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# CE 620 CE 620

## FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Yogesh M. Desai
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Powai, Mumbai - 400076
Instructor Yogesh M. Desai
Office Room No. 126
Civil Engineering Dept.
Phone No 7333
E-mail desai@civil.iitb.ac.in
Lectures Tuesday 14:00 15:25 Lectures Tuesday 14:00 - 15:25
(SLOT 10) Friday 14:00 - 15:25
Extra Lectures Wednesday 17:30 - 19:00
C lti H Th d 15 00 17 00 Consulting Hours Thursday 15:00 - 17:00
Introduction
Many problems in engineering and
applied science are governed by differential
or integral equations.
Due to complexities in geometry,
ti d b d diti i properties and boundary conditions in
most real-world problems, an exact
solution cannot be obtained. solution cannot be obtained.
Introduction Introduction
Finite element method is an
approximate numerical method for
solving problems of engineering and
mathematical sciences.
Useful for problems with complicated
geometries, external influences and g
properties for which analytical
solutions are not available.
OBJECTIVES / LEARNING OUTCOMES OBJECTIVES / LEARNING OUTCOMES
Understanding of different semi-analytical /
numerical methods to solve a variety of problems
Understanding of general steps of FEM
Understanding of finite element formulations
Ability to derive equations related to FEA of various1 D Ability to derive equations related to FEA of various1-D ,
2-D and 3-D problems
OBJECTIVES / LEARNING OUTCOMES OBJECTIVES / LEARNING OUTCOMES
FEM
Exposure to computer implementation of the FEM Exposure to computer implementation of the FEM
Ability to do FE analysis independently with proper
interpretation of results interpretation of results
Course Contents
Introduction Introduction
Overview of various methods to solve
integral and differential equations
5 8 Lectures
Variational Calculus
Basics of Finite Element Methods
Local and Global Finite Element Methods
Application of FEM to solve various 1-D,
2-D and 3-D Problems
12 16 Lectures
2 D and 3 D Problems
C
0
Continnum
C
1
Continnum C
1
Continnum
Convergence and Error Estimation
Iso-parametric formulation
Numerical integration
Course Contents
Concept of Sub-structuring
Conditions of Symmetry / Anti-symmetry
3 5 Lectures
Computer Implementation of FEM
Application of FEM to Time Dependent
Problems
4 6 Lectures
Problems
Partial FEM
Exposure to Hybrid FEM
Total Lectures
~ 28 28
(~ 42 Hrs)
Assessment Scheme
Assignments and Term Projects :20 %
Mid - Term Exam :30 % (as per time table)
End - Term Exam :50 % (as per time table)
Notes: (1) Bring calculator to all the lecture sessions. ( ) g
(2) 80% Attendance is required.
Brief History
It is difficult to document the exact origin of the
FEM, because the basic concepts have evolved
i d f 150 over a period of 150 or more years.
Hrennikoff [1941] Framework method for Hrennikoff [1941] Framework method for
elasticity problems
Courant [1943] - Variational form
L [1947 1953] Fl ibilit d Stiff Levy [1947, 1953] - Flexibility and Stiffness
Argyris [1955] - Energy Theorems and Structural
Analysis Analysis
Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp [1956] -
Stiffness Method
Cl h [1960] T d Fi it El t Clough [1960] - Termed Finite Elements
Brief History
In early 1960s, engineers used the method
Brief History
In early 1960s, engineers used the method
for approximate solution of problems in stress
analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and other
areas.
Th fi t b k th FEM b Zi ki i d The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and
Chung was published in 1967.
How can FEM Help ?
Can be applied to a variety of fields like
structural mechanics, aerospace engineering, structural mechanics, aerospace engineering,
geotechnical engineering, fluid mechanics,
hydraulic and water resource engineering,
mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering,
electrical and electronics engineering,
metall rgical chemical and en ironmental metallurgical, chemical and environmental
engineering, meteorology and bioengineering,
etc etc.
Easily applied to complex, irregular-shaped Easily applied to complex, irregular shaped
objects composed of several different
properties and having complex boundary
conditions and external influences.
A li bl t t d t t ( t ti ) ti Applicable to steady-state (static), time
dependent as well as characteristic value
problems problems.
Applicable to linear as well as nonlinear pp
problems.
Fi it El t M th d i A i t N i l Finite Element Method is an Approximate Numerical
Method to Solve Problems of Engineering and
Mathematical Sciences.
Any given problem reduces to
CE 620 : FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Assignment No. 1
(Due on January 15, 2013)

Q. 1 Matrices [K]
33,
[T]
35,
and {q}
51
are defined as

[K] = [K]
T
=
10 5 4
5 10 2
4 2 10
(
(

(
(

; [ T] =
3 2 1 1 0.5
0.5 1 4 0 1
0.2 0 3 2 0
(
(

(
(

{q} = { 3 0 -2 1 -4}
T

Compute matrix [M
1
] to [M
6
] appearing in the following expression

(a) [M
1
] = [K]
-1
(b) [M
2
] = 3[K]
-1
+4[K]

(c) [M
3
] = [K] [T] (d) [M
4
] =5[K]
-1
[T] {q}

(e) [M
5
] = [T]
T
[K] [T] (f) [M
6
] =
2
1
{q}
T
[T]
T
[K][T]{q}

Q. 2 Given

| |
| |
2 2
3
0
3
. Find [ ] and [ ] [ ] .
2
d a t t
a b c a dt
dt t
(
= = =
(

}

Q. 3 Given
{ } { } { } { }
1
[ ]
2
T T
q K q q f t = where
{ } { }
11 12 13 1 1
12 22 23 2 2
13 23 33 3 3
[ ] ; ;
k k k q f
K k k k q q f f
k k k q f
(

(
= = =
` `
(

(
) )

Derive equations arising from
1 2 3
0 ; 0 ; 0
q q q
t t t c c c
= = =
c c c

Q. 4 Matrix equation [K] {q} = {f} is given where

[ K] =
6 7 9 2 13
7 18 6 10 6
9 6 42 15 11
2 10 15 8 6
13 6 11 6 24
(
(

(
(
(

(
(

{q} = [ q
1
q
2
q
3
q
4
q
5
]
T
; {f} = [100 70 -50 150 -35 ]
T

Compute {q}
51
by employing Gauss elimination algorithm.