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Module 2

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Module 2


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• MPLS——Multi-Protocol Label Switching
– Multi-Protocol
– Support multiple Layer-3 protocols, such as
– Label Switching
– Label packets, and replace IP forwarding
with label switching

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MPLS is the abbreviation of Multi-Protocol Label Switching. MP means
it support more than one protocol, such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA, etc. as we
know, in IP network, the routers forwarding packets by using packet’s
destination IP address and looking for the IP routing table to get the next hop,
while in MPLS network, we using label to forward the packets, named label
switching. MPLS uses a short label of fixed length to encapsulate packets.
MPLS use FEC (Forwarding Equivalent Class) to classify the forwarding
packets. The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the MPLS
network. later we will introduce the FEC.

By adding a label to the packet at the entrance of MPLS network, the
packet is forwarded by label switching, some thing like ATM Switching. And
when leaving the MPLS network, the label added is removed and the label
packet is restored to original protocol packet.

For more details about MPLS, refer to RFC 3031 (Multi-protocol Label
Switching Architecture).

Origin: To Integrate IP with ATM


Connectionless Connectionless
control plane control plane Connection-oriented
control plane

Connectionless Connection-oriented Connection-oriented
forwarding plane forwarding plane forwarding plane

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MPLS originates from the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Before MPLS
generation, IP network forwarding packets with IP routing table, by looking for the
IP routing table with packet’s destination IP address and get the next hop, as each
forwarded packet need to look for the IP routing table, the efficiency is low.
Another packet forwarding technology is ATM, forward packet by VPI/VCI
switching, a type of label switching, the efficiency is higher than IP forwarding. IP
network, its control plane is connectionless, and forwarding plane also is
connectionless, just hop by hop, each hop decide to choose the next hop. while
ATM, its control plane is connection-oriented, if many device need to set up the
connection with each other, the configuration is very heavy, and with label
switching, the forwarding plane is connection-oriented, the packet forwarding path
is defined before.

MPLS integrates both of the two forwarding technologies. Its control plane is
connectionless, easy to widen its network, and forwarding plane is connection-
oriented, before data forwarding, LSP need to be set up, and is available to manager
and control the setting up.

Connection-oriented Features

S2 1 S6 S2 S6

1 1
S1 S8 S1 S3 S5 S8

S3 S5 VC
2 2

S4 2 S7 S4 S7

Connectionless: packet route connection-oriented: cell switching
z VC = S1, S4, S7, S8
z Path 1 = S1, S2, S6, S8
z The data reach their destination in
z Path 2 = S1, S4, S7, S8
order along the same connection
z The data reach their destination
z Fixed time delay, easy to control
out of order along different
paths z Connection types: PVC SVC
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As for connectionless packet forwarding, the data reach their destination out of
order, because each packet choose its forwarding path independently, and usually
the path will be different and the time delay of each packet also will be different, so
the sending sequence and the arriving sequence will be different. While the
connection-oriented packet switching, the forwarding path is fixed and then time
delay is fixed and the sending sequence and arriving sequence are the same. And it
is easy to control. There have two connection type: PVC (Permanent Virtual
Circuit) and SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit)

Basic MPLS Concepts
MPLS domain




• LSR: Label Switch Router
• LER: Label Edge Router
• LSP: Label Switch Path

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Some basic concepts in MPLS:

LSR is the basic component of the MPLS network. The network consisting of
LSRs, is called an MPLS domain. The LSR located at the edge of the domain and
having a neighbor not running MPLS is an edge LSR, also called Labeled Edge
Router (LER).

The LSR located inside the domain is called a core LSR. The core LSR can be
either a router that supports MPLS or an ATM-LSR upgraded from an ATM switch.
MPLS runs between LSRs in the domain, and IP runs between an LER and an router
outside the domain.

The LSRs along which labeled packets are transmitted form an LSP.

Basic Working Process of MPLS

Edge LSR Core LSR
Edge LSR


Traditional Traditional IP
IP forwarding rwardin forwarding
Label fo

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The slide show the MPLS working process:

1.LDP establishes a label map for desired FECs in each LSR through the
routing table generated by the traditional routing protocols like OSPF and

2.The ingress receives a packet, determines its FEC and adds a label to the
packet. This packet is called the MPLS labeled packet;

3.The Transits forward the packet according to its label and the label
forwarding information base without any Layer 3 processing;

4.The egress rips off the label and continues forwarding for delivery

MPLS is a tunnel technique rather than a service or application. It is a routing
and forwarding platform, combining the label switched forwarding with the
network layer routing. It supports multiple upper layer protocols and services, and
guarantees security during the transmission of information.

MPLS Packet Flow

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MPLS Advantages

• Replace IP header with short and fixed-
length labels as forwarding basis to
improve forwarding speed
• Better integrate IP with ATM
• Provide value-added service without
prejudice to efficiency:
– Traffic engineering
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MPLS technology’s original intention is used to replace IP forwarding with
label switching to improve the forwarding efficiency, while with the development of
router technology, software based forwarding mechanism is replaced by hardware
based forwarding mechanism, the speed is higher than software based MPLS label
forwarding, so it is not exact to say that MPLS improve forwarding speed now.

Now the most charm of MPLS is that it can provide many value-added service
such as follows:


2.MPLS Traffic Engineering

3.MPLS Qos

MPLS Encapsulation Format and Label

0 20 23 24 31

Label EXP S TTL 32 bits

Layer 2
MPLS header IP header Data

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A label is a short, fixed length, locally significant identifier which is used to
identify a FEC. The label which is put on a particular packet represents the
Forwarding Equivalence Class to which that packet is assigned.

Most commonly, a packet is assigned to a FEC based (completely or partially)
on its network layer destination address. However, the label is never an encoding of
that address.

A label contains four fields:

•Label: 20 bits, represents label value, and used as the pointer for

•Exp: 3 bits, reserved, used for experiments, and generally used as Class of
Service (CoS).

•S: 1 bit, represents label stack. The value 1 refers to the bottom layer label.
Just 0 means next head is MPLS header and 1 means next header is IP

•TTL: 8 bits, represents time to live, and has the same meaning as the TTL
in the IP packet.

A value of 0 represents the "IPv4 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is
only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be
popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv4 header.

A value of 1 represents the "Router Alert Label". This label value is legal
anywhere in the label stack except at the bottom. When a received packet contains
this label value at the top of the label stack, it is delivered to a local software
module for processing. The actual forwarding of the packet is determined by the
label beneath it in the stack. However, if the packet is forwarded further, the Router
Alert Label should be pushed back onto the label stack before forwarding. The use
of this label is analogous to the use of the "Router Alert Option" in IP packets .
Since this label cannot occur at the bottom of the stack, it is not associated with a
particular network layer protocol.

A value of 2 represents the "IPv6 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is
only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be
popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv6 header.

A value of 3 represents the "Implicit NULL Label". This is a label that an LSR
may assign and distribute, but which never actually appears in the encapsulation.
When an LSR would otherwise replace the label at the top of the stack with a new
label, but the new label is "Implicit NULL", the LSR will pop the stack instead of
doing the replacement. Although this value may never appear in the encapsulation,
it needs to be specified in the Label Distribution Protocol, so a value is reserved. 12
A label space refers to the value range of labels that can be allocated to LDP
peers. You can specify a label space for each interface of an LSR (per interface
label space) or for the entire LSR (per platform label space).

Platform-wide means the label should be unique with all the interfaces on the
device; interface-specific means the label should be unique with one interface,
while different interface of the device, the label value could be the same.

LDP is the protocol used to distribute the label, how can we identify the type
of generated label. LDP choose the < LSR ID> :< Label Space ID >, LSR ID—
Globally unique value of an LSR (4 octets); Label space ID—Zero for platform-
wide label space (2 octets). For example, identifier means platform-
wide, identifier means interface-specific.

With different encapsulation mode, MPLS based device choose different
label space:

•MPLS based frame mode use Platform-wide label space, such as IP,

•MPLS based cell mode use Per-interface label space, such as ATM

MPLS TTL Processing

Consider the entire MPLS domain as one hop


Ingress LER LSR Egress LER

Include IP TTL in MPLS TTL


Ingress LER LSR Egress LER
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The MPLS label comprises an 8-bit TTL field, which is similar to that in an IP
header. TTL is also used in the trace route function. As described in RFC 3031, an
LSR node needs to copy the TTL value of the IP packet or that of the upper layer
label to the TTL field of the added label. When LSR forwards a labeled packet, the
TTL value of the label at the top of the label stack decrements by 1. When the label
is out of the label stack, the LSR copies the TTL value at the top of the stack to the
IP packet or lower layer label.

Before the LSP transverses the non-TTL LSP segment formed by ATM-LSRs
or FR-LSRs, the TTL should be processed uniformly because the LSRs within that
domain cannot process the TTL field. That is, the value of the length in this non-
TTL LSP segment should be decremented by 1 on entering the segment.

In MPLS VPN applications, you can hide the MPLS backbone network
structure for security. The VRP supports different TTL propagation settings for
VPN packets and public packets.

Label Stack

header header header IP header Data

• Theoretically, label stack enables
limitless nesting to provide infinite
service support. This is simply the
greatest advantage of MPLS
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Theoretically, label stack enables limitless nesting to provide infinite service
support. This is simply the greatest advantage of MPLS technology. In real use, up
to now there usually no more than four labels in packet. Each label use S bit to mark
the bottom label. The value 1 means the bottom layer label.

In layer2 header how to identify the higher layer’s protocol? In PPP there add a
new type of NCP called MPLSCP, identified with 0x8281. while in Ethernet 0x8847
means unicast MPLS, 0x8848 means multicast and 0x0800 means IP packet.

The label stack follow FIFO, label process from the top stack. When executing
MPLS forwarding, only use the outer side label.

MPLS Architecture

Control Plane

Label 17 Label 4

Data Plane
Labeled packet LFIB Labeled packet
Label 17 4Æ17 Label 4

• Router functionality is divided into two major parts: control
plane and data plane
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Edge-LSR Architecture


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Basic Concepts of Label Forwarding
• FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class): Import the packets with
identical characteristics into the same LSP
Huawei Terms
• NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry): Describe label
– next hop
– label operation types: push/pop/swap/null
– Link layer encapsulation types
• FTN (FEC to NHLFE): Map FEC to NHLFE (ingress operation)
• ILM (Incoming Label Map): Map MPLS label to NHLFE (egress

Cisco Terms
• LFIB – Lable Forwarding Information Base
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MPLS is a high-performance forwarding technology that takes the packets with
the same forwarding mode as a class. This kind of class is called Forwarding
Equivalent Class (FEC). The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the
MPLS network. The source address, destination address, source port, destination
port, protocol type, Virtual Private Network (VPN) or any of these combinations
can determine an FEC. For example, packets transmitted to the same destination
through the longest matching algorithm belong to an FEC.

Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE): indicates the action to be
performed on a label, such as push, pop and swap.

FEC to NHLFE map (FTN): indicates the mapping for an FEC to NHLFE on
the ingress.

Incoming Label Map (ILM): indicates the mapping process of the received label
to NHLFE on the transits and egress.

Label Forwarding
label operation: pop

Label operation: push ILM->NHLFE
Parse IP header Label operation: swap Label operation: swap Parse IP header
FEC bound with LSP distribute FEC
ILM->NHLFE ILM->NHLFE mapped to next hop

Ingress LER LSR LSR Egress LER

• The traditional routing protocol and Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) serve to create routing
table and label mapping table (FEC-Label mapping) in each LSR for FECs with service
requirement, i.e. create LSP successfully.
• Ingress LER receives a packet, determines the FEC that the packet belongs to, and label the
• In MPLS domain, packets are forwarded in accordance with labels and label forwarding table via
the forwarding unit
• Egress LER removes the label and continues forwarding the packet

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On the ingress, the packets entering the network are classified into various
FECs by their characteristics. Usually, FEC classification is done based on the
destination IP address prefix or host address. The packets belonging to the same
FEC will have the same label and pass through the same path in the MPLS domain.
LSR assigns a label for an incoming packet, and then forwards it through a specified

On the transits along the LSP, the mapping table of the incoming and outgoing
labels is established. The element of this table is referred to as NHLFE. When a
labeled packet arrives, LSR only needs to find the corresponding NHLFE from the
table according to the incoming label and replace the original label with the new
outgoing label, and then forward the labeled packet. This process is called ILM.
Therefore, this method is much simpler, and the forwarding is faster.

On the LER, it removes the label and continues forwarding the packet .

FEC next hop Transmitting interface Label operation Others B E1 Add label L1 …


Ingress NHLFE
label Next hop Transmitting interface label operation Others
L1 C E1 Remove the previous label and add L2 …

Ingress NHLFE
label Next hop Transmitting interface Label operation Others
L2 D E1 Remove the previous label and add L3 …

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The "Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry" (NHLFE) is used when forwarding a
labeled packet. It contains the following information:

1. the packet's next hop

2. the operation to perform on the packet's label stack; this is one of the following

a) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label

b) pop the label stack

c) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label, and then
push one or more specified new labels onto the label stack.

Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)
Label operation: push
Label operation: swap Parse IP header
Parse IP header Label operation: pop
Distribute FEC
FEC bound with LSP
ILM->NHLFE ILM->NHLFE Mapped to next hop

Ingress LER LSR LSR Egress LER

• The label at the outmost layer does not make any sense to the last hop. Thus, it
is advisable to pop the label at the last hop but one to ease the burden of the
last hop.
• If there is only one layer of label, the last hop will perform IP forwarding directly;
otherwise, it will perform the internal label forwarding.

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In the MPLS network, LSR forwards packets according to its label. On the
egress, the label is removed and the packet is forwarded as an IP packet.

In some MPLS applications, the egress requires only IP forwarding. The MPLS
label has no meaning for forwarding. In such conditions, you can use Penultimate
Hop Popping (PHP) to pop the label at the penultimate node, saving label operation
on the egress. The PHP feature should be configured on the egress, depending on
whether the penultimate node supports PHP.

According to the description in RFC 3032 (MPLS Label Stack Encoding):

Label value 0 stands for IPv4 explicit-null. This value is valid only when it
appears at the bottom of label stack. It indicates that the local node must pop the
label, and IP forwarding will be performed on the next node. Label value 3 stands
for implicit-null. This value will not appear in the label stack. When an LSR is
allocated an implicit-null label, it will not use this value to replace the original
value, but perform the pop operation directly.

Various MPLS Application and their

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Every MPLS application has the same set of components as the IP routing

• A database defining the Forward Equivalence Classes (FECs) table for the
application (the IP routing table in an IP routing application)

• Control protocols that exchange the contents of the FEC table between the
LSRs (IP routing protocols or static routing in an IP routing application)

• Control process that performs label binding to FECs and a protocol to
exchange label bindings between LSRs (TDP or LDP in an IP routing

• Optionally, an internal database of FEC-to-label mapping (Label
Information Base in an IP routing application)

Each application uses its own set of protocols to exchange FEC table or FEC-to-
label mapping between nodes.

Creating LSP

• LSP drive modes:
– Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation
– Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP
– Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP
• Signaling protocol is used to distribute labels between LSRs and
establish LSP:
– LDP: Label Distribution Protocol
– CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP
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Actually, LSP establishment refers to the process of binding FEC with the
label, and then advertising this binding to the adjacent LSR on LSP. But how to
drive the LSP’s creation, there have several drive modes:

• Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation

• Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP creation

• Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP creation

And now there have several signaling protocol can be used to distribute
labels such as :

• LDP: Label Distribution Protocol

• CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP, When LSP establishment is issued at
the Ingress, some constraint information is added to the LSP

• RSVP-TE: resource reservation setup protocol with traffic-engineering

• MP-BGP:Multiprotocol-BGP

• PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast, Multicast routing architecture that
allows the addition of IP multicast routing on existing IP networks.
PIM is unicast routing protocol independent and can be operated in two
modes: dense and sparse. 23
Control Protocols Used in Various MPLS
Control Protocol Used to Control Protocol Used to
Application FEC Table Build FEC Table Exchange FEC-to-Label
Tag Distribution Protocol
IP routing IP routing table Any IP routing protocol (TDP) or Label Distribution
Protocol (LDP)

Multicast IP routing Multicast routing table PIM PIM version 2 extensions

Most IP routing protocols
VPN routing Per-VPN routing table between service provider Multiprotocol BGP
and customer, Multiprotocol
BGP inside the service
provider network
Manual interface
Traffic engineering MPLS tunnels definition definitions, extensions to RSVP

MPLS Quality of Service IP routing table IP routing protocols Extensions to TDP/ LDP

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Several Issues Concerning Label

z Label allocation mode
> DoD : downstream-on-demand
> DU: downstream unsolicited
z Label control mode
> Ordered
> Independent
z Label retention mode
> Conservative retention mode : upon receiving a label, if there is no
route destined for corresponding FEC, discard the label.
> Liberal mode: upon receiving a label, if there is no route destined for
the corresponding FEC, hold the label for later use.

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In the MPLS architecture, the downstream LSR binds a label to a particular
FEC, and then notifies the upstream LSR. That is to say, the label is specified by the
downstream LSR, and the assigned label is distributed from downstream to
upstream. There have several work mode about the label’s allocation, control and

Label allocation mode

DoD : downstream-on-demand

DU: downstream unsolicited

Label control mode



Label hold mode

Conservative retention mode

Liberal mode

Label Allocation Mode: DoD
Label 18 is
allocated to
Label 20 is alloc
Route trigge ated
ri ng to 17

LSR1 LSR2 LSR3 Downstream
Requesting la Requesti
bel destined ng lab
for 171.68.10.
0/24 for 171.6 el

The upstream LSR sends a label request (containing FEC description
information) to the downstream LSR.
The downstream LSR allocates a label to this FEC and feeds back the bound
label to the upstream LSR via the label mapping message.

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In DoD mode, the label is distributed in this way: the upstream sends a label
request message containing FEC descriptive information to the downstream, and the
downstream distributes a label for this FEC, and then sends the label mapping
message with the label to the upstream.

When the downstream feeds back the label mapping message depends on its
label control mode.

If the ordered mode is used, the message is sent back to its upstream LSR only
when the downstream has received a label mapping message for the FEC from its
downstream LSR.

If the independent mode is used, the downstream will send a label mapping
message to its upstream LSR immediately, no matter whether it has received the
label mapping message for the FEC from its downstream LSR or not.

Usually, the upstream LSR selects the downstream LSR according to the
information in its routing table.

Label Allocation Mode: DU

Label 18 can be use Label 20 can be used triggering
to reach to reach Downstream
Upstream 171.68.10
.0 /24

Once the LDP session is set up successfully, the downstream LSR will
initiatively advertise the label mapping message to its upstream LSR.
The upstream router will save the label in the label mapping table.

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In DU mode, the label is distributed in the following way: when an LDP
session is established successfully, the downstream LSR will actively distribute
label mapping messages to its upstream LSR. The upstream LSR saves the label
mapping information and processes the received label mapping information
according to the routing table.

Label Control Mode: Ordered
Not until it receives a label mapping message from its downstream LSP will it
send the message upstream

DOD+ Ordered

Upstream Downstream

DU+ Ordered

Upstream Downstream

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When using LSP ordered control, an LSR may initiate the transmission of a
label mapping only for a FEC for which it has a label mapping for the FEC next
hop, or for which the LSR is the egress. For each FEC for which the LSR is not the
egress and no mapping exists, the LSR MUST wait until a label from a downstream
LSR is received before mapping the FEC and passing corresponding labels to
upstream LSRs. An LSR may be an egress for some FECs and a non-egress for
others. An LSR may act as an egress LSR, with respect to a particular FEC, under
any of the following conditions:

1.The FEC refers to the LSR itself (including one of its directly attached interfaces).

2. The next hop router for the FEC is outside of the Label Switching Network.

3. FEC elements are reachable by crossing a routing domain boundary, such as
another area for OSPF summary networks, or another autonomous system for OSPF
AS externals and BGP routes

Note that whether an LSR is an egress for a given FEC may change over time,
depending on the state of the network and LSR configuration settings.

Label Control Mode: Independent

It will send upstream a label mapping message immediately, without waiting for a
label mapping message from its downstream LSR

DOD+ independent

Upstream Downstream

DU+ independent

Upstream Downstream

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When using independent LSP control, each LSR may advertise label mappings
to its neighbors at any time it desires. For example, when operating in independent
Downstream on Demand mode, an LSR may answer requests for label mappings
immediately, without waiting for a label mapping from the next hop. When
operating in independent Downstream Unsolicited mode, an LSR may advertise a
label mapping for a FEC to its neighbors whenever it is prepared to label-switch that
FEC. A consequence of using independent mode is that an upstream label can be
advertised before a downstream label is received.

Label Retention: Conservative
Retention Mode

• An LSR stores only the labels received
from next-hop LSRs; all other labels are
ignored. mapping
mapping label 20
label 30
LSR1 LSR2 label 16 LSR3 LSR4
label 17
Drop LSR5

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In Downstream Unsolicited advertisement mode, label mapping
advertisements for all routes may be received from all peer LSRs. When using
conservative label retention, advertised label mappings are retained only if they
will be used to forward packets (i.e., if they are received from a valid next hop
according to routing). If operating in Downstream on Demand mode, an LSR will
request label mappings only from the next hop LSR according to routing. Since
Downstream on Demand mode is primarily used when label conservation is desired
(e.g., an ATM switch with limited cross connect space), it is typically used with the
conservative label retention mode.

The main advantage of the conservative mode is that only the labels that are
required for the forwarding of data are allocated and maintained. This is
particularly important in LSRs where the label space is inherently limited, such as
in an ATM switch. A disadvantage of the conservative mode is that if routing
changes the next hop for a given destination, a new label must be obtained from the
new next hop before labeled packets can be forwarded.

Label Retention: Liberal Retention
• Every LSR stores the received label in its LIB, even when the label

is not received from a next-hop LSR.

mapping label 20
label 30
LSR1 LSR2 label 16 LSR3 LSR4

label 17

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In Downstream Unsolicited advertisement mode, label mapping
advertisements for all routes may be received from all LDP peers. When using
liberal label retention, every label mappings received from a peer LSR is retained
regardless of whether the LSR is the next hop for the advertised mapping. When
operating in Downstream on Demand mode with liberal label retention, an LSR
might choose to request label mappings for all known prefixes from all peer LSRs.
Note, however, that Downstream on Demand mode is typically used by devices
such as ATM switch-based LSRs for which the conservative approach is

The main advantage of the liberal label retention mode is that reaction to
routing changes can be quick because labels already exist. The main disadvantage
of the liberal mode is that unneeded label mappings are distributed and maintained.

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

1 2 0 2 4
LER LSR 1 LER Data Request for label Request for label

8 12

• LSPs can be defined explicitly for every FEC by network
administrator or dynamically using LDP.

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LERs assign a label, corresponding to a LSP, to each IP datagram as it is transmitted
towards the destination.
Thereafter, at each corresponding
hop. Two protocols hop,
for label request the and
is used to forward the packet to its next
Both LDP and RSVP-TE create LSPs
network hop-by-hop to the egress point. by first sending label requests through the
Ingress LER makes a request to upstream router for Label to be used.

Label Forwarding Table

IN interface IN label Prefix/MASK OUT interface OUT label
(next hop)
Serial0 50 Eth0( 80

Serial1 51 Eth0( 80

Serial1 62 Eth0( 52

Serial1 52 Eth1( 52

Serial2 77 Serial3( 3(pop)

z The “in” and “out” is correspond to the label swap,not the label
> The in label is that I distribute to the others, I will not put it to
the packet
> The out label is the others distribute to me, I will put it to the

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Look carefully about the label forwarding table, there have IN interface and IN
label, OUT interface and OUT label. As for IN label, this label means that I (stand
for this router) distribute to the others, the OUT label means that the other routers
distribute to me, I will put it to the packet. As for some special label value such as 3,
the operation is pop, the label will be removed.

From this table we can view that IN label is different (if it is platform-wide),
and OUT label there may have some same values, why?

Perhaps one is that the label is distributed by different next hop device, they
generate the labels independently, the other is the same route item such as in this table, there have several different IN interface such as Serial0 and

MPLS Operation – Re-Cap
1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) 4. Edge LSR at
establish reachability to destination networks egress removes
label and delivers
1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
establishes label to destination
network mappings.

2. Ingress Edge LSR receives
packet, performs Layer 3 value- 3. LSR switches
added services, and “labels” packets using label
Network Learning Centre
swapping 34
Proprietary & Confidential


Network Learning Centre 35
Proprietary & Confidential 35