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El término renovación urbana fue acuñado hacia 1950 por Miles Calean, economista estadounidense, y se refiere a la renovación de la edificación, equipamientos e infraestructuras de la ciudad, necesaria a consecuencia de su envejecimiento o para adaptarla a nuevos usos y actividades demandados. Se trata de un fenómeno complejo que puede tomar muy diferentes caminos y está relacionado con otros tipos de procesos urbanos como son la rehabilitación, el redesarrollo o la invasión sucesión. Contenido 1 Definiciones 1.1 Rehabilitación 1.2 Redesarrollo 1.3 Invasión-sucesión 1.4 Renovación urbana 2 Antecedentes 3 Actualidad 4 Bibliografía Definiciones Rehabilitación: Por rehabilitación comprendemos el incremento de la calidad de las estructuras hasta un standard prefijado por la administración o por el mercado de la vivienda (RICHARDSON). Redesarrollo: Se refiere a la demolición, reordenación y reconstrucción de toda un área. Invasión-sucesión: Es un término desarrollado ampliamente por la escuela de Chicago, se refiere a la sustitución de la población de una zona, habitualmente como consecuencia de un proceso de renovación urbana. Renovación urbana: Una definición de renovación urbana nos la da GREBLER (1965, p.13): Esfuerzo deliberado para cambiar el ambiente urbano por medio del ajuste planificado y a gran escala de las áreas urbanas existentes, a las exigencias presentes y futuras de la vivienda y el trabajo de una ciudad. Antecedentes
El derribo de murallas permitió las avenidas amplias. Las primeras operaciones de renovación urbana se dan en la temprana ciudad industrial. En el siglo XIX se acometen en casi todas las ciudades medias occidentales obras de rehabilitación y saneamiento de los barrios obreros, obras en las que juega un papel determinante el derribo de las murallas. Otras operaciones que
Además. Por lo tanto si en un área con casas bien mantenidas un propietario submantiene la suya obtendrá un rendimiento superior. entre otras cosas. . A partir de este año el ritmo de renovación se va acelerando. solo resultará rentable mantener en buen estado una vivienda si el resto de las edificaciones mantienen un buen nivel de mantenimiento. lo viene da denominarse “efecto contagio”. desalojándose y desplazándose a unas 750. Actualidad Barrió degradado. En la ciudad post-moderna las operaciones de renovación urbana van cada vez más dirigidas a la rehabilitación de barriadas estratégicamente situadas y que sufren como consecuencia de esta renovación una considerable revalorización que se convierte en el principal motor de la actuación del capital privado y público en la zona. a finales de 1965 se habían aprobado 1.se realizan son la apertura de ejes de comunicación y la construcción de ensanches que permeabilizasen las complejas tramas medievales (CAPEL. provocando también movimientos sociales.700 proyectos de renovación urbana. UU. y Gran Bretaña. H). Algunos ejemplos de renovación urbana masiva se han estudiado en EE. Por el contrario si el propietario mantiene bien el estado de la edificación en un entorno deteriorado. la construcción de nuevos edificios supone un aumento de los ingresos fiscales de la administración local. Así en el primero de estos estados. Este tipo de actuaciones a gran escala implican necesariamente la intervención de la administración pública según RICHARDSON. La renovación urbana hoy día se produce en el centro de una ciudad en desarrollo o en sus proximidades. por la calidad de la vecindad.000 personas. los rendimientos que obtendrá por este mantenimiento serán muy inferiores. El valor de una finca viene determinado. En EEUU la renovación urbana tiende a reducir el volumen de viviendas de renta baja y aumenta el de los apartamentos de renta alta. dado que en estas zonas es donde se localizan los barrios más envejecidos e inadaptados a las estructuras económicas y sociales actuales. Las subvenciones del gobierno minimizan los costes para los ayuntamientos. dado que la mejora de las estructuras y los equipamientos de una zona se trata de una empresa que requiere grandes desembolsos de capital que no serán recuperados necesariamente. (RICHARDSON) Por lo tanto. Esto nos lleva a afirmar que solo es posible la renovación urbana si el sector público asume el coste del contagio privado y sustituye el funcionamiento del mercado por una mezcla de inversiones públicas y privadas. obligando a los pobres a trasladarse a viviendas más caras (RICHARDSON).
. (1971). (1978). Economía del urbanismo. Bibliografía RICHARDSON. CAPEL.. aunque el impacto fue menor que en EEUU sobre todo gracias a una fuerte política social de vivienda que acogió a la población desalojada. Amelia Romero.. Ed.. Madrid.153.. Antoine. Teorías y Modelos..000 edificios. H. La Organización Urbana.. Instituto de Estudios de Administración Local. H. (1983).En GB entre 1955 y 1970 se demolieron 1. Barcelona. Madrid. Alianza Editorial. Madrid. (1971). CHORLEY: Richard.. Capitalismo y morfología urbana en España. Instituto de Estudios de Administración Local. RICHBAILLY. La Geografía y los Modelos Socio-Económicos.
 In the United States city planning jargon. urban renewal has increased. areas such as this have often been redeveloped with new housing. social. Castlefield is a typical inner-city location. A brownfields site is defined as "real property. or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance.Urban renewal Adaptation of existing buildings and neighbourhoods in towns and cities to meet changes in economic. in the form of new housing. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. Urban redevelopment at Canary Wharf in the Docklands. Since the early 1970s. http://encyclopedia. and environmental requirements. The traditional heavy industries." Decision-makers involved with preparing brownfields sites for productive reuse often require technical and legal assistance to fully understand the complexities of investigating and cleaning up contaminated sites. pollutant. England. London. such as a Superfund site. does not fall under the . The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution. Land that is more severely contaminated and has high concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution. England. but have been replaced by service-industry employers whose business is in sectors such as law and finance. when it became less expensive to renew than to build. and has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. were at their peak in the 19th century. Industrial production sites boomed there in the 19th century. Brownfields are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for reuse. Docklands is a typical inner-city location. A major objective is to preserve the historical and cultural character of a locality. and distribution. rather than their demolition. or contaminant. the expansion. such as warehousing. storage.farlex. and new services and facilities. but at the same time to improve the environment and meet new demands. such as rapidly increasing motor traffic. but as heavy industry declined so too did the fortunes of British inner cities. brownfield land (or simply a brownfield) is land previously used for industrial purposes or certain commercial uses. redevelopment.com/Urban+renovation Urban regeneration taking place at Castlefield in Manchester. In the late 20th century.
pesticides. a remedial strategy that uses naturally occurring microbes in soils and groundwater to expedite a cleanup. tributyltins. specifically for the production of biofuels. in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and NextEnergy.g. Research is under way to see if some brownfields can be used to grow crops. at a U. on locations with abandoned factories or commercial buildings. The United States Environmental Protection Agency selected Cuyahoga County as its first brownfield pilot project in September 1993. Also in 1992. which has the effect of removing contaminants from the soils and groundwater beneath a site. and asbestos. Locations Generally. in recent years to expedite the cleanup of brownfield sites. the term applies more generally to previously used land.S. many dry cleaning establishments or gas stations produced high levels of subsurface contaminants during prior operations.S. solvents. Innovative redevelopment strategies A number of innovative financial and remediation techniques have been used in the U. Some brownfields with heavy metal contamination have even been cleaned up through an innovative approach called phytoremediation that uses deep-rooted plants to soak up metals in soils into the plant structure as the plant grows. some environmental firms have teamed up with insurance companies to underwrite the cleanup of distressed brownfield properties and provide a guaranteed cleanup cost for a specific brownfield property. has small plots of soybean. and in-situ oxidation. canola. For example. Old maps may assist in identifying areas to be tested. For example. brownfield sites exist in a city's or town's industrial section. The term brownfields first came into use on June 28. and contribute to the economical production of biodiesel and/or ethanol fuel. Venture capital investments in brownfield-related businesses have included companies developing new cleanup technology. or other previously polluting operations. many venture capital firms looking for new businesses in which to invest have done so in brownfields.brownfield classification. After the dot-com bubble of 2000. and switchgrass growing in a former industrial dump site in Oakland County. Small brownfields also may be found in many older residential neighborhoods. In this process. and the land they occupy might sit idle for decades as a brownfield. After they reach maturity.. Innovative remedial techniques used at distressed brownfields in recent years include bioremediation. Typical contaminants found on contaminated brownfield land include hydrocarbon spillages. The environmental firm first performs an extensive investigation of the brownfield site to ensure that the guaranteed cleanup cost is reasonable and they will not wind up with any surprises. In the United Kingdom and Australia. heavy metals such as lead (e. Often. and development projects in brownfield lands. corn. congressional field hearing hosted by the Northeast Midwest Congressional Coalition. Michigan State University. paints). the plants – which now contain the heavy metal contaminants in their tissues – are removed and disposed of as hazardous waste. the first detailed policy analysis of the issue was convened by the Cuyahoga County Planning Commission. to limit land developers' exposure to environmental remediation costs and pollution lawsuits. which is a remedial strategy that uses oxygen or oxidant chemicals to enhance a cleanup. Michigan. The intent is to see if the plants can serve two purposes simultaneously: assist with phytoremediation. vapor from the soil phase is extracted from soils and treated. these strategies are used in conjunction with each other or with other remedial strategies such as soil vapor extraction. . Mothballed brownfields are properties which the owners are not willing to transfer or put to productive reuse. companies that do remediation. 1992.
the site once occupied by Carnegie Steel has been converted into a successful commercial center. offices. the largest brownfield redevelopment in the United States.000 m2) island on the western bank of the Allegheny River. In the Hazelwood (Pittsburgh) neighborhood. The Waterfront. has pioneered the use of road and rail infrastructure to support the cleanup and reuse of brownfield sites. Some brownfields are left as green spaces for recreational uses. many brownfield sites are close to important thoroughfares such as highways and rivers. a former LTV Steel mill site was transformed into Southside Works. Oregon. Some legally require that such areas are reused for housing or for new commercial use in order not to destroy further arable land. Georgia. In Seattle. their reclamation can therefore be a major asset to a city. retail. Several examples of brownfield redevelopment in Pittsburgh include the following: In Homestead. which has successfully converted numerous former steel mill sites into high-end residential. recreation and upscale housing. such properties are deed-restricted in their future usage. Pennsylvania. But one of the most well-known areas in the United States for brownfield redevelopment is Pittsburgh. In Herr's Island. a former rail stop for livestock and meatpacking were transformed into Washington's Landing.[Post-redevelopment uses A brownfield relic serves as a statue in a newly created park in Atlantic Station area of Atlanta. The redevelopment of brownfield sites is a significant part of new urbanism. a former slag dump for steel mills was turned into a $243 million residential development called Summerset at Frick Park. Pennsylvania. rusted remains of a gas factory were left in place to add character to Gas Works Park. . a former Jones and Laughlin steel mill site was transformed into a $104 million office park called Pittsburgh Technology Center. and housing. For historical reasons. a mixed-use development that includes high-end entertainment. Portland. a waterfront center for commerce. a 42-acre (170. Some state governments restrict development of brownfield sites to particular uses in order to minimize exposure to leftover contaminants on-site after the cleanup is completed. Another example is the Atlantic Station project in Atlanta. manufacturing. In the South Side neighborhood. shopping and offices. In Pittsburgh's Squirrel Hill neighborhood.
can provide technical help and some funding for assessment and cleanup of designated sites. adaptive re-use. For example. Many of the most important provisions on liability relief are contained in state codes that can differ significantly from state to state. redevelopment has become more common in the first decade of the 21st century. and as a result. case studies. the cleanup work may be delayed or stopped entirely. the cost for clean-up increases. However. Some states and localities have spent considerable money assessing the contamination on local brownfield sites. Also. They can also provide tax incentives for cleanup that is not paid for outright. such as contingent valuation. both pre. and disposal of a brownfield sites requires advanced and specialized appraisal analysis techniques. the methods of studying contaminated land have become more sophisticated and established. . as developable land grows less available in highly populated areas. The EPA. investigation and cleanup of brownfield sites is largely regulated by state environmental agencies in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). or statistical analyses. When unexpected circumstances arise. cleanup costs are fully tax-deductible in the year they are incurred. Urban Infill on vacant parcels that have no existing activity but were previously developed is also sometimes referred to as redevelopment. Normal appraisal techniques frequently fail. Many federal and state programs have been developed to help developers interested in cleaning up brownfield sites and restoring them to practical uses.Regulation In the United States. such as previously unknown underground storage tanks. surprises are sometimes encountered. In the process of cleaning contaminated brownfield sites. and appraisers must rely on more advanced techniques.and post-remediation. Redevelopment is any new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses on it such as the redevelopment of an industrial site into a mixed-use development or the redevelopment of a block of townhouses into a large apartment building. together with local and national government. many developers insist that a site be thoroughly investigated (via a Phase II Site Investigation or Remedial Investigation) prior to commencing remedial cleanup activities. the highest and best use of the brownfield site may be affected by the contamination. specifically. Additionally. to quantify the cleanup costs in an effort to move the redevelopment process forward. buried drums or buried railroad tank cars containing wastes. Valuation Acquisition. To avoid unexpected contamination and increased costs. the value should take into account residual stigma and potential for third-party liability. Barriers to redevelopment Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Many contaminated brownfield sites sit unused for decades because the cost of cleaning them to safe standards is more than the land would be worth after redevelopment.
City of New London. They then use that land to construct private shopping malls. automobile factories and dealerships. solely to allow redevelopers to put the taken land to more profitable uses and thus increase the revenue flow to the local municipality. or even below the agencies' own appraisal figures because the displaced people are often unaware of their legal rights and lack the will and the funds to mount a proper legal defense in a valuation trial. The controversy over misuse of eminent domain for redevelopment reached a climax in the wake of the U. The fundamental tools of a redevelopment agency include the authority to acquire real property. Remedial legislation has been introduced and in some cases passed. to develop and sell property without bidding and the authority and obligation to relocate persons who have interests in the property acquired by the agency. Other terms sometimes used to describe redevelopment include urban revitalization. unblighted homes. in a number of states. The Kelo decision was widely denounced by a great majority of the people and remains the subject of severe criticism. Urban redevelopment in the United States has been controversial because it forcibly displaces poor and lower middle class populations and turns over their land to wealthy redevelopers for free or for a below-market-value price. office buildings. Redevelopment projects can be small or large ranging from a single building to entire new neighborhoods or "new town in town" projects. Supreme Court's 2005 5 to 4 decision in Kelo v.S.Redevelopment also refers to state and federal statutes which give cities and counties the authority to establish redevelopment agencies and give the agencies the authority to attack problems of urban decay. the power of eminent domain. redevelopment agencies have been buying many properties in redevelopment areas for prices below their fair market value. . These cutting edge action plans needs the funding structure. allowing redevelopment takings of sound. The financing of such operations might come from borrowing from federal or state governments and selling bonds and from Tax Increment Financing. and even gambling casinos. Controversy usually results either from the use of eminent domain. Those who do so usually recover more in compensation than what is offered by the redevelopment agencies. This is done and permitted by American courts in spite of the fact that the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. A new example of other neighborhood improvement initiatives is the funding mechanism associated with high carbon footprint air quality blight. from objections to the change in use or increases in density and intensity on the site or from disagreement on the appropriate use of tax-payer funds to pay for some element of the project. Constitution allows the use of eminent domain only for "public use. which can easily come forward through redevelopment funding. Historically. While efforts described as urban revitalization often involve redevelopment they do not always involve redevelopment as they do not always involve the demolition of any existing structures but may instead describe the rehabilitation of existing buildings or other neighborhood improvement initiatives." The residents displaced by redevelopment are routinely undercompensated. Assembly Bill AB811 is the State of California's answer to funding renewable energy and allows cities to craft their own sustainability action plans. and some (notably month-to-month tenants and business owners) are not compensated at all. Some redevelopment projects and programs have been incredibly controversial including the Urban Renewal program in the United States in the mid-twentieth century or the Urban Regeneration program in Great Britain.
evacuación del agua de lluvia y supresión de humedades. en su caso. Cuando las obras sean necesarias para adaptar las instalaciones a la normativa técnica aplicable (cuando esta hubiera entrado en vigor con posterioridad a la terminación del edificio) Cuando se trate de obras que tengan por objeto la reducción del consumo energético. gas. afectando a un conjunto de inmuebles de antigüedad superior a 15 años. La Junta de Extremadura impulsa la actuación protegida de renovación urbana con el objeto de facilitar a los ciudadanos el uso y disfrute de una vivienda digna y adecuada. • Iluminación y ventilación de espacios. • Sistemas de ahorro energético. la calificación definitiva. sin que ninguna vivienda supere. • Accesibilidad y supresión de las barreras arquitectónicas. renovación y mejora de ascensores y sus condiciones de seguridad. • Condiciones de salubridad. telefonía y saneamiento.000 habitantes. • Estanqueidad frente a la lluvia. • Instalación. con el fin de aproximar la Administración al ciudadano y hacer llegar a todos los rincones de la geografía extremeña la información acerca de las actuaciones protegidas y de las ayudas previstas. la Junta de Extremadura ha diseñado una red de oficinas comarcales y de Áreas de Rehabilitación Integral (ARIS). Los promotores individuales para uso propio que hubieran obtenido en los diez años inmediatamente anteriores ayudas en materia de rehabilitación. La remodelación del número y/o superficie de las viviendas de un edificio. tenga por objeto el tratamiento de espacios exteriores. electricidad. así como al porcentaje y al importe de las ayudas. 120 metros cuadrados de superficie útil. Teniendo en cuenta que en nuestra Comunidad Autónoma un amplio sector de población vive en municipios de menos de 10. Las actuaciones protegidas en materia de renovación urbana se caracterizan porque se parte de un presupuesto protegido y existe una serie de limitaciones que afectan a este. el tratamiento de fachada y/o la ejecución de las obras que seguidamente se relacionan: • Estabilidad y seguridad estructural y constructiva. a la vista de la obra de rehabilitación efectuada se dictará resolución reconociendo las ayudas procedentes. Es importante no olvidar que las obras no podrán comenzar antes de que el técnico de la oficina efectúe la visita previa de la vivienda. No será exigible antigüedad alguna del edificio en los siguientes casos: Si se trata de obras de adecuación funcional de los mismos que tengan por finalidad suprimir barreras arquitectónicas a las personas con discapacidad. • Adecuación de las redes generales de agua. Por último. El procedimiento de ayudas en materia de renovación urbana se inicia mediante solicitud de calificación provisional (que se puede presentar en la correspondiente oficina comarcal u oficina de ARI). no podrán solicitarlas . La rehabilitación obtendrá. diseminadas por toda el territorio autonómico.Se considera renovación urbana aquella actuación protegida que. la calificación provisional de actuación protegida y una vez finalizadas las obras y previa inspección de las mismas. en caso de ampliación.
Límite cuantitativo de las ayudas autonómicas y estatales Actuación protegida Límite Renovación urbana 6. por el 70% del precio básico a nivel nacional. Límite autonómico del presupuesto protegido Las ayudas autonómicas se hallan partiendo del presupuesto protegido. podrá computarse a efectos de calculo del presupuesto protegido en materia de rehabilitación. el precio de adquisición del edificio. que tendrá como límite máximo el resultado de multiplicar los siguientes conceptos: El 70% del Precio Básico Nacional. en su caso. Si el presupuesto protegido excediera de este límite.000 € x vda En la actuación protegida de renovación urbana. que será el resultante de multiplicar el precio máximo de venta por metro cuadrado de superficie útil en el área de referencia de una vivienda de Régimen General por la superficie de la fachada y por 0. No obstante lo anterior. honorarios facultativos y de gestión y tributos satisfechos por razón de las actuaciones. con carácter general. conforme a la normativa estatal de financiación pública en materia de vivienda que resulte aplicable. según la normativa estatal de financiación pública en materia de vivienda. a efectos del cálculo de las ayudas autonómicas.000 x vda. el cálculo del presupuesto protegido debe realizarse respetando las limitaciones existentes en la normativa estatal y autonómica. al tiempo de la solicitud La superficie máxima que. . por metro cuadrado de superficie útil. así como. este presupuesto máximo protegido. Se exceptúa de dicha limitación los interesados que puedan acogerse al Programa de rehabilitación para personas mayores. Si el importe total de subvenciones estatales y autonómicas superara este límite porcentual. Presupuesto protegido El presupuesto protegido abarca el coste real de la actuación: precio total del contrato de ejecución de obra. Programa de rehabilitación para personas mayores 9. las subvenciones autonómicas se reducirán en el exceso.nuevamente salvo que el importe total de ayudas a percibir no exceda de los límites establecidos. se tendrá en cuenta. se establece un límite máximo de subvención para tratamiento de fachada.01. que tendrá como límite máximo el resultado de multiplicar la superficie computable. Límite porcentual de las ayudas estatales y autonómicas El importe total de subvenciones estatales y autonómicas no puede exceder del 40% del presupuesto protegido. Límite estatal del presupuesto protegido Las ayudas estatales se hallan partiendo del presupuesto protegido.
. Los límites cuantitativos no se aplican a las actuaciones protegidas en materia de accesibilidad.Si el importe total de las ayudas superara este límite máximo cuantitativo. las subvenciones autonómicas se reducirán en el exceso.
can include removing an unused or potentially contaminated site. which. Brownfield: An industrial or commercial property that remains abandoned or underutilized in part because of environmental contamination or the fear of such contamination. Contractor-Certified Cleanups: Cleanups where the state allows private contractors to make cleanup decisions on behalf of the state. Boilerplate: Standard language that businesses routinely include in contracts. Once the property has been condemned. Deed Restriction: A limitation on the use of a property that is recorded on the deed to the property. that typically states that a site complies with the program's requirements. the government entity can destroy any buildings and offer the site for private redevelopment. a certificate provides liability protection but in most states liability relief must be obtained through another mechanism such as a covenant not to sue. Comfort Letter: A letter issued through a state voluntary cleanup program. Corrective Action: The cleanup process used to address contamination at treatment. brownfield revitalization. and that no future enforcement action is expected unless conditions or uses of the site change. but who may enforce the limitation depends on state law. Abandonment: A halt to the use of a property by the owner without the intention of either transferring the rights to the property or resuming use. Covenant Not to Sue: A written promise by a state government that it will not take legal action or require additional cleanup by a party that satisfactorily cleans up a property under a state brownfield or voluntary cleanup program. Contribution Action: A legal proceeding brought by a party that has incurred cleanup costs against other liable parties for their share of the costs incurred. Only a small number of states use certified contrators. Community Development Corporations (CDCs): Local non-profit organizations created to promote urban redevelopment. and disposal facilities regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Condemnation: A legal process that allows a government entity to acquire title to property for a public purpose. (Government definitions of the term may vary depending on the program. or representations by the property owner about the conditions of the property. and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund): A federal statute that governs the investigation and cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. The other party to the agreement can sometimes negotiate to change or remove such provisions.Glossary of Brownfields Terms To use this glossary. The Comprehensive Environmental Response. The letter typically does not provide legally enforceable rights such as relief from liability. Cleanup Approval Letter: A written verification from a state voluntary cleanup or brownfield program that a site has been cleaned up in a manner satisfactory to the state. is clean enough for the intended use. in the case of brownfields. Contractor Certification: A process for assuring that contractors meet state standards and have state approval for performing specific tasks. In some states. storage. either use the scroll bar to the right or click on an underlined (hyperlinked) letter to jump directly to the term of your choice. The limitations on use are legally enforceable against the owner of the property. "As is" Sale: The transfer of a property to a buyer with no promises.) Certificate of Completion: A written verification from a state voluntary cleanup or brownfield program that a site has been cleaned up in a manner satisfactory to the state. assurances. in some cases. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG): A lump-sum grant to a state or local government from the Department of Housing and Urban Development that may be used for development activities including. Compensation. . including no-further-action (NFA) letters. The law establishes a trust fund that can be used by the government to clean up sites on the National Priorities List.
Natural Resource Damages: Injuries caused to natural resources such as streams. An assessment can be informal or formal. This is required in order for a purchaser to qualify for federal liability protection as an innocent purchaser. and wetlands by contamination from a site.. Releases vary in scope and form. of contamination on a property. Examples include: fences. pavement. 5 parts of lead per million parts of soil) that describes the maximum concentration of the contaminant in the medium that will not present an unacceptable risk to the health of humans engaging in any activity other than residential or those other activities considered to be substantially similar to residential. For example. and clay caps placed on contaminated soil. warning signs and notices. National Priorities List (NPL): The Environmental Protection Agency's list of the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites. utility lines. and landscaping. The government can in some cases compel parties responsible for the injuries to pay damages. an insurance company agrees to accept the risk of the owner being held liable under state or federal laws for cleanup costs or damages above a specified amount. and other public amenities that support property use. No-Further-Action (NFA) Letter: A written statement by a state government that it has no present intention to take legal action or require additional cleanup by a party that satisfactorily cleans up a property under a state brownfield or voluntary cleanup program. The exaction must further a legitimate public interest. or basic study of possible contamination at a site. wildlife. Institutional Controls: Legal and administrative mechanisms designed to reduce exposure to contamination. a Phase I assessment. Environmental Insurance: Used to eliminate or reduce the financial risk of a brownfields transaction. Foreclosure: A legal action taken by a lender to take the collateral (e. Hard Costs: A term used in development projects for the amount that includes total land costs. Engineering Controls: Physical mechanisms for preventing exposure to contamination. either directly or by reimbursement. site clearance. Liability Relief or Liability Release: Protection from liability for contamination provided by a state government as an incentive for brownfield cleanups. grading and construction costs. In exchange for payment. and zoning restrictions. easements. Infill Development: Development on vacant or underused sites in a developed area. Environmental Assessment: A site evaluation or investigation conducted for purposes of determining the extent. such as the construction of sidewalks on land that will be developed. and can include covenants not to sue and some types of no-further-action letters and certificates of completion. often as part of a real estate transaction. Examples include: deed restrictions. Greenfield: A property that has not been previously developed. Infrastructure: The roads. is limited to collecting information about past and present site use and inspecting present conditions. A Phase II assessment can follow up a Phase I assessment with sampling and analysis of suspected contaminated areas of a site.g. for damages or losses incurred by a second party. and can consist of several stages.Due Diligence: Evaluation of the environmental condition of a parcel of land.g. Hot Spots: Specific areas where the level of contamination is very high. The nonresidential use standard is usually a less strict cleanup standard than the residential use . A Phase III assessment can either follow up a Phase II assessment by gathering information on the exact extent of the contamination or by preparing plans and alternatives for site cleanup. Nonresidential Use Standard: A cleanup standard. Easement: A right to use or limit the use of someone else's property. Indemnification: An agreement that provides for one party to bear the costs. if any. a property) that secures the loan and to extinguish the rights of the borrower in the collateral. Exaction: A local government may an exaction to require concessions from developers. See also Environmental Assessment. usually expressed as a numerical ratio of parts of a specific contaminant to parts of the medium of concern (e.
Running With the Land: An obligation or right that attaches to a property and passes to the new owner after the land is sold. transportation. Uncertainty Premium: The amount that the buyer of a property subtracts or discounts from the purchase price to reflect the risk of unexpected environmental assessment and cleanup costs. Compensation. a restrictive covenant could prohibit commercial uses. Pro Forma: Financial projections for a real estate project. Prospective Purchaser Agreement: An agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the prospective buyer of a Superfund site that protects the prospective buyer from certain liabilities for contamination that is already on the site. Superfund: See the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Reopener Provisions: Express exceptions to liability releases or agreements that reserve the government's right to require further cleanup under certain conditions. Toxic Tort Action: A legal proceeding brought to seek damages for personal injury or property damage incurred as a result of exposure to a hazardous substance. and Liability Act (CERCLA). Potentially Responsible Party (PRP): Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response. The residential use standard is usually the strictest cleanup standard. a party potentially liable for cleanup costs at a Superfund site. Proposals may include discussion of the developer's experience and qualifications and project-specific information on market feasibility. Compensation. and Liability Act. Risk Assessment: A study or evaluation that identifies and in many cases quantifies the potential harm posed to health and the environment by contamination on a property. and discovery that contamination remaining on the site is significantly more toxic than originally believed.. treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. architecture. States may also have similar agreements as part of their voluntary cleanup or brownfields programs. Tax Credit: Incentives to invest in a development that reduce liability for taxes that otherwise would be incurred. Variance: An individual exception to a land-use restriction or other legal standard granted because of special circumstances. Residential Use Standard: A cleanup standard. . Request-for-Proposals (RFPs): A document that asks developers for a detailed proposal on development of a site. RCRA programs include the Corrective Action and Underground Storage Tank Programs. operating revenues and expenses. and a site that meets this standard can usually be used for any purpose. Tax Increment Financing (TIF): A mechanism that allows local governments to use future projected taxes to finance current infrastructure investments. For example. usually in exchange for a payment of money and other commitments by the prospective purchaser. which include an income statement and show capital costs. and a site that meets the non-residential standard is limited in its uses to nonresidential activities. 5 parts of lead per million parts of soil) that describes the maximum concentration of the contaminant in the medium that will not present an unacceptable risk to the health of humans residing on the site. Use Permit: A type of variance that authorizes an otherwise unacceptable use on a property without changing its zoning. Representations and Warranties: Statements of fact (representations) and promises (warranties) that a seller makes to a buyer in a real estate transaction. and return on investment over a period of time. These conditions typically include fraud by parties responsible for the cleanup. usually expressed as a numerical ratio of parts of a specific contaminant to parts of the medium of concern (e.standard.g. Restrictive Covenant: A specific type of deed restriction. or engaging in activities on the site that are considered to be substantially similar to residing on the site. urban design. community appropriateness. storage. and projected financial performance. discovery of previously unknown contamination. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): A federal statute that regulates the generation.
idled or underused industrial and commercial properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. state and local regulatory agencies that could impose penalties and costly cleanups. Creating good will within the community Reducing the potential need to address liabilities associated with the property in financial statements and Securities and Exchange Commission filings. in general. Brownfields could be former service stations. or less productive than it ought to be? Are concerns about environmental contamination contributing to the problem? If you answered yes to both questions.Voluntary Cleanups: Cleanups of identified contamination that are not court or agency ordered. Cleanup and redevelopment of the sites can encourage higher property values and create jobs. What are the benefits of brownfield redevelopment to property owners? In addition to providing benefits to surrounding communities. economically depressed parts of a neighborhood. Reducing the likelihood that contamination from the property will migrate off site or into the groundwater under the site. thereby limiting liability for. Many brownfields sites are in unattractive. as well as positively impact the local economy by creating a safer. Most states have voluntary cleanup programs that encourage voluntary cleanups and that may provide benefits if volunteers meet specified standards. property owners that clean up and reuse their brownfield properties may benefit directly by: • • • • • • Avoiding potential environmental enforcement actions by federal. Realizing an enhanced return from the property by making it more valuable and marketable. such as woodlands. farmlands. warehouses. Many businesses and industries prefer developing greenfields to avoid the complications involved with brownfields specifically and. others are commercial buildings with little or no environmental contamination. and long term costs of. What is a brownfield? The federal government defines brownfields as "abandoned. Receiving tax benefits for cleaning up and reusing the property. Though some brownfields are old industrial sites. blighted. How does a community benefit from brownfield redevelopment? Brownfield redevelopment can help a community in many ways. then you might own a brownfield. abandoned industrial property. cleaning up the property. . can intensify problems of urban sprawl. Extensive development of greenfields. vacant. with development in urban areas. What is a greenfield? Greenfields are areas of land that have not previously been developed. or fields that are typically on the outskirts of urban areas." Brownfields may make you think of dirty. abandoned railroads or air strips. particularly combined with underdevelopment of brownfields and other infill properties. healthier urban space to house businesses and residences. Do I own a brownfield? Ask yourself: Is my land idle. but that image is too narrow.
the cost of cleanup is likely to be much higher than if just the soil is contaminated. federal. The new insurance products vary based on the particular policy and insurer. These and other kinds of insurance are increasingly helping to encourage lenders to provide loans for contaminated properties. Not all of these organizations will be involved at every site. because the level of exposure to the contaminants will be less. insurance can be used to reduce the risk of potential liability of cleanup contractors. Insurance can also help reduce a prospective buyer's risk of potential liability for cleanup or for personal injury and property damage claims. The federal tax incentives include the Taxpayers Relief Act. What is the role of insurance in brownfields transactions? Insurance can help reduce the risk for many of the key players in a brownfield transaction. The cost to the property . and extent of contamination are key determinants. for example. rather than residential use standards. How clean is clean . which allows eligible taxpayers to deduct qualified cleanup expenses at eligible brownfields in the year they are incurred. local government agencies. Environmental Protection Agency. such as the U. The cost will also depend on the standards that apply to the cleanup. type. How much will the cleanup cost? The cost of the cleanup will vary considerably depending on many factors. particularly whether the use of the property is considered in setting cleanup levels. In addition. the cleanup will typically be less expensive. the cleanup standards may be less stringent than if the property were to be used for residential purposes. real estate professionals. For example. citizen and community groups. If a brownfield property is cleaned up to commercial use standards. The level. In addition. For example. Key players include: state environmental agencies. commercial lenders. For example. thereby facilitating cleanup and redevelopment. insurance can reduce the risk to a property owner who wants to sell a property but is concerned about potential liability for environmental contamination discovered after the sale. technical consultants.Who is involved in brownfield redevelopment? A variety of private and public sector organizations may play a role in the course of cleaning up and redeveloping brownfield sites. Many state and local governments also provide tax breaks for brownfield projects. if a property is slated for industrial use. a key factor in determining the level of cleanup is whether the use of the property is taken into account in setting cleanup standards.S. and rehabilitation income tax credits for 10% of the expenses of rehabilitating structures built before 1936. and federal government agencies. and the cleanup standards used by the specific regulatory program that governs the cleanup. amount. amount and area of contamination. investors. state economic development and planning agencies. Are there tax incentives for brownfields redevelopment? In addition to direct financial assistance. state and local tax incentives are available to property owners and developers to help reduce the costs of brownfield projects. environmental impairment insurance and secured creditor insurance.must a brownfield site be cleaned up to pristine conditions? The extent of cleanup will vary considerably depending on the type. if the groundwater under the site is contaminated. If the contaminated materials need to be transported off site for treatment that will also affect the cost. developers. legal counsel. local community development corporations. but the following general types of insurance are most commonly used in brownfield transactions: cleanup cost cap insurance.
owner of the cleanup will also be affected by whether there are other parties. that are also responsible for the contamination and can contribute to the costs. type. amount and extent of the contamination. Factors such as the time of year. A site with extensive soil and groundwater contamination that is cleaned up to residential standards is likely to take longer to clean up than a site that has only minimal contamination and will be used for industrial purposes. . or unusually bad weather can affect the duration of the cleanup. How long will the cleanup take? The length of the cleanup will vary according to the level. such as previous owners of the property. In most cases. technical consultants will be hired to perform the cleanup. as well as the cleanup standards that apply to the site. The pace of the cleanup will also be contingent in part on the consultants' schedules and levels of efficiency.
There are three main obstacles to brownfields cleanup and redevelopment: • Liability concerns of prospective property owners and developers. They are usually found in cities and inner ring suburbs. the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act signed in January 2002 gives liability protection to bona fide prospective purchasers. and provides technical assistance to states considering brownfields legislation. These owners have to prove they had no responsibility for contributing to the contamination of the property and no knowledge of the contamination prior to acquiring the property. Technical assistance may include: Testimony by NCSL staff or outside experts at legislative committee meetings. federal and local brownfields program developments. In an effort to eliminate federal Superfund liability for brownfields owners and developers and spur site cleanup and redevelopment. attracting growth that may otherwise spill out onto the urban-rural fringe. NCSL's Brownfields Project has prepared policy option reports in each of these three issue areas. • Insufficient financial incentives to make the necessary cleanup and redevelopment investments. Superfund liability provisions also applied to brownfields owners and developers. making them subject to liability even if they did not cause the pollution. In addition. This policy raised barriers to brownfields redevelopment since businesses were unwilling to invest in redeveloping sites that could result in later federal enforcement actions and additional cleanup costs and responsibilities. • Lack of specific requirements--institutional controls--that ensure sites are cleaned up to different degrees based on future use. the project tracks state legislation and state. Several states have enacted laws containing liability protection provisions. contiguous property owners and innocent landowners seeking to redevelop brownfields.Brownfields Brownfields are typically abandoned or underused commercial and industrial properties that contain some contamination that may affect their future constructive use. Bill review and drafting assistance. Once cleaned up to acceptable environmental standards--the property's future use will determine the necessary cleanup level--brownfields can become viable economic development centers. State-specific policy research. regardless of fault. Liability Protection Congress enacted the strict. joint and several liability provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) to stop the discharge of hazardous pollutants into the environment. but rural areas may also contain sites. Under that law. every past and present owner of a contaminated property is held fully responsible for all cleanup costs. Different approaches include: .
an innocent landowner that acquires the property without knowledge of contamination. Virginia--Liability protections mirror federal law and are afforded to a prospective purchaser of a brownfields property. and for purchasing environmental remediation insurance. so long as they did not cause or contribute to the violation. and a contiguous property owner that is a victim of a neighboring property’s contamination. An inculpable person is not liable for any existing contamination. Pennsylvania--Upon determination by the state regulatory agency that the appropriate cleanup standard has been attained. • Oregon's Economic and Community Development Department offers several forms of financial assistance. and allows a refund of that portion of a credit that exceeds a person's tax liability in any given year. • Massachusetts earmarked $15 million in 1998 for an insurance fund to help pay cleanup costs or guarantee private loans. and authorized a tax credit. . • Pennsylvania’s Land Recycling Program includes an Industrial Sites Cleanup Fund to assist in voluntary cleanups--grants or low-interest loans cover up to 75 percent of the cost of an environmental study and a cleanup plan.000 tax credit for each new job created at a brownfields site for companies that increase employment by 25 jobs or 20 percent within three years of beginning site remediation.000 for site remediation to 20 percent of the third $100.000 spent on cleanup. the person completing the cleanup is relieved of further liability for remediation of contamination identified in reports submitted to and approved by the state regulatory agency. Maryland--A no-further-requirements determination and certification of completion of a response action plan protects the applicant from liability for any violation of the conditions placed on the use of the property. credit enhancement agreements and tax incentives for brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.000. A job creation and tax credit program provides a $1. site redevelopment and job training costs. Examples of innovative programs include: • Colorado provides a tax credit for environmental cleanup and redevelopment projects in cities with populations larger than 10. The tax credit ranges from 50 percent of the initial $100. including credit enhancement agreements (loan portfolio insurance and loan guarantees for environmental evaluations) and a Brownfield Redevelopment Loan Fund. • New York provides tax credits for soil and groundwater cleanup. but is liable for new contamination or exacerbation of existing contamination. Financial Incentives Several states provide grants. low interest loans. Amnesty provisions make a voluntary disclosure of real or potential contamination immune from administrative or civil penalties under state law. The state also established a redevelopment fund to provide $30 million in low interest loans to private parties and grants to local governments.Indiana--A covenant-not-to-sue is issued with a certificate of completion of work plan protecting the applicant against public or private claims under state law related to a hazardous substance release covered under the completed work plan.
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