7). * 51 — in Mixed qualities of tone may be employed holding good. 2 Ob. 66. 63. The Tsar's Bride * [l4i — . + f^^_ .] „ 2 Ob.2 2 Fag. Act No. 3i^ movement of ' Q —— ' Pice. Fag. 65.J°' Fag-. Spanish Capriccio [p] Pice. the beginning — +2F1. — C . Antar.

They in may also be employed thirds and sixths. 67. + C1. t G1-] ^ Ob. p. this order is inverted. and sixths mixed. various wood-wind in and Servilia [228] — ^]. Ob. from the standpoint of equality in tone to use instru- ments of the of same kind in pairs. +2 +2 Fl. Legend [202-203J different mixed timbres.J ^^' ^^'^' Examples: * * No. „.J (6).. before sixths. The May 1 Night. Fag. as for ei Examples: Legend of Kitesh different wind instruments 3.] . 2 Fag. Cl. ^^^ . 2 CI. + g[.). Fl. If CI. °'" Fl. Ob.] 3 and ^j. is e. example: ^ 24 III or thirds. . or of register: instruments of different colours in FI.] 3 Spanish Capriccio. 1 3 Fag. simple timbres.1 ^ f1: .. "^ Cl. The Christmas Night of Kitesh [Tst] — gj. Act [g\ (6). g. R+obJ ^ + Ob.'.1 3 + Ob. + F1. — g. thirds 79-280 — ^[.J ^ ^^' ^^ Ob. Fl.. For progressions in thirds. In the case of tripling the following arrangement may be adopted: + Ob.. Melody Melodic progression instruments of in in thirds thirds and sixths demands either two (2 Fl.] SadkO No. the best is method. Cl.] 3. 68. All wood-wind parts in turn. + Cl. the same colour Fl..-] .2 1 52 — and sixths. 2 Ob. the following method advisable: ^^) (f. Ob.^' q. The Golden Cockerel SadkO 43 [232] — \ ^'^ J 6.^'] 3 (6). thirds When the doubled is progress in or sixths. the normal order Ob. p. in turn. struments different kinds are more fifths but both courses for progressions are good and useful.. a strained and forced resonance created.. for progressions in sixths insuitable. ^*''" ^' ""^^ ^'• .] 3...

trumpet calls or flourishes. + Ob. either as solos. there are certain Fag.giving. in ^^ two part harmony: With the help of rhythm. j FFfPiiFfF Upper Middle F Fl. . or in two or three parts.—. +0b. best adapted to the character of brass insfruments. PU and Fl. and endowed them with greater variety of expression. and horns. „ „ Lower + Ob. These phrases. Legend ^ of Kitesh \35\ ' I —— ' Ob. CI. these component parts have given rise to a whole series of themes and phrases named fanfares. Ob. In is modern music. Melody The natural scale. this scale now all keys for every chromatic brass instrument. complicated methods which involve doubling: part. Fl. + Ci. Ob. in the brass^ was: the only one which brass instruments had at their disposal prior to the invention of valves 2 3* T5 5 e « i^ » «^> to ("' '^ :i . clear. +C1. ci.— 53 — Apart from the obvious distribution: Thirds and sixths together. Ob. or CI. but they may also be given to the ringing notes of the middle and upper to figures of this register of horns and trumpets are best suited description. fall specially to the lot of the trumpets trombones. The full. 69. Ob. to without being necessary change the key. No. and the addition of a few notes foreign to the natural scale has enriched the possibilities of these flourishes and fanfares. FI. thanks possible in it tp the introduction of valves. The following racter: is a complex instance somewhat vague in cha- . . CI.

71. — 3 Trumpets. 72. use in the Spanish Capriccio and stopped notes 3 Horns a (cf. and further on. Act little II before [It] Bass trumpet. 33 Mlada. fur- ther on). Act Snegoiirotchka [T55] III — Cornet. 70. horn of open Jvan the Terrible. ^. be^nnning of Overture. Overture . After fanfare figures. before No. Act Bass trumpet poetic in (cf. 44). Trumpets. Sadko. and after — Horn. Legend of Kitesh [^s] elsewhere. Ex. 27). rousing in the and triumphant major key. Examples No. [T3]. dark and gloomy minor. Alternative Ex. an-d No. Ex.Trumpets.: — Scrvilia 20 54 — Examples: — Trumpets. The genial and tone of the horn in piano passages affords greater scope the choice of melodies and phrases that may be entrusted to this instrument. Night[^ — [T| Horn. Examples: The May Night. Trombones 71 - (cf. Ivan the Terrible. 73. 4 Horns. II. Russian Easter Fete Trombone. those melodies best suited to the brass quality are those of an in the unmodulated diatonic character. Trumpet. The Christinas Trumpets. Snegourotchka — Trumpet. 46). [45] Verra Scheloga. Antar 40 . The Christmas Night |T| Snegourotchka 86 Pan Voyevoda 37 No. 20 The Golden Cockerel 2 Horns and J{Z^^^^] ^ (^f. Pan Voyevoda * 191 — 2 Trombones. Sadko [342] 181 — M Trumpet.

Ex. and the modern who however. of Kitesh. movement D As a general brass instruments lack the capacity to express passion or geniality. Examples: Snegourotchka Snegourotchka [J] 199 — 4 Horns — 4 Horns — of 411i (cf. the example. Melodies involving chromatic or enharmonic writing are the character of Nevertheless such melodies may sometimes be allotted to the brass. Ex. 175 — 1. movement 204 (cf.^ thirds and sixths.) .— less suitable to S5 — much brass instruments. 3 Trombones. from in unison. its very nature. 3 Trumpets. kindred instruments of one group may be employed of 3 solo. Lithuanian dance (1) — 6 Horns Ex. Energetic power. — 3 Trombones. as well as in unison. simplicity qualities of this group. Sheherazade. 61). Sadko No. 76. (Editor's note. The composer has emen ded the score to . beginning of Act — (cf. music of Wagner. and also from the to the ninth bar 306 the three clarinets play in unison. 75. Mlada. No. Example: No. the brass is not called upon to realise a wide range of expression. although larly beautiful Vigonrous phrases in the form introducing chromatic notes sound singu- on the brass. Phrases charged with these sentiments be- come sickly and insipid when confided to the brass. III Sadko [aosj (1) The May Night. Sheherazade. of a fanfare. 74. free or restrained. carry the proceeding to extremes. 2. Legend No. 77. the first of these passages corrected according to the composer's altoration. the trumpet being in marked is forte instead of fortissimo. 1. and 2 Trumpets. 4 Horns. 15). 70). in octaves. end Act I — 4 Horns p. trombones or 4 horns unison is frequently and produces extreme power and resonance of tone. 2. in The combination met with. 3. in the following fifth manner: from the after fifth the ninth bar after 305 . 22i rule. as in the Italian realists. and eloquence constitute the valuable Brass As.

arranged according to normal order Trumpet of register: Trombone Trombone Tuba Trombones Trombone -f. the use of in instruments of the same kind octaves.V Trombone! — TromboneJ ' (E". . Combination of wind and brass in unison.. + Ob. also [T26] - '\\lZt. The -|. Ex. Trumpet -f as well as Trumpet -r CI. but slightly sweeter than the brass instru- alone. is naturally -more powerful than that of each instru- ment taken ment brass. before {m} - t™-p=. wood-wind blends with as in that of the softens rarefies the process of combining two wood-wind instruments doubling are trumpet is of different colour. is to Another possible method. exclusively in octaves: 2 1 Horns 1 ^ ] e nr ^ Horns Trombone] ° "' 2 Trombones] Examples: Sadko.. thirds or sixths invariably leads to satisfactory results. + Fl. of a wood-wind and brass instrument produces a complex resonance in which the tone of the brass predominates. the instrument most frequently doubled: Fl. 38 The Golden Cockerel Cf.Tuba 2 2 Trumpets 2 Trombones Horns Tuba 2 likewise successful whether the instruments are doubled or not. separately. though not so combine horns (above) with trombones. Snegourotchka \^ . Act [To] ' ^^^S^j. The tone and of the it. in Instances of such fairly numerous. Trumpet Trumpet + Ob..CI. reliable. especially jorte passages.^ + ^^™''='] 8 (cf. A. the equality and even gradation of tone between the dark colour deep compass and the bright brass quality of the upper register.] «. For the same reason the different employment Trumpet 2 Horns is of brass instruments of kinds.^^)- Snegourotchka |32S-^26| Melody in different groups of instruments combined The combination This resonance togethier..^Trllte + Tuba] « 111 Ivan the Terrible.— Owing to 56 — of the the resonant power of the entire group.

As a the addition of a wind to a brass instrument yields a finer legato effect than when the latter instrument plays alone. or 2 flutes.Fag. ^ Trumpet. 2F1. less often: 57 — + may also CI. Trombones and Tuba Trombone -|. — Trombone + Eng. Horn Fag. trumpets are more suitable. ^' g "• 2 Horns + J J To double a trumpet in the upper octave three or four in the top register wind instru- ments are required. presents the same characteristics.J ^N Horn Horn 8. oboes or flutes often replaces the combination 1 1 Trumpet "I « °' Horn (or 2 Horns)J This is done when it is a question of introducing a rich tone into is the upper octave which the trumpet If not capable of imparting. but two flutes will suffice. 2 oboes. B. three or four wind instruments will be necessarj' above. Horn + 1 2 Cl..— the horn. or 2 Cl. especially in forte passages: rz Ob. Wood-wind instruments should not be used to double a trombone in the octave above. Examples * of doubling in octaves: Snegourotchka \n\ - Zrit^'']^[18O * Legend of Tsar Saltan. horn. Act rule. horn. ^^ ^ Ll Horn ^®" j 1 ^^ 1 Ob. But it there are two horns playing the lower octave in unison. is a single horn is used.-| Cl. bass clarinet and double bassoon with the brass..l g. in corresponding registers. before — Y. Doubling the horns in octaves by clarinets. Mlada. . 2 Fl. ^^^P"Ob Trumpet. or 2 Fl. Tuba -f Fag. Examples: Legend * of Kitesh III.^. 2 Fl. Combining be doubled: Horn + the Eng. — 3 Trombones + Bass before [56j [34] cl. the upper part allotted to 2 clarinets. Combination of wind and brass in octaves.

. ''] ^• No. 79.. (Bass cl. 2 Ob. Trumpet + 2 0b. Vni-f 'Cellos (Bass fl. + Eng. III - xibaTci^^'' (low register). In Combination of strings and wind. 78. unison. such combinations the strings will predominate provided that the two' instruments are of equal power. Mlada. Act after [25] .j ^ 2 Trumpets J 8. several wind instruments play in unison with one group of strings. (small CI. Doubling in unison. 4± movement. Violas 4. after fwl ' ' —— Pice. before — general When octaves. All combinations of strings and wood-wind are good. Vni-hCl. Violas + CI. the wood-wind losing more than the strings. pice). Act III. 1 fi 2 Fi. horn).). (Eng.. in Examples: Mlada.— * 58 — Mention should also be made of mixed timbres (wood and brass) progression in octaves. horn 8 ° C. ] \ J + * Legend of Tsar Saltan — 2Fi. As a rule all combinations refine the characteristics of each instrument taken separately. a wind tone.Ob. Mlada.. CI. it it is is desired to distribute the difficult to melody over three or four achieve perfect balance of tone. Examples: * Sheherazade.ISstV'rH^t +7^X00] 35 « No. while In instrument progressing in unison with a stringed instrument inits creases the resonance of the latter and amplifies the quality of the strings softens that of the wood-wind. e. harmony. the latter will be over- powered.).. Violas + Fag. Act III. a bassoon with the 'cellos. The whose best and most natural combinations are between instruments registers correspond the nearest: FI. g. 'Cellos + + Fag. Vni+Ob. beginning of Scene III. counterpoint and polyphonic writing. when If violins are coupled with an oboe. this section of the commencing work I consider it necessary to to lay down the following fundamental rules which apply equally melody. 228 15lli bar Pice.

is: D. 15). + Ob. No. horn Cl. 82. basses -\- Bass cl. [m] No. May Night. No. 17). — Violas Eng. horn. - Vni 1 Vni I The + Eng. c) to soften the quality of the wood-wind. 81. Ex. (cf.: 59 D. -j- Violas -f Cl. 80. Servilia — Vni+Ob. horn. horn II II (cf. + -f + + 'Cellos + Eng. b) to strengthen the resonance of the strings.. basses + Fag. 28J — Violas -f Ob. — Violas + Eng. Act III Bb Sadko No. basses -f- C-fag.. D. 83. Ex. . horn. Examples Snegourotchka |~5~| 'Cellos -f Violas + Eng. The of object of these combinations a) to obtain a new timbre definite colour.

notably among the younger French As a composers. + Eng.90. \^ Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Cl.] ^ (^f- ^^. Kashtchei It 90 The same. ii ' { 8.2 Fag. la 8. (Ci.j div.]B. in thirds and sixths. of the is necessary* to pay two parts in octaves. Servilia |ni| „ 1 126 1 — Strings and wood-wind — same combination.a0-^'. this method has recently come into fashion again.) . the lower part only being doubled of the string groups. 87. Fi.+8S:tg::tvSH»No. — Vns ++ Ob.22).J I Servilia No.]Mcf. 1 ']:^i. — Vnl vm Kashtchei 105 Pice. of (1) in (1) The process ^' ^^^'^ doubling strings and wood-wind octaves: y. Shihirazade. the former* doubled by a bassoon. by one p^+YnJ^- Ob. 4«i movement [u] In the case of soft - + 2 Horns] 8- a melody in the low register demanding a sweet tone. the violoncellos and double basses should be made ^*^ to progress in octaves.' is 8. more is in thirds. not be recommended. Fl. 3^ + Ob. ' Examples of melody in thirds and sixths: s. 89.J Vnl + 18 M movement — — Vm + Ob. the not latter is doubled at all: obliged to use this Sometimes a composer ] ^' d ^"as^ses method on account of the very low register if of the double bass. horn + Fag. No. (Editor's note. 3 c 8-f- In three and four octaves: 93 Violas 2 i 'Cellos 4. especially his orchestral a double bassoon is not included in scheme. Shdhirazade. result of the ever-increasing tendency to profusion of colour.„ The Tsar's Bride [sT] — 60 — — ^J|.m/. Cellos to otten used by the classics to obtain balance of tone. 166 vSn|Sb. 'Cellos + Engl.Ex.1^)?ceiios *No.) + Vn J ^• Examples: Tsar Saltan [m\ — v^i'i +7i + Ob. hornj ii -V I Fl. 88. attention to cases where. When it this method is applied melody to in the soprano register is better to allow the wood- wind progress in octaves. only to a one doubled. as the tone quality of the two groups is so widely different.

The question as to which group will predominate in timbre depends upon the number of instruments employed. horn) + Horn. Violin + Trumpet. (Eng.] 1 Example: No. pro- duces a beautifully blended.g. Combination of the three groups. Snegourotchka [218] and [2T9] I — Vni I + + II CI.Tuba. — Violas Golden Cockerel II 98 con sord. Combination of strings and brass.talses + 2 Fag. ^^^^^.Ob. . CI. 91. When a brass and a stringed instrument progress each can be heard separately. soft quality of tone.) -f- and those most generally 'Cellos) use are: Vni-[. 93—94. Violas (or + CI.. Trumpet. The combination of members of the three groups in unison is more common. The — Vnil + + Horn. Examples: Tsar Saltan * 29 No. D. in unison. + Trumpet. Tsar Saltan 92 — Violas 'Cellos D. g + Fag.CI. in The most natural combinations. but the instruments in each group which can be combined with the greatest amount of success are those whose respective registers correspond the most nearly. Basses ^• 1 D.— 61 — + Fa. the to the dissimilarity between the quality in of string and brass combination of these two groups unison can never of strings yield such a perfect blend as that produced by the union and wood-wind. frequently employed. + Horn. E. effect. the presence of the wood-wind imparting a fuller and more evenly blended tone. Such groupings are used a heavy piano for preference in loud passages or for Examples: No.^^ + jibf °"'' (^^r heavy massive The combination of horns and 'cellos. + 3 Trombones ^. (Fr. effects). Viola + Horn. 92. Owing tone. + Horn and Vni + II -}.

after Violas III. -j Trum- (Stopped notes in the brass. + TubaJ 41!i * Ivan the Terrible. Act *No. (The melody simplified in the horns. +2 + 4 Horns.) Mlada. + Trombone + Bass 8 D. Act Bass CI. + +2 CI. Voyevoda [224] - Vni+ 23 Fag. III. basses -|- Fag. basses before . -|[66] CI. Overture. -f- Tuba Pan pet. D.— Violas 62 — 1 Servilia No. basses + Tuba + Fag. bar after [T] Fag. + Trombone Snegourotchka 325 168 'Cellos Cl. + Bass CI.J J (cf.. D. — Violas 'Cellos + Eng. i2). 95. + Trombones g Ex. horn +2 CI. Bass trumpet Ivan the Terrible. — -\- 1 + Horn + G-fag.) . + Horn + Vn. 'Cellos + Violas + Fag.96.

otherwise the orchestraunforeseen and insurmountable difficul- tor will encounter many . phrases and ideas he is going to employ. believing that it an orchestral score does not sound parts. No perfection in resonance can accrue from faulty progression of parts. to is likewise struction essential for him form a clear idea as of the the con- and musical elements piece. advised to to settle once. wood-wind or brass. in his rough any uncertainty as he is to the number this at or movement It harmonic parts. HARMONY. But unsatisfactory resonance outcome of faulty handling of and such a composition will continue to sound badly whatever choice instruments is made. The art of orchestration demands a beautiful and well-balanced Moreover.Chapter III. must coincide with the introduction new idea. and the progression of parts often solely the if correctly handled. Every transition from one order of harmonic writing to another. there exist of picture to himself the exact harmonic If. formation of the piece he intends to orchestrate. selecting- There are people well. is who consider orchestration simply as the if art of instruments and tone qualities. of distribution of chords forming the harmonic texture. So. from four-part part of a harmony to three.. transparence. of in entirely is due to the choice of instruments and timbres. on the other hand. will sound equally well played by strings. Note. The composer should sketch. General observations. or from five- harmony to unison etc. and to realise the exact nature and limitations of the themes. a fresh theme or phrase. accuracy and purity in the movement each part are essential conditions if satisfactory resonance is to be obtained. it often happens that a passage which the chords are properly distributed.

but also to the formation of the harmonic 5. harmony. Harmony is which usually at first sight appears to comprise 7 and 8 parts.— ties. if. the bass being doubled will explain in the The following diagrams A. i Duplication of part. my meaning: Duplication of 1 part. a fresh instrument must needs fifth be added easily to play this particular part. and this addition damage the resonance of the chord in question. Duplication of 2 parts. only tour part harmony with extra parts added. Close part writing Four part harmony. 64 — may parts For example. during a passage written in four parts a chord is in five-part harmony introduced. Number parts. Pour part harmony. is In the very large majority of cases harmony chords written in four applies not or a succession of them. *^ A> <> ft # ^ xr n I I TT & " t s 1 ^ ft ^ B. and render the resolution of a discord or the correct progression of impossible. Duplication of 2 parts. Duplication of 3 parts. this of harmonic parts only to single — Duplication. These additions are nothing more than the duplication in the adjacent upper octave of one or more original of the three upper parts forming the lower octave only. basis. . 6. Widely-divided part-writing.

[t .65 — ms Bad: i On account of the distance between the bass and the three other parts. the ear will satisfied with the correct progression of parts."i ^ 4 ^=^ ' ^m Notes in unison resulting from correct duplication need not be avoided. be Consecutive octaves between the upper parts are not permissible: Bad: :^ Consecutive fifths resulting in from the duplication of the three upper parts moving chords of sixths are of no importance: Good: The bass be doubled of in an inversion of the dominant chord should never any of the upper parts: m Good: -o^ t^z ^ XT 4 3 ~w Bad: ^ §. only partial dupHcation is possible. S XT 4 8 Se- m m This applies also to other chords of the seventh and diminished seventh: .. g Good: Note. for although the tone in such cases is not absolutely uniform..

owing to the greater variety of tone colour: » -w . ecliappees.— Bad: 66 # S rules of ^ :^ Good: # S m harmony cpncerning sustained and pedal passages As regards passing is The apply with equal force to 'orchestral writing. as in the following example: One texture: A different one: A third: ^ ^ effective Upper and inner pedal notes are more on the orchestra than in pianoforte or chamber music. may proceed concurrently. and auxiliary in rapid notes. considerable licence permitted passages of different texture: One textuce: II rrrrrifrr A different one: One texture: A different one: A certain figure and its essentials^ in simplified form.

The normal order of sounds or the natural harmonic scale: 'A ': i'. gradually is becoming closer as the upper register approached: * m The bass should to 3fe =S= rarely lie at it a greater distance than an octave (tenor harmony). < may It serve as a guide to the orchestral arrangement of chords. will be seen that the widely-spaced intervals lie in the lower part of the scale. and the practice of doubling the upper note in octaves are sometimes effective methods: ^ =S: 8= O y : " t\ — f . Distribution of notes in chords. It from the part directly above is necessary make sure that the harmonic notes are not lacking in the upper parts: m To be avoided: ran =&: Sz S= ^ P The use of sixths in the upper parts. II of the present work many examples the above methods will be found.— In 67 — of Vol.

Progression in contrary motion. the middle parts are eliminated one ? i Schematic f. in piano passages such distribution may be possible.1 i t j - Example: TT i jj i f - ff m When by one: C2 il m the voices converge. empty intervals.(>ta B=^ SIE -k^ S Hence chords. especially in forte passages. the upper and lower parts diverging by degrees gives rise to the gradual addition of extra parts occupying the middle register: i Schematic . the Nothing of is worse than wriiing upper and lower parts which are separated by wide. y ^^ f -§r Example: .— When 68 — correct progression increases the distance between the top and bottom notes of the upper parts. this does not matter: Good: i^w4 g bad to fill But it would be distinctly in the second chord this: ^ Not good: . it follows that the distribution of intermediate parts is a question of the greatest importance.

perfect distribution parts are of of tone. and correct progression of minor importance. It is an incontrovertible rule that the different will harmonic parts must be equally balanced. later. Note. balance. Spanish Capriccio. only sound well when played forte (sf). and the degree of ease with which they can be played. Ex. may supply the octave on an uncovered Examples: No. Chords on the it latter instrument are even more uncommon. however. 97. Both these cases will be studied sepaof In the first case. the resonance of* What must be considered before everything is the chords themselves. 98. are usually assigned to isi and 2^ and violas. usually allotted the lowest note of the chord in company with the double bass. On account of its low register the 'cello is rarely called is upon to play chords on three or four strings.time. and before [200] . 2^ movement \V\ (cf. Chords of three or four notes can only be executed rapidly on the strings. involves complications and be considered Short chords. second the resources are limited to double notes aniSy or division of parts. A. Sheherazade. case.— 69 — resonance this of String harmony. rately. also | and before 182 . but string. and when they can be supported by wind instruments. arco. two upper notes- of a chord can be sustained and will held a long. * Snegourotchka[^. before [V] (cf. Tsar Saltan [Tis]. In the execution of double notes and chords of three and four notes on the strings. in order to increase the number harmonic parts. cf. Ex. each instrument in the string group may be provided with In the double notes or chords of three and four notes. 19. also before [ho] 67). cf. Short chords. the different to notes being divided between them according ease in execution and the demands and of resonance. Those comprising notes on the Chords played on several strings violins gut strings are the most powerful. It is true that the this.) i4i | *No. but less balance be noticeable in short sharp chords than in those which are connected and sustained.


Isolated chords

70


melodic figure
in the

may be added

to a

upper

part, accentuating, sforzando, certain

rhythmical moments.

Example:
No. 99. Snegourotchka, before
126
;

cf.

also 326

B.

Sustained

and tremolando

chords.

Chords

sustained

for

a shorter or longer period of time, or tremolando passages, often

used as a substitute, demand perfect balance of tone.
granted that the different

Taking

for

members

of the

string

group are equal

in power, the parts being written according to the usual order of

register,

(cf.

Chap.

I),

it

is

patent that a passage in close four-part

harmony, with the bass

in octaves will also

be uniformly resonant.
to
fill

When
middle

it

is

necessary to

introduce

notes

up the empty

register, the

upper parts being farther distant from the bass,

doubled notes on the violins or violas should be used, or on both
instruments together.

The method

of dividing strings,
in

which

is

sometimes adopted, should be avoided
parts of the chord will

such cases, as certain
will not; but,

be divided and others

on the
written

other hand,
entirely for

if

a passage in six and seven-part
divided in the

harmony be

strings

same manner,
e.g.,

the balance of

tone will be completely satisfactory,
H5v <Hv. Hi„
..

/Vnil (vnil

/VnsII ^•^•\Vnill
/Violas
\
I

°'^'

Violas

II

If

the

harmony

in

the three upper parts, thus strengthened,

is

written for divided strings, the 'cellos and basses, playing
will

non

divisi

prove a

trifle

heavy; their tone must therefore be eased, either
of players.

by marking the parts down or reducing the number
In the case of sustained

chords or

forte

tremolando on two strings,

the progression of parts

is

not always according to rule, the intervals
to play.

chosen being those which are the easiest

Examples:
No. 100. No. 101.

The Christmas Night
„ „ „

i6i

Full divisi

[210] -Vi°jf^^3^;;;:} 4 part harmony

^


No. 102. Snegourotchka

71



Four-part

|i 87— 188|

harmony,

Vn?.

I,

Vni II, Violas and

Violoncellos.

[243]

— 4 Solo

'cellos divisi.

Sheherazade,
(cf.

2^

movement, beginning.
Chords on
-

4 D. bass

soli

div.

Ex. 40).
179
all

The Tsar's Bride
No. 103.

strings

(cf.

Ex. 243).

Legend

of Kitesh

Harmonic
(cf.

basis in the strings.

240
„ „

[283J

— Ex. — Harmonic
(cf.

21).

basis in the strings

Ex.

2).

No. 104.

The Golden
„ „

— Basis the Cockerel \J] — Undulating rhythm
in

strings.
in the

[T25]

strings as

harmonic basis
of the

(cf.

Ex. 271).
is

In a forte or sfp chord,

where one or two
example:

upper notes

held, either sustained or tremolando, the balance of tone

must

still

be maintained, as

in the following

Vnil

*
$

J
P
¥p^
sfp

fr f^ f

Vnill

Violas

D. basses

^ ^ w ^
sfp

f

Wood-wind harmony.
Before entering upon this section of the work
the reader of the general principles laid
the chapter.
I

would remind
beginning of

down

in the

Harmonic texture, composed
simple or contrapuntal

of plain chords or ornamental designs,

must possess a resonance equally distributed throughout. This may be obtained by the following means:
in character,


1.

72


to

Instruments forming chords must be used continuously in the
say they must be

same way during a given passage, that is doubled or not throughout, except when one
is

of the

harmonic parts

to

be made prominent:
;i

Ob

2 Fi \

To be avoided:

:|::^ciar.42 Fag

^„ j

r^"^""

^ ''1
2 01

2.

The normal order

of register

must be followed, except

in the

case of crossing
later on:

or enclosure of parts,

which

will

be discussed

To be avoided:

i^

^

»i^Ig"

"

^^
to

3.

Corresponding or adjacent registers should be made

co-

incide except for certain colour effects:

^1fi
To be avoided:
(

.

The second

ft>Q^ro

flute will sound loo the oboes too piercing.

weak and

4.

Concords

(octaves, thirds

and

sixths)

and not discords
to

(fifths,

fourths,

seconds and

sevenths), should

be given

instruments of
tc

the

same kind or

colour, except

when

discords are

be empha-

sised.

This rule should be specially observed in writing for the
its

oboe with

penetrating quality of tone:

To be avoided:

y

ffi

Ci.[^

o^^

"^*^
-

Four-part and three-part harmony.
Harmonic writing
two points and b) instruments
C-fag.
for

the

wood-wind may be considered from
3
2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3

of view: a) instruments in pairs, 2F1., 2 0b., 2 CI., 2 Fag.;
in three's,
Fl.,

CI.,

2 Fag.,

A.

In pairs.

There are three ways

of

distribution:

1.

Super-

position or overlaying (strictly

following the normal order of register),


2.

73


The
last

Crossing,

and

3.

Enclosure of parts.

two methods

involve a certain disturbance of the natural order of register:

Overlaying.

Crossing.

Enclosure.

In

choosing one of these three methods the following points
a) the register of a particular isolated

must not be forgotten:
the soft and

chord;

weak

register of

an instrument should not be coupled

with the powerful and piercing range of another:
Overlaying.

Crossing.

Enclosure.

^fr^
Oboe
too piercing

notes of the flute too weak

Low

Bassoon too
prominent,

b) In a succession of chords the general progression of parts

must be considered; one tone
stationary

quality should
parts:

be devoted

to

the

and another

to the

moving

When
be

chords are in widely-divided four-part harmony notes

may

allotted in pairs to

two

different tone qualities,

adhering to the

normal order

of register:

Good:

etc.

^parAny
other distribution will result unquestionably in a grievous

lack of relationship between registers:

To be avoided:

etc.


If

74


it

one tone quality

is

to

be enclosed,

must be between two

different timbres:
Fl.

Ob.

o
^CF

Good:

i

•/Fag- »•

FnnjT":^
Fag

m
Fl.^ Ob.n
(Jl.o
Still

etc.

It

is

possible to lend four distinct timbres to a chord in widely-

divided four-part harmony, though such a chord will possess no

uniformity in colour; but the higher the registers of the different

instruments

are placed,
.

the

less

perceptible

becomes

the space

which separates them:
Fl

Fl. -»
.

i
The use

Ub

Cl-

^

o

L'l.

o

Fag. TJ

Ka £•.•»•
Better
better

Fairlygood

of four different timbres in close four-part

harmony

is

to be avoided, as the respective registers will not correspond:

Fae/*^

75


way
of their

The use
amount
to

of

crossing and enclosure of parts (which in a

the

same

thing)

must depend on the manner

progression:
Enclosure
;

-Q^
^ef=m^

m

^^

.T^§

ij

8

l

l

u. [

^^Oh

^^

Wood-wind in three's. Here the distribution of chords in close three-part harmony is self-evident; any grouping of three instruments of the same timbre is sure to sound well:
B.

§]3F1.

S

¥05;

§] » Clai

il^'-'^s
t'l

fr

Fl.picc.

;]2 Fl.
also:

m
'^

^s^¥f;

^^
Cor.ingl.
i

CI. pice.

fe ^s^Gj;

Fl.c-alto

'«.:::;

j

&j^!!^!
C-fag-.

Overlaying of parts
close
four-part

is

the best

method

to of

follow in writing
the

harmony; three instruments
instrument of another.

same timbre
and the

with a fourth
parts

Crossing and enclosure of
of timbres

may

also

be employed.

Correspondence

progression of remote /parts must be kept in mind:

«-Fag

FaF^

The method

of using three instruments of the

same timbre

in

widely-divided three-part

harmony

is

inferior:

3 Fl

« ^

Fl

5P6¥^

Sil-: " Ob.
Better

m

CI.

o-i

3

C I.

=3=^^

;]aF a g.

-»^
"Fa{-.
Better

Not good

Better

Not good

Better

:

76
But
if


of

the third instrument
cl.,

is

low register (Bass

Fl.,

Eng.

horn, Bass

or C-fag.), the resonance will be satisfactory:

3^
*y

Cl

3=eC basbu

31] a Kgg.
"

o

Crfag.

* Coringl.

^^
$^
^ la

3:*:Bz
Fl. t%alt

In

chords of four-part harmony, three instruments of th^ same

timbre should be combined with a fourth instrument of another:

5 Cor. ingl.

^

:]^^--^II

(Jl-basGO «• C-fag-.
«>

o

:]

i

\

i Cl.

Ob.
etc.

Cl-ba^«o-

Uor. ing-l •» Cl

Harmony
are

in several parts.

In writing chords of 5, 6, 7

and 8 part-harmony, whether they
the

independent,
follow

or

constitute

harmonic
in

basis,

the student
chapter,

should

the

principles

outlined

the

previous

dealing with the progression of wood-wind instruments in octaves.

As
of

the

5%

6111,

711i

and
the

811i

notes are only duplications in octaves

lower notes

of

real

harmony
of

(in

4

parts),

instruments

should be chosen which combine amongst themselves to give the
best
octaves.

The process

crossing and

enclosure of parts

may
A.

also

be used.
in pairs (close distribution):

Wood-wind

In

widely-divided

harmony chords

in

several parts are to

be

avoided as they will entail both close and extended writing:

Note. In the majority of cases this distribution upper harmonic parts have a special melodic duty is discussed above.

is

employed when the
perform

t>vo

to

this question


B.

77

Wood-wind

in three's:

m
^m ifm^

3

Fl
cji.
II

Q13 Ob
r

.

bl a

o'

8

Corittfri^

Fa^.

3

Fl.

3F1
*^Cor.ingl.
* >:«>-aff.[g'

i m
z=:

H CI.
CI. basso LSSO

a «
l\-\

]

a Ob.
etc.

Gh

<» Cor, ingl.

ocibasso"

33 j 2 Fag.
C- fag.

Myaff.
C-faff.

Overlaying of parts
with
close
three-part

is

the most satisfactory

method
parts
to

in
is

dealing
not

harmony.

Crossing

of

so

favourable,

as octaves will

be produced contrary

the natural

order of register:

(mayag.r*€ ^Gf

Here the arrangement

I j^
a

is

bad.

•CTClar.

Duplication of timbres.
A.
If

the

wood-wind

is

in

pairs

it

is

good plan

to

mix

the

doubled timbres as

much
2F1.

as possible:

2
|

..^0^-2
^

J^ob.cnRiviu. |«ot>ioi'^^^]|n^nri]>i}l|
Excellent

^2F1
also:

=mm»-ObT
•[^^jal^ag-

i»-Ffc=E^^3=3=0^

2Cl.[--]2Fag.

In

chords of four-part harmony the classical method

may be

adopted:
.2 0b.

llifej
:s:cf;


In this case,

78


in the flute is fairly powerful,

though the high

C
in

the resonance of the
duplication
of

G and E
flute

the oboes

is

softened by the

the

2^

and
is

1^1 clarinet,

while the

C

in

the

2^

clarinets (not doubled)
In

feeble in comparison with the other

notes.

any case the two extreme parts are the thinnest and
tone,

weakest
B.

in

the intermediate parts the fullest and strongest.
in
three's

Wood -wind

admit of perfectly balanced mixed

timbres in chords of three-part harmony:
3FI.30b.,

i

^

3Faff 3C1.

3F1.3C1.

3 0b.3Cl.
I

SOb.SFaR-.

m]

[jiin

1f»

m

These timbres may even originate from three-fold duplication;
30b.3Cl.3Fag-

^ffi /'
I

^^^F=^^

^^

3Fl.30b.3Cl.

^^
in

Remarks.
1.

Modern

orchestrators

do not allow any void

the interto

mediate parts

in writing close

harmony;

it

was permitted

some

extent by the classics:

a.

*
For
this

&.

i
effect especially in forte passages.
is

jt

These empty spaces create a bad
reason widely-divided

harmony, which

fundamentally

based on the extension of
only in piano passages.
in all
2.

intervals,

can be used but seldom and
is

Close writing
to the

the

more

frequent form

harmony devoted
As a general

wood-wind,

forte or

piano.

rule a chord of greatly extended

range and

in

several parts is distributed according to the order of the natural
scale,

with wide intervals (octaves and sixths), in the bass part,

lesser intervals (fifths

and fourths)

in

the middle,

and close

inter-

nals (3nli or 211^) in the upper register:

79


c*.

M
*
'

Fl.picc.

3 Fi

§]j;o^
Co r-inR'T^

^5^

M
I^]

2 Fl.
s^es;
^JfCf

B3 2F1
!.}

Ob

.

ffi «-Gi,

'3

3 Faff

,

^ayn

a

(c.

Koff.

[

Xf C.-fag-.

3.

In of
is

many

cases correct progression of parts
In

demands

that

one
ear
of

them should be temporarily doubled.

such cases the

reconciled to the brief overthrow of balance for the sake
is

a single part, and

thankful for the logical accuracy of the
will
illustrate

progression.

The following example
sx

my

meanings

m i m
In the

iS:

t*»*»h

i

^
of this

itnn^

^
is

second bar
of

example the
of

D

doubled in unison
to

on account
doubled
4.

the

proximity

the three

upper parts

their

corresponding parts an octave lower.
in

In the

fourth bar the

F

is

unison in both groups.
of the

The formation

harmonic

basis,

which

is

essentially in

four parts, does not by any
alone.
pizz.

means devolve upon
bass
part
is

the

wood-wind
arco or

One More

of the parts is often devoted to the strings,

frequently

the

treated

separately,

the
to

chords of greater value in the three upper parts being allotted
the

wood- wind.
in the in

Then,

if

the upper part

is

assigned to a group

of strings, there remairls

nothing for the wind except the sustained
parts.

harmony harmony

two middle

In the first case the three-part

the

wood-wind should form an independent whole,

receiving no assistance from the bass; in this

manner

intervals of

open fourths and
is
full

fifths will

be obviated.

In

the second

case

it

desirable to
tone,

provide the intermediate parts with a moderately

choosing no other intervals except seconds, sevenths,
use of wood-wind in

thirds or sixths.
All that

has been said with regard

to the

the formation of harmony, and the division of simple and

mixed

in different Russian Easter Fite [a] Tsar Saltan [45] Ob. No. tremolando (cf. „ [2041 Fl. lis No. 108. . No. beginning — Total wood-wind 79 \^ —2 CI. Ex.. „ beginning — Ob. impossible to examine the countless combinations of tone colour.. — 2 2 Fag. 2 Fag. Once having little mastered these. register). The Christmas Night [hs] „ „ — CI. (cf. — 80 — In short timbres applies with equal force to sustained chords.. to take heed that each parti- cular chord composed entirely either of duplicated or non-dupli- cated parts. ing of parts). 106.. CI. [nT] . Tsar Saltan. he will soon when certain methods should be used and when to adopt others. all the varieties of duplication and distribution of chords. The pupil is advised. * * 5«Lbar. would be useless. generally. 2 Fag. and to them on the orchestra. chords.. 105. Fag. 111. 136). It the arrangement and division of timbres is not so perceptible to the ear.. No. to use the (except in certain cases resulting from progression).. No. or harmonic progressions interchanging rapidly with staccato chords. (cross- Snegourotchka *No. of crossing is methods of and enclosure and finally of timbres with full to knowledge attention what he doing. concentrate his on close part-writing. No. 176). Ex. Fag. and to indicate the general rules be followed. and pro- gression of parts attracts less attention.. nay. 109. to write for wood-wind learn in its normal order is of distribution. Snegourotchka [T^ — Pice. Examples a) of wood-wind harmony: Independent chords. (high Shdherazade. 2 —3 .2 Ob. It has been my aim to denote the fundamental principles upon which to to work. before „ „ 115 — mixed of timbres and other similar passages effect — very sweet „ wood-wind in three's. separated by rests of some importance. Ob. distribution. Fag. 110. full if the student devote a listen time to the study of scores. 107. Fl. Fl. 2 (tremolando) — 2 2 Ob.

9). *No.81 Sadko. (cf.. 1). Opera [T] „ . Act III [T] — 2 2 Fag. b) Harmonic basis (sometimes joined by the horns). — n CI. horn. Ex. Bass cl. 289. Fag. form the bass.. 18). — Eng. before in the high register).. 2 CI. Sadko. No.. CI.. — Ob. No. Fag. 290). horn. Legend * of Kitesh [269] — 125 Fl.. Full wind oboe. The Golden Cockerel. Antar 3 Flutes. Cl. - 2 Ob. Ex. Eng. — 2 Flutes. 117. horn Ex. with chorus.. 120.. CI. 271). Symphonic Tableau [T] * — in Ob. 2i^ movement [T] —2 CI. C-fag. before [so] — CI. Fl. three-part No. Ex. 2 274 low register CI.. The Christmas Night [T] — 3 Sadko \T\ No. 4 part harmony 218 (cf. Snegourotchka |292| — 1 Widely-divided harmony in the and doubling of parts No. high register. 2 Fag. simple and mixed timbres *No. No. Cl. also [254] . [T67] — Fag. 115. CI. Sadko Chords harmony. The Golden Cockerel — Various wind instruments. of Kitesfi. Eng. 112. (cf. Eng. C-fag. (cf.. 161 — Wind and except brass alternately. horn.. —2 Horn. Sadko [49] — Ob. Snegourotchka — [Tst] 2 CI.. Ex. the horn) Ex. Fag. „ [3 18-31 9 wind. before [235] — Mixed timbre. (cf.. 118. The Tsar's Bride Legend [126] Full wind. Fag. The May 68 Night.. No.. Fag. 26).. 116.. 283 Fl... 2 before [T] — Total 72 wood-wind. 113. Shihirazade.. 114. Fag. (sustained note in (cf. before 90 I — Enclosure of parts (Ob. 119. cf. . 2 Fag. Fag.

.. Fag. C-fag. — Bass Cl. register). and Servilia * 59 — Cl. 80 Fl. (low. Ex. Ob. No. 126. C-fag. 122. 82 Fag. perfectly balanced in tone. 136 harmonic parts in motion: before — Fl.. (cf. cl. * * No... 124. Here. cl. muted. Cl. (cf. Bass No. 199). — CI. 118 — — — — — niixed timbre: 2 Ob. (cf.. Fl. Cl. 355 No... horn and 3 Cl. It is evident that the quartet of horns presents every facility for four-part harmony. Bass 273 Eng.. (cf. Fl. Fag. No. Legend of Kitesh 52 55 68 — — — Fag. 195-196] 80 166 — CI.. Cl. No. Kashiche'i the Immortal Ob. Cl. Ob. No. 40—41 Bass cl. motion. 125. Cl. 31). *No... parts in motion: Cl. 2 Bass cl. Four-part writing. cl. 128.. and Bass 2 Fag. horn. Ex. 127. 2 cl. Fag. without doubling the bass in octaves: . Ex. Sadko [ni] — CI. part writing should be of the close order with no empty spaces in the intervals. horn. 124.. The Tsar's Bride Fag. Fag. 22. The Golden Cockerel — Eng. as in the wood-wind. 121. Fag» muted. Fl... horn. 247 2 Cl. Eng. 3 Fl.. 197)... (low register) and 2 223 Cl. Ex. in harmonic parts Fag. 123.. CI. Eng.— No. [156] harmonic Fl. and Harmony in the brass.

and consider eminently satisfactory: 2 horns and tuba to given to the form the bass in octaves. When it is found necessary to double the bass in octaves. In the diagrams of the present section the actual sounds of horns and trumpets are given. Tuba have often adopted the following combination of brass instruit ments. may be completed by two trom- bones or four horns -ni in pairs: »3^TI^. the tuba usually form the bass allotted to the and the three upper parts are generally two remaining trombones reinforced by a trumpet or two horns in unison.b0 . as in a piano score. Tuba higher registers. so as to obtain a perfect balance of tone: g Tuba I 2Corni (ITr-ba) •» Tuba or ^.83 Note. the too resonant trombone and tuba are seldom used. for the sake of simplicity. four-part harmony. trombone and. the three other parts 3 Tr-bni zsrt ** '-i trombones: m In the Uorin (beautiful full resonance). as explained further on. The quartet of trombones and tuba third is not often employed in close four-part harmony. the in octaves. of which the two upper parts are given to the trumpets. the duplication being effected by the bassoon.

horns.W^^ i ** 2 CornT etc. ^ ITorni .'^ Hl '<' »V.»— — U Tp.b S^ etc. — 1. . be =a^r-bc "o -a-t^^»fm l^ m «»• llTr.bni 3 Tp-bf «- Hr^l-^H rf l>-t>m Tuba Tuba « ti ] Tuba a Tr-hc- Ji «>1 .i l''--bo C » !JTp. The best combination If is trombones. ff^qg a Tr-b e ^4Coi [ ^ etc. of horns should be doubled: . 2 Cor. or harmony certain instruments must be omitted: 1 Tp-bn ti ^m 4 Co r ni \\] A T p .boC» . 2 Cor „ paXnib ni y .] 4 C orTii — 4 Corn U]4 Co m rT| .3Tr-bni 3E i Tuba five-part ^TftrbfH- Tr-bm f"U-Tfe}HH| _a 333 ^ six. or trumpets in three's.i 84 or in progression: Three-part writing. Tuba «» Tuba In seven. the instruments are mixed the ^ number rt-.. Writing in several parts. . ^ n *^ 1 i >-biio 1 ? ffi T i '-hn i Tuba « Tuba Discords of the seventh or second are preferably entrusted instruments of different tone colour: to . used' the When doubled: the whole group is number of horns should be g Tr-be [ - ^ j » I Tub.

Duplication in the brass group is most frequently effected by placing a chord for horns side by side with the same chord of the written tor trumpets or trombones. such chords are it written for an orchestra which only includes two trumpets. to secure balance of tone: 15Tp.* rp.— 85 — TITf-lio i 3 Tr-bni m .b o [8 L -TT — 4Corni "J 4Corni 3Tr.]4Lorn=T^ "^ f— §i^ I 2 Tr-bni Tuba/- The same method in . and moderates the penetrating timbre of the trum- pets and trombones: . In is impossible for the horns to proceed in such cases the following arrangement may obtain. sifies The soft round quality horns inten- the tone. the horns being marked one degree louder than the other instruments.bc t J m g.should be followed whenever the use of horns pairs fails to produce satisfactory tone. occupied by the horns the When chords of widely-divided harmony are distributed through- out several harmonic registers. example: For Tuba Tuba zPJ Duplication in the brass. the arrangement of chord will re- semble that of a chorale written for double or triple choir. the register need not be doubled.bD»( Bl Tuba Tuba When pairs.

as this unites tiie two most powerful agents in the group. The tenuto is generally given to two trumpets. i a Tr-b ^m ^i —T Tu b a a T r-b *' a Uior. which lends some unity to the chord. its wry «»-2Cor"rr ponderous tone rarely takes part notes in in such Sustained double octaves are usually apportioned thus: =°^Tf. 2 Horns. in the octave."tU'!. in different [140] 3 Trombones. (in double octaves).97). * a Tr-bni i . . The octave is sometimes formed by trumpets and horns acting together: 2Tr-he 2 Corni 4 Corni 1 Tr-ba fe The trombone with combinations.Ex. Chords groups alternately „ |i7i I (cf. 255 1 — —4 Full brass. is In handling an orchestra the brass frequently employed activity to sus- tain notes in two or three octaves. Ex. (cf.'[85]»1^^- Similar juxtaposition of trumpets and trombones: 3Tr-be wm is not so common. 2 Horns. this sphere of must not be ignored. Examples a) of harmony in the brass: Independent chords: [j^J Snegourotchka —3 — Trombones. further on 3Trombones Horns (stopped). 244). or to two or four horns.— 86 ^TTT — 4 Cop. U'lVbo it^OPMI The imperfect balance note is arising from the duplication of the middle compensated for by the mixture of timbres.

H and sweet (cf. 130. . Trombones (en- closure). . 87 — 28^ Snegourotchka. Ex. Servilia 154 Various brass instruments. Sadko |i75| — brass (enclosure — Mixed timbres Full (juxtaposition) 3 Horns 3 Trpmpets. 2 Trom- bones -(- 4 Horns (juxtaposition). — II. before [T] No. soft 231 — 3 Trombones. 6t!i bar. 129. No. Antar 64-65 4 Horns.— No. 136.. * * II Full brass. before \m\ „ „ — Full muted brass. Ex. thicHly scored (cf. * Legend of Kitesh Short chords (juxtaposition). 32). — 4 Horns. of parts). „ before [aas] 191 — Full brass except Tuba. No. 102 7'-lL Tsar Saltan bar. 12).181 — 4 Horns + 3 Trombones + Tuba * * (cf. 132. 135. 178 The Tsar's Bride No. The Golden Cockerel basis: — Horns. 237). 2 Trumpets. before 289 —4 — + Horns. No. Ex. — 193 (Full brass). 134.242). 133. Strings and brass alternately (cf. The Christmas Night. 130 Legend of Kitesh — 3 Trumpets. 8). Full brass. b) Harmonic No. at the end of Vol. Ex. 131. — Table of chords No. No. *Sadko.Ex. 199 115 Trombone and Tuba. later 3 Trombones (cf. Snegourotchka „ [t?].

full (cf. + 2 2 Horns CI.. II.. and 2 Horns-f 2 Ob. +2 3 Horns + 3 2 Horns Fag.. The Tsar's Bride „ — 4 Horns + 2 — Juxtaposition CI. II Ivan the Terrible..Harmony Wind and of placing a in in combined groups. Arrange- ments such as the following are possible: 2 Trumpets 3 Trumpets Also +2 +3 Fl. 8). No. . This class of combination possesses the nations in the melodic line the brass. 2 Horns -f 2 Fag. Fag. C'orni - + 2 Fag. A. A chord scored for full brass doubled by the same chords scored for full wood-wind (in pairs) produces a magnificent and uniform tone. CI.. crossing and enclosure of parts. Combination of wind and brass. The Christmas Night — 4 Horns -|.. Ex... of wind and brass. 141. No.3 are very rare. Fl. 2 Trumpets +2 +3 Ob. and: The combination 3 Trombones -|.. same features Wood-wind as combireinforces and reduces characteristic qualities. 236).. Act Table of chords No. CI. 142.be !S etc. 3 Horns + 3 Fag. 3 Trumpets -f 3 CI. 3 Trumpets Ob. or by any methods already described: overlaying. II). 3 Trombones -{- 3 CI. — 2 Horns + 2 50 142 CI. 2 Trumpets +2 CI. etc. 143. 2 Fag. In unison (juxtaposition or contrast of tone qualities). or CI. softens it (cf. brass instruments may be combined by the method chord in one timbre side by side with the same chord of the three another timbre. [sol — Juxtaposition [Tas] and enclosure (cf. 1.Fl. 2 Fl i S as well as: 2 Tr. Examples: Snegourotchka 315 Ex. its Chap.

(+). — 2 Ob. wind No. (+). [2^ . muted *No. Act (cf. 146. Stopped muted notes in trumpets and horns resemble the oboe and Eng. 11 lH bar. Examples : *Kashtchei the /m/wr/a/ The Christmas * Mlada. 24^). + 3 Trumpets bottom). bassoons are substituted for clarinets the effect loses part of its character. Sadko. + 4 Horns non — Full brass wind. before [79] — Horn. The Christmas Night. 2 Fag. of Kitesh |_ioJ No. In the full score a misprint occurs in the clarinet part. + 3 Horns 249 Night. Fag. Antar \T\ — Ob. (3 CI. — 3 Horns + 3 Fag. Trombones -f F1. 149. horn. The Golden Cockerel or — Eng. 259). „ „ [TaT]. A beautiful dark tone derived from the combination of middle notes in stopped horns and deep notes in the clarinet: ^ If + .) . p. + 3 Horns — Fag.[^g] iJClar. it is corrected in the example. 11.. register) * p.. horn. 2 Fag.. +4 Horns (+). 171I1 bar. + — Horn. III |_i9j — 2 Ob. *No. 6ili bar. „ [242] — Full brass Legend of Kitesh. CI. 150. (cf. — Horn — Full (-t). 151. 148. at the * No. 147. Examples: No. Eng. horn in quality. Russian Easter Fete.— * 89 -[- No. (+). CI. 144. CI.Horn + ct "^^^ CI. (1) Ex.'Jl'oi-. the combination of these instruments produces a magnificent tone. — Same combination with added horns. -|^^ legato legato. and 3 Horns + [29]. beginning also [5] — Ex. Trumpet doubled wood(1). CI. 2 + 4 Horns — 2 Fag. 145. is Eng... horn. CI. before Tsar Saltan [129] [T54] muted brass -|- wind. (Editor's note.. Legend 324 *No. {+) (+) 3 Ob.. CI.. Trumpets (low + Ob. 107 ..

yields a finely-balanced tone recalling the effect of a quartet of horns. but. the concords being given to the horns.rqQ. produce a beautiIn mysterious between trumpets is in octaves. Four-part harmony given two bassoons and two horns. In the former is case crossing of parts to be recommended for the purposes of blend. crossing. balance may be established by doubling the upper harmonic parts: . especially in soft passages. ou 3 Olx ott 3 Fli $ S 4 Corni m Played forte. (piano). a chain of consecutive chords to the brass. in the Upper register. the advisable to entrust the stationary parts parts to the moving wood-wind. a chord of four horns. It 90 Overlaying (superposition). the discords to the bassoons: and not: S 2Fngrsi ^J ^^'^''•- Bassoons process is may also be written inside the horns. clarinets as effectively as by oboes or may be completed flutes.— 2. the horns are more powerful than the wood-wind. enclosure of parts. In forte passages the horns overwhelm the bassoons. but the inverse not to be recommended: 2Cor. In soft passages. the bassoon may then double the base an octave below: ^ 3 Clar.i2 Faff The same of the flutes. on account of their tone quality inside the horns. should rarely be set in the Clarinets. ful insetting of parts may be used for sustained trumpet notes in octaves. but possessing slightly greater transparence. and higher har- monic by parts. has already been stated that the bassoon and horn are the of reconciling the to two instruments best capable groups of wood- wind and brass. thirds played in the low register sometimes combined with effect it clarinets. and it is wiser to employ four horns alone.

* * * Antar [se] Snegourotchka |30o| —3 — 4 Horns (basis).. 248)... The Christmas Night. Symphonic Tableau [[] Fl. Legend of Kitesh. . [Tot] — — Clar.. * |2i9| - Mixed timbre of wood-wind.. *TheGolden Cockerel. * No. Ex. 156. (basis). Fag. Full wind and horns.1 91 2 Ob Fag- Examples: a) Superposition. before [io] — Wood-wind. CI.. later Russian Easter Fete — Fl. Horn.. Servilia \n\ ' "• +„2„0^. CI. Fag.. before „ [si] — Horn. Horn.. Horn. * Legend of Tsar Saltan.. 15). Horn (basis). Ob. 3 Trombones. 2 Fag. before „ „ „ —3 Flutes. (cf. . Fl..+ 3 3 Horns ].. 3 Trombones. Horns. No. Opera 1 165 — Juxtaposition ana Superposition.. 157 Antar. trumpets and trombones * in juxtaposition (cf. Horns Fl... No. No.. Sadko. Horns. trumpets and trombones added later. The Golden Cockerel Ex. before [u] 2 Fi. b) Crossing. CI. CI. * (cf. Ex. Sadko [ass] — Same distribution. before 4 Horns. The Christmas Night [2i2] lOiH bar. Fag. . — CI. Antar |^2] — CI.. then Trumpets. 154. O157 *No. C-fag. 153. 232). and 4^-^ Sheherazade — Final chords of liL [jT] movements. before 62 220 Horn.. — Wind and Horns. * Sadko. final chord Table III of chords. final * — chord — Fl.. 215 * 3 FI. 155. No. 152.

2 CI. trumpets and trombones take part in a chord. 14). Ex. 105 — Harmonic basis. 3 Horn (+). * * No. 160. 2 Horns (+) CI. Eng.also Tsar Saltan. 158.. The Tsar's Bride. The Tsar's Bride * Horn (+) (cf. within horns. + 2 Ob. Opera. 159. clarinets *Nr. horn 1 „ °' 3 Horns (+) J *Nr. 2 Ob. CI.. before [255] *Cf.92 c) — 33 . 164. horn.. *Sadko. C^^. horn authorizes the simultaneous use of these instruments in one and the same chord. 2 Fl. Snegourotchka [Tsa] — Trumpet Fl. Legend of Kitesh. Eng.. trumpets. *Nr.. 161. Tsar Saltan „ „ so [59] — Trumpets within wood-wind doubled. trumpets Antar before 37 — Fag. 162. Trumpet *Sadko. symphonic tableau * + — 4 Horns CI.. f Uo r ooH^ Examples: The Christmas Night 123 [ts] — 3 Horns (+) + Oboe. Opera (cf. horn. Ob. Legend of Kitesh 244 — CI. Fagr. — Flutes within trumpets. Legend of Kitesh [82] — Oboes and clarinets within The relationship which has been shown to exist between stopped horns and oboe or Eng. played p or sfp: i ^P * rflii Ob. Sadko. before If [TIs] — 2FL'^2Vag. No. 240). + Fag. Ex. No. Table Jll end of Overture — Bassoons within horns (cf. clarinets are better oboes and used to form the harmonic part above the the arrangement: trumpets. Ivan the Terrible. before [T55] — Flutes within trumpets. Enclosure: I No. Eng. Act — Flutes within horns. 163. of chords. The following should be . 260). oboes within. Ex. later horns within bassoons.l^^)flutes.

— 93 .

94 — of 1 Sadko. (2 (cf. 32). Symphonic lableau before [T].(Ci.. 170. We frequently meet with the combination of strings and wood- wind in the light of comparison of one timbre with another.. rhythmic motion in the Rx. + 'Cellos -f Violas div. It General observations. Opera 244 1 1 — Chord . [239] . — String quartet divisi [sTl Antar — Vni — + wood-wind Ex. Legeu:' of Kitesh 295 the same. Violas div.. . andjT]. movement M 6 Vni soli -[- 2 Ob. also [3] (Ex. 171. wood-wind on trombone chords Ex. In practice. ^[^J. Sheherazade. bassoons [T42] at the limit of cf. The Tsar's Bride Antar 65 [T79] (cf. + Fl. Examples: * * * * Sadko. or tremolando in the strings.nd supporting those in the highest. either Apart from in long sustained notes.— No. the harmonic sounds the lowest register coinciding with r. l5i 9*-l? bar. widely extended range. Combination of strings and wind. sustained harmony in the strings (cf. the general and most natural arrangement is: Ob. 213). Antar |T] No. 151). constantly chang- distribution is subordinate to correct progression of parts. Fl. wind. any inequaHty of tone may be counterbalanced by the following acoustic phenomenon: in every chord the parts in in octaves strengthen one another. marking the wood-wind one degree louder than the brass. low compass. Horn accompanifnent * in the Clar. is not always possible to secure proper balance in scoring for full wood-wind. For instance. the complete or partial doubling of the string quartet (two methods frequently used). in cases this may be secured by judicious dynamic grading. 86). Alternation of notes in horns and (cf. 243). Ex.). (florid II.). however. In spite of this fact it rests entirely with the orchestrator to obtain difficult the best possible balance of tone. 1.) + Vnidiv. is in a suc- cession of chords where the melodic position ing. etc. B. CI.

or enclosure of parts.l5L Table div. — short chords. produces a full. II. 173. (1) A splendid example of the combination of strings and brass introduction to the 2jl^ scene of the 411l may be found in the act of " Khovanstchina" by Moussorgsky. Vol. I2i tableau (cf. — Horn + Violas Trombones 240 C. 5).— 2. Snegourotchka — of opera. The Christmas Night tremolo strings. Ex. orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov. [22J — W^ind + Brass csord. 95 — affinity in Owing to the complete absence of any is tone quality. Table III -\- Legend of Kitesh [mj end (cf. (Editor's note. -f- Legend of Kitesfi.) . the combination of strings with brass seldom employed in juxta- position. Fag. Opera. Ex.. 151. Ex. the splendid effect Another possible exception of may be mentioned. 172.. round and firm tone. 250). horns doubled by divided violas or Examples: [242J of chords. 31^ and 711i tableaux Table and III. 174. before [34] *Sadko. Examples: No. end of of the 10. crossing. (cf. 9. also employed in when the strings play short disconnected chords. 17) and a host of other examples. in Vol. The combination set side by side. of chords. Ex. — the same (Horn. of strings. *No. The first method may be used however when the harmony is is formed by the strings tremolando. sforzando. Sadko. *No. before 'Cellos div. 18). 'cellos. I „ „ „ chord Table Ex. Trumpet +). The Tsar's Bride. + (cf. (1). 6). Snegourotchka — Full brass + strings fr^/no/and(?(cf. and the brass sustaining chords. I Last chords II. before [hsJ final — Ob. wood-wind and brass instruments. Combination of the three groups. + Horns Strmgs.

but do not profess in to deal with all the countless cases I which may arise of the course of orchestration. have given a I few examples well-sounding chords.— General Observations. is 96 — of tone Balance and correct distribution in dealing with much more important is long sustained chords or those of rhythmic design. in the case of short. but one which should not be entirely neglected. as the this is the only method to acquire perfect knowledge of distribution and doubling of various instruments. I have endeavoured I to outline the general principles to be followed. for further information full advise the reader to study scores with care. . disconnected chords resonance a minor consideration.

). The question a whether one trumpet or two should be employed must be decided by the degree of power is to be vested in the given passage. There where a flourish or fanfare given out above a tremolando in is accompaniment. COMPOSITION OF THE ORCHESTRA. call is Take a short phrase harmony. or two of the wood-wind will suffice The question whether the tremolo in Ob. the too high may be entrusted to the oboes and clarinets unison. But taking granted. with or without change no doubt that any orchestrator would assign the tremolo to the strings this for and the fanfare to a trumpet. the strings should be supported . or even multiplied by four. The following simple example will serve for explanation. in the opposite case one solo brass instrument. the fanfare flourish suitable to the range of a trumpet? Should be written for two or three trumpets in unison.Chapter IV. Different ways of orchestrating the same music. moment in an orchestral work point and only one particular manner of scoring. the composer or orchestrator Is it may still be left in doubt. this combination possessing the closest resemblance to the trumpet tone both in character and power. -f 1 CI. or a given to one. There are times when the general tone. If big sonorous effect tripled. or doubled by other instruments? damaging endeavour If the to Can any of these methods be employed without musical meaning? These are questions which I shall answer. character and atmosphere of a passage. is the phrase to the too low in register for the trumpets it should if be given phrase in is horns (instruments it allied to the trumpet). never vice versa. required the instruments may be (1 doubled.

p. but by f proper balance of tone of expression. The aim work. the phrase is given to the wood-wind (oboes and clarinets) the harmony should be entrusted to the horns. and those who orchestrate work should be permeated with his intentions. Should the composer desire to establish a strongly-marked difference between harmonic basis and the melodic outline to obtain it is better not to employ wood-wind harmony. but them full and on the context I proper place in the scores. would be impossible work. and in relation to the composition as a whole. to of is closely allied to the form of its of his the aesthetic meaning every moment and phrase considered apart. If the fanfare figure is allotted to the brass (trumpets or horns) the if harmony should be given to the wood-wind. The choice portant to of an orchestral scheme depends on the musical matter. but also in colour. is im- determine whether a given passage is a complement after.— by sustained harmony in view. to or a contrast with it what goes before and comes in the whether forms a climax or merely a step It general march of musical all thought. young and by reading inexperienced composers do not always possess a clear idea of what they wish to do. To his solve all these questions successfully a composer must have full knowledge of the purpose he has in view. wood-wind depends upon his A composer realises others who the orchestrate his music can only proceed by conjecture. and on the contrary. the show of brilliance in the is to harmonic use of harmony in the wood-wind to the be recommended. or to consider the role played by each passage quoted to in the present The reader in their is therefore advised not to study pay too much attention their bearing to the examples given. full carefully distributing his //. If. the composer desires a round tone as harmonic basis and less parts. They can improve in this direction . The following may serve as a guide in fullness scoring of wood-wind chords: the harmonic basis should differ from the melody not only and intensity of tone. Nevertheless shall touch upon a few of these points in the course of the following outline. in tiie 98 — the purpose intentions beforehand. a more difficult subject. Here the question what should those intentions be? a composer This is arises. to examine such possible types of relationship. It the colouring of preceding and subsequent passages. To begin with. dynamic marks pp.

there are certain things which should not be achieved. melodic phrases in unison and octaves. with a few hardly noticeable variations structure 1 in detail. the will to achieve is not sufficient. and a For continuation of this process would soon lead to the ridiculous. It obvious that the method b) will produce satisfactory tone. The most complicated musical ideas sometimes admit of only one manner of scoring. the F sharp •7* in . harmony. and the soprano middle register would the low and the be overpowered. regulating the choice of instruments and tone colour. To the following example. of scoring more complex musical sometimes harmonico-melodic phrases. chords. *b) — is Vera Scheloga. for each of the primary elements in music. very simple in add an alternative method of scoring: Example No. and counterpoint possesses its own special requirements. polyphonic designs there are but two methods to be followed. instance if the chords were given to the brass the recitative If whole passage in would sound neavy. 31^ But a and 4ili way of scoring would be less succes'sfui. will to register. in unison. or repeated throughout several octaves. many cases.: — good scores and by repeatedly they concentrate the after 99 — The search is listening to an orchestra. be orchestrated I a different Later on shall frequently way every time it touch upon this more compli- cated question. The simplest musical ideas. melody. 175.. before |^ — a) actual orchestration. provided mind to the fullest possible extent. of which of no single part has any melodic meaning are scored in various ways according one idea recurs. Examples: * Snegourotchka 58 . extravagant and daring effects in orchesfration quite a different thing from mere caprice. another method. There are fewer possible ways ideas. dynamic effect and the quality In expression or tone colour that may be in desired. 65 and before [as] — sustained note etc.

(cf. and etc. The Tsar's Bride. while there are also some instruments which cannot be combined owing to the great difference in their peculiarities. These operations are always successful orchestral colour. ^ The Christmas Nighty and 179 No. 182—186. or the two processes In the com- bination. Overture: beginning. 187—189 . the should be guided by the general principles laid The best ways is down means of in the earlier stages of the present work. orchestrating the same musical complete or idea in various by the adaptation of the musical matter. . 176. 178—181. 177. and 75). e) variation of the general dynamic scheme. Ex. in producing variety of Examples. In case the composer may resort to the inversion of the normal order in of instruments. which has already been played forte. No. preceding sections of the book have tried to explain the characteristics of each instrument and the part which each group of instruments plays in the orchestra. 17 Tsar Saltan 14 181 '0. . of extension addition of octaves to the upper and lower parts. 290. e. d) alteration of details (the most frequent method). Sadko 99-101 and 305—307 No. of Therefore. played by the brass would sound rough and coarse. .100 double basses were played arco by 'cellos to and basses together it would sound clumsy. b) repetition in a different key. No. a) This can be partial c) done by the following operations: the whole range by the trans- ference into other octaves. duplication of parts. repeating a phrase piano. effect if it were given if the bassoons a comic it would be produced. Moreover many methods of doubling are to be avoided. |T|. The first of these I is not always feasible. The object of scoring the is same musical phrase in different ways each to obtain variety either in tone colour or resonance. Russian Easter Fete 158 and [c].[T[. 289. as regards the general composition student the orchestra. g.p2~|. these I have mentioned.

all instruments. 192 101 — 195.: -i . [m]. I melodic groups. and other instruments little sustaining power. In both species of tutti full wood-wind may be employed or of the passage. variation of nuendo. or whether two horns are combined with one or three trombones. 199-201 68 70 84 294 (Cf. according to the register and musical context it For instance... or 3 Trombones etc. By mean passages which the brass group only takes whether two horns or two trumpets participate alone.. 1. in strings. still be called tutti. Sheherazade. new light upon the fundamental composition of the orchestra. Full Tutti. full tutti is and partial tutti^ independently of whether the orchestra constructed in pairs. interchange of tone incidentally throws tone colour etc. of The inclusion of kettle-drums. but the word "all" is used and it must not be inferred that every single instrument must necessarily be employed to I form a tutti. crescendo. Legend of Kitesh and 312 . 213. "-. r4 Horns. In order to siinpHfy the following illustrations into will divide the word two — classes. 196—198. 2 Horns 2 Horns or 2 Trumpets.. 202— 203. wind.movement — beginning of the fl//£gro[A]. in the low register flutes will be unnecessary. „ 31^ movement — beginning |T].|T].. trumpets.. also Ex. of The Golden Cockerel scoring the 229 233 The process ways and is same or similar ideas in different the source of numerous musical operations. [T] 62 *No. 55 56 No. or a larger number of instrumentSv all call full tutti the combination of partial tutti part. does not come under . I in three's. or the two remaining horns. — *No. J . in the extreme high register may be essential to include the piccolo. percussion in general. not. * Legend of Kitesh . without tuba.) *No. The word tutti generally means the simultaneous use of relatively. as of the discussion. dimiqualities.. 214. and yet the passage can harp. and brass.. etc.

and chorus (cf. and 188 Full Tutti. 207—208. 258). [r]. tutti. Sheherazade. see special Tables at the end of Vol. Ex. 0' [x^ [T| . Partial Tutti. — Full rently scored. [223]. up to the end. [¥] 4'A movement [a] . Ex. 194. No. Act * [12] (cf.102 — the it The of variety of orchestral operations increases with tutti. -No. 3i^ movement [g]. Overture [T| 141 . * The Tsar's Bride. 66. and the student reminded in used essentially in forte and fortissimo. Ex. . 125^6] Sadko |1]. 2ii^ movement [a] * . R— T | . 3). Examples: Snegourotchka^^ and 231 62] — Partial and full Tufli. [2] Tutti. — Full and partial Tutti (cf. [y]. cf. also 1^1 movement [a]. — Full Tutti (cf. instruments forming a it in all fact. \~h Sadko. 77). II. Symphonic tableau 111 20—24 *Mlada.8). [x] . 179—181). For examples of Tutti chords. 65 — Ex. 0. orchestrated in different ways. [w] and farther on to [T| (No. of full Some of these under the double heading that the tutti. [p]. can only give a few examples of and partial and leave the reader examples fall is draw his own conclusions. [h]. [p]. . No. Russian Easter Fete [f] . *j!^ Symphony. 0. 193. 2si movement [k]. 239 173 Full Tutti 177 Ex. 8). Full 177 Pan Voyevoda *Antar * 186 (cf. before [T]. The Christmas Night [m\ and [m] [T| Tutti. rarely pianissimo and piano passages. Sadko — Full Tutti with chorus. . No. | (cf. 86). without the trumpets [JFa] Ex. so great does 1 number become to that is impossible to consider full combinations. 41I1 movement \g\. 19. (cf. 209. 204. is and partial tutti. 0. lH movement [p]. Ex. 3il movement [m]. diffe- 205—206. Snegourotchka — Full Tutti. 32). with and without chorus. * * Spanish Capriccio[B\. [e]. [o] .

but.ore frequently with the At other times the horns are found alone without support of horns. Ill [T]. or Turkish infantry music. . 149 . * [57]. Ex. a tutti of may be comprised The of instruments each group in varying numbers. notes are often added wood-wind instruments likewise the remainder of the strings and the harps. No. and. 210— 211. 26 (cf. * * No. also |^ and [sT]. 182—184) Pan Voyevoda No. cf. [3T2] (compare). 213— 214. I5i (compare) Tsar Saltan 17 . tant pizz. in the brass groups alone may attain an extraordinary volume of tone. but n.— 103 — Tuiii in the wind. Sometimes this by the wood-wind alone. Ex. may. Act II [lo]. In the following examples the formation of pedal notes by strings or wood- wind in no way alters the general character of the Tutti: Examples: No. [262] Ivan the Terrible. lastly. also Act. 65). [Tse]. 212. rest of the percussion is quite call addition of kettle-drums constitutes and the the common and what Germans "Janitscharenmusik". Antar [37] (cf. TuUi pizzicato. 2 15. Legend of Kitesh [294]. cf. Tutti of passages in wood-wind and horns do not produce any great amount on the other hand tutti power in jorte passages. Violoncellos and double basses playing to more or less impor(tutti). which can only attain any great degree this of strength is of by support from the wood-wind. In many cases the wood-wind and brass groups can form a for tutti is by themselves effected periods of varying length. 14 Snegourotclika . . though still support it medium fairly brilliant in quality. Without power. in certain cases constitute a particular tutti. reinforced occasionally by the harp and piano. The kind of quartet of strings (pizzicato). the wood-wind. this process renders the sustained notes in the wood-wind more distinct. The Golden Cockerel [He].

Act i. 2 16. May Night. 219—221. cf. Tutti in one. 217. wood-wind or brass). Spanish Caphccio[A]. and a solo on the double bass unknown. Although. often happens that a orchestral ensemble exeparts. Act ' II Sadko Legend 220 (cf. o (Ex. doubling of parts. [176]. arco and pizz. in less simple orchestration with the usual writing. of Legend Kitesh [Tas]. Phrases demanding particular individuality . Such melodic phrases more or or. ornamental admit of contrast in tone colouring. on the other hand. before \\^_ 174 . Legend of Kitesh 142 144 147 3 part Tutti. It two and three moderately of full parts. 63). are extremely rare. cf. in any orchestral piece. The Tsar's Bride 120—121 215 (cf. The Golden Cockerel * No. before [s]. with different scoring. |i39| — Tutti in one part Soli in the strings. * * Snegourotchka. The Mayor's Song combi" nation of strings. Examples: Snegourotchka. solos for Whilst stringed instruments. before [p]. is seldom found. Ex.hefor& 128 . Tlie No.also No.104 Examples: No. Russian Easter Fete cf. * * of Kitesh [Toi]. [c]. the 1^ violin and the solo viola practically ist I5i 'cello are fairly frequently used in this manner. also 153 also [u] and before 305 and |T|. [Ts]. numerous instances are to be found of melodies and phrases entrusted to a solo wind instrument (generally the first of each group. in cutes a passage composed one or two harmonic call for unison or in octaves. 218. Ex. occasionally with the addition of sustained notes. Mlada. 56). 295).

on harmonic basis of strings sul ponticello and wood-wind. Examples Violin solo: . Mlada. Snegourotchka Viola solo: 274 . likewise passages that require extraordinary technique. 12i Sheherazade. and the cadence on 310 p. Act * III 29 36 [Ttt]. The Golden Cockerel 229) . e. [Tso] (cf. and in very rare cases a quartet of solo strings may be employed.279—2 Vni soli (cf. as they attract too tion to a particular instrument. Ex. Ex. I 64—78. The Golden Cockerel 163 . transparent accompaniment. but simply in order to obtain that singular difference in colour which exists between a solo stringed instrument and strings in unison. Ex. also 174 . Snegourotchka 54 275 The May Night.Vn. 102) The Christmas Night. 38. Snegourotchka [Tst] (cf. g. 225. cf. The comparatively weak tone instrument necessitates light. virtuoso solos should not be written. Spanish Capriccio No. 9) No. before Mlada. Violoncello solo. III. Act 52 . scope of the of the solo Difficult orchestral rank and file. 224. 222—223. much atten- Solo stringed instruments are also used when vigourous expression and technical facility are not required. movement also the passages at the start of * * each movement. pp. 226. Snegourotchka 137 212 Sadko * No. 177|. solo. Two solo instruments can be coupled together.105 — beyond the of expression are entrusted to solo instrumenta. etc. Legend of Kitesh . No. 2 Violins soli. Act before 19 *A * Fairy Tale |w|.

*The case wind in of a solo stringed instrument doubled by the woodobject is unison must not be forgotten. cl.Small 2 Violas (cf. No. soli or divisi. No. 309 * * + ^ FI. 227. more and effect. I. in the second . * No. II. 231. CI. 10).Harp. Viola. in the 'Cello + Bass cl. (cf. * Pan Voyevoda Legend of Kitesh — 2 Vni + 2 Ob. Viola. It is seldom that the entire orchestral conception 6i!i is centred in still 1 the upper register of the orchestra (the Sit and octaves). 229. 42 and Ex.. p. Legend of Kitesh [297] — 2 Solo violins -f Pice. or to produce a certain highly-coloured effect. Fl. 4.. Act U 52 — Vn. II. 2 Vni — Vn. 306 +2 CI.. Limits of orchestral range. 228. p. The Christmas Night — 2yni+ Bass Vn. soli or Violin solo -f Fl. D. Vn. 24. rarely 1) is it focussed wholly in the lowest range (octaves of — where the proximity harmonic intervals creates a bad In the first case the flutes and piccolo should be used along with the upper notes of the violins. Act string is tuned |To-i^ where the first down. 'Cello. 4.: — Double bass • 106 — a special instance solo. Examples Sadko * 207 ] — cf. Solo quartet: The Christmas Night * 222 Vn. bass. 32 —2 Solo violins (in har- monies). -f Pice. + C-fag. No. II No. ActIV 31 Viol. The Golden Cockerel As shown in Chap.) are often sufficient to double a melody upper register. (Pice. II. Ex. + F1. 153). + 212 67 Fl. Mlada. 'Cello. Ex. 230 Russian Easter File. Examples: * * Mlada. Tsar Saltan 248 Vn. The to attain great purity and abundance of tone. without impairing the timbre of the solo instrument (especially in the high and low registers). Chap.

Examples. But in the 3i^ octave. which assigned to a single Double bass and Tuba. 235. the two thus forming some sort of link between them. » 315 274 . 179 . before 34 high register. movement pp. The Golden Cockerel * * 220 . * The Golden Cockerel [na]. order to connect the phrases on each instrument in . bass horns. cf. of Kitesh. No. trombones and tuba are brought into play. Examnles: Pan Voyevoda Servilia 122 [m]. Ex. The contrary would be fundamentally impossible. 9). low SiH bar. 229) Transference of is passages and phrases. A Fairy Tale [a]. one instrument to A phrase or a figure In often transferred from another. 234. 219 Snegourotchka. also [iis] .— clarinet. 233. for this The upper and lower is parts of a passage can separated without the intermediate octaves being contrary to the first principles of proper distribution of chords. first 107 case the double bassoon and the low notes of the bassoons. the The dark method gives second combination is and gloomy. before 25 Legend No. 59—62 seldom be widely filled in. No. The general effect is fanciful. (cf. 611i bars. fifths in. 2!i^ •No. 5iJi and Ex. \nT\ Shiherazade. (cf. Snegourotchka * 255 No. (cf. The Golden Cockerel 9*li bar. Nevertheless the unusual resonance thus produced serves for strange and grotesque effects. Ex. 62) register. the augmented fourths and diminished to fill the two flutes help up the intermediate space and lessen the distance between extreme parts. brilliant colour. 232. In the first of the following examples the piccolo figure doubled by the harp and the sparkling notes of the glockenspiel is is set about four octaves apart from the bass. 236.

88). or a great portion of is When one instru- on the point of completing its allotted part.. wind and chorus Ex. violin is it. 28). horn (+ CI. — Eng. The Christmas Night. before \V\ — Wood-wind. I3i — Strings.— with the first 108 — is the best possible way. remains as regular . cl. Sin bar. Fl.. it is desired to divide a phrase into two Examples : * Snegourotchka |i37| — The melody to the flute I9i is transferred from the violins clarinet (cf. before |_i8£j — Shing figure.CI. 132). and Ex. Servilia The Christmas Night. The Golden — Bass Fag. -|. to starting on one or two notes common both parts. another instru- ment takes up the passage. 'cello. the last note of each part made to coincide is note of the following one. No. is to The most usual practice employ chords on different groups of instruments alternately. (cf. — Strings Ex. — Ob. 237. 'Cellos piiz^. Horn — Ob. before (cf. or when different timbres. registers care should be taken that the progression though broken in passing from one group to another. — (cf.. *- Chords 1. and so on. * „ before 57 Pan Voyevoda — Solo — Solo — Trombones — Trumpets. Examples: Snegourotchka 36 . No. Cockerel. [5] — Fag. This division must be carried out to ensure the balance of the whole passage. 38 190 . of different tone quality used alternately. . is This method used for passages the range of which too wide to be performed on any one instrument. In dealing with chords in different of parts. A ment similar operation used in scoring passages covering the entire orchestral scale. 112). 238. * [m] [29]. The Tsar's Bride — Wood-wind Ex. * — Strings. |_i80j Sadko 72 [223] — Strings — Strings.

applies specially chromatic passages in order to avoid false relation. Ivan the Terrible. The „ No. * 240— 241.— as to if 109 — tfiis there were no leap from octave to octave. Tsar's Bride . Act II 29 No. Examples : No. 239. 242— 243.

221. imitation. as in its when lower the clarinet upper range replies rule to the oboe in the compass etc. or . 110 Examples Snegourotchka [3T3] . Russian Easter Fete [p] Legend . phrases in imitation are subject to When a phrase is imitated in the upper register should be given to an instrument of higher range and vice versa. before [205 * * No. 251. first. 249— 250. be scored in a manner most suitable Examples: The Tsar's Bride Legend [T57]. flutes also may imitate clarinets and oboes successfully. The Christmas Night [lesj Ex. An echo given to muted same phrase not muted produces this distant suited to echo a Muted trumpets are eminently theme in the oboes. The Tsar's Bride. actually different. 248. some sort of affinity. 244). repeated phrases of different character should to each. of Kitesh [£\. A * Fairy Tale [v]. [ho] (cf. it of timbre. 74). (cf. the second instrument should be weaker than the should possess but the two brass following the effect. also [44]. „ 2^ movement [d] 41I1 (cf. p. Ex. As regards choice the law of register. A wood-wind instrument cannot be used to echo the strings. Servilia [223].: — No. Sheherazade. 246. but similar in character. In Spanish Capriccio that of is echo phrases. The same must be follov/ed in dealing with phrases. [TeTj of Kitesh |4 0-4i No. 247. in to say imitation entailing not only decrease volume tone but also an effect of distance. No. this rule is If ignored an unnatural effect will be produced. 245. Ex. movement cf. No. Repetition of phrases. [^67] . echo. No. 143).

and the second The for first method also employed a sf-dim. and 4 notes can be inserted into the melodic progression by the instruments of the string quartet. and the short chords to is such cases the tenuto chord played tremo- lando on the strings. before No. No. Act 111 \T\. at the the opposite case the sf in the strings must occur is end for of the wood-wind chord. At the moment when it the wood-wind begins a piano chord. fas]. 2"^ movement. 1411^ Method In of emphasising certain notes and chords. Besides the natural dynamic process of obtaining these marks of expression. a cresc.— vice versa. a process which depends upon the player. ffl. besides the marks of expression ==— and sj. |T]. 253. before 5-16 bar.. Examples: Ivan the Terrible. arco or pizz. 41ii movement O Sforzando-piano and piano^sforzando chords. each playing a single note. they may a) also be produced by artificial means of orchestration. Legend of Kitesh. W^ |~1 bar. Ill — Imitation in on account of the dissimilarity in timbre. and therefore less frequent to give the to notes of sustained value the wood-wind. * Sadko [264 Spanish Capriccio E . short notes in the wood-wind may also be used as well as a chain of three or . Sheherazade. Sheherazade. the strings attack either sforzando. order to stress or emphasise a certain note or chord. 252. chords of 2. Examples: Vera Scheloga. b) It is not so effective. is not precisely an echo but resembles one * in character before Ex. — This example (c. In the strings.-sf. effect. 3. octaves (with a decrease in resonance) creates an effect resembling an echo. a In compound chord for preference. 44).

form less upward glide. longed orchestral crescendi are obtained by the gradual addition of other instruments in the following order: strings. Short wind chords (cf. 255. ferred. of and diminuendi will be . the downward direction being common. 192—200. wood-wind. as would be awkward for the bow. either in strings or These unstressed notes a kind of (anacrusis). In the strings they should not lead up to chords of three this or four notes. „ [p] — Ex. * Antar 51 The Christmas Night 183 Sadko 165-166 *The Tsar's Bride so-si shorter crescendi Many examples found in Vol. of the Diminuendo of this effects are accomplished by the elimination instruments in the reverse order (brass. in the form of a scale.— wind. 19). The scope work does not lend itself to the quotation of prolonged crescendo and diminuendo passages. Short crescendi and diminuendi are generally produced by natural dynamic means. this method combined with other orchestral the brass is After the strings. Crescendo and diminuendo. II. 112 — woodvery four grace noles. Sheherazade. the group most facile in producing dynamic shades brilliant of expression. glorifying crescendo chords into the most sforzando climaxes. Examples: No. 2n^ movement [c] „ Short pizz. chords. they are obtained by devices. pp. brass. generally written small. 254. Clarinets specialise in diminuendo effects and Pro- are capable of decreasing their tone to a breath (morendo). 5—7. strings). therefore. 92—96. wood-wind. As a rule they are connected to the main note by a slur. when prolonged. to the full scores: * The reader is re- Sheherazade. The Tsar's Bride 142 — Anacrusis — „ in the strings *No.

diverging and converging progressions simply consist in the gradual ascent of the three upper parts. Below. The Tsar's Bride Mlada. 1. the group in the middle region which remains stationary the group to be retained. Both examples include a sustained stationary chord of the diminished seventh. 260—261. in converging progressions. The atmosphere and colouring are weird and pair of fanciful. The third In examples forms instances (Ex. In the upper parts become tripled doubled or trebled. and more divided as the wind instruments cease accompanies the apparition of Mlada. 258. relates the sea. Act III [T02] and [To]. Moreover. before |315 . Examples: No. The intermediate intervals are parts up by the introduction so that of fresh as the distance widens. 258—259. gradually approach involve it. Sometimes these in progressions an increase or a filled decrease tone. or else the sustained note which guarantees unity in the operation.— 113 - Diverging and converging progressions. a purely orchestral crescendo. On the other first hand. Ex. with the bass descending. 105 and 119 Sadko [72j (cf. the reader will find double examples of both descriptions. The handling of such progressions requires the greatest care. 256—257. first Volkhova the wonders of the Then the middle of a powerful orchestral crescendo the Sea-King appears (Ex. a gradual during which the strings become more to play. [12] and Sadko Ex. . No. piano. secondly dim. is The distance separating first. in which human voice takes part. 259. firstly The second depicts two similar diverging progressions. its disappearance. In the majority of cases. the bass from the other parts trifhng at and grows by degrees. Ex. 260) Princess in of converging progressions. [Tot]. 112). crescendo. the three upper parts. if the harmony allows is it. as the duplicating instruments cease to play. No.. at far distant so from the bass. The the first pair represents a diverging progression. 261). converging progressions the and doubled parts are simplified. 2.

beginning Ex. *The Christmas Night.). Nevertheless. the quicker the passage But it played the less harsh the effect will be. no doubt that are the harmonic notes. Melodic design comprising notes foreign or grace notes. for the original harmonic scheme. sustained note between the diverging parts does not to A always allow the empty space be more complety filled up. the question to becomes still more complicated. the discordant the notes extraneous to the harmony . 106). producing false relation. importance: orchestration difference of provides timbres. * If. end of 3:^ movement. The Golden Cockerel. before [Toe] . the discordant effect produced by the contact of appogiaturas and fundamental notes is will be diminished. Antar. m Fundamental notes. sixths etc. the solution of such problems. harmony. reduced and fundamental notes: Melodic design. an element of the greatest The greater less the dissimilarity in timbre between the har- monic basis on the one hand and the melodic design on the other. the thirds of the fundamental one (E) more prominent from to the if their proximity with the notes extraneous of parts is increased (for instance. If the number since. and vice versa. force. Tone quality as a harmonic ilarmonic basis. ill-advised to lay of would be down any hard and There is fast rule as to the permissible length these notes. 114 — (cf. chords with different root bases are added. the upper part transposed an octave lower. 262. to the harmony. passing florid does not permit that a same time with another one. Note. 263.— *No. the melodic figure is in thirds.. embellishments outline should proceed at the to essential etc. ^^ ^^ m is in the above example. Example: No.

Immortal [ss]. fundamental si^ etc. 267. of harmonic basis in chords: Pan 111 Voyevoda. lodic figures. 265— 266. 115 — is The best examjJle of this to be found between the the difference of human and voice and the orchestra. (cf. Tsar Saltan [103-10 4 1. [m\ \m]. Examples: *No. Act The harmonic case it basis may be ornamental in character. the harmonic basis generally remains an octave removed from the melodic design. [T25] [is]' The Golden Cockerel — Chords fifth). (of. a basis. No. 264. Kashtche'i the II. 125 and 140). founded. of ihe tonic or diminished sevenih. to the other. in character Chords the most widely opposed on the chord may be used on a simple. Introduction 10 also Ex. 271. on arpeggio basis (augmented The effect of alternating harmony produced between two menote. i 8* . 162-165 below). plucked strings percussion instruments. Legend of Kitesh. No. *Mlada. Examples No.: — will sound. Examples No. Act before Q?]. for example. or the simultaneous progression of a figure in tation to augmen- and diminution the ear when the becomes comprehensible and pleasant iied harmony is different. e. Introduction. of Kitesh 326-328 — Wood-wind and harps on a string No. wood-wind. and should be of inferior dynamic power. 270. g. 0of the diminished seventh. Legend basis. in which should move independently of the concurrent melodic design. Mlada. next comes timbres between the groups of strings. 268-269. [43]. in thes6 two groups. one transmitting a held in abeyance. . Less important differences occur between wood-wind and brass. stationary harmonic basis. therefore.

34 .

73. 107 — 119. executes a and Whenever some figure. cymbals. percussion portion of the orchestra rhythmic instruments should always be employed concurrently. 217). also many passages Ex. highly-accented syncopated notes or disconnected sforzandi. played fortissimo. is sufficient overpower any orchestral *The reader in will find instances of the use of percussion instruments of any full score. 29). and in several examples the present work. may be given to the bass drum. the cadences to be studied the 4^ movement. 64). * " (cf. The drum. Pan Voyevoda . tremolo on the bass drum or the gong with chords on trombones or low sustained notes on 'cellos and double basses. An insignificant and playful rhythm is suitable to the triangle. wood-wind and tremolo on the side drum. Sometimes the percussion the two groups used sepa- rately. and tambourine go best with harmony in the upper lower.197 72 — "The Battle of Kerj^metz". The strokes to the on these instruments should almost invariably correspond strong beats of the bar. the bass drum. tambourine. It must not be forgotten that gong and to a tremolo on the side drum. The triangle. in Spanish capriccio [p] (cf. cymbals and gong. [43] (cf. Legend of Kitesh 7i 1 96. Examples: * Sheherazade pp. sticks. tutti. The brass and wood-wind are most satisfactorily triangle. The Tsar's Bride[m\. independently of any other group of instruments. Ex. bass drum and gong with harmony in the The following are the combinations most generally employed: trills in tremolo on the triangle and tambourine with violins.— Use of percussion 117 — instruments for rhythrii colour. side drum and tambourine are capable of is various rhythmic figures. a vigourous and straightforward rhythm castanets and side drum. side which combine the with percussion from the standpoint of colour. cymbals. register. Ex. in 4'^ movement: Antar * [40]. or cymbals struck with drum and sustained chords on trumpets and horns. where they are accompanied by various perRussian Easter Fete [k] cussion instruments.

I i . said of the piano and castanets. such are the guitar. zither. and practically never or in together. the domra. ballad style. mandoline. or finish For the same reasons of in is not good to commence illustrating scope of the musical examples music either mf or mp. In national dances or music used more freely. while re- introducing these instruments mezzo-forte or mezzo-piano produces colourless and common-place any piece effect. brass.118 Economy the full in orchestral colour. long periods. to time for descriptive- These instruments are most frequently used order. tacet The trombones. harps. single instruments in two's and three's. cymbals. either should coincide with some characteristic intensity pp a of or //. also. The reader must examine these questions in full scores. tambourine. together. which instruments. the all and tuba are occasionally is for percussion but in seldom employed. resources of the orchestra combined The favourite group of instruments is the strings. The this work does not permit of by quotation the use of economy in orchestral colour. piano and forte re-entries are less successful. itself Neither musical feeling nor the ear can stand. These instruments are employed from time aesthetic purposes. the oriental tambourine. then follow in order the wood-wind. though melodic. small tambourine etc. pizzicato effects. for long. and lastly the percussion. gong. The same may be national A quantity of instruments not included in the present work may be incorporated into the orchestra. trombones and tuba of tone. big drum. side drum. glockenspiel and xylophone. kettle-drums. in point of order. in the above-named A group of instruments which has been silent for its some time gains fresh interest upon trumpets reappearance. percussion instruments may be After a long rest the re-entry of the horns. triangle. nor the re-entry of instruments thrown into prominence by prolonged rests. Further removed stand the celesta. are too characteristic in timbre to be employed over frequently. This remark it is capable wider application.

the detail contained in the vocal greater freedom and liberty must there be In given to the voice. round. Opera singing may be divided into two general classes. is too it weak is modern opera rare that orchestral writing It confined accompaniment pure and simple.Chapter V. Th? voice may then be for said to form the interest. In overflowing lyrical moments. A confused. Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices. an is accompaniment which and one which In to is too simple in character will lack interest. neither should rhythmical figures be written for any instrument corresponding with those in the vocal part. THE STAGE BAND. COMBINATION OF THE HUMAN VOICE WITH ORCHESTRA. is contained in the orchestra. than florid music or and the more movement and rhythmic part. heavy accompaniment will overpower the singer. often frequently happens that the in principal complex character. the singer should be well supported by the orchestra. General remarks. In accompanying the voice orchestral scoring should be for the singer to light enough of make is free use of of all the dynamic shades expression without full hardness tone. legato aria affords greater facility for tone production recitative. The full. where voice required. It accom- paniment. such a case the latter should not be doubled by the orchestra. will not sustain the voice sufficiently. musical idea. In in accompanying the voice the composer should bear these points mind before turning his attention to the choice of orchestral colour. lyric singing and declamation or recitative. exchanging musical literary becomes .

must also be remembered that too great a tone disparity in volume of between purely orchestral passages and those which Therefore. wood-wmd . the sole object being to allow the voice to come through. rule a singer is easily As a general overpowered by long sustained notes Strings doubled in the than by short detached ones. trumpets. and. medium and the the most transparent the least likely to overpower the voice.— subordinate to 120 — it the orchestra. The scoring must not be so heavy or complicated as to drown the voice and prevent the words from being heard. it If a prolonged forte passage occurs in the orchestra may be used concurrently with action on the stage. such unequal struggles inartistic. as though were an extra is part^ subsequently added as an after-thought. should be strictly its avoided. of the orchestra is closely related to the of a vocal The scoring mnaner. well written work proves this relationship in a striking indeed. Certain moments may a voice of if require great volume of orchestral tone. and leaving the musical imagery unexplained. trom- bones. the latter in the following order: horns. All artificial reduction of tone contrary to the true feeling of a passage. as It it deprives orchestral writing of distinctive brilliance. Even the singer audible. The group one of strings is Harmony. when the orchestra strengthened by the use of wood-wind in in large three's or four's. A more combination of strings. the division of tone and colour must be manipulated In skillfully and with the greatest music care. But it evident that great care must be taken with orchestral writing in such cases. Then come wood- wind and the brass. pizz. it may be stipulated that only that which is can be well orchestrated. and the composer intervals outbursts for the during which the voice is distributing the singer's phrases and pauses in a free and natural manner. Transparence of accompaniment. and the harp forms a setting eminently favourable for the voice. between voice and orchestra are most should reserve his orchestral silent. according to the sense of the words. thereby breaking the thread of the text.. previous sections I have frequently stated that the structure itself. so great that even phenomenal power is is incapable of being heard. and brass numbers. accompany the voice create an is inartistic comparison.

and used moderation. sustained notes and the other for executes a melodic when. is entrusted to violins or violas is — or in the opposite when the harmony given to violas and 'cellos divisi. even by themselves are capable of overpowering any other orchestral group of instruments. the some them sustaining pedal. and the melodic design case. human voice produce a peculiar throbbing Juxtaposition of strings and wood-wind which overweights nevertheless be employed in if legato or declamatory singing the groups forms may one of the harmony design. horns. distributed over several octaves. The frequent use of long sustained notes in the double basses is another course unfavourable to the with the singer. each group of orchestral instruments to may be considered favourable of each type of voice. Taken separately. and brass doubled by wood-wind are combinations drown the singer. in to come to the singer's voice-modulations. or dupli- cated in the higher register. As a women's voices with suffer more than men's when they come in contact harmony in in a register similar to their own. This may be done even more by tremolando in the kettle-drums and other percussion instruments. and the use of two clarinets. Sustained harmony in the register of the second octave to the middle of the third does not overpower women's voices. and bassoon. of wood-wind and be avoided. as these develop voices. interspersed with necessary pauses confined to the limits of one octave. Incessant four-part will harmony of is to be deprecated. when the singer passes from the can- . notes. neither is it too heavy for men's itself which although opening out within the range in sound rule an octave higher.— liable to 121 — easily and brass. and the harmonic figure to the clarinets.. or bassoon and horn. outside this range. as the case of the tenor voice. is and when harmony. these notes in combination effect. But the combination two or three groups cannot be so considered unless they each full play an independent part and are not united together at strength. Doubling which. two oboes or two horns in unison to form one harmonic part is likewise to as such combinations will have a similar effect on the voice. instance the sustaining instruments are clarinet. of Satisfactory results is be obtained when the number with harmonic parts gradually decreased. These manipulations allow the composer aid.

Lykow's supplementary Aria (Act 16—19 No. entailing the use of an unnecessary number chance of instruments. Ornamental writing and polyphonic accompaniment should never be too intricate in character. involving no 'Examples: No. 225). Snegoiirotchka 45 Snegourotchka (cf. Some examples of accompanying an aria are given below. is composer may reduce or support the voice by a eliminate some harmony which diminishes. Griasnov's Aria. The most duplication . 278. Examples: The Tsar's Bride. Fragment. Legend of Kitesh [39-41 222-2231 163 Ex. natural it is only perin isolated phrases. * The Golden Cockerel singing which 153-157 limits Florid volume of tone requires a light dupli- accompaniment. fuller orchestral tone in broad phrases and climaxes. Doubling voices in the orchestra. (in Melodic doubling of voices by orchestral instruments or octaves) is unison of frequent occurrence. strings and harp. Some complicated figures are better partially little entrusted to pizz. found to be too heavy as the vocal tone and conversely. 31). but incessant duplication for of time an extended period missible in should be avoided. Snegourotchka 42-48 - Snegourotchka's Aria (Prologue). * III). (cf. The Christmas Night — — Oxana's Aria. Ex.— tabile 122 the to the declamatory style. simple cation of instruments. * The Golden Cockerel |i3i— 136| Aria of Queen Shemakha. 143 No. Ex. as this combination has of overpowering the voice. Sadko 204-206 * The Venetian's Song. in outline and colour. "Sadko * 195—197 — Hindoo Song 45-50 (cf. 279. 102. 277. 122). 187—188 212—213 the two Cavatinas of Tsar Berendey extracts.

but also because it replaces by a voice. allotted in its when the singer executes only part of entirely to an orchestral instrument. question doubling the voice for the object of colour there are instances a phrase. 281. horns. for the climaxes. both ineffective and dangerous. [aa] (cf. characteristic qualities of the to human when limited it a few special phrases supports the It voice and endows ki tempo. 41). 280. apply it. 232 .: — unison of womens' voices is 123 — violins. or dramatic passages its voice situated outside dically normal range should be supported meloin the register in and harmonically by the orchestra. No. Ex. that of mens' voices by violas. violas. Servilia The Tsar's Bride [1 26-127 [206]. . Doubling in octaves is usually done in the Trombones and trumpets overpower for this purpose. a plena voce. Ex. not only because the operation deprives the singer full freedom of expression. Sadko [314 Vera Scheloga [^Tj. clarinets 'cellos. mixed timbre the rare Doubling. in is only suitable lib. is which the voice placed. the voice and cannot be used Uninterrupted or too frequent duplication should of be avoided. bassoons and upper register. unison or octaves to a passage ad. performed by and oboes. The culminating point in such passages often coincides with the entry or sudden attack of the trombones or other brass instruments. Sadko 1^09— 3ii\ Besides the — Volkhova's of Ex. Example: Vera Scheloga Lyrical [so]. to is with beauty and colour. or by a rush of strings. Examples: Snegourotchka 50—52 — Snegourotchka's Arietta Cradle-song (cf. 81). (cf. 49). the accompaniment in this Strengthening manner will soften the tone of the voice Examples No.

a solo instrument is a powerful expedient for musical characterisation. Instances of this Examples — Soprano and oboe Ex. The Tsar's Bride sextet. 282. trios. The accom- paniment is often contrapuntal or composed of polyphonic designs. and brilliance when applied to duets. quartets Examples: Snegourotchka [^92^293] — Duet (cf. 283. such cases the instruments 'cello. 119). Ex. viola.: — If 124 — and outline it the culminating point is soft in colour is better left unsupported in the orchestra. The solo instrument ciated either plays alone or as the leading melodic In voice in the ensemble. violin.. but sometimes the wood-wind. horn. 305). description are numerous. No. and or the flute. Ex. used are generally the Eng. The beautiful effect produced by a solo instrument accompanying In a cantabile aria cannot be denied. 99-101 — Duet Ex. this numbers by harmony and operation makes for accuracy etc. — Contralto and Eng. quartet. horn and harp. — Baritone and bass No. or asso- with some action on the stage. 163 (cf. bass bassoon. Ex.. oboe. 118). Ex. clar. Sadko No. sustaining such passages with light transparent melody or harmony may produce an entrancing effect. (cf. The Tsar's Bride The Golden Cockerel — Soprano and viola Snegourotchka „ [50j ~97J (cf. (cf. "243] . 226). 289 169 117 and 290). combination with the voice. 41). [sis] (cf. is a common practice to support voices in concerted duplication. [245] clar. Ex. clar. Legend of Kitesh [341] — quartet and sextet (cf. It The Tsar's Bride \2u] . — Soprano. horn. 47—48)- [Tos] 'cello and oboe. . 284. Examples: Snegourotchka [Tss].

[^ (Lell's m and 3il songs). [224).— It 125 — is is comparetively rare for percussion instruments to take part voice. Tsar Saltan. 161 . the cymbals less frequently. before [?]. Examples: Snegourolchka [97]. An accompaniment may be formed by a figure or a tremolo on the kettle-drums. in accompanying the The triangle occasionally used.

287.1 — handled with greater regard the action 126 — words. * Sadko of Kitesh 316 318 .. 2 if CI. 4 Horns. This tlass of orchestration can only be I studied from lengthy examples.. On the contrary. 289—29 1 . and refer the reader to operatic full to its relationship to the on the stage. but doubling of one orchestral group with another and coupling instruments same kind in unison (2 Ob. 75). The chorus. 3 Trombones to etc. performed according the rein- quirements of the musical context. Snegourotchka 16 No. and the tutti form. passages such . to score too heavily when accom- Examples: *No. scores and content myself with giving one or short instances: Examples: No. a vieW. Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus. 1 Vera Scheloga |3-7| and 28 Care should be taken not panying singers in the wings. 292. does not demand such careful handling in the accompaniment. 288. Examples: No. possessing much greater unity and power than the solo voice. As a general rule orchestration of choral works follows the rules laid down marks the for purely instrumental scoring. 320 Legend 286-289 304 305 . struments is Doubling choral parts by In cantabile generally a good plan. The Tsar's Bride 124—125 similar from a musical point The following double examples. too great a refinement of orchestral treatment will prove harmful to the resonance of the chorus.) are both possible operations. show different methods of handling an orchestra from the standpoint of accompaniment to the voice. of expression It is obvious that dynamic must correspond in both bodies. Sadko |99— ioi| and 305-307 (compare also Ex.

Act before [ts]. is better to support by harmonic duplication. 1 50-53 I. melodic doubling the voice simply not always suitable. the melodic or har- monic basis alone should be doubled. The repetition of notes — required by declamation — forming no fundamental part of the rhythmical structure of a phrase or chord should not be reproduced in the orchestra. Examples : No. . Examples: Ivan the Terrible. ornamental orchestra than in the chorus. No. Act I [x^y]. accompanied solely by sustained notes or an indepen- dent polyphonic figure. Act IV 115—123 The Christmas Night 59-61 1 SadkO 1 37-39 I. Choral passages. Act III 66-69 1 The May Night. the musical context of which itself. in many examples relating In to other sections of the the case of solitary is exclamations or phrases in It recitative.1 — duplication 127 in — and the design more may be melodic in the character. 323-328 Mlada. [45-63 . Act 147-153 1 III [ I-Ee 31-36 Ddd— Ft! Snegourotchka [6i-73j. structure of a choral Sometimes the rhythmical comparison with its phrase is simplified in orchestral duplication. [79—86 270—273 173 177 187 189 218—221 233 The Tsar's Bride 29—30 Tsar Saltan 67—71 91—93 167 40-42 50-59 141 133—145 207—208 Legend of Kitesh 177-178 The Golden Cockerel 237-238 instances 262-264 of The reader will find choral accompaniment work. I. is complete in forming a chorus a capella often remains undoubled by the orchestra. Act II 22-3T]. Act II |3-6| . Terrible. The Tsar's Bride Ivan the [96]. 293. 294.

that figure. * Ivan the Terrible. may necessitate a reduction of The approximate number should be marked a basis upon which to in the full score as work. Tsar Saltan * Legend of Kttesh 167 (cf. Examples: No. more so women's voices for scenic alone. 295. 116).— No. * 128 — Examples: Sadko 207 [219]. Act 17 II 37 Sadko . 296. In scoring a certain passage the composer should not lose sight of the conditions number of choristers he is employing. Ex. still a male for voice chorus the orchestration should be lighter. The Golden Cockerel Heavier scoring is 236 for required for a mixed chorus.

soloist. Act * I 25—26 Ccc The May Night. question is simple. middle of last century orchestras of brass instruments. the chorus sings in the wings the soloist always heard Examples Ivan the Terrible. [st] (cf. Ex. Examples : " No. 298. 296). made and their appearance on the Gounod this others). finale). the former a plena voce. (the sacred horns in Mlada. or mixed chorus. Nevertheless. invisible to the audience. but also detrimental to the mediaeval or legendary setting of the majority of operas. Only those stage instruments are now used which is suit the scene and surroundings in which the opera in laid. More modern composers have abandoned clumsy practice. The use distant of instruments on the stage or Giovanni. is When distinctly.: — voice and chorus. creates In a certain amount of difficulty. Meyerbeer. As regards instruments the the wings. The orchestral accompaniment 9 . the latter piano. The soloist should stand as near to the footlights should be as possible. for example). the chorus up-stage. not only unfor- tunate from the spectators' point of view. Instruments on the stage and in the wings. for the musician of today the choice of these instru- ments must be regulated by aesthetic considerations of greater importance than those governing the selection of a military band. The orchestration adapted to the not (o the chorus. in the wings dates from in times In the (Mozart. sing in a higher register than the chorus. The instruments are played of in the wings. Act 111 III *Sadko [T02] . or brass and wood-wind combined. of the 129 — such cases the soloist should same timbre. those visible on the stage are only for ornament. Snegourotchka Act 143 II Ivan the Terrible. Don string orchestra Act I. stage (Glinka. Sometimes stage-instruments may be replicas those common to the period which the opera represents.

Act III \m\. Small clarinets and piccolos: No. Act f) II. with many holes which are passed over the sharp. imitathig a church Ivan the Terrible. Act I bell: 67 and farther on. 300). F which has the (cf. h) Harp. E flat. Pan Voyevoda d) Cornets: |i9i| . I can only give a few examples and refer the reader once again to the passages in the a) full scores. 60 *Tsar Saltan and further on. duce a special enharmonic scale {B C. Ivan the Terrible. 299— 300. pp. Lyres. . 43 (cf. 269). [T]. G. made. to Instruments specially made and tuned Ex. 300). [39]. Act III 37 g) Pipes of Pan: instruments. E. so as to be able perform a glissando chord of the diminished seventh: III Mlada. specially lips. D flat. Trumpets: Servilia * 12 25 Legend of Kitesh 139 53 55 . leaving the orchestra to go on the stage. and to outline suitable accompaniments. in various keys): Sacred horns (natural brass instruments Mlada. These particular pipes proflat. Mlada. Act k) Pianoforte. grand or upright: Mozart and Salieri 22—23 1) Gong. b) Horns. reproducing the effect of an aeolian harp: Kashtchei the Immortal i) [32] and further on (cf. in the form of hunting horns: Pan Voyevoda 38—39 c) Trombones. [43] Ex. effect of a glissando: Mlada. 268. 179 onwards. Ex.— must vary in 130 — impossible to illustrate the power according in to the characteristics of the instruis ments played the wings. It use of all the instruments mentioned below. A). Act e) III [T].

IjVl-Pj. II. (Editor's note. and Tsar Saltan [T39] and further on.) . (1) (1) Mention should be made of the happy use of a small orchestra (2 pice. Act Sc. Ex.. 323 * Legend later. I. 0) Bells in various keys: Sadko [T28] and 139 No. 60). in the wings in 2 horns. 2 violas. 4 Vni. 1 tro mbone. 2 cl. See also [241]. 301. tambourine. 1 D-bass) The May Night. D flat (3iil octave): Mlada. to the sound of camion: Small kettle-drum. Sadko [^ 99-30o] . Wood-w^ind and strings are comparitively seldom used on the stage or in the wings. 302. p) Organ: No. of Kitesh [78?] and further on. in this In Russian opera the strings are employed in a splendidly : racteristic way by Rubinstein {GoriouchaJ^ and manner by Serov (Hostile Power) clarinet is cha- in the latter opera the E flat used to imitate the fife in the Carnival procession.— Tsar Saltan n) 139 131 — imitate m) Bass Drum (without cymbals) and in later. Act III [41] and later (cf.

It depends on the individuality the singer.Chapter VI (Supplementary). to alto or contralto. tenor and bass. VOICES. In alto). of on the other hand. and baritone (between tenor and the chorus mezzo-sopranos 211^ are classed with 2^ sopranos or lii altos. baritones with tenors or first basses. Technical Terms. dramatic tenor. To this lengthy list must . secondSj determine how (Sopr. of firsts and I. and bass) are also employed. Apart from these denominations which represent the six principal solo voices. there are may be of said to represent elemental types: soprano. those with vice versa. Sopr. lyric tenor.) the chorus with sub-divisions of the parts must be divided. basso cantante ("singing bass"). When it is a question of dividing choristers into the I2I and 2^ parts. register and character of the four which human voice. timbre or technique. the ^compass of the voice. light tenor. Note. according to quality and timbre of voice. tenorino-altino. These names are used denote the composition to etc. II While the range an instrument is exactly governed by its construction. a quantity of others are in use to denote either compass. is therefore im- possible to define the exact limits of each of these vocal types. bary ton-martin. dramatic soprano. the names mezzo- soprano (between sop. such as hght soprano. Among all the confused terms employed in singing to denote the compass. basso profondo (deep bass) etc. lyric soprano. soprano ^iusto. higher voices are classed among the firsts and Besides the principal terms mentioned above.

Poetic and artistic considerations demand greater variety of resource in the study of opera or vocal music in general. intermediate character and dramatic soprano. Some voices are naturally even and faults in breathing. of a its chest voice. "light soprano" implies agility and mobility strong dra- in the voice. poser should A com- be able to rely upon flexible and equal voices for a it without having to trouble himself as to the abilities or defects of individual singers. equalise its tone. mixed voice and in men). flexible. Soloists. middle and head voice falsetto women. etc. In these days a part is seldom written and composers and librettists do not find ne- cessary to entrust a certain role to fioriture singers. may be accomplished imperceptibly. modulation from one grade of expression to another. Within these limits the composer may write freely without fear of hardening or tiring the voice. the vowels. the register the voice is in which generally used. it we try to discover the real meaning of these designations soon becomes apparent that they are derived from widely different sources — for instance. instruct as to the pronunciation of vowels. of all Minute examination of the methods of attack and emission to sound lies within the province of the singing master and enumerate them here would only perplex the student. . particular artist.be added (between If 133 — of the lyric term mezzo. advise the composer to be guided by Table which gives the approximate range of the six principal solo voices. "dramatic tenor". so on all that the from one register to another. applies to the position The same and exact in limits of register (chest voice. flexibility. F. the power basso to express matic feeling. The work teacher of singing consists in equalising transition the voice throughout whole compass. Range and I register. The professor of singing must correct determine the range of the voice and place increase its it.car attere. another to heavy dramatic voices. A bracket under the notes defines the normal octave. profondo signifies great resonance in the deep register. for example).

applicable to instrumental music. Ex. of Lell. quavers and semiquavers is Monotony is rhythmic construction unsuited. extract. the 134 — and reci- applies aJso to declamatory singing it notes above are exceptional and should be used Employing voices for the culminating points of a passage or for climaxes. 131) [1 91—19 3] — Bass Aria. Ex. to vocal melody. single notes. I26— — Griaznov's Aria (Baritone). for the fall or decline of a melody. the notes below. hence the voice part must rests. and a change of syllable in a word should a moment when Owing to the voice quits a long sustained note. (Contralto). but only of in certain Cantabile- melody requires a fair number occur at long notes. to perform these the singer flexibility must possess possibility greater command all ov^r and technique. 29-131I — (cf. 280. Lioubava's Aria (Mezzo-sopr. 284) — Marfa's Aria (Soprano). 256. Examples: The Tsar's Bride 1 02. sometimes not even during the course of a sentence or phrase in the text. A good vocal melody should contain notes values. changing wHh every syllable produce a har- monious effect. be suitably interspersed with . it and quavers in (or crotchets. Ex. extended melodic figures sung legato on one syllable must be used with care on the part of the composer. Vocalisation. of at least three different minims. is The in of taking breath in the right place vocal writing. in unusual registers for long periods of time will weary both singer and brief listener. the requirements of diction. Short. but these registers may occasionally be used for intervals so as not to confine the voice too strictly to one to illustrate octave.1 1 — The normal octave tative.).109 18 (for extracts cf. cases. Snegomotchka — (cf. The 3 songs Sadko [46^49] [T extract. 120) — Sadko's Aria (Tenor). one of the conditions essential to Breath cannot be taken the middle of a word. crotchets etc. A few examples are added melody in different types of voices.).

Baritone.: — 135 — Voices. •scept . Table F. except Soloists: Tenor. Chorus Soprano. Contralto. Tenor. Bass.

Ex. 303. to touch upon this delicate and important subject. 102 and 225) of [247] — the two Cavatinas Tsar Berendey (Tenor). among many. numerals.). 81). or sing more than one or two notes. Sadko " [iae] — Sadko's Aria (Tenor). in The The i. The vowel i softens the pene- trating quality of the top notes of a bass voice. on long sustained notes is high register. sustained note on such words as "who". Examples: No. We can only conclude that the question has come to be considered of minor importance in France. Volkhova's Cradle Song Snegourotchka (Soprano). or simply that Here the author approaches a question so well known to the Russians does not require any further elucidation for their guidance. may not dwell. is o. difference in the position of the mouth and is forming the open vowel a and the closed vowel ou series of vowels e. conjunctions and other parts of It would be impossible and ridiculous. As regards and in the vocalisation on one syllable. for men o. possess some poetical colour (1). r^09-3ii] (8ee extract. — Miskir's Aria (Baritone). apparent of to everyone. Vowels. perhaps on account of the lack of definite stress on the syllables of words. [V] — Fairy 187—188 212—213 (see extracts.— Note. the choice of vowels a matter of some lips importance. and to point out the errors which nearly all French composers openly commit even those who are famous for their sense of diction and literary style. to write a speech. the first. "he" etc. prepositions. But a whole book would have to be written to form a compendium of practical rules on this subject. (1) it — (Translator's note. pronouns. so to speak. It 136 — some words upon which the must be remembered that there are voice These words may be nouns. from the point of view open sounds is: a. Ex.) . Lengthy passages are often written on the interjection ah. for instance. Spring's Aria (Mezzo-sopr. In it women's voices the is easiest vowel on high notes a. which is characteristic of the French language. u. It is not within the translator's province to discuss the question of French versification or to elaborate the excellent maxims laid down by Rimsky-Korsakov. The voice may dwell on certain words which. and the vowel a adds florid to the extension of range in the very lowest compass.

the voice fifth gradually. the composer can only follow the above rules to a limited extent. Although capable 6f performing and complicated figures. Sadko Flexibility. 203—206 — Venetian song (Baritone). 137 the restrictions Owing to imposed by literary and dramatic laws.— on the vowel a. Intervals bigger than fourths in quick succession and chromatic scales are extremely difficult Skips of an octave or more starting Preparation should it from a short note should always be avoided. The colouring of the voice. Colour and character of voices. extract. the human In voice is infinitely less than a musical instrument. Voices possess the greatest amount of octave. whether it be brilliant or dull. The chief question is interpretation and may be solved by the judicious choice of artists. Ex. sombre or sonorous depends upon the individual singer. Pan Voyevoda 20—26 Maria's cradle song (Sopr). but in all more agile. passages of any rapidity. or octave. precede any extremely high note either by leading up to or by the clear leap of a fourth. Ex. the higher voice is the more supple than men's. the florid tenor voice in men. and the composer has no need to consider it. but sometimes may attack a high note without any due preparation. 96—97 Lell's first song (Contralto). different varieties of phrasing and the rapid change from staccato flexible to legato. Sadko 196—193 (cf. From the . Examples: Snegourotchka No. 304. [83] . flexibility in their normal Women's voices are types. Ex. sopranos in women. extract. |318-319| (cf. [293]. 119). diatonic scales and arpeggios in thirds come easiest to the voice. 122) — Hindoo song (Tenor). 279) — Snegourotchka's Aria (Soprano). Examples: Snegourotchka 46—48 (cf.

skilful and judicious use of the high and low registers of the voice. it is customary prominence to those demanding some special qualifications. Tristan. Briinhilda. be endowed with a super-poweriul breathing apparatus and compass of the tenor brilliant an extraordinary faculty for resistance tO fatigue (Siegfried. Richard Wagoner created a type of powerful dramatic soprano. of extensive rang^e. the characteristic^ of the various voices he employs. roles to meet with voices an inter- mediate character to (mezzo-carattere) combining the qualities of each type To such voices characteristics the of composer class. The latter is more powerful and of greater range. but there are some singers with excellent though not phenominal vocal powers. In in complicated and important works the composer should bear mind over. likewise a similar type of tenor.— into 138 — may be divided point of view of flexibility and expression voices two classes. After Meyerbeer. voices of a certain tenderness or power. suitable to the dramatic to give At the present day. e. who. beauty of tone. In casting secondary and minor roles the composer less exacting the first advised to technique. and all subtlety of nuances. Kundry. lyric and dramatic. the former possesses more suppleness and elasticity and is more readily disposed to different shades of exis pression. demands on who was to write for a special type of heavy mezzo-soprano and baritone. moreif he use two voices of the same calibre. is to exact something little short of the miraculous. I believe that less exacting demands and greater perception of what is required. g. writing for one slightly higher than the of other. he should discriminate between the range and register of their respective parts. Granted that the rare combination of the two classes the composer's ideal. Such voices are to be found. . a specified range or degree of flexibility — attributes decided by the artistic object in is view. besides the roles type of voice. Isolda). by the constant pursuit of Wagnerian parts endeavour to increase their range and volume. than the more elaborate methods of Richard Wagner. artistic point of view. and only succeed in depriving the voice of correct intonation. combining^ the quality and scope of the soprano and mezzo-soprano voices. It is no rare occurence a modified extent. Parsifal. he should nevertheless be content to follow the main artistic purpose which he has set out the achieve. a proper understanding of cantabile writing combined with orchestration which from an never overpowers the vocal part will be of greater service to the composer. possessing the attributes and that voices shall be equally that singers shall and baritone together. employ a medium range and Note. may assign demanding the and lyric each especially secondary roles. To demand and resonant in the high and low register. 2 Sopranos or 2 Tenors.

and it the parts progress that polyphonically. Treating solo voices in a polyphonico-harmonic best manner is the method of preserving their individual character in ensembles. it rare for them to move common in sixths and thirds. sixths. and Baritone. need not happen frequently they are separated by more than a tenth. Examples : Sadko 99-101 Servilla 143 Ivan the — Sopr. voices above those adjacent in register. should progress nearer to one another. and certain cases will require crossing of parts. Crossing of parts of is rare and should only be done with the intention emphasising the melody in the ascending e. however. contralto. 48—50 — Sopr. [I^p^Iq. is and fourths. Ex. 289. is seldom found. and Tenor. to the proper movement of parts are those of two voices related within an octave 8 [?°P^-. ^^^'^^'•. Terrible. simplifies the The first movement of largely used in choral writing. The two voices are seldom separated a greater distance than ah octave. 290). and Tenor — Sopr. Duet. or that undesirable crossing of parts will result. 5 [[«"• Bass. mezzo-soprano above the soprano. in tenths. eliminating their is melodic character. wearisome and somewhat to the As a general rule the voices are arranged according of law normal register. g. The combinations most conducive gat"** Movement will in tenths. (cf. Kashtchei the Immortal 62—64 Voices related in fifths Mezzo-sopr. 5 4 [j^^^''. the second method disturbing to the ear. A distribution which is wholly harmonic or entirely polyphonic plan. which. should only be for periods of short duration. the the tenor part above etc. the voices too greatly.139 — Voices in combination. and Tenor. thirds or octaves (the last very if seldom) always produce satisfactory ensemble. they may at also proceed in unison. . Act I .

The use unison and of similar voices in pairs: g^PJ* thirds. M. C. may move in unison. 338 Tenor and Bass. and generally to be avoided. and Bar. ing one another do not create a good effect. Bar. unison is Singing in no longer possible. for this transplants the deeper voice into the upper register and vice versa. !fg[[' entails singing in sixth.-alto 'Bass' Bass' sixths.1 — Snegourotchka 263—264 140 — Alto.-sopr.-sopr. twelfth The voices of often is be separated by more than a and crossing parts out of the question. as otherwise the resultant volume would be too weak. The explanations given above are also applicable in this case. . in thirds and and admit very largely of the crossing of parts. "^LM. ' Ten. tenths and thirteenths will recommended. ^ rSopr. 118) Sopr. * 5—6 — Sopr.or ^^^^^' common. extract. Example : * Tsar Saltan 1 254— 255 is fairly Relationship in tenths 10 [|^P'. and Mezzo-sopr. Separation by is more than an octave must only be momentary. the use of sixths. Ex. Examples : * The Tsar's Bride Tsar Saltan [T74] — Sopr. Example : Snegourotchka 291-300 (cf. They should is rarely be separated beyond a but crossing of parts of tone inevitable. and Mezzo-sopr. Examples : — Soprano and The Christmas Night Legend of Kitesh 78—80 Alto and Tenor. intervals approach- In the case of voices related in twelfths : 12 [l^^s . . Voices related in thirds. and thirds is are to be avoided.

especially on notes of some value. one of the voices assumes a melodic character. and Tenor. and Tenor. beats of a bar. not within the scope of the present work to consider the writing: This question must be left to the professor remains to be noted that the human voice accompanied by the orchestra is always heard independently as something apart. writing for is two voices is only successful when the progression of parts clear.— Note. four. As a general a rule. as a rule. although cally. the other forming style. however. It is is not ab- mentioned above. It of voices. Declamation for some voices on notes forming This variety of simultaneous move- the harmony is also possible. All the rules of harmony and counterpoint. some parts move polyphoniis progression in thirds. Act I pp. down which is to the last detail. and gives desirable prominence to detail. The skilful arrangement of pauses and re-entries facilitates the understanding of the whole. never dependent upon orchestral Trios. ment and of vocal parts renders the comprehension of the total effect less difficult for the ear. For this reason a composer may never rely on the orchestra to fill up an empty space or correct a fault in the handling of vocal parts in closer detail. Emply intervals of fourths and elevenths and twelfths should be avoided on the strong If. something: complete in itself. or are the outcome movement and perfect correctly resolved. and sanctions the distribution oT distinctive suitable figures or tone colouring to certain voices with other figures 'or timbres which may be proceeding at the same time. must be applied accompaniment. five or more voices. *Sadko 322—324 Mezzo-sopr. note. 141 — f Other possible combinations: ^'^f^^ TeJf°'"^'» ca" *or no special remarks. . An ensemble of several voices is seldom purely polyphonic. to vocal writing. 59—64 — Mezzo-sopr. tenths and thirteenths used for the remainder. it the harmonic accompaniment in declamatory solutely necessary to avoid the intervals Note. sixths. of free counterpoint. when discords are prepared by of conveniently separated common fifths. Examples: • The May Night. quartets etc All that has been said regarding the relationship of voices in duet applies with equal force to the combination of three.

it at moment to registers. still dotted lines extended further indicate the limits upon which a composer full may rely in very exceptional cases. 283). Finale to Act III. of all the parts into an harmonic whole. a given in close part writing they in may find themselves foreign. register. the form a kind of accompaniment. as every chorus must contain a few . otherwise. without any distinctive predominant feature in any one part (as in a chorale) prayers. middle and high). Range and The range of soloists. The Tsar's Bride 116— 118 168—171 — Quartet in Act Sextet in Act III. 178 Hymn of Tsar Berendey's subjects. 305. Servilia \ 149-15 2] of Quintet in Act is The movement cally treated. solo voices seldonr purely harmonic in character with predominance given to the upper voices homophoni- The blending employed etc. which are as. II. is for If songs or ensembles in traditional style. Ex. Chorus. Examples : Snegourotchka No. while.142 Examples : Snegourotchka [267] — — Trio. yg° Bass . the upper voice stands out prominently. Legend half of Kitesh 341 The second of the last example is an instance of six-part rest harmonic writing. III (cf. Sopr. hymns. four as the voices can sing together in their proper registers (low. it will be noted that widely-spaced part writing is the most natural and suitable form (especially in forte passages). extract. this method is adopted for the quartet of voices. would be impossible guarantee equality in even the shortest succession of chords. entirely But both methods should be employed. slightly of choral voices is more limited than that The exceptional register may be The considered as two notes above and below the normal octave.

for a chorus of medium size.— voices of the solo voice in character. from 16 to 20. may be and the whole chorus or to certain portions of finally. melodic design allotted to of the orchestra. chorus. with a small chorus.) .. one melodic part may predominate ing upper part for preference). In approaching many choruses on& or two bass still singers may be found who are able to go lower than the . singing or declaiming phrases of varying length. of and for a small will often chorus from 8 to 10 singers. and bass. as each chorister becomes more or less a soloist. The methods the of writing for operatic chorus are very numerous. and more voices are given to the "seconds". the voices may be made may to enter separately. than to the On divided account of stage requirements a chorus into may have This is to be two or even three separate especially parts. one vocal part repeat certain notes or the whole chorus (the reiterate certain chords. Besides the primary harmonico-polyphonic arrangement. exclamatory phrases it. Having outlined the principal methods the chorus. (Translator's note. 32 singers to each of the 4 parts sopr. limit of the exceptional Note. they are hardly applicable except in unaccompanied choruses (a capella). a great disadvantage. they in may progress unison or in octaves. The difference in range between the "firsts" and "seconds" in each type may be fixed as follows: the normal octave and the exceptionally low register should be allotted to the "seconds". Contrebasses voices as they are called when mentioned in French works are peculiar to Russia.. in which country they are plentiful. containing whole musical idea. the enUre chorus may be treated in a purely harmonic handling manner in chords. the same octave and the exceptionally high register to The composition of the chorus is approximately a full the "firsts". The number women "firsts" predominate. 143 — in this respect more than average compass. with the essential. I advise the reader to study vocal and orchestral scores where he (1) will find many illustrations impossible to deal with here. ten. as follows: for alt. the others formisolated an harmonic given to accompaniment. range (they are called octavists) (l) can only be used when the whole chorus These uncommonly deep notes must be moderately well sustained and is sing^in^ quite piano.

it is only by the study of choral works that the student will acquire mastery over this branch of composition. restricted as it point of range latter is lacking in freedom and is to the repetition of short phrases. Choristers' voices are both as regards range as well as mobility. the subMen's and women's alternate either division of each part into two's and three's. Melody. Example: No. Pauses for taking breath are not so important with chorus singers as with soloists. thus necessity for sudden complete silences. The change from notes syllables of short value to long. while the solo voice demands broader melodic outline and greater freedom in construction. or sopranos. and. the division of the chorus into different groups. vocalisation on and others questions mentioned above are equally applicbut in a minor degree.— There exists 144 — natural another most important operation. the fundamental principles of which can only by faintly outlined in the course of the present work. or with the principal chorus. but more often the variety of rhythm. as already remarked. 306. see also before [T23]. and basses. considered as distinct unities may one have with the other. . Sometimes solo and choral melody are similar and technique. less "settled" not so highly trained as those in of soloists. In this respect choral melody more closely resembles instrumental melody. tenors Less frequent altos combinations are tenors. The Golden Cockerel [262]. Not more than two or three notes should be written on one syllable except for fanciful and whimsical effects. Melody is more and limited in the chorus than in the solo voice. able to choral melody. the former do not need to breathe rest all together and each singer obviating the of suitable may take a slight from time to time. to and There remains yet another point be considered. The question vowels is likewise of secondary importance. For this reason subI division increases the possibilities of choral writing. divide it The most method is to into men's chorus and women's chorus. altos. choruses.

Progression in octaves. 312). The combination of altos and tenors produces a peculiar mixed tone quality. 10 . in unison. or it is required to double the bass part in octaves. Examples Snegourotchka „ : 60 113 . Ex. melody in the In practice the other voices are often divided to thicken the harmony. Dividing kindred voices in octaves is seldom done. 151 Tableau. Sadko 341 — Final chorus. n etc. or tenors and basses seldom practised. Sadko [^ — Chorus of Guests. Examples: Ivan the Terrible. Examples : Snegourotcfika 64 Sadko \m] (cf. Progression is and altos. natural combination of voices sopranos or tenors and basses. 14). The most tenors 8 brilliant beautiful altos and natural combinations are sopranos and 8 [fg^"^'. 145 — Mixed chorus. except perhaps in the basses « [l^sles IP ^^®" *^® progression of parts demand it. is Chorus The simplest and most and altos. somewhat bizarre and seldom used. These combinations produce to give ample and vigourous prominence to a and the mixed timbres serve upper or bass parts. The difference of reof the which the voices move does not permit same balance of tone obtained by voices of a distinctive kind. Ex.. Act III [68] — Final chorus (cf. and basses produce a tone both [sasses' *^^y of sopranos and powerful. tone. 8 [g^pj. Though the latter combinations alone. they can only may occur be used gister in in choruses for women and men in melodies of restricted length. — Wedding Ce'-emony. 6i — Carnival Procession.— A.

Act II. so that the volume of tone equally distributed throughout. 307. Voices fdioisi). is The purely harmonic progression more natural and resonant when of a four-part mixed chorus the harmony is is of the widely divided order. Example: Snegourotchka 323 Brilliance Final chorus. I LSopr. Act I . harmonic use of the mixed chorus. -BassesJ Mlada. J **' or else ° [Altos + Ten. II rSasses [Basses I II. . Sadko [182] . Basses "I „ ' [Basses I Examples Snegourotchka [31 9j. Sadko 144 — Beginning of 3i^ tableau. before 31 The Golden Cockerel 235 On the rare occasions when the whole chorus progresses in is: double octaves the usual arrangement Sopr. II Altos [Ten. Altos r Examples : 24 I3 Ten. Example: No. ^ fTen.: 146 — women s A beautifully round tone results from doubling men's and voices in octaves 8 [fX+Bas«3. To secure a well-balanced forte chord in close part writing the is following distribution recommended: rSopr. I [Ten. + Altos "1 tj « rSopr. is and vigour "1^ achieved when sopranos and altos pro- gress In thirds doubled in octaves by tenors and basses also in thirds: 8 Sopr.

Example 308. so as to illustration I maintain proper choral balance. the melodic figure given to the sopranos. Ivan the Terrible. and conse- quently the lower parts are divided in a different way. Example : No. As an give two extracts of identical musical context. Ex. the altos therefore take part in the harmony. the same in musical context. The choice of parts to be divided depends upon the is range of the upper one. example the are added to the sopranos to strengthen the melody. the remainder forming a sufficiently full accom- paniment. and among the other parts which form the harmony the tenors are divided. compare also the same music No. [Tso]. The the lower part is undertaken by the 2i^ basses.— Three harmonic parts 147 — sopranos and altos) in the high register (2 are doubled an octave lower by 2 tenors and the \^ basses. Act is I 77 Example 307 In is an instance of widely-spaced four-part writing forming the harmonic basis. distribute the parts may be necessary to and divide them in another manner. Division of parts can be adopted when one of them is entrusted with a melody. Examples : Snegourotchka 327 20 Mlada. 205 and 206). 212). with the melodic idea in the orchestra. Ivan the Terrible. of Princes. the basses in the alto octave and the 2^ basses are independent. the second {F major) being In the first a third higher than the altos first {D major). Examples: Sadko 1 173 1 and [ittJ (cf. in G major 309— 310. 10* . Act (cf. |_19J Ex. Act II — End the — Procession of II work. the second example melody being a third higher may be given to the sopranos alone. When a harmonic-melodic phrase it repeated in different keys and registers. the In the tenors and basses divisi form the harmony. isl In this manner tenors sing in the soprano octave. 308. Sadko [T52] .

Examples: Ivan the Terrible. paying special attention to Crossing of parts must not of choral parts follows the distribution of these final chords. its valu6. I In writing a three-part female chorus the division should I 11 or Sopr. Act I [79]. 3 sopranos. Servilia Ivan the Terrible. be either Ten.1 : — In 148 — many polyphonic writing exceeding 4 part harmony the voices should to obtain the be divided so as necessary number of actual parts. 3 altos Examples No. Men's chorus Sopr Sopr. Act 233 III [59] — Final chorus. for fugato writing is and fugal imitation mixed chorus the distribution generally in four parts. The manner . 3 12. Mlada. II the same for men: II or Bass Bass I. the summit and climax of the passage. The arrangement the natural order of register and can only be altered for short spaces of time to give momentary prominence to some melodic or declamatory phrase. be effected at random. — Final 1 chorus. but this number may be increased for cumulative effects as in the example quoted. II The choice Bass is to of distribution depends upon which voice is to predominate. The treatment should be such if that concords produced by divided full voices or different groups of voices retain their the final chord be a discord of crossing of parts. In such cases the composer should be careful as to the arrangement of the final chord. I. Altos and women's chorus. as three different parts. or the of divid- register in which the group be placed. Act IV In 35-36 — Final chorus. Act III 67 B. Altos Altos Ten. Act II \T\. After the entry of the last of the voices the progression 0/ such a passage should be handled with a view to the tone of the final chord. and effect may be is heightened by means in The reader advised to examine carefully the progression of parts leading up to the final chord each of the examples given above. Ten. One part may be divided into as etc.

Act Sadko. two parts which generally polyphonic does not call for any special remarks. In I 25-26 23-31 (cf. Bass in three-part writing. (Women's Ex. of Act III I Mlada. I method may be adopted: Ten. the in unison. This is way proper balance of tone in chords given to voices . Altos Altos I method II I of division is self-evident: Ten. Act Distribution in 36—38 is Female chorus (cf. the following Sopr. Examples: Sadko 17 Male chorus. other- wise the upper part of the be in too high a register and the range bottom part too low. the melody has to stand out in the upper part. may change. Ex.: — ing the parts 149 — at will. Sadko 1 — Men's chorus 270-272 — Women's 1 chorus. Examples: Ivan the Terrible. the harmony may be either widely-divided or close. beginning Ivan the Terrible. I II I II Bass Bass II To give prominence to a melody in the middle part in three- part harmony. 311. Sopr. Sopr. one following the other In four-part^ harmonic writing the Sopr. II II + Bass I. Ten. Act Servilia If 13—15 Female chorus. 296). I II II -f Altos I. Altos If. is four-part choral writing close will harmony preferable. chorus). 27). same may be said of chorus Examples Sadko 50 — Male chorus. or Ten. 26 in a purely male and female choruses are Handled to secure harmonic the only manner close part writing should be adopted. II Ivan the Terrible. before |i8il No.

26). 304 {Sadko harmonic bass in the low register it carefully omitted. is example No. of 281—285 In fugato writing. Examples: Sadko [20-21 29—30 *The Tsar's Bride Male and female choruses. . allotted to is a chorus composed of voices of one kind. this remedied by the high position (i) later still an empty interval occurs. by this method the doubled themes will stand out to better advantage. the counter subject to one. the lower part acting as accompanying the fourth's bass. but when transferred to the upper register is doubled. sometimes a series of chords practicable only in two parts. this part is situated in the low so that no octaves are formed between the real bass and the lower choral Harmony in a chorus for women is generally given to the three upper parts. rule a female chorus does not contain the real bass part when voice.— of the 150 — in three parts are same kind. Ex. is is moment. avoided by the union [saj) of all the voices in the octave No. the principal subject given to two parts. and fugal imitation in three parts. 166). of It will be noticed that of this rule may lead to employment and chords the sixth and empty consecutive In fifth's which should be avoided. 198 — Hymn of Tsar Berendey's Subjects (cf. apart from the part they play as individual unities. 270). the and farther on another such (f). but only for a interval In Ex. may be introduced as separate groups in mixed choruses alternating with the whole ensemble. Examples: Snegourotcfika 19 Chorus of Birds. As a general harmonic register. 311 of the bass {Sadko part. Successions of chords in more is frequent than those four. — Chorus Flowers (cf. Example: Snegourotchka Ex.

The chorus master is at liberty to equalise the chorus by transfering voices In from one part I to another. is Skilful management of choral parts a fairly safe guarantee of clear and satisfactory performance. The orchestra. on -the other hand. of the question. In the chorus A It chorus moving about the stage of cannot convey varying shades expression so exactly as an orchestra seated at the desk. that may some therefore be safely assumed of a composer and is entitled to licence in the question dividing choral parts. consider this arrangement unsound. II and Ten. there are but four qualities. balance II divided. for the expedient of giving prominence to the upper part concerns melody alone and leaves harmony out 3. choral writing the question somewhat different.— I 151 — the conclude the present chapter with following necessary observations: 1. one of the principal in good orchestration But in is equal balance of tone in is the distribution of chords. I I. as the of is parts can never be equal. even after repeated rehearsal always plays from music. . material the composer has to handle a great number widely different in character and volume of tone. and the most experienced chorus may come to grief through faulty progression of is parts. if discords are properly prepared. upper part to Sopr. choruses divided into three parts have noticed that chorus masters are in the habit of giving the I. the operatic chorus. care. The attention of chorus masters called to the necessity of strengthening middle parts. The operation factors of dividing voices undoubtedly weakens their resonance. By manipulating some shade of expression he can maintain a balance of tone between divided undivided voices. and as the reader will have observed. 149. instructions The chorus master can carry out the composer's in as to the division of parts one way or another. and the two lower parts to Sopr. In trying to obtain equal balance in writing three-part choruses to the for male or female chorus I have often resorted method of doubling the middle part as recommended on p. If the progression of parts correct. or Ten. In orchestral of timbres. to varying and adjusting the number and of singers each part. Miscalculations in writing are a great hindrance to study. sings by heart. dealing with the orchestra involves greater foresight 2.

169 {Sadko 302 ). I doubt whether it could be sung if written in any other is way. even harshest and most kind will be comparatively simple and This is may be know it 1 ap- proached with some degree of confidence.— uncommon 152 — of the sudden and remote modulations. but singers full. July 3m (Aug. No. . and appreciate its importance to the As an instance quote the very difficult modulation which occurs in Ex. a fact which well composers do not always bear in mind. Careful endeavour on the part of a composer better than useless struggle inflicted upon the performer. 13!!i) 1 )05.

PART II EXAMPLES .

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Il. ^3 ^s ^^ ^ J» e C-b.(." 2"!^ mouvement. N91. ^ rt Ci.A) \^ ^ \^ —r^^ -^ J) Viol. "Sheherazade/' 2^^ movement. B J) 144. vie. P grazioso P'^i <t j/iiT j"1 j Hi- T^~r^ ^m a^ ^ V-c. ^ ^ #^^ ^ ^ Viol.N? 1.„Sheherazade. ^ ^ .div. pizz.

w^ p^ e ^ ^^ s ^s s ^ ^^ ^ ^ piuf S >ces^ pp pp r p * i ^ ^2335 ptu-^- JT3 rin^ fW^ rri "^ ^ inU^j i^ parte V-c. ^ ^ ^ ^s :^SS 4 ?3E s^ •?A y/ ly — ^ .— J.y 5/" vr ^7^^ •if i . Fl. r v-k-. It ^EEL^ ^F^- ±1 p ^Viol.{j V^c. ^="^ B ^ » * ^^ jocco ^ JL-ir— p- M i f^ j^s^ i i -s^ i m ^ ^^ ph^ i t^l y y »i^ iB-"» I 11/ ». yj>^ r*^ ^ />^ ro ~p =^ n Isempre pizz. i jjjj S 4^ ^ ffi i-^I^^Jj^ =^^^r -z=?:L::r:5=r 'if C-b.^ arco S S 3 C. m m Faff.

^^ Cl.(B^ I.N9 2. ^^f.^f - me pour un ca res-sant sa - lut. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! N9 2. JnJ'. \\\\\\\\ -chdes vers mo». -f f^^ .„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej'/ *'.

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"Spanish Cwpriccio/' „Capriccio Espagnol!' Jail ^ j) J-^ i' i ^ i r% J.- -i .N?3. N? 3.

.8 N94." Pan le N9 fl45] 4. J :58. "Pan Voyevoda. „ Voievodet' Lento.

Allegretto. ClAB) .= 96.N?5. J vie. 6. 2{ij. N9 / "Sadko. 28). „Sadko'.' tableau symphonique (p. ''The Golden Cockerel: „Le Coq d'Or. J. J.138. N?6. N9 5." jl93l Andantino." symphonic tableau (p.

'^Pan Voyevoda. Lento. J: 58." nocturne. „ Pan le Voievode. c.10 Fl a2 N?^." nocturne N9 7. lA) .

I..III .U.

a2_ . Jrsa. N9 8.' e pass^ionato. "Snegourotchka.rz N?8.' Andante maestoso Fl.„Sniegourotchka'.

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' . "Snegourotchka:' „Sniegourotchka'. N*? 9.N?9.

o bel-le fi -an-ceei et at-tachea mespro-pos leiirpoids." t^ J-66 Ob. the i7ivisible city of Kitesh': 15 „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej. ''The Golden Cockerel: Le Coq d'Or. -^*'- PP Lapparition C'wniprendsbien.N9 10.. ^ N? 11. N9 11." 11201 (alia breve.. "The Legend of N? 10. J=5o) . tran.

„Sheherazade'/3"Q^ mouvement (debut). Andantino quasi allegretto." S'K!^ movement (commencement). N9 N<? Viol. ^^Sheherazade. sulG J^JJJTJJ K" r p » ' J- ^il p > 1 . . J= 52. 12. JJ J I f ^ 3et ^ pp SI ^ /»oc(3 cresc.A 1® 12. le II unis.

''The (p. 87).N? 13.) k . J =88. 17 (Andantino. Golden Cockerel" mLc Coq d' Or "(p. 87). N9 13.

V1 - .Do'ii^a'^'^ - chu de nous rap-])or - - terdes chants. ve .

picc .2 Fl.e Fl.

88.. e Fl. d'Or"(p..picc I . I f V J ^^ ^ J^TP/tf: "The Golden 88. N9l6. .20 2 Fl.Le Coq (Andantino.< I ^ j' V-le> ^ Cockerel'' (p..) as).. J = Ob.

21 12881 Andante." 69. 2 Fi. pice.e Fl.N? 17. „ ''Snegourotchka/' Sniegourotchka . *^J . J. N? 17.

I i ^ ^i fgrf i Arpa.22 4Ccr. !^ Viol. ^^^ . t / ^ ^ p ^LU Timp. Campanelli.Ie II unis.

Camjpanelli.^3 Ob. ^ ^E£ r Cingl. . ^ L-££f '^ ^ ^^ B « ^ 4 / Faff. » Timp. ^ ^ ii Cor.

24 . ^^^ —rr f Cainpaiielli ^ fe . I Tim p.' A^Cor.

nionsje-ge Viol.ing-l. Z^ L '^Allegretio quasi C. La Nuit de Mai'. ^v j^ V - » ' V t »^ » . m^ V r » s m ^ r} y j J J. mm mm C-b. nos ri - resfbntftiirleneil- JT] Nousai. ''The May Night/' Act III..) j\s^ g ^J)J) J toi - U' le i^ ^ yc.ersousuiiciel eI ". andantinoj Noschantsvontoharmerlejeunehom-rae. - s) res U^ om - J) bres. Altri V-c. ajou.soio.' 3'^^ acte. I.N? 18.. N9 18.

2"!^ mouvement.' p / y." 2^d movement. 152 Fl.„Sheherazade'. N9l9.26 iV? 19.picc . ''Sheherazade.

"The Legend of the N? 2l." N9 20. I.„Sadko. de Ten - fer les pei-nes cru - el - le.„Legende de invisible city of Kitesht 2^ la ville invisible de Kitejf Mais.N9 20.'^I > -Viol. 27 ^ N9 21. "Sadko. vol-ci de - ja la mort pro - ohe." J:112. .

''The Tsar's Bride" N9 22.2H N9 22." . „La Fiancee du Tsar.

N9 23. "The Legend of Tsar No23.„Legende duTsar Saltan: Z\) Saltan:' .

Va I 1 I ]0 I ^ Bassi^ ' f" I Il7i grande cj ci - I Va Mt voir la belle et r te. A Ve - iii se tu d ois al - ler.„Sadko"(p. N?24.336\ iti. ^^^ ^^^ . i r ii tj ^ ^f ^^^ Qj . '"Stidko" (p. Va voir la belle et gTandc ci - te. 336). ta-ohe de_voir le do-g'e_puis- Ten. Sad-ko! Arpa e Pianiuo.go N? 24. ^^1 -te.

I.N9 25. Pskovitaine." 8"ie acto. "Ivan 63 Fl. (alia breve.) . 31 Moderate. N? 25. „ La the Terrible/' Act HI.

" [288 1 I ...Sniegourotchka.32 N? 26. "Snegourotchka" N9 26.

ra - yon w i iJ ii i ' i.bl6u.et. Dans des yeux.83 Alti. i i ^ 2 Viol. rrnrn if f . soli.

^ m N9 "SaTiko" (p. 27. (Allegro alia marcia. " . J=i3a. „S^dko"(p. ^j-.„Sniegourotchka.296). . CorJU IV m j^j 28. 296). "STiegourotchka/' I fJBTl N9 28.) 27.

jv V-c. 5 flp ^ ^ 3g Viol. y un pr modeste 'f pfp" et p I" r^P^ pu-di - p^ que- cmin-tif re-g-ard.j yii'if ' r - * pie res. ^* ^ Y—f-lF S^<lf^ ^ V-le.85 Misguir. < ^^'''""" . e C-b Iil> fl M ^ ^ ^^ . l.

) Plcc. "Antar. „Antar.86 N9 29. ." NP 29." [48] (Allegro risoluto.

„Sheherazade" 8"}® 3^^ movement mouvement (p. TT^—/i^ . 87 (p. 131).i3i). "Sheherazade/' N? 30.N? 30.

.

N9 SI. invisible city of KitesA. omonbien-ai CT9$0ifOC0 . 89 „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" Je doD-ne4tiis tout le sang demesvei - - nes vo - Ion -tier &) et ma vie.. "The Legend of the N9 12231 31.

" Adagio.4U N9 32. .„Antar. "Antar: N? 32.

41 .

.fioe est chan-te san.„Sniegourotchka" Vivace.N9 33. Tlmp.s re - . '^The Legend of the invisible city N9 34. Legende de la ville invisible of Kitesh: de Kitejf' S^ Andante tranquillo. N9 *** 34. J= iso. J: 5«.. Jour et luiit chez nousle saint of . ''Snegourotchka/ ^^ 12151 N9 33.

" 43 N9 35. . ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan. „Capriccio Espagnol.N? 35. ^ Fl. „Leg:ende duTsar Saltan" Andante. Solo. N? 36. pice. J = 18161 66. ''Spanish Capriccio." ^ N? 36.

.Fl.pioc.e Fl.I.

acte (p. 140). 236). 45 3 Vivo. N? 38.gr.e 38.N? PI ''Sheherazade/' 4'A movement (p. 37. J = J. „La Pskovitaine'' 2 Fl. = 88. ''Ivan the Terrible/' Act 3"}*-' III (p.picc. 236 j.iiOj. „Sheherazadey4"l^ mouvement ip. 3 ^ ** PP N? Fl. N9 37. .

Arpa. piece 2 Fl.46 Fl. i 1* m ^^ ^^m 9 .gr.

^ iii ^T*rJj ^^ ^^ ^ se. „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitej.c-alto. 47 Pl." [441 J. - I J dans d^ les te bois mer- ^ ^ veil - leu '^^M V-le div j 3S jF^ ^ ^h r"vrj^p V-c. j¥«r Cl. Fl.iy? 39.h pj chan Ji J. p rrr ^ basso. i ^ ^ f' Fevr.o -alto (Py.ment. 1 i'ip! i. . "The Legend of the itwisible city of Kitesh. iJMT^P v ^^ ^ ^^ s ^ ^ C-b. = 60. N9 39.

* 40. Capriccioso. (p. 43). 1. Fa*?. „wSheherazader 2"}® mouvement (p." 2nd movement 40. quasi recitando *^ = ^^^^ ^^ry^Ji^ — -^^ > dolcc ed esprcss III. ^'Sheherazade. 43) Andantino.48 N? N'. n2. Solo. •** ^^*- . **C':/n sord.

Ob. tous les chants — P les Piipde rt.jjSniegourotchka'/ Larghetto.N9 41. "Snegourotchka/' 49 N? 41 .l^B-tang .Solo dolce Snieff. plus beaux. Le ohant. J-zso. Pa lou - et qui monte et rit au ciel d'e-te Et le plain -tif ap- ^A^^i -pel du cy - gne sur I'ioau dor-man - te de . ma me re.\^ - m te. dolce assai Jeconnaisjeoon - nals.I.

„Le Coq d'Or"(p.^^ 42. 119).75). 75). IVarco . N9 N9 Andantino .ii9). "The Golden Cockerel" (p.I "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 42. J = 7« N9 Fl. J = 88. 43. „Le Coq d'0r"{p. Andantino. N9 43.

"Spanish Capriccio" N9 44." [l] Larghetto assai. „Capriccio Espagnol'. ''The Golden Cockerel: N9 45. attachee a un anneau par une chaine Dodon Elle chante.' 51 Cor. siffle. Solo 2V? 45. ingl.N? 44. fait claquer sa lang^e.„Le Coq d'Or. L^oiselier du roi apporte une perruche verte. j]= «*• Dodon. .

206). < J Mod I f T p P P r? - I pvant p p p ^^^ ma ame e-tait Joyeusea de teoonnai-tre.picc.(D\^ . „Mlada. .206) 2"?^ acte (p. ^ fi^s.) Cl."' Act II (f.H 52 iV? 46. ^ vie heureuse e-tait sans ^ ^ — lar-Tne8. "Snegourotchka'' 47.sansangi(^sHeeteanssouf-fVan - ce. w. so ^^N^.VioLTILeV-le. N9 46. L L ^ N9 N? 47. ""Mlada.' (Al)egro vivo. ^4 . „Sniegourotchka!' I^gi Moder ato assai.

J Viol.assai J r p r r p ^^ ^^ . f^ t^ P p H jm ' ^' ^ / ^ =Ri 'Tlr le i i- p V u^-P^ Et P en - P fin r? ven - -fen. J 1 'jt^t/ m. je suis ter-ri-ble.assat je i ne puis comrpren-dre. Oui. Fag. 53 Trem-bledonc.'' N9 N9 49. „Sniegourotchkaf' Maestoso. teu. I. ten. "Snegouroicihia. je veux pu-nir Tof- I n^y bl--. Andantino.. ' /K a H I Ah. „La Borarine Vera Chelogaf de ma douleur et 49. en-ftuiti c'est vrai. N9 48. 11.' N9 12461 48.se qui m'a fait rougir front- me voir -ge hon de ma "Vera Scheloga.assat.Solo J«88. ^^ ten. basso (b) Cl.

I. %\ .330). 330> F1. (^. %%.II. 'The Golden Cockerel " NO 50 „Le Coq d'Or'' (p.54 N9 50.

(p. ^.-.ii- ^L- . 55 (Meno mo890. (p." Act UI „Mlada" S^e actr • . 359) 859). >^-.N9 N? 51 51. "Mlada.) Solo—. » .

Par - mi vous.56 '-'Snegourotchkaf . ^^ -^ JPJ'v/ ^=^ w CoroNous ne te don-ne-rons pas notre a -mi- e! Nous ne te don-ne-rons pas ta Kou-pa-va! . [i (Moderate). Fag: m.. N9 W 52.6jeu-nes fil-lesine ca-ohoz vous pas niaKou-pa-va bien - ai - me-e' Fl.Sniegourotchka" 52.unis.eOb.

57 son Rassi. a 53.49i).sbel-les fil-les.) 2 villc invisible of Kitesh" (p. .„Sniegourotchka" (p t3H) Animato. 49i)* de Kitej" (p.N9 Fl. ''The Legend of the invisible city M9 53.Legende de la (Moderate assai. 133) N9 54. N*^ 54. - - nent flu - tu^. Voi-ei de Por:pre-nez.niu.. J x 72. g'ouss-li! ''Snegourotchka " (p.MI. Je siiis joyeuxde vous pa-yer ran-(^on .

Fi.i t ^fr> ^ ^^—^E>— ^ . ''bpanish Capriccio. --N^! ' N9 56. 866) N9 55." N?56.sfis). „Capriccio Espagncl!' iWI » « = .— 58 N9 55.pioo/Alleflfro <Jri26). eFi. „Sniegourotchka" (p. "Snegourotchka " (p.

ppp M sc" ^® fantome de Snieg'ourotchka se montre dans la foret.N9 N9 57. 09 57. "Snegourotchka" „Sniegourotchka" (p.306). fp. .306V Allegro con anima.

J mr ru3^ " ^ .6a> ''Sheherazade. „Sheherazade*' mouvement. 3"1^' N9 58." 3rd movement.j-j^^jj^ 'pM.. _(J. r Cii. rri-iT-i ^ iT^^rni rww[j£:£x.60 NP 58. ^^'''riff'nril rTt-ti^ r^-^ni r^^ Fui.

N9 59.picc . Ivan Semenitoh m'aai-mee a la fo4i-e N9 60." Moderate assai. 61 Je ne fus pas heureuse. -Timp. '"Vera Scheloga'' NO 59. 96. N9 60. 389). >CM(A )^^ J. Andante quasi allegretto. 389). „MladaV 3™® acte (p.„La Boiarine Vera Cheloga. mais resig-ne-e." Ad UI (p. "Mlada.

vA Fl. „Mlada'. unis. 61. "Mlckda." Act JJ (j>.205K (Allegro vivo..) Cor. 205).picc Solo %mmm^f ^ .62 N9 N9 61.' 2"2« acte .p.

JV? 62. "Serviliar „Servilia!' Iggi Andante. J = 7a. . N9 62.

I le spectre d'une vieille- KP- '/ -^ i /f. soiirdement Quidoncinae-voquee ? ful ponticeilo . dans un broiiillard parait Piatti.lueur roug-e. Le Spectre.

-— — ^..—— ^p 57). . .48. N9 64.eOb. 63. „La Fiancee du Tsar.IFl. J. "Spanish Capriccio" * (p. N9 64. N9 63. ' ^^. 57). . „Capriccio Espagnol" Fl>»icc." Elol Adagio.ea ¥\. ^ Bride" 65 N9 •. ''The Tsar's J..T.

pice. 3"1® mouvement Allegro risoluto. Fl. '"Aniar.66 N? 65. „Antar. (debut). N9 65. . 3V^ movement (commencement)." premiere version." isj version.

" N? 66.^mouveinent.N? 66. 3"'. "Sheherazade. 67 . „Sheherazacle*/ S^J^ movement.

.

69 jy /eroce .N? 67. cp 79).ploc. tri (p. "Spanish Capriccio" N9 67. nCapriccio Espagnol" Fi.79).

„La Nuit de Noel!' Arpafip ^^ ^^ ^^ ' J J ! J ^ f .2V? 6S.1 f vie QuVUe iAUi. ''The Christmas Night •^ N9 68. re r pe-tee dans Tombre e - paisse des^ .val - Ions! . est dou-ce.

„Leg-ende de la ville invisible of Kitesh: de Kitej." 71 Nuit et joui' c'est un o)iaiit nier-veil - leux< tres ^V-le arca_ . "The Legend of the invisible city gg N9 69.N? 69.

LLi. jjLegende de 1651 la ville invisible of Kite sh: de Kitej.r m^ rfTrrxCr .7ii N? 70." ^^^^ usim 3 Tr-bni. ''The Legend of the invisible city N9 70.

.

i-. *** iV? 7^. roi cru-el tr «lesiners> tu ifa-vais tr a toi qu'u-in> t/Ctc on bois.u. ^ IT Hl *. Allegro. jirt iij » J1 r m p Fag ^ *=:5-rf Ji a m A :zI j: n 1 |>^'H"pM'J'lr^ Ten Le ruisseau murmu-rt ^^^ a i fl i^ JL » fl JH i ^ # ^ ^^ la. chantons en semble - Bassi.(BJ I i. "SnegourotchkaP N? 72. rucherbourdon - ne. \/. s J - lerucherbourdoii P le f'ii'O lr?>^^ chantons en-semble ne.. m^ la saison nou-vel - le .wi. sais'jn nou-vel - le. „Sniegourotchka!' J=ia«f. ^ Le ruisseau murtnu-i*e. tr puissant. 74 N9 7L "Sadkor N? 71.„Sadkol' f34a] Allegro. C1. roi tout Vioi. ^ ^ ^ Ob.

„Antar. nShehcrazadeJ' ii"l'' mouvem^^i.N? 73." ^^. '"Shehera zade . 14. 51).^ movement 74.t Molto moderato.I.* Allegro. morvndo . mouvement 75 FI. {p. ''Antar" 3rd movement 8"^*^ ^ N9 73.Solo N*^ Ob. (V-si recit.

e Ob.I.(A^ r ^M ^^ ffl^^ ^^^ r^r Tijc nr 'r|i^'r«^r»p'r« FFFFFPFFFFPF Ir 3 Tr bni. J-:6e alia breve. "Sadko" N? 75.) as 8CHA)a8 f rrrfrrrrrfi Tr-be. i | glF^ t{^' ^ r' r ^ f r r -^r r . (p.498). „Sadko" (Allegro Fl. 498).I. (p.II.'^^ N9 75.

pp- m ^* C1.77 N9 76. Fi. Molto andante." Act III fcommencememt).(A) PP- t CoriE) xc p^ ^m m^ ^^ m aS pIV. N? 76. 'The May Night. ^i^ M PP- ^m Ob. 1 con sord g m^ ^^ ^ '7 *f?P . „Le Nuit de Mai(' 8™« acte (debut).

fs Crissa '"^^ .^« J- (p. £04). . pice. (p.ff^ Tamb no. 4 Piatti. ^^ ^"""S. y ^FLpicc. // Timp. Allegro non troppo maestoso. mouvement :6o 204).•78 N9 77. „Sheherazade(' 4^^ movement 4". If 6 ft Tamb. "Sheherazade" N? 77.

Tr-bni. :^ a 2 maestoso :Si ^^ Triang". •^ tk ^^ ECg r ^ ^rEEBT -^-^ ^ . Piatti. a-'maestos.:^»=: Cor.*^^ Tuba.

^rrrrrf ' r < -^ .Cassa.

-l«.N? 78. lui Kachtchei aveo ses goussli .350). 350) (Allegro non troppo. * : Jb^ . "Mlada.) 81 ^A 2 C1. Topeletz. N? 78.Tchouma et Morena. sous la forme d'un bone et avec sacour. Tcherv. derriere v. „MladaV 3"}« acte (p. ir\ tt\ ." Act UI Xp.(B) Du milieu de la ronde infemnle surg'it Tchernobog.

„Mlada. .82 N9 79. Viens.' 3"!© arte (p. "Mlada." Act III N9 79.itres.s roi. Sostenuto e maestoso.sro).s lesp. Sorsdc la iiuit d&t! ten<ps! Toi qu''a-doraientle. 370) (p.ap-pa-rais'.

"The May Night." Act HI. "Sadkor N?81. N? 80.„Sadkol' (Andante.* 8"}® acte 88 (Andantino animato!) ^ Doux zephyr.N9 |bj 80. „La Nuit de Mai. /= 76.) . tu pas-ses comme un bavser sur les per - ven-ches C^ '^^^ ' C^ ^"^ ' ^"^ ^^^ ' P^ ^^ ^ 3551 f Ymsi.

her - be ten - dre.Arpe. Her - be ver - te mousse de soie Arpe Tes chants on se - duit mon coeur. Tons ils ont ra - vi - men ame . Dors pai - si - ble.

Sur le lac na«ent en b&nde des cyynes blaocs et des canards gris. '-'Sadko. 3F1. J=7»." N9 82. .) 85 V ^ • dim.N? 82. „Sadko'/ 153 (Andante. 8 Fl -^ /I «/^^ i^ )t. ^ ^ i^ i^^ i^ i^ ^ i^ i'i . PP Sadko.

' ( - li^^^^^-l mou-et - J)." 1123] Andante.et aans dans lea coulisses) couiissesj . ''Sadkor N9 83. re. ^^Js"*'^ "'^"cs.iJ J'J I ll^ '^J-' ^' ''ll'l lac! ^^'' Cy tes grises. i 1^ V-Ie. 1 ^^yg"^^ blancs. „Sadk.H(> N? 83. Choeur i^OAl ti. K.toumonsiplongeons dans le arco . A lti. J! g7iesblanca.o.

„Legenae duTsar Saltan" (p 54j. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" N9 84. 54).N9 84. (Allegretto alia raarcla. 87 . j:9«.) (p.

.

N9 »Fi. 85." overture ouverture (deginning). „La Pskovitaine" Maestoso. N9 85. (debut). . "Ivan the Terrible.

" el. "Sadko.:44. „Sadko!' (L argo.) N?86. .90 N9 |3| 86.

.N9 N9 Fi ice 87. jfcon tuttaforza ed espressione e poco rubato sfdim. Viol. 87. "Kashtchei the Immortal." pKachtchei I'lmmortei:* IJQ zJ 9i calmando con tuttaforza ed espressione e poco rubato creso.

" N9 88.na N? 88. '^Servilia. „Servilia(* Bi| Allegro .

N9 89. Lento. "Servilia.J=52." „Servilial' 93 N? 89. .

' ^ ' d ^^ < bj < ^h * ij'j *13)^ .Cor.

N9 90. . J." 'Vivo. 8&>fu| = 4"l^ partie. 95 N9 90. „Sheherazade. ''Sheherazade/' 4'* part.

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N9 98. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan: N9 98. „Legende du Tsar Saltan'.'
(Maestoso con moto. J- 84.)
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105

11351

.106 PI picc.

107 J. ^ reu. Animato assai.se.N? 99. ..iw). "Snegourotchka" (p.Sniegourotchka" (p. 126./ :^ II..us) N9 99. Mai 1^ - heu • v Viol. mal.heu - reu - se Vous ton - tes ^ P » "P » .

4A " J -72.'"^^^ Christmas Night NPIOG. „La Nuit de Noel" Andante.108 ^^ ^^^. .

" iOl.112. J)." N9lOi: „La Nun de Noel. lia-da jeuiie est lu Alti La II. Sopr.II. J La l iJ^JjuP j s'a-van - J> - i^ ce Ko lia-da.^ . ^? 109 1210 Andante. 5^ — ce Ko - Ko lia-d^ la 1 jenne est la ^^ Alti I. J Ko ij'rj - J' la. La sa^van ? m - W=:7=m^ r Jia-da.1 ' "The Christmas Night. p^i'^JIeEr. Sopr. I. ]''' I . s"a-van - ce Ko - lia-da Ko - lia-da la fcl= La s'a - van - ce ^^ ^^ Kx> - lia da .

re IK m V-e..bien pa -re. ^ - prnr. J div... neau bi - gur-re! . sur un trai-nt-aii bi ^ - g'ar - rn voi - la sur un trai -neau bi - gar . siir uii trai - Altl neau bi !• fcfe I AIti II.no sur Sour. . siir nil trai -. uii trai - nc-axi. f^ C-b. v'i*j H i f V j r ^1 » ^^ y . II. j^^J J_j^j -J «^ ^ ^^p e I Jr-^.re la ' 7* ' d - La voi la.

66 ^ u Fi." N9102. j. \ . „Snieg:ourotchka!' 111 Andantino. "Snegourotchka.N? H.87| i02.

t ilJ [4] (Lento. N?105." N9 **2 [s] 103. "The Christmas Night" (p. (Larghetto. JS47)." 104. ''The go.„La Nuit de Noel" (p. "The Legend of the invisible rityof Kitesh! 103 „Legende de la viUe invisible de Kitej N? . J = sa) pp' ^ — " ^ N? -r I T C=/ Golden Cockerel^ N?104. J . 347). Adagio. J = N? 105.„Le Coqd^Or.

_." „La Nuit de Noel" Prelude. 113 Adagio. "The Christmas Night.N? N9 106. M. Prelude. _ flxsTi^ .M. 106.J=B6.

fr6) Wr t/J v| f LLJ 1 1 . N9 107. ""Snegourotchka/* „SniegourotchkaV fi97l(J.N9 *1* 107.

„Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. = 115 (Allegro.i97). je de - y-le.iV? no.i97). .lieur a nous Voix du niagicien (6-10 Basses dans la coulisse) - don tri ^^ Ah. con sord.sprits dans les airs (6-10 Tenors dans la coulisse) ^ i ^ "m Gvi - g i »r oni - Pv^Pir phe! «r s i 'Qh tous! Mai . "The Legend of Tsar Saltan " (p. N9 110. J 126) Voix des e.

qu^ illuminent les rayons I'unaires 1^ N? m. rLpico." N9 HI. JrTs. GS Andante. 3F1. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.*** iilSI Ul. Claire nuifc d'*et6. J « u. une ^rande pierre blanohe. "Sadko. N9112." (ofemnf of Uu 2*i tableau).J ^3 3 De la mer sort V Oiseau-cyj^e. „Sadkor (debut du 2 me tableau). „LeVende du Tsar Saltan f A? Andante. Le ordissantdelalune *»> . La rive du lac Ilmen^ I.

tenant a la main ses goussli. . Parait Sadko: il s''asseoit sur une pierre.117 a son dcclin.

'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej " (p. si tu ouvrt-s." Alleffro nontroppo. = J20. ''The Tsar's Bride'.' N9113. ^ ^^i ff ^^p Qui p 114. J Qui nous don - ne du pain Est un bon sou - ve - rain. 113.^ Lioubacha. ^ y^ ^ (p. J = u % ^ ingl. p r - » 7 h i ft-appe-i ci? Tu ver-ras ^^^ ft JV'. „LaFiancee duTsar. P M i P P f ^ ^p ff tttt ^ i/ to^'^r^ "r^ r ' ry^ iTf\ T . p %Cor. N9 N9 114.(B> S S < ^ W^ Faf *>i |iiiii ^[^ «r' Bomeli (du dedans) p |"r^r^*rttr'i^ff ^t=. (Allegro. ^* i 'r»rV C1. 127).) 127). .N? 118 |126| Fl.

''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (f. Its.257). . „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" fp.' „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.257) 92) il9 N? N9 tie.N? (J ." J = 92^ (Moderato assai. N9 115. 116.

''The Golden Cockerel" N? 117.120 N? U7. 76) Mais non^ au - pres de toi Ta - mour m'e-veil -le a la vi - e Ton bras vail. 120) riten. 315). „Snie^ourotchka(' i^ (Allegro.. poco "Snegourotchka.Le Coq d'Or" (p. fJ : (p. mon front s'ap-puie a ton e - paule . in'o-treint.lant Misg-. 1= 118. 3is). ^ N? N9118. .

k 1^"": i fe rftp: — — ^ ir .= sa) 121 (Larghetto. 119.ci.(B)^' f ^-^h j I. "Snegourotchkat „Sniegourotchka? J. :^ ^-"Tj. . /-^^ 1 ^ ^^ ^"TJiJ T^ I ^•- ^ r^ 'f^ -f^ O r^^Tr-TJ^ .N? N9 13181 119. .

c)-:." ("And ante. Et.:52.j ir-^r nionde «'ii - r tier * rr Son r i -rai.122 N9 120. "Sadko.)_ I ^ Sadko. .dana le ^ co n sord." N9 120. Ifc Tw^. „Sadko. rircfCf-Tr par-tout ou .

III.123 II.a2 .

j' r riches > r Vpiis r.morendo Sadko. ifjjiinTm jiiiiiiiiiji p cresc . I f r - f lu - r er f r fre jiisqua vieii-drez sa div.

125 .

Allegro non troppo." „Sadko:' ^ = \yi.o« N9 NO . .—.« .. 121.Ob. "Sadko. I. 121.

S "Sadko. J =84.N9 -/* aOb 122.' (And amino.) k' M-^ ' clH^ 'cM 'cEdJ ciDlr dlrLr i ' .„Sadko'." 127 N9122.

L'Indou.? fl-"Cf D\i - " i r1'fa-etf^ ^ nevoiy ra-vis.soIo.128 Fl.san .I. ^m jj j.

„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (Poco larghetto. 119) 123. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh/* N9124.119).N9 N9 123. „Kachtchei rimmortel" ip. J. -68. "Kashtche'i the Immortal" (p. 129 fOb'Con sord. JV? 124.) K2I .

89^). nnr^n^nn\is!^ aa 80g4^ PP V-cDeC-b. ^ PP '>t^.5i7). 4^ s*- PP V-le. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.130 2^ "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" N? 125. jy» (p.) Cor. i Fleu - ri ^m tous pa - reils au pal-mier.I. > PP . "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" N9126. c.^sord. . con sord. con sord PP V-c. ingl. Ts ppp Fi^VTonia.. (s yn ^ y N9 126.si?). (Moderato J =96. ^K ^P s^m ^^^ ^ ^ (p.^).39. Larghetto alia breve.

131 PI. II Com - me monteandiantbarmcj - ni - eux d'ir - re-els oiseauXiChanteurs du del Arpa II 6n:ut.sol{|.la. . I.fatt.mi|>.ret>.si)( glias.

"The Golden Cockerel." J = N9127. „Le Coq d'Or!* (Le nto.N9 *32 ja] 127. 6o) I .

rtsv. ''The Golden Cockerel?^ Noi28. (J=52) animando pochissimo Pour me la • Iral - chir la peau .je mas- per - g^e (U- ro .poco ..Le Coq d'Or." 133 — I Larffhetto. se - e.N? I— : 128..

950).ia4 N? 129. N9 129. ''Snegourotchka" J (p.„Sniegourotchka" (Andante.a5u>. -- ea* . (p.

„Sadko." Allegro. J Le poisson pris au Triang-. niolto i n > V-c.135 N? 575] f 130.. molto - '^^ «^Viol. N9130.v/' II ^ k=^ !^ cresc.jfr'^ fili-t se traiisf'ornie en im linpot dor qui sfMiniUe .e C-b.ni soleil. "Sadkor w. . crcsc.

.

' Va - giics en hur-lant as - sie-gent nos ri - va - ges et blan-ches de co-lere at- aS -f"quentnob rochers! Mab hont sur laiii«arplanentiiosrofssauvag\s E-coutantleurs>chantssansbrpnchor . "Sadkor I N9131.137 N? 191l 131. J = 84. „Saclko" (Andante nontroppo.

au'.u-lioii-hoii lion! m ^il m^^^^^s^^ hou-hoii-lioulioii-how-hou'._ ^. .t) (p.=^-^=^m B-tssi. Fl.i-liou-lu.=^i:^ .w N^ 1S2. m h=w Alii.ou ho\i-liou4iuu-hou^)oul!i. 309). ^^^ Hou ^^^^3^??? I.ti - ItuiI ^"^^ Ten Hon ^^^^^S hon-hoii-hoii-hou-Jiouhou.//" >— buu-lioii-hoii-Jioii-lioii-liuiiliip..picc.hou! Sf^S: m Hou ^..u-lioii-hou liCiii^. Hou-ln.% ''The Christmas Night" „La Nuit dc Noel" (p.| .- . N':'132.

) .„Legende du Tsar Saltan.139 N? 133.picc J < 63." S(Maestoso. Fl. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan^ N9l33.

. e 2F1.picc.140 Fl.

us). (p. . "The Golden Cockerel" N9l35." Ii99| (Allegro.J>^ J^v P V pizz. V J I? M P » I. (Moderate.) V^^J Ccr.„Le Coq d'Or" (p.J V J V P V I T ViJ V Jv ^ H P Vi. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh!' N9 134. J . „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej.ill. J C-Far.rV. rpvp t pvpv *ecfo Tr-bni. 143).V 141 N9 134. sii= "s Piatti ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ [J yP? P Y XpytigvTv [^^P>P^ ^^p->^ ^^ yl> ft ^ ft j[ » i ^ ^^ Pyft^Y ry^ J ^RF=^ i » Jyj ^ J •J J J i J J I J U J J I J ^ J iJ ^ iV? i55. isa) 'Tr be/ marcato ^(c-altaF) secco_ 4 ifti. = 5o.

(Tons s'approchent dii tronc d'arbre) Sopr. 142 N? 136. ve-nezet vo-vez tous>cet-te mer-veil-le! m (Sniegourotc-hka se montre'i "6 .<*#!. Bon-nes pens. "Servilia N9137. 97). 97) (p. )Fi j- N9 137.„Sniegourotchka" (p.> I CORO. Recit. „Serviliaf' (Alle gro maestosoJ .. Adagio. ''Snegourotchka" N9l36.

143 Piu lento. . io>». d a 2 -.

con sord. II. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' Moderate assai. J = 84 I. .144 JV'P/^A "The Legend of Tsar ^Saltanr „Leffende NO 138.

miCa) 140. jl: .N? Il58| 139. "The Legend of the 52.) N9140." 145 ^ N? ci.. „Legende de Maestoso.Legende de la ville invisible invisible city of Kitesh: de Kitej" |248| (Larghetto alia breve. la ville invisible de Kitej. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" N9139. .

. Ps m JDl! aa m rt i do^'Jt dim. Alti.. 86. ^ ' mm *' J r hou blon vert q\u R grim - r pe. bords du clair ruis - ^ (p. ^Moderate. j. J Cl\B) ii2. ^ N 'or.S47). le hou - blon vert qui grim pe.«7. .. Sopr. les bords du clair ruis le ^ les ^m N? Sur Bassi. "The Tsar's Bride" N9142.^ 146 N9 141.) . •' N ^^« a Fag-. r^ CORO /f.' = |50| Allegretio. i /:^. ''The Tsar's Bride! N9141. Jy^ bopr.^ f= fnf w* ^^^^ 5^ rr 1^ J J J T- ^^ £S^ ^ — rr aim i a^E dim.La Fiancee du Tsar. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p. Sur Ten. Aiti. ^ ^^- 142.

56 Fl. N? 143 ''The Christmas Ntjorht/' N9l43.j^Lo^^j^ tsi £^^^E^^EE=^Et I^^M^Ti m Arpe. 1 W "^^ "^ g 1 //*. 4 MIee^ 1 di?n..I. . jouer poco a 1' octave inferieure. sur le celesta.„La Nuit de Noel'. I Fl.picc.' ' 147 165| Adagio. clochettes. T^ ^^ > hi i i 1 f 8- i w^l-. poco a poco M M I r t ^E^ 4r .« 1 smorx i smorz.) ^ A Fl. -tr I ^^ *• 1^ <9 ** <2 2VJ01.'iol. .fejf:jzffe jjzi:.dn Feed.*' — ^- ^=^ . "* poro a *)A defkut. dim. J -. ill. II.oniett«mt la premiere note IN.I. ii ^Cor.I.

if? 145. ''Sadko" (p.^^^N9 144. N?144. J: 72." . „Sadko" fp. 121) woodwind alone). 66. . . „Sadko!' J = l242jAndantino. ''Sadko. 1 dim.N9145. \2\\ instruments a vent (Andante.) seuls).

^^Legende de Fl.N9 [IS 146. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshf' NO 146.picc. la ville invisible de Kitej.) 149 (Larghetto alia breve." J =62. .

"Russian Easter Fete"' (p. (J . J 120. "The Golden Cockerel^ = N9147.„La Grande Paque Russe" (p.ii).- objAndante lugubre.150 iV? i4t .) 1 iV? 148. „Le Coq d'Or" ' [233] Allegro alia marcia.H). so) . N?148.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan!* N9149. J: 84. V-c. ..) Lalumiere augmente. ty ^=^ PP .I N9149. Les rayons du jour per9ant les brumes du matin revelent la ville de Ledenetz.Legende du Tsar Saltan'/ 129 151 (Moderate assai.e C-b.

„L^gen(le du Tsar Saltan" (p.. N9 150. J f I' ' ^^ i'""^'[iijjTi^ I giF jfn iLiutujIiiLrtiif pisz.I m CampangUi.Si9).«Fl.N? 150. . PL*leo. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. 219).

" (Allegro.) .N9 iSl „ m "Antar" 158 N?151.„Antar.

(Adagio.„Antar.154 N^ 152.) I . "Antar: N9l52.pl." .

tenuto ass'ai.N? 153. 376).37K). Andante. 155 .„La Nuit de Noel" (p. N9l53. ''The Christmas Night'' (p.

156

p cresc.
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2 Viol

p

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157
PiU mOSSO.
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72.)

158
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N?

154.

''Sadko."

N?154.„Sadkof'

159

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N9155. „Servilia!'
J
:

72.

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N9156. „Legende de
(Andante mistico.

la ville invisible

the invisible city of Kite sh" de Kitej" (p 2f>2)
ritcn.

(p.

252).

molto

N9
""fi.

158.

''Ivan the Terrible," Act

J.

N9l58.„La Pskovitaine"
Adagio.

W

161

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iS9. "Snegourotchka" (p. £28). N?159.„Sniegourotchka" (p. 228).

^

(Allegro moderato.)

^^^

^
i

^

m
^
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N9

160.

"Sadko"

(p.231)

N?160.„Sadko".(p.28i). ^; (Allegro non troppo.)

Les devins (mysterieusement)

•^

Sur con sord.
I

lamer, sur

To-ce-an,

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161.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan"
(p.

(p.

so).

N9161.„Legende du Tsar Saltan"
(Allegro. Jiiae)

80).

168

f^_f
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J? 162. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan'' N9l62.„Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 9a).
Fi.

(p.92).

(Andante. Jzea)

N? 163. "The Legend of the invisible _ N9163. „Legende de la ville invisible de
,

city

of Kiteshi

Kitej"

O b. Allegro. J-.\zo.

IQA N9 J64. "The Legend of the invisible city of KitesH' (f.ioo). N9164. jjLegende dela ville invisible de Kitej" (p.40o>.

lis

sont de

-

ve-nus sol- dais du

Christ,

des mar-tyrs s^en-

ri-du

-

ra Tar

N? 165. "The May Night/' Act I (p. 105). [Eg N9165. „La Nuit de Mai" l«Jacte (p.ios).
T^Jv. (Allegretto.)

>

i/p

N9

166. ''Snegourotchka: N9166. „Sniegourotchka!'

166

Maestoso.
rI.II.

<J: 69.

a 2

-"pp- ^ a a ft n. 111I " fi: ^ ob.166 tit\r N9 \ 167. pp- S iX^sr. "The Christmas Night/ J N9167. //l^Clar. „La Nuit de Noel" \ Andante. a :^^^ =1 =8= picc.(D) TT ^2 Cl. =72.iil. ^ ^S 3 * Fl. n.(B) .

) 15 . ''Sadkor N9168.N? 168. „Sadkof' (Andantino. J= 167 66.

168 cresc. T dtm. .

J: 169 .492). „Sadko"(p. (Andante.N° 169. (p. 49^) N9169. "Sadko" 66.

170 .

J.N9 no.„Sadko!' 12441 ( Andantino. "SadkoP N9l70.= c&) 171 .

( 172..J852).^^^:^-^ ^ w 7- yVt »« i i . . "Antar! N9171.) ^ ^ ^^^^ ir — Fair z? i ^^ '^^^^4^^:^. 252V 9G. „La (Moderate. p.Antar ^ N9 01. "The Tsar's Bride" Fiancee du Tsar" J c (p. N9 172. 172 N? 171..

''Sadko'' {f. ITS N9173. .picc.„Sadko"(p.) Fl.ii8V rVivace.ii2).m 173.

pi«e. ri. „La Nuit de Noel" 174." N9174.« » ri .179 P-J^ N? "The Christmas Night.

hi-l - J^ J^ quel rT\ iiJ' » J^ J^ J' J^ J i I p tai - iiJw re? V JO i J^ mal heurl t^n. . ass at 176 Lento. je. Lento. „La BoiarineVera Cheloga"(p. 1759 "Vera Scheloga" (p.a. quel mal - heur' Oi. et je m'e. N° " 175? Another possible orchestration. 49). et je m?e-ga-re.N? Ob. N9 175. ne trou-ve pats ma rou-te. je ne sais plus quefaire.seau^pourquoi te tai - re? Je cherche en Vera. b.ga-re. vain. pten. 0i-8eau. ne trou-ve pas ma rou-te. Autre orchestration possible. N?175. ne sais plus que faire. Vera.poxirquoi te Je cherche en assai vain.49).

5). AViol. J (p. 5). ^9176.soli. "Russian Easter Fete" 176 (Lento mistico. „La Grande Paque Russe'* =84^ (p. .N? m.

9). N9177.La Grancle Paque (Lento mistico. Fl.l >. J = 84. ''Russian Easter Fete" (p.9) 177 .N9 177.) — timile Russe" (p.

) Tsar's Bride: S 179. „La Fiancee du Tsan" -- ^ \^rf^ ^^^^ . N9178.J ^^^ N9 178. "The Tsar's Bride" = (p.) N? NO 179.i-s). J 108. ''The 108. „La Fiancee du Tsar" Jlj^Allegrro. (Allegro. (p. 1-2).

) . = 102." N9180. y m (Allegro." N9 179 180.picc. J Fl. „La Fiancee du Tsar."The Tsar's Bride.

— N9 180 [2] r 181. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan. J -. ''The Tsar's Bride!' N9181.' N? 182. w 88. „Legende du Tsar Saltanf : Modei'ato alia marcia. ' l. " r T " 'c. ^ " " " t r t ^ u r '" r r lj r Vr — r . 102) N9 RH 182. „La Fiancee du Tsarf' (Allegro.

J -88.picc. Fl.N? 183. „Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" 181 Moderate allamarcia. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan/ N9183. <?/• y .

J r r r Allegretto alia marcia. N° 184. IT m jn . „Legende du Tsar Saltan" N9184. Fl.picc. plcc.ezri. J = 96. n areata . Allegretto alia marcia." N? N9185. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' 185.n p \m . J = 96. J33- J J5L » i ^ . 1» .1^2 ljS[ f I "The Legend of Tsar Saltan. n\m J!L P f J^f ' f ^f r "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.JD .

4Cor(Allegro tempestoso. J.„Legende du Tsar Saltan.N? 186." 183 3 (Allegretto alia marcia. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. "The Legend of Tsur Saltan. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" 'psoei.96^ ^ N9 187.soey N9187. J.132) -va ge tren - te - trois puis - sants gu»T - j-rts . N9l86.

''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (py*i»i).„Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" (Allegro animate. N?188.y / Tr-bni. 4f€). (p. e Tuba i i ^ m^ ATimp rmrm n i HJ J i . *-i44.^^^ N9 188.

132 . 367).N? 189.) (p. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" Saltan''^ (p. J. „Legende du Tsar (Allegr o. . 185 N9189.367).

I e II . Cassa. ir Viol.— 186 Cor. eTuba. K ^ » Timp. f- -^ r r Tr-bni.

N9 190." overtun.) ^Cl.l(A). (Allegro) . "Ivan the Terrible. 'Ivan the Terrible. „La Pskovitaine"ouverture." —5. overture. „La Pskovitaine" ouverture. 187 la (Allegro. N9190. N9191.Sol( ^ N? 191.

56.a) N9193. J. „Sheherazade" (p.. A ^^ CAlIegTo non troppo.5) N9l92.8). 'Sheherazade" ($.188 N? 192.) i^? 193.„Sheherazade" (p. "Sheherazade" (p. (Alleg ro non tr oppa J.-56) .S).

picc.. N'M94. 194. N? ^Allegro non troppo.) tf .„Sheherazacle" fpiw).— ''Sheherazade" (p. [S] ^. 19). ——————— >• 189 56. *£^ ''c-^ Fl. d.

38-39). (Allegro non troppo.-56) .„Sheherazade" (p. 38-89). "Sheherazade" (f. N?195.^? 190 195. d.

N? 196.) invisible city of Kiteshr N9196. IM la ville invisible de Kitejl' . „Legende de (Poco larghetto. ''The Legend of the J -60.

J-6o) .192 NO igf rrj^ Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' (Poco larghetto.' N?l97.

m._^ '~rj i 1 i i"T i f^ . jiLeg^ende dela ville invisible de Kitej" (Poco lararhetto. „Legende delSi ville invisible de Kitej" 199. 60. ^ (Allegro.) ^ i iV*i"T I r f r J I i.1 NP 'The Legend of the inmisible city of Kitesh!' N?198. «^. 193 N9 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh*' N9199. J.120.

vLegendc de la ville invisible de Kitej'/ N? 200.194 "The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshi N9 200." invisible de KitejV .) i^? ^i. [7q1 (Alle gro. Jriao. ^T^te Legend ofihe N9 201. „Legende de la ville (Alleg ro J-120J invisible city of Kitesh.

.„Le Coq d'Or" ^p. N9202. 2i<H-y9^. 298-299).J ^ .N9 202. "The Golden Cockerel'' (p. 195 (Allegro alia marcia. J-120.picc. Fl.

.„Le Coq d'Or" ri.pico ^ ^^ "The Qolden Cockerel^* (p. SOB-ssol (p.^96 N?203.ao9-8io>.

ip 2K7. „Sniegourotchka" (Vivace. (p. pice 197 £67).. .N9 204.) Fl. ''Snegourotchka'' N?204. J-I60.

66.N9 198 I173] I!"!.." N9 205. piece 2 Fl. 205. J. "Sadko. „Sadko:' Allegro. .

d.N? . . 206. 199 11771 Fl..„Sadkof' Allegro.G6. piece 2F1." . N9 206. ''Sadko.

alia polacca. ir . ij^lhi pMj^^^^i^i^^^." N9 207.200 |184| N^ 207. „La Nuit de Noel!' Allegro non troppo. ''The Christmas Night.

r cresc.201 •^ n. .

alia polacca. (AUegTo a . ''The Christmas Night. flu - tes dan3 la nuit ou point l^u- ." NO 208. trom-pet - tes.j Fl..piccjB- ^ a £ # ^ ^f^ Bassi chaai-tez.La Nuit de Noel'.' non troppo.N? 202 |lg(-| 208.

.203 .

.

''Sheherazade" (p. allargando assal.) Andantino. Solo .m 209. I. „Sheherazade" 205 (p 123. 123) N? 209.

206 colla parte .

N9 210. Fl.^ ^ - la rou che cla - nieur de la guerre et ^ ^p poco af>oco dimr ba tail . (p.i7e-i77.^j fa - ^^^1 ^i .e Ob. . „Sniegourotchka" Risoluto ed animato.) <^= loo. '^ fcrr^' ^JnJ i ircrr*" J I ir* " \ r^i- ^^ i^jb^ ^ de la e rr crrri. ''Snegourotchka" (p. 176-177).N? 210. Ar-j g__oiOier.

I^M ^ -^^ I ^^=^f ^^ ^ ff.208 N? N9 211. (Animate.i7y-i80). Ten. 211. e Tuba.) a2 C1.(B) '"'II J J-IJTl J Tr-bni. „ o ^ j|j r ' r Cj I r > I i Tr-be. ''Snegourotchka" (p. Faa ^' a^2 » ^^ ff Cor. I ^^ ^^-£^ ^ ^ . 179-180). „Sniegourotchka" (p.(A) ^r -r f^ i^7/li ^ u 4 r "-f r r i ii^^i^M ^ f.a^ -^J ^ ^ Timp. J JPJ f jj ^ ^J or .

Y'T h^iif r . rr7 ^^ 5=» r r r f . ^ Cl. ^f ^f f f f f r r r cresc.Z09 it h'^f r »ii ^> r ^f r . rr r" r I Lf r \ S^ a Fag-. r r f\ ^m rW . i_i!Lii. r ''= r r ^ j cresc.

. Allegro moderato maestoso." Act U. "Ivan the Terrible. „La Pskovitaine. N9 212^.210 [l9| N? 212." 2^® ax:te.

toute fleurie. (J = m.N? 2&4l 213. s''avance^comme sur la terre ferme. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: N9 213.) Du fond de la clairiere marecag'euse. II louche a peine le sol .nma^ du prince Vsevolod entouree d'une lumiore doree. „Leg-ende de Andante non la ville invisible de Kitejf 211 troppo.

212 .

lngl .218 ^ C.

fSjg] F^vrQoia et Tapparition sortent par le marais. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh' N9 214. J=t»'. PP9 3 .*** N? 214. effleurant a peine le sol. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejf Andante non troppo.

«i I '^^Vy»3 j »» J iJ vv JJiyv J i Jv »J J »» JiJ » » JJ » » J . N9 215. J v ¥J#»¥3i j » » j J¥ » J H^44*m4 4H H44H . iy!" 2lV\negourotchka" (p. „Le "The Golden Cockerel." Coq d'Or.2\? 215.) (Animato.) pizz . „Sniegourotchka"(p." . 21S (Moderate J= loo. sivousrfavezpas hon-te d'etre enriohis pax lemalheurdesautrea! . N9 216.l4S).i He bien pre - nez.) )b. W:i26.i48.

''Russian Easier Fife. r^ . i coUabacchetta da Timpano r — fiijj . „La Grande Pique Russef' iFl. Piatti. [^Triang.** N9 217.r 216 iV? 217.

217 .

''The Legend of the irwisible city of Kitesh'.IIeC-fa^.) Fag.i40).218 N? 218.picc N? ttfljfl 219. „La Nuit de Mai" rp 140. N9 218. J=m. "The May Night" (p. Allegro vivo. „Leg-ende de -^T-(Moderato. 2 Fl.. ^ N9 219. la ville invisible de Kitej!' .

N9 220.) _a2 j.' N? 220.n. 92. la ville invisible dc Kitej!' 219 | «f^ . J. „Legen(le dc ('Moderate. ^'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.

" 220 N9 221. ville invisible de Kitej.) the invisible city of Kitesh.N? rrj=i ( 221. „Legende dc la Moderato." . "The Legend of Jzs-^.

. 221 doleiaiimo IB4I Lento. "Snegouroichkar . ptcc FKplcc .N9 222. J ri.Snieg-ourotchkal' = 69. N? 222.

Cor. de I'e-te de flamme PourQuoitesBleurs et que veux .N9 223. Recit. „Sniegourotchka'/ 12751 Adagio. ''Snegourotchka/' 222 N9 223. < n^^ A-vec le jour va com-men-cer n ^^J\}^^^ le regTie "•^'w' "*" y " Du dieu Ya-ri- lo.

„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej." Lento mistico.N9 224. J:6o. 223 . "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! N9 224.

„Sniegourotchkal' Adacrio non troppo.„Le Coq d'Or!' LaiteinedeCh^ Lento non troppo." N9 226. 225. . Viens.^ de lX)-ri-ent'. Viol.raeurt v-i N? sss 226. 'PifctU. ^z le . lento e cantabile.boisce vin tout pe-til-lant. I. la oal - me null re - pe - te la descoeurs en e II fT\ unis. ''Sne^ourotchka/* 7a.N? 224 . 8o-leil sur lacol-li-ne de - crort len - te_ment. Tiens. o'est le sang . J : io4 *-H— flS-te. Allegro moderato +f . "The Golden Cockerel. . chan-son Ah!. N9 225. pa - lit et . ptzz.

' Act n. miada.acte 225 (^Andante non troppo.) (muta sol in fa|) dolce colla parte Loumir Loumir . 2"1.N9 [li] 227. Loumir. N9 227." „Mlacia.

„Legende du Tsar Saltan'.' Andante. J= 68. BupalaiB sort la princesse Cypnejdontlasplendeur eclipse ceile du de la main." N9 228. Tous protegent leurs yeux "" . "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.836 N?^228. soleil. Fi.

zz'y .

228 .

-227).. N? 229.^ . „Le Coq d'Or" (p. Z'.227.picc (p. ''The Golden Cockerel" N9 229.) Fl.

230 fij. p V I ^ .^ 'ig <^i I Cor. ^ ^^ i « H V Mr f ^ . PP tou - jours. sans tre Celesta. I. '1^4 Arpa.£>^3mi.

"Russian Easter Fete.eJzise.N9 230. JPl 231 pico ." N? 230. „La Grande Paque RusseJ' Sostenuto e tranquillo.

L la ville invisible de Kitejl' Spectre. „Legende de (Andante. tu parais porter les traits deVse-vo - lod le che-va Arpa I. J piece Fl. 8 div. ^° 2^i- "^^ = 48.' N9 231.238 12971 Fl. .) Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.

poco .2BS Flpicc cresc.

i4i ). (alia breve). '^. Moderate picc. 284 N9 232.. (f.picc N? api 233. Jzisz.l . "The Golden Cockerel" N9 233. "The Golden Cockerel" N9 232. „Le Coq d'Or" (p. (Allegro assai. „Le Coq d'Or" (p.) Fl.a82 ). so . (p. 282).l4ti}.

N? 234. a sa plaoe on volt un tronc d'artre surlequel deux vers luis&nts conime line paire dyeux . (Vivace. N9 235.ei). J 132 • 285 . „Sniegourotchka" (p. J-re. scherzando. 61). (p.. 807). "Snegourotchka" N? 235. /J.P'««-|t^ . N?234.307). Moderate. I.^brillent vision disparait. „Sheherazade" (p. "Sheherazade" (p. La p.

=^^^ PP V i' .) N9 236.„Sniegourotchka. ^- if f Viol. m rn-fif t . Sniegourotchka.I solo. Viol. dlv. j ^ i. ''Snegourotchka!J-^ss." (Larghetto. J'^'' ^^ V 1^ ^m 2C-b.II arco ¥» V-le. P rr 3Ier - pir^pr du fond du cceur < pir'r pour - p«r d'ar-dent pir a - ci tant mour —r^<- m m 1^ f PP m PP Arpa. ^^ ^P^ PP pizz. I. f fif^ trem. soli. V-c.236 N? 236.

tz) . "The Golden Cockerel" N0 238. 238. „L a Nuii de Noel" (p. „Le Coq d'Or" (p. (p. 237 N? 1i .Si^). A Wl p tc»^ ^-.N9 237. "The Chrism tis. (p. (Andante.Night'' N Q237. 19).i9).312).

„La Fiancee du Tsar. ggg N9 239." (Allegro moderate. i Oiii .. „La Pskovitaine. ''Ivan the Terrible" Ad U. J mis.) — 5'j.. belle . nJ^ J^ elle est |t|J / i rose et blanche de taint." 2"ie actp. iV? 240. fj^ ' "The Tsar's Bridef N9240. N?239.

iia." N? 243.2io).^io). "The Tsar's Bride. fp." J.56. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (Allegro moderato. ''The Tsar's Bride'' (f. (Lento. N9 241.N? 241. La Fiancee du Tsar.^ 2:^9 N? 242. ^Lento. N? 243. "The Tsar's Bride. „La Fiance'e du Tsar." N? 242.) . J.

J« N? 244. „Sniegourotchka!' i ISy Andante. molto ." sostenuto. '^Snegourotchka.N? ^ ^^0 244.

*J.«». On rayon brillaot perce les brume matinale et tombe sur Sniegowrotchka.:ji„ 245.I I N? l313l ^^-. "Sne^ourotchka. .) 241 ^^ ^^^ „Snieg:ourotchka!' (Andante.

„ ^2 N9 246.„Servilia!' [g25!(Lento. "Serviliar N9 246.) . J=6o.

«J=6o.N9 m 247." P] (Andante . "The Tsar's Bride" „La Fiancee du Tsar" (Adagio J 247.) 248. 248 ^ N? W 248. ''Russian Easter Fite. „La Grande Paque Russe!' lugiibre.

244 .

^-Irea.) Cl.l. 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: N9 249.N? 249.U (A) - ^-' . „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' 245 E • (Larghetto alia breve.

' 246 N? 250. N? 251. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!' Allegro ^Jr . 18 8 Com - me monte au eiel le tour-bil-lonl La pous-sie - re voi - le le so . „Capriccio Espagnol" •^ / .leil.N? 250. '^Spanish Capriccio/' Met Sit mo N9 251.

) Ob. J.I.y PFP .112. "Sadko" 247 N^>252.N^ 252.Solo.troppo. .Sadko:' 12641 (Allegro non..

246-247. „Leffende de la ville invisible de Kitej.ZAe'H^r}. ''The Ob." N? 254.) .) (Moderate. I Legend of the invisible city of Kite sh'.N9^ 253. Solo N9 253. „La Fiancee du Tsar'*^ (p. J = »«. ''The Tsar's Bride" (t. N? 254.

„Sheherazade.j)OCO animate. sous les om-bragesnou8VHion8. J = A Nov-gDrod^ansun jardinsu-per. "The Tsar's Bride/' N9 256. Molto andante.' 2"}" mouvement." TVr 255.be." N9 255.) N? 256. [jpi 2^ 249 (^Aiidantino. movement '"Sheherazade.en-sein-ble . „La Fiancee du T^ar eo.

„La Fiancee duTsar" (Andante. 186\ ).N? 257. ''The Tsar's 9s.) Bride" (f. 25qN'^257. J = sirtngentio foco a poeo (p i«<« poco .

mi~n^ni n 2>P div.j'jJJ3 poco cresc. (noil stacc.. r.div. pice ''Mlada'/ Act lU. r ^^ (non stacc. W ^ i ttf'tU ::r *** ttt- ^^«ffr"fr7»fg /?oco creirc.r H C-b. pp poco ^^ cresr. jjj. 258. poco acceler. arco > ^j? ^rt^ ^ #^ ' m r v«r ^ ^oco cresc. /oco cresc.T . I 16 Viol. .) m i^^p *ff pqr ^ ^ ^^ 12 V-c.) poco cresc.m N9 258. 251 Moderate.' 3"1« acte. IliJ Fl. pizz. „Mlada.div.

.252 Fl pice.

253 .Con moto PI. pice.

(F) con sord.lKB) /?P i Tr-ba. m PP 3 Clar. I. Andante. 11 FP Fl ^^ ^^^ JS 5fe i .picc.(Es) 3 Cor.c -altaCF) ^^ ^1 ^^^ £ /?P i ^J^Jm^l y\ .12-16 Soprani. J. [19! Fl acte.v - ^^ mir! L" ombre de Mlada (mi mi que") :.254 . 1. .. (B) 3 Fag-.tot _ I " i p -J'T ''Hi't ^ri'*' ! 8on-ne-ra I'heu-re.1. ?^^^ I fij- i' 3 pp ^ pp ^M^^ te ^^ Iy^i—HH ^^goTr-ba. ecoute-les!" Voix des esprita lumineux (derriere la scene) Coro.V" I 259 "Mind a: „IVIlada:' 3" Act III N'>.<J59. ?==^ PP ^^ I^ ^^ ^^ pp J^' r'r jC l \ Ob. :i*?!auij - y/) M.vv^ ^ - c-alto '(Ji % Oh. jj^' ^^^ j?p i Ob. » Tr-ba. j-4-/^ij J' l Ya-ro r~pv^*' U' Pour toi bien . I. II.Ce sont les voix prophetiqxies des esprits. c -alto.

poco a poco .iJo5 Poco p' acceler.

pice.25& Fl. .

(MS 1^*1 ee 'W~^- .„Sadko" And antino. "Sadko:* J-- 257 N?260. 260.N9 .

V-15. i ^ . I. "Sadko. % m ^ f \jsr unis S .' — Moderato. des profondeurs surgit le Roi des Mers kfcP^ -Lfe p* 1 V^< p' ' — Vp:<A-^< P P crresc. VP >.^A^A-k< Al p^ P 1 ' — — 3' agitent.i ^ i S C-b. ^ ^ ^ p^ ^S^P m^ -^ ^^P a 41 i A ^ffi # M ^ p p * £ r e s * -*^ cresc. ir nfv'^tf^t - ^>e W*ti» IeI div.„Sadko!' 96 Piatti e Les eaux du lac Tam-tsin r div. J = ." N?261.i58 N9 261.

„Antar:' (Allegro risoluto.) FLpicc. 259 . "Aniar N9 262.N? 262.

J. 3). "The Golden N9 263." introduction (p.'' "Pan Voyevoda. N9 264. „Pan le Voievodel' introduction (p.260 N? 263. (Allegretto. 264. -^(AllegroJ Cockerel. 3). molto . „Le Coq d'Or.: bs) N9 eresc.

.

2ez "'^^ Legend of ^ ^^ „Legende du TsarTsar N9265. (J Saltan. Saltan!' set) rrrrr^rrrrrr^t rrrfrrrrrrrrrrrrfj -©-*- .

„Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p. ^^ N9 267. EHJ (Moderato — Fl. „Legende du Tsar Saltan. —— ^ assai.488. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.266. (Moderato.) .. J - as. N? 267.picc.^^. J : 268 %\ ) ." N9 . 4S8)." N9 266.

„Kachtchei Immortel. Jiize.Cor. cou - vre de tes blancs flo-cons Arpa (harpcs eoliennes) Cor. tour-bil - Ion. "Kashtche'i the Immortal" N9 268. inpl. in pi .) .264 N? 268." im (Allegretto mossx). > Q j^j ^j Coro tdansles coulisses) La te m pete commence Gronile et souf - fie.

N? Fl." 265 [^HCAllegretto mosso.furieu8e tempetei nuit. „Kachtchei Immortel.) mf Arpa(harpe eolienne) (La scene dircouvre de nuages.picc 269.) . ''Kashtchei the Immortal/' N9 269. J: 126.

V-le. b. 3ZJ |. ^^s :^ ^ ^m m C J|. m ^ ^m ^M ^m ^m i^ ^ ttJ. .

i66). tr . fr 'Idlada" 267 (p.iee) ^ N9 270. „Mlada"(p. 270.N9 3F1.

picc. N9 N':>271. (i: 63 j^ H^ QFl. )." „Le Coq d'Or. ^^^ . Maestoso.) 271." 3^<'Moderato.— 268 "Tne Golden Cockerel._ riten pace. N9 272. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. . J:ioo. „Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. ^^^-pc ^. N9 ( 272.i79 179).

2b9). „Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 269 .pJcc. lf«') ^l. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. (Moderate assai. 269).N? 273. N9 273.

(B) B jjf jjnfr7n ] ^ Vie ^ Vc..JJ-Mf fJ_L^ ^T^-bc. J^^'i f J ff a 2 — J r r '. / / f '""j.basso(B ") \' Y w \' ^ ^x\\ J J Pi ^ Fay. gg (Moderate assai.^^^^ fj Ji Ji I j MI. ^ Jl^i f^ ^ Qk J? -:»T- / . ff •'*' .r 270 274. L/ACor. ingl Cl. C-b. ) J. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltanf N9 274. „Legende du Tsar Saltan!' (J I ^ . |s»'iii. ^ r ^m ^^ p-j <9' I : 'fi t t fflTJ^ j7 f'" r^ » F » P =$?#= f^' g' p. ^ ff Cor. Cl.(B) since.)" m .iy^ i.

" (Larghetto.N9 N9 275. 7e. „Pan ''Pan Voyevoda/' le Voievode. = 271 . J.) 275.

.272 Quasi irillo.

J .) ^' gUssando (sons harmonigues . „La Nuit de Noel" (Allegro assai.3lo). (p.310). les. ''The Christmas Night" (p. N9 276.278 N? 276.

277. Le beau Lei males ap-pren- dra. soir. le soir je chante - rai _ Jechante-raipoure-g-a^v-er laso-li - tude Poco piu animato.274 N9 [45| . „Sniegourotchka!' Adagio. . les plus guis de mes re.or. ''Sne^ourotchkar N?277. J: 50.frains. I.

"Sadko. poco cresc.N? f\ 278. .' (14 3i Adagio. J 56.' = 275 N9 278. „Sadko'.

uJ P.je ne piiis vi. Voi - la icon reve et mon bon-heur. „Sniegourotchka!' (Allegretto capriccioso.i^P i sT i Pypp joi - Chan4«r.oya N? 279.) string. monseulbonheunma e! arcccN .sons.voi. "Snegourotchka.la pizz." N9 279.vre sans chan.

" N? 280. ±^ . „La Fiancee du Tsar. J=60) ^^-—r==^r^i 277 f= — ni r — i::::^ ." (Larghetto assai. "The Tsar's Bride.N? 280.

.dim.

"Sadko'' -.) 27» Etsousles ri - ves es. N9 281.ni. ra - vi inon arae- . g_^Uarsrando. ts di - vins ont se-dmt mon c(Kur. poco creac.„Sadko" ^A Passionate V^ Fi ii.516) (p. 126.rai presdelai-me- Fi - dele amona-mourjusqu'' dlv.sie). (t. Oh! tes cha. la nndes temps.carpees je dor-mi.N? ( • 281.

TLarghetto assai. "The Tsar's Bride" (p.) Cl.„co N? 282. „La Fiancee du Tsar" (p.aei). 361). N9 282.(B) .

''The Tsar's Brider Tsar. Que Dieu vous don - ne d'etre heu - reux.281 N? Cl." . ^ 9Z) Pourcesbons voeux cent fois mer-ci. ' _ V » n' < Jm J ' -I' -1^ - -I * I Bon. Domna Sabourova. „La Fiancee du (Larghetto. sans Viol n.(A) 283. P cantabile TTTH^^ .heur aux a Douniacha mants! Dieu vous ac - cor - de joie- Bon- Sabakine. N? 283.

tre - - ve- Dieuvous ao - oor-de bon-heiiret saii - te. . toiuours u - iiis.282 joie! So-yez hen - reiix. jV Lilt WW fois mer-ci.

n.ii mm 283 .

.

^ ifP .285 Jlpicc.

.286 Fill.

quaiid thaque J^A V|'<>^' IJ- cop 8ord ar - bris-sean a'in-cli-naitvers nous _ quand les' che - nee verts . N9 284. quy nous e - tions gais.44. N9 284 „La Fiancee du Tsar.) Brider S^ (Adagio. 287 All quels jours heu-reux. ''The Tsar's J..

pizz.288 |l35l I ^o 285. *• Tambno. coeurtrem- Arpa./»p ni^ ^ * J HiM t y t J H i t J t y^ . m mUUL s a TT 3J ^ jii ^ P'P'^ PP P i ^ ^^ 3^ ftt 'J^p t ^^ feS rrr^ i Tamburo PP. 76. I. - i r p^^pnp r f^ le ^ lattendre ne-tre.basso(A). vie. ''The Golden Cockerel N9 285. '^'ll" 'til PP m . m . ^ ifr* . dolce *# i Tffp Vieiit-oii f prrrr a la f«. „Le Coq d'Or!' J = (Andantino. ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^m V-c.s . loeii at-ten-tif. P''^ p p^'' p'p ''^pp^ •' ^> 'p " Pp ^ ^ La Reine do Chemakha. ^ Fa&.) Cor. . ingrl PP Cl. p izz.

ureux a - mant? .289 ms^J^^t p ^^pp>^ [>'p ^'' pp ^< m LR. sait-on charmer rin.d.rai-tre. -blant? A pei-iie Ta-t-on vu pa.Chem.

" NV286.) J aeceler^poco a poco F!. "The Tsar's Bride.tout pour toi! .290 N° 286. 63. Lioubacha. J. „La Fiancee du Tsarf (Lento. cr«8C. (EUe pleure) '•''r Ah! r pir^t tout pour toi- ir r p i rl!^> oui.

291 ^ ff .

e C-b. Z'Snegourotchka. ou I'ombre est e - ter-nel - le. Cl. ^'^^i'j bois toujours gla-oes.) Jf." N?287./ V-c. au plus pro -fond dee ^F ^A^l ^ oiple ^^ ^^ Le Pr. faat pour ramourd'el P me N pp> * 'r sou-mettre .' V-c pizz.(A) '' Le Printemps Dans oes fo-rets .S92 iV? 287. „Sniegourotchka!' [SI (Allegrro moderate. J^J^-i'r ^piP'U V^^J^J^ re-tientma fil -le^ pere en sou pa-lais je lavoudraisheu- colla parte sf pp ^<> J^ > je ^^ p p ^p II I p- -reused p pM" - P le Pa -do -re.

-ys et de moi-mS - me^ il ne veutpasaudouxPrintemps de-der la pla - ce .293 LePf.

" Agitato. ''The Tsar's Bride" N9 288. . „La Fiancee du Tsar. J= 136.294 l|24j N9 288.

des:peuxsaper-be8.l. Pl. oer> tea U ^*- . . 296 >. jiaibienvul Mer veye debeaute ..

.

N? 290. "Sadko" N9 289. 56. „Sadko. "Sadko" N?29G." 297 Larghetto.iso (Lar ghetto.) N? 289.„Sadko" ^ (p. J. iso) (p. J.= S6^ .

=¥=¥: pnndre pip ta cein - P e - P blou P .298 m m chant le - r f 7 ^^ ^^ \a I^a Pr Sadko.> . Ton Plei - n'j d"^ & - ger va ^^^ s'e - £ sur les flots.h^ ^- & ' t-^ f'r^-^ ' f— ^ .it toiles tiire dans la =KiX p^ S nuit do^ce (colla voce) -^.hJ?^^- i -.

N? 20^ 291. i'Sadko!' N9 291. r 1^ j^» I'll r f r-> »J se I i . poco Crete.-r f i ll i I I I'll ii I J J ra I J J Sadko^®^ ehants ont ' - diiit mou f F coeur.: 66. „Sadko!' (Allegro.) 299 LaPr. oh poeo < . oh Ta beau-te V-le. duit mou coeur. J. beau-te ra - vit_ raon arae. i I Tr r r f < f-f iJ r'f «^ se - .'"r if 'r I n> fii ta comme ils ont i> J u^i^^^ \l_i±lAi^ i - vi — tf ^1' r i mon ame.

300 ^ i ¥^ LaPr. ai - me! . ite^* bien - Sadko. bien - ^^ XT /fffZ. ai - me! ten.

292. je suis par les vents bat - tue et noy- -e - e par tou-tes les pluies du — ciel. je suis la ri - se-e de tout chre - tien.N9 0* 13181 . "Sadkor i^r 104. „Sadko!' Andantino. 301 N9 292. Oh. la ri - see de tous les g-ens de Men- b f320] Lioubach . Pau-vre veii-ve. basso (B) Cl.

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296. "Ivan the Terrible" Act II. N9 296. „La Pskovitaine" 2™* acte.
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Pa - te |Sopr.I diy.

de- Pskov?

Hein,

poco cresc.

quoi?

I|>

ASoorlldiv

If. "*^
i

f
vo
-

yez:

r —PPjp pfTn&fiF vers nous
i

f

sittJUi

fier

coursiersvient un

no

r
-

POM
ble

pre

\f

Mais vo-yez

T~l&p

f

versnoiissur un

MP- p&f p f irn&f coiireiervientun no
fier

p
-

f
tu

blepreux ve

Wi -tu tfor

bi&Iant. (forbriUantmarcheunno- ble preux ve

- \\i

d'or

brillant, e-olai-


307

'fa-Iv.

"^°" " ^^"^ /^^ "*" '

^^^

'

^^^

^^ "'^ ho-tesbien sou-vent lesdi-sent

bon-nes!

Fag.

-lar
1

-

de!

Et fort bel-le; doc

les fil-les

i

-ci,pous-sent com-

me

les

mo

8op>

.

-——

rilles?

—^

Chez

-rsuit

leoiel

nu-a

-

geux

et

noirimaisil

a

fron-ce

ses sour

-

cils

e-pais

308

Fl.pioc

/?N

^^^^

=^=

-f9^

I
=^^
Ts.Iv.

^
^>r

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=^2=

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^
/C\

V'

p-pppr

greanafoifl[uimporte?P)EUsnousvi-si

Sopr.I.

M

ta
Clair

p
'^'°'
*^

^ W
so-leil,qiii

^ ^ ^ ^S ^^ ^^
-

^
F
sur

r*

-

g
I

p
i

?
et

f

Pi-

I

te,

tu ver

-

ras bien

• F •

r\

O

s
^

nous flaniboie,gloir^a Ifem

-

pe-reur,auter-ri

-

ble Tsar!

^

:j^

r^r^

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i

t

iJTJ rpJ^

l

^fe

^

nu

/TV

»

SIO jv? 297.

"Sadko"

(p.

157).

N9297. „Sadko"
Paff.I.

(p.157).

(Allegro non troppo.

j.: 112,)

Alti

Cygnesblanosdansle^biiis-sons

en

fleur,

dis-persezvousde

-

plo -yez

vos

ailes

pour oueil^lir

de l^u

-

be - pi

-

ne

blanche,par fu-mee au souffle prin

-

ta

-

nier.

!

311

dolce

^ ^
LaR.
Sadko.

p

i

r

pr

PtHt'

r

rnon bien ai - me!

r mon

p'r

p^
-

^b
^

pre- des - ti

ne

pp pr »i^
Vier
-

^
Qui

»-

^

pr pr
ma beaute?

ji

ge-qiii es

-

tu done?

es - tu,

V-le.

V-e. I.

dolce

V-c.ne

C-b.

"Snegourotchka.N9 312 298." N9 298. „Sniegourotchka:' Et toi ri - viere auxflots g:Ia-ces et cal mes.- . m\A J .

poco Ob. dans ros de - raeu-rea pai-si - bles. rent la hon cresc. nos fi) - les it. ^ poco acceler.313 Ob. I Sopr dors. en - dors ma honte et raa dou - Jeur Teii. son d^-ses- poij* a tous nousfalt pel . son db-ses-poir a tous nous fait pei - ne.

.„Mlada{' Andante.div. ^m Arpa I.314 N? 299.fT ^ ^ jjjmj '^ % JjliJtLr r P ^JliJ^iLr Ll^ Viol. m £ p UJiJiJiJiUiJiJiJiJUJi^ fiW JJJJJ Arpa n. ''Mlada/' Act IIL Snje acte N?299.n. ^^ Ir.

816 (eiur scene) .

„Mlada!' N9 „ .. "Mladar N9300.316 300. n^ufis'deP^est . * i^§=^^^B-:V^^.

^ (boffuettes a tfite d'eponge) w . „Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitejl* rci. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh." N9301.N? 301.i ii.(b) 317 ppW Sampane.

(Largo maestoso.^ ^ ^ S :& «t W' 3x: i K i Pedale. "Sadko'. J = 62. „Sadk6" ^ Ob.318 N? 302. *)Les passa^s en petitea notes ne sejouent que faute d-un or^e.Ce jour in8-me la prin- fc ^^ aE ^ % «i 8 =&: J [8 r legato — J assai f^ 5E S i J _J ^ ^^^ i .) ^- Roidesmers tu asohoi-si maJ ton temps pour dan-ser! IGANO.' N9302. -BUS — dessous- Elle ren - ver - se les plus forts vaisseauz. Vols la nier_ est sens des- s gR=.

-ces - setafille i • ra a Nov(fo-rod poury de ve-nir unflexivelimpide.TV)i4«oen*umt«a .

I .gouf fre noir. Va chan - ter" en ITion - near de tea Nov - go-ro-diens.

.378).N° y/ji'i I.3/8). "Sadko" (p. 321 Andante non troppo. „Sadko"(p. N9303. J = 88. 303.

322 Et "peutetre au ciel Dieu au - ra pi-tie du nous. — ra-me-nant a 1"^ - plo-ree son heu-reiixe - poux .

= 73. ''Sadkor „Sadko'.N? N9304. 304.' J. .) 323 (Allegretto.

qui d*a me -res de tor. iM r7 Tr mj frr^v f' I r r £r r r* r? T-G^ sont \ rr^ - r #—^ lar-mes »-1» r-'f baignees^ r r r r ^ ^^ ^^ leil d'A m - vril.yez les oha LePr. leil d'^A - vril.de rj r rr i r'r rf ) ir ^r ^M i ^m ^ m ^ ^ ^ . 324 NP 305.Vsevolod. j=60. cha-su-bles blan ches^ neige aux ra - yona du so- ^ Arpe. '^The Legend of the invisible dty of Kite$ht NO 305. qui d'a • me-res lar-mes >* sont batgnees. de tor-rents depleiu^." (Moderato e maestoso. „Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej.-rentsdepleurs.iy. - su - bles blan ches> neig« aux ra • yons du so Vo-yez les Le PrYouri.de..) Vo .

325 ^pizz .

- de paix.Vs.te ments qui sont pre -pa-res en oe lieu pour toi . qui sont pre-pa-res en ce lieu pour toi Le Pr.326 Alk. qui sont pr6 -pa-res en ee lieu pour toi Uadol- de paix.

NP 306.= 96.35i> N9 306. „Le Coq d'Or" ''Andantino. ^. ''The Golden Cockerel'(p 351). (p.) 327 .

p228K Fl.i. ^^^^ m If Sopr.i-im Ha. . ''Sadko'i (p.picc.2ioK (Allegro non troppo. ^ ^ J^p -tl u i J> ^ < }>'' f= y^pi^p^ij) j^^^^ jj-Mais re-gar-dezdonc. !>" V h h Kh ^ fv Ji Ji Ji J' || j> Jv - jm. (Es) -r: m^ r J J ^ 1S»^ i « 1 ^^ F^^=^ P i F..^JTm jit>r^/^j^i. a mes bons ^ a.f^/rj^ | J^ JJJ -r *! Tr-be. Bassi.ha-ha .-.j No308.„Sadko" .mis $ ~.'Bi ^^s Ob. „Sadko" Ob. ^^ V-o.picc.f idr O^i-4 Fay-. ^ y' ^ ^m C-b . V-Ie.e Tuba.ha-ha-ha ha - ha- ^S Re pizz.i' I.-n>i-ii. ^^ ^^^^^^ ^ i ^ Cl..-ii. I.ha-ha ha. jl.(B) T '^p T^ ^ ^ ^ Tr-bni. -'^ ^ 5/" pizz. rtfFTT ^^ g-ar i ^w ^ Viol. Cl.328 N9 307. j=ii2. j^ Cor.^- 444 ^H . 210) N9 307.'B) Cor. (p. ^ J^ ^^ t=t* i m Cl.

'Y }\i \ { (P [^ -r fi p p p r t^ p B p . et tous tes or... 32» (Andante sostenuto. "Ivan the Terrible" (p.N? 309..dres P P Or-donnCi o se-ront sui Bassi..^< w mal - tre. yLa Pskovitaine" (p. Or-donne< o . N9 309. lie).--«..dres ~~^ •''tc.) Alti. 1^ J' ri J' ^ i^ j"-''!-! i v^i P g r mai - p tre M et toiis • ^^5 ^ P se-ront sui P tes P or.ii«).

„La Pskovitaine" Fl. Nous som . ''Ivan the Terrible" a ^i. in).mes Bassi.III.330 N? 310. nous vou. fai -bles. N9 310.Ions e - tre giii-des par ^HKl t fp s- ^ p fl J-' p I r M^-JLf .I. (pii7). (p.

. „Sadko" (p. 331 (Allegro assai. 168. J. N9 311.) Alti. "Sadko" (p. U - ne lot - te tou - te pe - ti - te na-geait.N9 aFi 311.44i). s"a-mu - sant a tra- . 44/.

) (fin).332 N? 312. N9312.' Act acte lU (the end). ''Ivan the Terrible. . „La PskovitaineV 8^« (Andante maestoso.

333 .

.

• du • I Sniegourotehka. f.soi or NOTK. ffn. p. Ces exemples sont donnes sous forme demi-sehematique. S9J. Tsar p 2*5 human voice T^ar. 301.87S. The Taari Bride. 6. ni les I . 2- ii 3. Single tutti chords. Tk* L4gt*d of the mvinble eitp of KiieA. isoles en tutti 4. Accords . p. p. Tie r*ar* Bride. La Null de Mai. J\e MoflfiglU p. TkeTmr^ Bride. p. lis ne comportent instruments de percussion a sons inddterminesi ni les voix humaineu.picc. TkeTuri Bride.Appendix. Fiaii - La 3U the cee du Fiancee du ? La cee Fian- La Fiancee du Tsar.i46. the end Snegourvlchka. f.»i6. Appendice. en rondes. 2»8 Tsar. p. 5.i$9. 1.375. p La. f.IhesediagramM mr* given in tewtikrwe: They do not inelnde perciution itutrument* of indtterminMie mmnd PJOTA.a»*- Le^ende de la ville invisible de Kitej.Fl.

207. p. . 307. La Pskovitaine p.II ff Ivan the Terrible.

La Fiancee du Tsar. city of KHesh. Sadko the ena. the end. La Nuit de Noel. Sadko. The Christmas Night. the end. p 117 de I'ouver- ture- . p. Legeude du Tsar Saltan. fl:l. fff ^hi Legend of Tsar Saltan. fin.PV The Tk» Tfar'a (he intrisibfe Bride. ff Servilia. fin. p. end ofoverturt. p. fff Snegourotckka. in Seivilia. SSI Snieproiirotrhka^ fin. the end. fin Legende de la villeimisible de Kitej. 381.

.

No. 5. 90 No. 72. Overture. 28 tNo. 63. Marriage of Figaro. Carmen. 85. No. in (Jupiter). 6. botind in half linen No. No. Freischuetz Overture E. Nutcracker Suite. 36 minor. 70. 4. Afternoon of a Faun No. 46. Dance of the Buffoons from "The n. 51. 71 The Sorcerer's Apprentice in FRANCK No. Russian Easter. 35 No. Death and Transfiguration. Scheherazade. 93 No. 2. . Bacchanale (Venusberg) from . Danse Macabre. No. Overture. 56. 209 West 57th Street. 84 92. BEETHOVEN No. 6. op. Overture WAGNER 43. op. Overture WEBER Tannhauser No. Euryanthe Overture No. 9. 9. 48. K 525 No. 54. Overtures and Preludes No. 33. Cappriccio Italien. 4. 92 No. Rhapsody STRAWINSKY* No. 60. op. op. 31 44. Meistersinyfcr Miscellaneous Na SO. 19. 78. 67. No. bound op. 36 BORODINE No. op. 2. Caucasian Sketches LISZT No. 8 (Unfinished) No. K 492 No. 68. No. Overture. 5. 4. 73. 34. No. Lohengrin No. 80 No. 49 74. String Quartet TSCHAIKOWSKY No. 5. 55. in 6. 4. Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Svmphony Symphony K SSO K C major 551 MUSSORGSKY No. Overture. Symphony No. 47. Overture. No. op. 96 (American. 36. Second Hungarian Rhapsody MENDELSSOHN No. 71. Les Preludes No. op. Serenade. 3. t These scores do not have to be turned upside down wtien rcadinp. 75. Overture. op. 89. op. in No. 8. 14. Don Juan. cm. No. 90. op. 81. 72a Prometheus. 64. 40. Mignon. No. op. 42 Coriolanus. 86. Siegfried Idyll No. 40 No. (Pathetique) 4. 2. Symphony No. op. Sympboniei complete. Cappriccio Espa'gnol. (Surprise) 2. No. 1. 79. 20. 68 (Pastorale. 88. 21 No. 57. bound in halt linen. 3. Wotans Farewell and Fire Magic No. Till Eulenspiegel. 25. 53 Siegfried's Rhine Journey No. No. op. Fantasy No. 39. No. Omphale's Spinning Wheel. Symphony No. 32. No. Inc. 58. Overture. op. Flight of the Snow-Maiden" Bumble-Bee from "Tsar BIZET No. Ride of the Valkyries No. Wedding March No. No. 24 CHABRIER No. 52. 80. op. THIS COLLECTION IS BEING CONTINUED Ka lmus Orchestra Scores. op. No. Symphony No. op. Overture. 67 No. in 6. William Tell. No. 35. Overture ST. K 492 No. Romeo & Juliet. 11. Suite No. Symphony No. 40. 23. 69. Sacre du Printemps No. 24. 18. No. op. Oberon Overture No. Prince Igor BRAHMS No. Symphonies in half linen 5. HAYDN No. 98 No. Symphony No. in 5. 64 minor.. Symphonies 1 to 9 complete. Peer Gynt Suite. Marche Slave. op. No. New York • This copy must not be sold outside of the United States. No. 3 Intermezzi ROSSINI Saltan" No. 65. Symphony No. 36 No. 49. 55 (Eroica) No. 7. 62 Epmont. op. as they are larger than usual size. 8. 86. No. 42. 45 45. 30. 125 (Choral) Leonore No. Three Orchestra pieces from Midsummer Night's Dream Overture Hebrides (Fingal's Cave). 66. F. No. Kleine Nachtrausik. op. op. No. 95 No. in (Militaire) G major major (London) major THOMAS No. 41. 95. Magic Flute. in No. Symphony No. op. 29. op. 11. No. 39. op. Petroushka DEBUSSY* No. op. No. 7. in 3 voliunes E G flat. 6 complete. No. 76. 20 op. Symphony No. 61. SAENS* No. K 620 No. 38. op. 93. Symphony D minor 1 GRIEG* No. in F E B minor. BACH No. K 543 minor. DVORAK* No. Symphony No. 37. 16. 91. op. Fire-Bird Suite No. 83. Symphony No. No. 87. 73 No. 34 No. Overture. RICHARD* tNo. Overture 1812. Acaclemic Festival Overture. op. Tristan and Isolde No. 17. No. Symphony No. 60 No. 26. 10. Symphony No. 62. 68 No. Polonaise from Boris Godunow RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF* No. 31. IS. String Quartet. 40. Tannhauser No.CATALOGUE—SUMMER. SCHUBERT STRAUSS. Carmen. 2. Don Juan. New World symphony. Symphony No. 31 No. No. 59. Overture No. 12. 94. in 1933 KALMUS MINIATURE ORCHESTRA SCORES MOZART B minor No. tNo. Rosamunde Overture op. 74 DUKAS* No. 80. 3. Polovetzjan pances. op. Espafia. D G in IPPOLITOW-IWANOW* No. 3 op. 1. Midsummer Night's Dream. 1.

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