PART A

Surname Name

American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Physics
Semester 2 Unit P1 Topic 4 Topic 6 Wednesday 27 May 2012 Part A
FORMULAE
You may find the following formulae useful. wave speed = frequency × wavelength wave speed = distance covered time taken v=f×λ v= x t

Test 3 Universal Physics Waves and the Earth Energy and the Future

Time: 20 minutes

electrical power = current × potential difference cost of electricity = power × time × cost of 1 kilowatt-hour power = energy used time taken (useful energy transferred by the device) × 100% (total energy supplied to the device)

P=I×V

P=

E t

efficiency =

primary voltage number of turns on primary coil = secondary voltage number of turns on secondary coil Do not forget to include units in all your answers. PART A 1

Vp Vs

=

Np Ns

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PART A *1. (a) (i) Put a cross ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. [1 mark] Here you can see a representation of a sound wave. P S

Q

R Which is correct? A B C D The wave is longitudinal and the wavelength is Q The wave is transverse and the wavelength is P The wave is longitudinal and the wavelength is R The wave is transverse and the wavelength is S (ii) Elephants communicate with sounds that have frequencies equal to 15 Hz. Explain why we call this type of sound infrasound and why can elephants often sense volcanic eruptions. [2 marks]

……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Ultrasound has many applications. (i) Write down one frequency that belongs to the ultrasound. [1 mark] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) One of the uses is scanning the womb. Explain why the mother’s belly is covered with a gel before the scan. [2 mark] ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… Gel Ultrasound transmitter & receiver

PART A

2

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PART A (iii) (iii) A boat produces an ultrasound pulse. It takes 1.6 sec for the ultrasound to be reflected from the sea bed and back to the ship.

ultrasound pulse NOT TO SCALE

shoal of fish

d

sea bed Find the depth d of the sea bed. Don’t forget the unit. Speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m/s [2 marks]

Depth of sea bed, d = ………………………… [Total for Q1 = 8 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________

PART A

3

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PART A 2. (a) (i) Put a cross ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. [1 mark] Here are two different types of waves.

Wave 1 Which is correct? A B C D P waves are like Wave 1, S waves are like Wave 2 Both P and S waves are like Wave 1 S waves are like Wave 1, P waves are like Wave 2 Both P and S waves are like Wave 2 (ii) Three seismometers A, B and C detect an earthquake. The circles denote distance from each seismometer. The distance between two circles is 50 km.

Wave 2

A B

50 km

C

The earthquake happened 100 km from A, 100 km from B and 150 km from C. Mark on the drawing the position of the epicentre. [1 mark]

PART A

4

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PART A (b) The picture below shows how the Earth’s crust is divided into separate parts.

(i)

What do we call these parts? Explain the connection between the movement of these parts and earthquakes. [2 marks]

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Explain what causes the movement of these separate parts. [2 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

PART A

5

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PART A

Earthquake epicentre A

Two types of seismic wave detected here arriving at different times

Shadow zone no waves detected here B

One type of seismic wave detected here

* (c)

The picture above shows seismic waves spreading out from the epicentre and the traces that seismometers register in different regions of the Earth. Explain why the traces are different and what this implies about the Earth’s internal structure. You can add to the diagram above. [6 marks]

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [Total for Q2 = 12 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ TOTAL FOR PART A = 20 MARKS _______________________________________________________________________________________ END TOTAL FOR PAPER = 40 MARKS PART A 6

PART B
Surname Name

American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Physics
Semester 2 Unit P1 Topic 4 Topic 6 Wednesday 27 May 2012 Part B
FORMULAE
You may find the following formulae useful. wave speed = frequency × wavelength wave speed = distance covered time taken v=f×λ v= x t

Test 3 Universal Physics Waves and the Earth Energy and the Future

Time: 20 minutes

electrical power = current × potential difference cost of electricity = power × time × cost of 1 kilowatt-hour power = energy used time taken (useful energy transferred by the device) × 100% (total energy supplied to the device)

P=I×V

P=

E t

efficiency =

Do not forget to include units in all your answers. PART B 1 Turn over

PART B 1. An experiment is arranged to model earthquakes. A brick is covered with sandpaper and placed on another piece of sandpaper. Weights are then hanged until the weight moves (meaning an earthquake takes place). brick sandpaper

weights Weights are hanged 2 g every time. The mass that moves the block is recorded for every trial. The results are given below. Trial Mass that moves the block (g) (a) 1 20 2 22 3 18 4 20 5 24 6 18 [2 marks]

Plot a bar chart of the results below in the space below.

Mass (g)

1

2

3 Trial

4

5

6

(b)

State whether earthquakes are predictable or not and explain why. [2 marks]

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [Total for Q1 = 4 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________

PART B

2

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PART B 2. (a) Put a cross ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. [1 mark] Conservation of energy in a system means A B C D (b) input energy = output energy input energy = output energy + heat input energy + heat = output energy input energy + output energy = heat Below you see the Sankey diagram of a car engine. X 900 J

35 J sound (i)

Y

chemical

The car is moving up a hill by burning fuel. Complete the energy transfer chain below. Use the words below (you may use each word once, more than once or not at all). [2 marks] elastic electrical gravitational potential kinetic light thermal

…………………………… energy

…………………………… energy, …………………………… energy & sound

………………………………… energy

(ii)

The efficiency of a modern car engine is 35 %. Find the amount of useful energy X. [2 marks]

Amount of useful energy, X = ………………………… (iii) Find how much energy turns into Y. [2 marks]

Amount of energy Y = ………………………… [Total for Q2 = 7 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ PART B 3 Turn over

PART B 3. (a) Put a cross ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. [1 mark] Look at the colour and temperatures of the four objects below. They are made of the same material and have the same size. Which emits more radiation? white 15 °C A (b) white 30 °C B black 30 °C C black 15 °C D

Scientists believe that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases. (i) Name one such greenhouse gas and explain how these gases increase the temperature. [2 marks]

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Snow reflects radiation from the Sun. The oceans absorb radiation from the Sun. Explain why a rise in Earth’s temperature will cause an even larger temperature increase. [2 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

PART B

4

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PART B * (c) Two metal plates are placed on the ground. They are made of the same metal and have an area of 1 m2. Each receives the same amount of energy per second. One plate is white, the other one is black. Their temperature is checked in regular intervals (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Figure 2

Explain why the black plate reaches a higher temperature that eventually stays constant. How does this affect the construction of hot water solar panels that we use to heat water? [4 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [Total for Q3 = 9 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ TOTAL FOR PART B = 20 MARKS _______________________________________________________________________________________ END TOTAL FOR PAPER = 40 MARKS

PART B

5

MS MARK SCHEME PART A p. 2 & 3 1. (a) (i) (ii) C [1 mark] Anyone of [1 mark] (frequency) < 20 Hz Below hearing range & (Volcanic) eruptions produce infrasound (that elephants detect) (or similar) [1 mark] Any f > 20 kHz [1 mark] Number > 20 000 without unit [1/2 mark] For number > 20 without unit, no marks Stop ultrasound being reflected from skin [1 mark] & Anyone of [1 mark] More ultrasound enters the womb More ultrasound reflected from the baby Better picture / resolution (or similar) Formula x = v × t or direct substitution x = 1500 × 1.6 [1 mark] x = 2400 m [1/2 mark] d = x / 2 = 1200 m [1/2 mark] Accept unit anywhere in the solution If unit wrong or missing [−1/2 mark]

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

MS

1

MS p. 4, 5 & 6 2. (a) (i) (ii)
A B

A [1 mark]

C

[1 mark]

Accept any mark on the drawing showing that point (b) (i) (ii) Tectonic plates [1 mark] Earthquakes take place when they slide past each other (or similar) [1 mark] Convection currents [1 mark] & Anyone of [1 mark] In the mantle Due to the hot core (or similar)

(c)

Earthquake detection At A both P & S waves At B only P waves P waves = longitudinal S waves = transverse Longitudinal / P waves cannot travel in liquids so do not go through liquid core Shows that core is liquid Waves are refracted as they move through different rocks inside the Earth So no waves are detected in shadow zones Level Marks 1 1−2 P = longitudinal S = transverse Labels mantle & liquid outer core 2 3−4 Refers to S / transverse not travelling through liquid (outer) core At A = P & S waves At B = only P waves 3 5−6 Refers to refraction of waves Change in direction due different rock structure / composition Relates to shadow zones

MS

2

MS MARK SCHEME PART B p. 2 1. (a)
30 Mass (g) 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Trial

Correct scale on y-axis [1 mark] At least 5 correct bars [1 mark] (b) Not predictable [1 mark] & Anyone of [1 mark] Internal structure of the Earth not known Impossible to measure forces between plates Friction forces between plates not known (or similar)

p. 3 2. (a) (b) A [1 mark] (i) chemical
energy

kinetic
energy,

gravitational potential
energy

thermal / heat
energy & sound

Each correct match = [1/2 mark] (ii) Formula or substitution: 35 % = 0.35 = useful / 900 [1 mark] Useful = 0.35 × 900 [1/2 mark] = 315 J [1/2 mark] Ignore absence of unit If unit wrong [−1/2 mark] Correct formula: 900 = 35 + { X / 315 }+ Y OR Y = 900 − 315 − 35 [1 mark] Correct answer: Y = 550 J [1 mark] Ignore absence of unit If unit wrong [−1/2 mark]

(iii)

MS

3

MS p. 4 & 5 3. (a) (b) C [1 mark] (i) Carbon Dioxide / Methane / Water vapour [1 mark] & Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat / radiation from the Sun [1 mark] Less shiny surfaces / More dark surfaces (as snow melts) [1 mark] Less reflection / More absorption (or similar) [1 mark]

(ii) (c)

Black is a better absorber of radiation Temperature increases As temperature increases it emits more radiation When absorbed radiation = emitted radiation => constant / balanced / steady temperature The steady temperature is higher than previous Solar panels are made black to absorb more radiation Heat water faster / Water maintained at higher temperature Level Marks 1 1 − 2 Reference to better absorption by black colour Subsequent increase in temperature Use in water heaters 2 3 − 4 Reference to balance Absorbed radiation = emitted radiation More radiation emitted as temperature increases Constant temperature is higher than before

MS

4

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