MEN Part 2 50467565

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Agenda
Day2 Module 2 o MPLS

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Module 2 MPLS

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MPLS
• MPLS——Multi-Protocol Label Switching – Multi-Protocol – Support multiple Layer-3 protocols, such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA – Label Switching – Label packets, and replace IP forwarding with label switching

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MPLS is the abbreviation of Multi-Protocol Label Switching. MP means it support more than one protocol, such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA, etc. as we know, in IP network, the routers forwarding packets by using packet’s destination IP address and looking for the IP routing table to get the next hop, while in MPLS network, we using label to forward the packets, named label switching. MPLS uses a short label of fixed length to encapsulate packets. MPLS use FEC (Forwarding Equivalent Class) to classify the forwarding packets. The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the MPLS network. later we will introduce the FEC. By adding a label to the packet at the entrance of MPLS network, the packet is forwarded by label switching, some thing like ATM Switching. And when leaving the MPLS network, the label added is removed and the label packet is restored to original protocol packet. For more details about MPLS, refer to RFC 3031 (Multi-protocol Label Switching Architecture).

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Origin: To Integrate IP with ATM

IP

MPLS

ATM

Connectionless control plane

Connectionless control plane

Connection-oriented control plane Connection-oriented forwarding plane

Connectionless forwarding plane

Connection-oriented forwarding plane

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MPLS originates from the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Before MPLS generation, IP network forwarding packets with IP routing table, by looking for the IP routing table with packet’s destination IP address and get the next hop, as each forwarded packet need to look for the IP routing table, the efficiency is low. Another packet forwarding technology is ATM, forward packet by VPI/VCI switching, a type of label switching, the efficiency is higher than IP forwarding. IP network, its control plane is connectionless, and forwarding plane also is connectionless, just hop by hop, each hop decide to choose the next hop. while ATM, its control plane is connection-oriented, if many device need to set up the connection with each other, the configuration is very heavy, and with label switching, the forwarding plane is connection-oriented, the packet forwarding path is defined before. MPLS integrates both of the two forwarding technologies. Its control plane is connectionless, easy to widen its network, and forwarding plane is connectionoriented, before data forwarding, LSP need to be set up, and is available to manager and control the setting up.

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Connection-oriented Features
S2 1 S1 S3 2 S4 2 S7 S5 2 S4 S7 1 S6 1 S8 S1 S3 VC S5 S8 S2 S6

Connectionless: packet route Path 1 = S1, S2, S6, S8 Path 2 = S1, S4, S7, S8 The data reach their destination out of order along different paths
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connection-oriented: cell switching VC = S1, S4, S7, S8 The data reach their destination in order along the same connection Fixed time delay, easy to control Connection types: PVC SVC
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As for connectionless packet forwarding, the data reach their destination out of order, because each packet choose its forwarding path independently, and usually the path will be different and the time delay of each packet also will be different, so the sending sequence and the arriving sequence will be different. While the connection-oriented packet switching, the forwarding path is fixed and then time delay is fixed and the sending sequence and arriving sequence are the same. And it is easy to control. There have two connection type: PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) and SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit)

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Basic MPLS Concepts
LER IP

MPLS domain
LSR LER

LER

LSR

LSP
MPLS

LSR LER

• • •

LSR: Label Switch Router LER: Label Edge Router LSP: Label Switch Path

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Some basic concepts in MPLS: LSR is the basic component of the MPLS network. The network consisting of LSRs, is called an MPLS domain. The LSR located at the edge of the domain and having a neighbor not running MPLS is an edge LSR, also called Labeled Edge Router (LER). The LSR located inside the domain is called a core LSR. The core LSR can be either a router that supports MPLS or an ATM-LSR upgraded from an ATM switch. MPLS runs between LSRs in the domain, and IP runs between an LER and an router outside the domain. The LSRs along which labeled packets are transmitted form an LSP.

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Basic Working Process of MPLS

Edge LSR

Core LSR

Edge LSR

IP

IP

L1

IP

L2

IP

L3

IP

Traditional IP forwarding
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g rwardin Label fo
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Traditional IP forwarding
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The slide show the MPLS working process: 1.LDP establishes a label map for desired FECs in each LSR through the routing table generated by the traditional routing protocols like OSPF and IS-IS 2.The ingress receives a packet, determines its FEC and adds a label to the packet. This packet is called the MPLS labeled packet; 3.The Transits forward the packet according to its label and the label forwarding information base without any Layer 3 processing; 4.The egress rips off the label and continues forwarding for delivery MPLS is a tunnel technique rather than a service or application. It is a routing and forwarding platform, combining the label switched forwarding with the network layer routing. It supports multiple upper layer protocols and services, and guarantees security during the transmission of information.

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MPLS Packet Flow

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MPLS Advantages
• Replace IP header with short and fixedlength labels as forwarding basis to improve forwarding speed • Better integrate IP with ATM • Provide value-added service without prejudice to efficiency: – VPN – Traffic engineering – QOS
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MPLS technology’s original intention is used to replace IP forwarding with label switching to improve the forwarding efficiency, while with the development of router technology, software based forwarding mechanism is replaced by hardware based forwarding mechanism, the speed is higher than software based MPLS label forwarding, so it is not exact to say that MPLS improve forwarding speed now. Now the most charm of MPLS is that it can provide many value-added service such as follows: 1.MPLS VPN 2.MPLS Traffic Engineering 3.MPLS Qos

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MPLS Encapsulation Format and Label

0 Label

20 EXP

23 24 S TTL

31 32 bits

Layer 2 header

MPLS header

IP header

Data

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A label is a short, fixed length, locally significant identifier which is used to identify a FEC. The label which is put on a particular packet represents the Forwarding Equivalence Class to which that packet is assigned. Most commonly, a packet is assigned to a FEC based (completely or partially) on its network layer destination address. However, the label is never an encoding of that address. A label contains four fields: •Label: 20 bits, represents label value, and used as the pointer for forwarding. •Exp: 3 bits, reserved, used for experiments, and generally used as Class of Service (CoS). •S: 1 bit, represents label stack. The value 1 refers to the bottom layer label. Just 0 means next head is MPLS header and 1 means next header is IP header. •TTL: 8 bits, represents time to live, and has the same meaning as the TTL in the IP packet.

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A value of 0 represents the "IPv4 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv4 header. A value of 1 represents the "Router Alert Label". This label value is legal anywhere in the label stack except at the bottom. When a received packet contains this label value at the top of the label stack, it is delivered to a local software module for processing. The actual forwarding of the packet is determined by the label beneath it in the stack. However, if the packet is forwarded further, the Router Alert Label should be pushed back onto the label stack before forwarding. The use of this label is analogous to the use of the "Router Alert Option" in IP packets . Since this label cannot occur at the bottom of the stack, it is not associated with a particular network layer protocol. A value of 2 represents the "IPv6 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv6 header. A value of 3 represents the "Implicit NULL Label". This is a label that an LSR may assign and distribute, but which never actually appears in the encapsulation. When an LSR would otherwise replace the label at the top of the stack with a new label, but the new label is "Implicit NULL", the LSR will pop the stack instead of doing the replacement. Although this value may never appear in the encapsulation, it needs to be specified in the Label Distribution Protocol, so a value is reserved.

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A label space refers to the value range of labels that can be allocated to LDP peers. You can specify a label space for each interface of an LSR (per interface label space) or for the entire LSR (per platform label space). Platform-wide means the label should be unique with all the interfaces on the device; interface-specific means the label should be unique with one interface, while different interface of the device, the label value could be the same. LDP is the protocol used to distribute the label, how can we identify the type of generated label. LDP choose the < LSR ID> :< Label Space ID >, LSR ID— Globally unique value of an LSR (4 octets); Label space ID—Zero for platformwide label space (2 octets). For example, identifier 192.168.1.1:0 means platformwide, identifier 192.168.1.1:5 means interface-specific. With different encapsulation mode, MPLS based device choose different label space: •MPLS based frame mode use Platform-wide label space, such as IP, Ethernet. •MPLS based cell mode use Per-interface label space, such as ATM

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MPLS TTL Processing
Consider the entire MPLS domain as one hop
IP TTL -MPLS TTL=255

MPLS TTL --

IP TTL --

Ingress LER

LSR

Egress LER

Include IP TTL in MPLS TTL

IP TTL -MPLS TTL=IP TTL

MPLS TTL --

MPLS TTL -IP TTL=MPLS TTL

Ingress LER
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LSR

Egress LER
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The MPLS label comprises an 8-bit TTL field, which is similar to that in an IP header. TTL is also used in the trace route function. As described in RFC 3031, an LSR node needs to copy the TTL value of the IP packet or that of the upper layer label to the TTL field of the added label. When LSR forwards a labeled packet, the TTL value of the label at the top of the label stack decrements by 1. When the label is out of the label stack, the LSR copies the TTL value at the top of the stack to the IP packet or lower layer label. Before the LSP transverses the non-TTL LSP segment formed by ATM-LSRs or FR-LSRs, the TTL should be processed uniformly because the LSRs within that domain cannot process the TTL field. That is, the value of the length in this nonTTL LSP segment should be decremented by 1 on entering the segment. In MPLS VPN applications, you can hide the MPLS backbone network structure for security. The VRP supports different TTL propagation settings for VPN packets and public packets.

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Label Stack

Layer2 header

MPLS header

MPLS header

IP header

Data

• Theoretically, label stack enables limitless nesting to provide infinite service support. This is simply the greatest advantage of MPLS technology.
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Theoretically, label stack enables limitless nesting to provide infinite service support. This is simply the greatest advantage of MPLS technology. In real use, up to now there usually no more than four labels in packet. Each label use S bit to mark the bottom label. The value 1 means the bottom layer label. In layer2 header how to identify the higher layer’s protocol? In PPP there add a new type of NCP called MPLSCP, identified with 0x8281. while in Ethernet 0x8847 means unicast MPLS, 0x8848 means multicast and 0x0800 means IP packet. The label stack follow FIFO, label process from the top stack. When executing MPLS forwarding, only use the outer side label.

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MPLS Architecture
Control Plane
OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8

OSPF

OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8

LDP: 10.0.0.0/8 Label 17

LDP

LDP: 10.0.0.0/8 Label 4

Data Plane
Labeled packet Label 17

LFIB 4 17

Labeled packet Label 4

• Router functionality is divided into two major parts: control plane and data plane
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Edge-LSR Architecture

LIB

LFIB
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Basic Concepts of Label Forwarding
• FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class): Import the packets with identical characteristics into the same LSP Huawei Terms • NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry): Describe label operations – next hop – label operation types: push/pop/swap/null – Link layer encapsulation types • FTN (FEC to NHLFE): Map FEC to NHLFE (ingress operation) • ILM (Incoming Label Map): Map MPLS label to NHLFE (egress operation) Cisco Terms • LFIB – Lable Forwarding Information Base
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MPLS is a high-performance forwarding technology that takes the packets with the same forwarding mode as a class. This kind of class is called Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC). The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the MPLS network. The source address, destination address, source port, destination port, protocol type, Virtual Private Network (VPN) or any of these combinations can determine an FEC. For example, packets transmitted to the same destination through the longest matching algorithm belong to an FEC. Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE): indicates the action to be performed on a label, such as push, pop and swap. FEC to NHLFE map (FTN): indicates the mapping for an FEC to NHLFE on the ingress. Incoming Label Map (ILM): indicates the mapping process of the received label to NHLFE on the transits and egress.

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Label Forwarding
label operation: pop Label operation: push Label operation: swap Label operation: swap Parse IP header FEC bound with LSP ILM->NHLFE ILM->NHLFE FTN->NHLFE ILM->NHLFE Parse IP header distribute FEC mapped to next hop

Ingress LER

A

LSR

B

LSR

C

Egress LER

D

• • •

The traditional routing protocol and Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) serve to create routing table and label mapping table (FEC-Label mapping) in each LSR for FECs with service requirement, i.e. create LSP successfully. Ingress LER receives a packet, determines the FEC that the packet belongs to, and label the packet In MPLS domain, packets are forwarded in accordance with labels and label forwarding table via the forwarding unit Egress LER removes the label and continues forwarding the packet
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On the ingress, the packets entering the network are classified into various FECs by their characteristics. Usually, FEC classification is done based on the destination IP address prefix or host address. The packets belonging to the same FEC will have the same label and pass through the same path in the MPLS domain. LSR assigns a label for an incoming packet, and then forwards it through a specified interface. On the transits along the LSP, the mapping table of the incoming and outgoing labels is established. The element of this table is referred to as NHLFE. When a labeled packet arrives, LSR only needs to find the corresponding NHLFE from the table according to the incoming label and replace the original label with the new outgoing label, and then forward the labeled packet. This process is called ILM. Therefore, this method is much simpler, and the forwarding is faster. On the LER, it removes the label and continues forwarding the packet .

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NHLFE/LFIB
A:
NHLFE FEC 10.0.1.0/24 next hop B Transmitting interface E1 Label operation Add label L1 Others …

B:
Ingress label L1 NHLFE Next hop C
Transmitting interface

label operation
Remove the previous label and add L2

Others …

E1

C:
Ingress label L2 NHLFE Next hop D
Transmitting interface

Label operation

Others …
20

E1

Remove the previous label and add L3

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The "Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry" (NHLFE) is used when forwarding a labeled packet. It contains the following information: 1. the packet's next hop 2. the operation to perform on the packet's label stack; this is one of the following operations: a) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label b) pop the label stack c) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label, and then push one or more specified new labels onto the label stack.

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Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)
Label operation: push Label operation: swap Parse IP header FEC bound with LSP FTN->NHLFE Label operation: pop Parse IP header Distribute FEC Mapped to next hop

ILM->NHLFE

ILM->NHLFE

Ingress LER

LSR

LSR

Egress LER

The label at the outmost layer does not make any sense to the last hop. Thus, it is advisable to pop the label at the last hop but one to ease the burden of the last hop. If there is only one layer of label, the last hop will perform IP forwarding directly; otherwise, it will perform the internal label forwarding.
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In the MPLS network, LSR forwards packets according to its label. On the egress, the label is removed and the packet is forwarded as an IP packet. In some MPLS applications, the egress requires only IP forwarding. The MPLS label has no meaning for forwarding. In such conditions, you can use Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) to pop the label at the penultimate node, saving label operation on the egress. The PHP feature should be configured on the egress, depending on whether the penultimate node supports PHP. According to the description in RFC 3032 (MPLS Label Stack Encoding): Label value 0 stands for IPv4 explicit-null. This value is valid only when it appears at the bottom of label stack. It indicates that the local node must pop the label, and IP forwarding will be performed on the next node. Label value 3 stands for implicit-null. This value will not appear in the label stack. When an LSR is allocated an implicit-null label, it will not use this value to replace the original value, but perform the pop operation directly.

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Various MPLS Application and their Interaction

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Every MPLS application has the same set of components as the IP routing application: • A database defining the Forward Equivalence Classes (FECs) table for the application (the IP routing table in an IP routing application) • Control protocols that exchange the contents of the FEC table between the LSRs (IP routing protocols or static routing in an IP routing application) • Control process that performs label binding to FECs and a protocol to exchange label bindings between LSRs (TDP or LDP in an IP routing application) • Optionally, an internal database of FEC-to-label mapping (Label Information Base in an IP routing application) Each application uses its own set of protocols to exchange FEC table or FEC-tolabel mapping between nodes.

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Creating LSP
• LSP drive modes: – Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation – Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP creation – Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP creation • Signaling protocol is used to distribute labels between LSRs and establish LSP: – LDP: Label Distribution Protocol – CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP – RSVP-TE – MP-BGP – PIM
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Actually, LSP establishment refers to the process of binding FEC with the label, and then advertising this binding to the adjacent LSR on LSP. But how to drive the LSP’s creation, there have several drive modes: • • • Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP creation Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP creation

And now there have several signaling protocol can be used to distribute labels such as : • • LDP: Label Distribution Protocol CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP, When LSP establishment is issued at the Ingress, some constraint information is added to the LSP RSVP-TE: resource reservation setup protocol with traffic-engineering extensions MP-BGP:Multiprotocol-BGP PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast, Multicast routing architecture that allows the addition of IP multicast routing on existing IP networks. PIM is unicast routing protocol independent and can be operated in two modes: dense and sparse.

• •

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Control Protocols Used in Various MPLS Applications
Application FEC Table Control Protocol Used to Build FEC Table Control Protocol Used to Exchange FEC-to-Label Mapping Tag Distribution Protocol (TDP) or Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

IP routing

IP routing table

Any IP routing protocol

Multicast IP routing

Multicast routing table

PIM

PIM version 2 extensions

VPN routing

Per-VPN routing table

Most IP routing protocols between service provider and customer, Multiprotocol BGP inside the service provider network Manual interface definitions, extensions to IS-IS or OSPF

Multiprotocol BGP

Traffic engineering

MPLS tunnels definition

RSVP

MPLS Quality of Service

IP routing table

IP routing protocols

Extensions to TDP/ LDP

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Several Issues Concerning Label Distribution
Label allocation mode DoD : downstream-on-demand DU: downstream unsolicited Label control mode Ordered Independent Label retention mode Conservative retention mode : upon receiving a label, if there is no route destined for corresponding FEC, discard the label. Liberal mode: upon receiving a label, if there is no route destined for the corresponding FEC, hold the label for later use.
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In the MPLS architecture, the downstream LSR binds a label to a particular FEC, and then notifies the upstream LSR. That is to say, the label is specified by the downstream LSR, and the assigned label is distributed from downstream to upstream. There have several work mode about the label’s allocation, control and retention. Label allocation mode DoD : downstream-on-demand DU: downstream unsolicited Label control mode Ordered Independent Label hold mode Conservative retention mode Liberal mode

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Label Allocation Mode: DoD
Route trigge ri
171.68.40.0/24
Label 18 is allocated to 171.68.10.0/24 Label 20 is alloc ated to 171.68.10.0/2 的标签为 20 4

ng

171.68.10.0/24

Upstream

LSR1

LSR2

LSR3 Downstream
Requesti ng lab destined for 171.6 el 8.10.0/2 4

Requesting la bel destined for 171.68.10. 0/24

The upstream LSR sends a label request (containing FEC description information) to the downstream LSR. The downstream LSR allocates a label to this FEC and feeds back the bound label to the upstream LSR via the label mapping message.
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In DoD mode, the label is distributed in this way: the upstream sends a label request message containing FEC descriptive information to the downstream, and the downstream distributes a label for this FEC, and then sends the label mapping message with the label to the upstream. When the downstream feeds back the label mapping message depends on its label control mode. If the ordered mode is used, the message is sent back to its upstream LSR only when the downstream has received a label mapping message for the FEC from its downstream LSR. If the independent mode is used, the downstream will send a label mapping message to its upstream LSR immediately, no matter whether it has received the label mapping message for the FEC from its downstream LSR or not. Usually, the upstream LSR selects the downstream LSR according to the information in its routing table.

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Label Allocation Mode: DU
Route triggering Downstream
171.68.10 .0 /24

Upstream
171.68.40.0/24

Label 18 can be use d to reach 171.68.10.0/24

Label 20 can be used to reach 171.68.10.0/24

Once the LDP session is set up successfully, the downstream LSR will initiatively advertise the label mapping message to its upstream LSR. The upstream router will save the label in the label mapping table.

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In DU mode, the label is distributed in the following way: when an LDP session is established successfully, the downstream LSR will actively distribute label mapping messages to its upstream LSR. The upstream LSR saves the label mapping information and processes the received label mapping information according to the routing table.

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Label Control Mode: Ordered
Not until it receives a label mapping message from its downstream LSP will it send the message upstream DOD+ Ordered

Upstream

Downstream

DU+ Ordered

Upstream

Downstream

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When using LSP ordered control, an LSR may initiate the transmission of a label mapping only for a FEC for which it has a label mapping for the FEC next hop, or for which the LSR is the egress. For each FEC for which the LSR is not the egress and no mapping exists, the LSR MUST wait until a label from a downstream LSR is received before mapping the FEC and passing corresponding labels to upstream LSRs. An LSR may be an egress for some FECs and a non-egress for others. An LSR may act as an egress LSR, with respect to a particular FEC, under any of the following conditions: 1.The FEC refers to the LSR itself (including one of its directly attached interfaces). 2. The next hop router for the FEC is outside of the Label Switching Network. 3. FEC elements are reachable by crossing a routing domain boundary, such as another area for OSPF summary networks, or another autonomous system for OSPF AS externals and BGP routes Note that whether an LSR is an egress for a given FEC may change over time, depending on the state of the network and LSR configuration settings.

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Label Control Mode: Independent
It will send upstream a label mapping message immediately, without waiting for a label mapping message from its downstream LSR DOD+ independent

Upstream

Downstream

DU+ independent

Upstream

Downstream

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When using independent LSP control, each LSR may advertise label mappings to its neighbors at any time it desires. For example, when operating in independent Downstream on Demand mode, an LSR may answer requests for label mappings immediately, without waiting for a label mapping from the next hop. When operating in independent Downstream Unsolicited mode, an LSR may advertise a label mapping for a FEC to its neighbors whenever it is prepared to label-switch that FEC. A consequence of using independent mode is that an upstream label can be advertised before a downstream label is received.

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Label Retention: Conservative Retention Mode
• An LSR stores only the labels received from next-hop LSRs; all other labels are ignored. mapping
mapping label 30 LSR1 LSR2 mapping label 16 LSR3 mapping label 17 Drop LSR5 label 20 172.16.2/24 LSR4

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In Downstream Unsolicited advertisement mode, label mapping advertisements for all routes may be received from all peer LSRs. When using conservative label retention, advertised label mappings are retained only if they will be used to forward packets (i.e., if they are received from a valid next hop according to routing). If operating in Downstream on Demand mode, an LSR will request label mappings only from the next hop LSR according to routing. Since Downstream on Demand mode is primarily used when label conservation is desired (e.g., an ATM switch with limited cross connect space), it is typically used with the conservative label retention mode. The main advantage of the conservative mode is that only the labels that are required for the forwarding of data are allocated and maintained. This is particularly important in LSRs where the label space is inherently limited, such as in an ATM switch. A disadvantage of the conservative mode is that if routing changes the next hop for a given destination, a new label must be obtained from the new next hop before labeled packets can be forwarded.

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Label Retention: Liberal Retention Mode
• Every LSR stores the received label in its LIB, even when the label is not received from a next-hop LSR.
mapping label 20 172.16.2/24 LSR1 LSR2 mapping label 16 LSR3 mapping label 17
LSR4

mapping label 30

store

LSR5

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In Downstream Unsolicited advertisement mode, label mapping advertisements for all routes may be received from all LDP peers. When using liberal label retention, every label mappings received from a peer LSR is retained regardless of whether the LSR is the next hop for the advertised mapping. When operating in Downstream on Demand mode with liberal label retention, an LSR might choose to request label mappings for all known prefixes from all peer LSRs. Note, however, that Downstream on Demand mode is typically used by devices such as ATM switch-based LSRs for which the conservative approach is recommended. The main advantage of the liberal label retention mode is that reaction to routing changes can be quick because labels already exist. The main disadvantage of the liberal mode is that unneeded label mappings are distributed and maintained.

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Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

1 LER 128.89.25.4 Data

2 LSR 1

0

2 LER

4

Request for label 8

Request for label 12

LSPs can be defined explicitly for every FEC by network administrator or dynamically using LDP.

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LERs assign a label, corresponding to a LSP, to each IP datagram as it is transmitted towards the destination. Thereafter, at each corresponding hop, the and RSVP-TE forward the packet to its next hop. Two protocols for label request LDP label is used to Both LDP and RSVP-TE create LSPs by first sending label requests through the network hop-by-hop to the egress point. Ingress LER makes a request to upstream router for Label to be used.

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Label Forwarding Table
IN interface Serial0 Serial1 Serial1 Serial1 Serial2 50 51 62 52 77 IN label Prefix/MASK 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.0/24 70.1.2.0/24 20.1.2.0/24 30.1.2.0/24 OUT interface (next hop) Eth0(3.3.3.3) Eth0(3.3.3.3) Eth0(3.3.3.3) Eth1(4.4.4.4) Serial3(5.5.5.5) OUT label 80 80 52 52 3(pop)

The “in” and “out” is correspond to the label swap,not the label distribution. The in label is that I distribute to the others, I will not put it to the packet The out label is the others distribute to me, I will put it to the packet
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Look carefully about the label forwarding table, there have IN interface and IN label, OUT interface and OUT label. As for IN label, this label means that I (stand for this router) distribute to the others, the OUT label means that the other routers distribute to me, I will put it to the packet. As for some special label value such as 3, the operation is pop, the label will be removed. From this table we can view that IN label is different (if it is platform-wide), and OUT label there may have some same values, why? Perhaps one is that the label is distributed by different next hop device, they generate the labels independently, the other is the same route item such as 10.1.1.0/24 in this table, there have several different IN interface such as Serial0 and Serial1.

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MPLS Operation – Re-Cap
1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) establish reachability to destination networks 1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings. 4. Edge LSR at egress removes label and delivers packet

2. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet, performs Layer 3 valueadded services, and “labels” Network Learning Centre packets
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3. LSR switches packets using label 34 swapping

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