This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TYPES OF TANKS 2.1 Atmospheric Tanks 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.2 Floating Roofs Cone Roofs Dome Roof Double Wall Bolted Tanks Small Welded Tanks Large Welded Production Tanks
TABLES OF DIMENSIONS
SIZE AND CAPACITIES
PUMPING AND SIZING OF TANK
TANK GRADES AND FOUNDATION
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 14.
Illustration Table of Process Connections Process Data Notes
VESSEL CONNECTION SUMMARY
TABLE OF CONNECTIONS
PROCESS ENGINEERING FOLLOW UP
APPENDIX I -
FIGURE AND TABLES
Figure 5.1 - Cone Bottoms of API Bolted Production Tanks Figure 5.2 - Dimension of an API Small Welded Tank Figure 5.3 - Cone Bottom Types of API Small Welded Production Tank Figure 5.4 - Typical Tank Grade Figure 5.5 - Recommended Foundation For Large Tanks Supported By Soil Figure 5.6 - The Floating Roof by Minimizing Vapor Space Eliminates Filling Loss Figure 5.7 - Both Types of Hortan Floating Roofs Meet Requirements In API Standard 650 Appendix C Figure 5.8 - Roof Support Figure 5.9 - Automatic Float Gauges Figure 5.10 - Floating Roof Accessories Figure 5.11 - US Standard Gauge For Steel and Iron Sheet and Plate.
Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3
- Sizes And General Dimensions of API Bolted Prodution Tanks - Details of Bottoms, Shells, and Docks of API Bolted Production Tanks - Dimensions of an API Small Welded Tanks
Table 5.4A - Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank Table 5.4B - Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank Table 5.4C - Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank Table 5.4D - Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank Table 5.5 - Flat Bottom Storage Tank Capacities Table 5.6 - Spherical Tank Liquid Capacities Table 5.7 - Spherical Tank Gas Capacities Table 5.8 20. - Bullet Tank Capacities EXAMPLE CALCULATION
APPENDIX II -
APPENDIX III -
In the processing of petroleum, sizeable inventories of crude, semi-finished and finished hydrocarbons are required. Both atmospheric and pressure storage vessels are used. A major refinery offsite cost is represented by storage facilities and related piping, access roads, dikes, and fire and safety equipment. The major portion of oil, water and other liquids stored in refineries is contained in atmospheric storage tanks. These are normally steel vessels which operate at or only slightly above atmospheric pressure. The capacity of various storage tanks is set by processing, blending, shipping and marketing requirements, shipment/transportation periods. The design of storage facilities for feedstock, intermediate, and final product liquids is one of the responsibilities of Offsites Systems. A brief description of the types of storage tanks normally used is given in this subject, divided into atmospheric and pressure storage. A listing of tankage accessories and instrumentation commonly required follows, along with a brief decription. Finally, the subject outlines the procedure for completing a vessel sketch and corresponding vessel connection summary and a vessel load sheet, along with an example of each. 2. TYPES OF TANKS
Tanks for storing liquids as atmospheric pressure or low pressure are built in two basic styles, floating roof design where the roof floats on top of the liquid, rising and falling with level, and the cone roof design the roof is fixed. The most frequently used storage tanks are welded steel thanks fabricated in accordance with the API 650 Specification. Small tanks generally conform to API 12F specification for Small Welded Production Tanks. Other API tank specifications are for tanks which
are considered portable and are employed in producing fields. These include bolted tanks (API 12B) and prefabricated welded production tanks (API 12D). Tanks for water storage should be fabricated in accordance with the AWWA specification which takes account of the greater weight of water and the need for a corrosion allowance. The main distinguishing feature of atmospheric oil storage tanks is the type of roof employed. The two basic types of roofs are fixed and floating. The choice between types of roof should be preicated on 1) evaporation loss, 2) fire risk, 3) product contamination from atmosphere and maintenance cost resulting from corrosion. Evaporation losses vary with the type of material stored and the tank operating cycle. The two causes of evaporation losses are tank filling and breathing. Filling losses are influenced by the throughput of the plant and methods and frequency of shipping. Breathing losses are caused by variations of ambient atmospheric conditions and depend on the vapor pressure of the material and the volume of vapor space in the tank. When the stored material is subject to ready ignition, a floating roof is desirable to reduce the risk of fire. Such materials, for which the tank vapor space is usually in the explosive range, include crude petroleum, gasoline components, jet fuels, heavy naphtha and kerosines with flash points below about 80? F. 4)
Some water soluble solvents, lubricating oils and materials adversely affected by air are occasionally stored in floating-roof tanks. Alternatively, fixed-roof tanks with inert gas blankets are also used to protect air-sensitive products. Materials that can evolve corrosive vapors, such as crude petroleum and some gasoline components, often require special types of floating-roof tanks to reduce the effects of such corrosive vapors.
2. The space between the plates serves as insulation.1 Atmospheric Tanks So called because they operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure (1 ~ 2 PSIG). resting on one or more pontoons. Pontoon roof . 2. The number of pontoons required is determined by vendor.Unstable and dangerous.These consist of a deck plate supported by one or more pontoons. floating roofs.These consist of two deck plates with suitable structural support between them. Referred to as high-or low-deck pontoon roof depending upon whether the deck is above the liquid or in contact with it. The tank is equipped with "stops" to held the roof off the bottom when the tank is emptied. Proper insulation of lowtemperature atmospheric storage tanks is important. .Fluids that are vapors at ambient temperatures also can be stored in atmosperic tanks as liquids at low temperatures. There are three basic types of floating roofs: • • Pan roofs . there are rarely used. The roof is fitted with a seal to close the gap between the roof and shell and pantograph hangers (or similar mechanisms. • Double deck roofs . these tanks have a roof that literaly floats on the surface of the liquid. These tanks normally operate at low pressure (measured in inches of water) and are therefore constructed in accordance with API Standard 620.1.and dome roofs. according to their characteristic design. these tanks can be sub-divided into three smaller groups. to accomodate variations of the rim space and to center the roof in the tank.1 Floating Roofs As the name implies. A fourth category will examine the various types of "double wall" design. cone roofs. respectively.
Covered floating roofs are designed to meet Appendix H of API Std 650 for pontoom roofs. Development of early floating roofs involved many empirical relationships and confirming tests. Floating roofs for storage tanks have long been justified largely on rounds vapor losses. When either the ruptured-deck condition or sag-full condition governs.A fourth type. Normally. This strength enables them to carry a load somewhat greater than that equivalent to 10 in of rainfall over the tank area. they may be annoying and costly. pontoom and double-deck roofs meet the requirements of Appendix C of API Std 650. experience pointed out basic essentials. is just the addition of a truss supported roof over any of the above types of floating roofs. . there is increased interest in floating roofs to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. Water soluble solvents and naptha are two examples of products often stored in floating roof tanks.onto which the roof plates are placed and lap welded to each other (but not to the support beams).2 Cone Roofs These roofs are made of a series of columns and supporting beams. for economic or safety reasons. Floating roofs are used in situations where.1. 2. Most floating roof give long service and perform their function with difficulty and with minimum attention. Obviously. the governing design condition from 50 to 150 feet diameter is the rainfall condition again governs. vapor generation must be minimized or atmospheric contamination avoided. As more stress in placed on environmental protection. more refined methods of analysis were needed to justify extrapolation of design. the covered floating roof tank. pontoom roofs have reserve strength. However. but with demand for larger roofs. when problems do occur. these tanks cannot take any internal pressure.
With a flat-bottom tank some of the merchantable oil must be removed if all of the water is removed from the tank. Where no previous experience in the same area is available. (2) the cone bottom is placed up in the shell of the tank.and are therefore limited to low vapor pressure liquids. The cone bottom adds approximately 12 percent to the cost of a welded tank. is used to flush the solids to the center of the cone and drain connection. In addition. great care must be taken to adequately size breathing vents to handle all input and drainage rates that the tank may see. the bearing power of the soil is the primary factor. depending on which pattern is selected. from only the bottom of the tank. Tanks erected on poorly drained grades. or water-cut oil. are all subject to electrolytic attack on the bottom side. handled just outside the cleanout opening. soil booring to determine existing conditions are usually cheap insurance . In the latter pattern the producer may select a standard-height tank which will have less capacity than a flat-bottom tank but of necessity of slightly greater height. The cone-bottom tank can be cleaned without a man entering the tank. In selecting the proper type of foundation. A water hose. leaving a base ring or flat bottom to rest on a flat tank grade. (1) the bottom of the tank is cone-shapped and must set on a cone-shaped grade. 5.4. Proper grade preparation can also have an important bearing on bottom corrosion. leaving the merchantable oil above. Typical tank grade is shown on Fig. Corosion on the tank bottom is kept to a minimum by keeping all water removed. The cone bottom in either the bolted or the welded tank offers a means of draining and removing water. Welded tanks offer cone bottoms in two basic patterns. directly contacting corrosive soils or on heterogeneous mitures of different types of soils. It adds approximately 3 to 4 percent to the cost of most popular sizes of bolted tanks.
The purpose of the ring is to confine the soil and prevent lateral movement. deep. While this are extremes. Good drainage should be provided not only under the tank itself. The sand should be clean and free from corrosive elements.against future trouble. The grade for the tank should preferably be elevated slightly above the surrounding terrain to insure drainage. Where suitable bearing soil is not available at the surface. Knowledge of gelogical formation or experience with other heavy structures in the same vicinity will often suffice. Care should be taken to exclude clay or lumps of earth from coming into contact with the bottom. they serve to illustrate the importance of first knowing the nature of the foundation base. proper ditching around a group of tanks may help to correct the deficiency. The sand pad should be at least 4 in. this could only be accomplished at great expense.1. Where the terrain does not afford atural drainage. 2. The berm width should be at least 5 feet. We have seen a number on instances where tank sites were judged solely from surface conditions only to have the empty tank settle so seriously during construction that the water test could not be performed until the foundation was rectified. a ring wall foundation is indicated. Drainage is important both from the standpoint of soil stability and bottom corrosion.3 Dome Roof . Wastering can be minimized if the berm is subsequently protected with trap rock. but is available a reasonable distance below the surface. Frequently the difference in potential between two types of earth will set up an electrolytic cell with resultant pitting. Sufficient berm should be provided to prevent washing and weathering under the tank shall. but if such knowledge is absent. or an apshaltic flashing. but the general area should preferably be well drained. gravel. With the tanks already erected. soil borings are the safest means of investigation.
Also. This deck is not vapor tight.4 Double Wall A double wall tank is actually a tank-within-a-tank. The outer tank has a dome roof with an insulated suspended deck that fits just inside the inner tank walls. Since in a standard double wall tank the outer wall is always at ambient temperature and only maintains vapor pressure.Similar to cone roofs. Initially inert gas (nitrogen) will fill the void between the inner and outer tank but during operation product vapor will flow to the space over the suspended deck and will mix with the inert gas.0 PSIG and are therefore used extensively for storage of high vapor pressure liquids at below-ambient temperatures. approximately 1. . the outer tank would likewise fail. and the roof plates are welded to the shell. allowing the inner tank to be designed only for hydrostatic loads. Continuous inert gas purging is not required all lines pressure vacuum protection blanker gas. These tanks can operate at slight positive pressures. Therefore. relieving devices must be provided to protect the tank from overpressure upon failure of the inner tank due to the vapor generated with the cooldown of the outer tank. A further refinement of the double wall tank is the "double integrity" tank. 2. except in this case trusses extend from the shell to support the roof beams. the outer tank wall is made of the appropriate materials of construction for the liquid contained. and is designed to hold the maximum level. it is made of standard carbon steel and is not designed for the liquid temperature.0 to 2. along with any thermal shock. however. and initial purge connection should be extended through the suspended deck. In a double integrity tank. should the inner tank evelop a leak. while the outer tank maintains pressure and serves as protection for the insulation placed between the inner and outer tank walls.1. The inner tank contains the liquid product. since the variance in internal pressure necessary to operate most refrigeration packages is necessary.
2. the maximum setting of pressure-relief valves should be 3 oz. but not larger than 29 ft. per sq.1.1. the maximum setting of pressure-relief valves should be 2 oz. per sq. May. shells and decks as given in API Std. 8 5/8 in. 1958.2 gives details of bottoms. This is indicated by references in Table 5. " API Specification for Bolted Production Tanks.5 Bolted Tanks Table 5. for tanks 29 ft. 8 5/8 in. The requirements for cone bottoms. in diameter and smaller. are shown in Figure 5.per sq.in. B-4 The venting capacity of vacuum relief valves should be such that the internal vacuum will not exceed 3/4 oz. B-3 For tanks larger than 29 ft.per sq. relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 1 1/2 oz. Standard 12 B gives detailed specifications to assure interchangeability between different makes of tanks. relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 3 oz.in. 8 5/8 in.1 gives sizes and geneal dimensions and Table 5. In regard to practice for relief valves for bolted tanks the Standard gives the following recommendations.2 to certain figures in Standard 11 B. the maximum setting of pressure-relief valves should be 1 oz. 12 B." For the flat-bottom elements. per sq. per sq.in.in. at the maximum setting of the valve opening. in diameter. B-2 For tanks larger than 21 ft. . 6 in.in.per sq. relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 4 1/2 oz. in diameter. B-1 For tanks 21 ft. in diameter or smaller.in.in. Eleventh Edition.
7 Large Welded Production Tanks Table 5. or 1/4" (10. in.20 lbs. per sq.ft. ft.30 lbs. as specified.) nominal. The plate thickness of these tanks are the same as those of small welded production tanks. in. per sq.3 and Figure 5.) nominal except that the thickness of the sump of the Type A cone bottom is to be 3/8" (15. March 1961. 12 F.65 lbs. per sq.2.) nominal. 12 D/650.1. The thickness of the shell plates can be either 3/16" (7.3).6 Small Welded Tanks Table 5. fifth edition.4. The standard gives detail welding requirements.3).2 show dimensions for small welded production tanks as given in API Std. Regarding relief valves the Standard recommends the following : B-1 The maximum setting of pressure relief valves should be 16 oz. ft. B-2 The venting capacity of vacuumrelief valves should be such that the internal vacuum will not exceed 3/4 oz. .) nominal. per sq.1. "API Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks". per sq. 2.20 lbs. per sq. The bottom can be flat or the Type A cone design (Figure 5. relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 24 oz. at the maximum setting of the valve opening. The bottom of the tank is to be flat or of Type A (unskirted) or Type B (skirted) design (Figure 5. as given in API Std. The thickness of bottom plates is to be 1/4" (10. in. per sq. shows dimensions of the tanks.ft.
per sq.in.in. in. and 3 at the end of this manual subject list some approximate dimensions for flat bottom atmospheric tanks. 2. the standard recommends the following: B-1 For tanks 15 ft. 6 in. 3.in. respectively. Bullets are often used at higher pressures than spheres. 6 in.2 Pressure Storage Spherical vessels are used to store liquids at high pressure. B-2 For tanks 21 ft. common uses include the storage of butane.. per sq. the maximum setting of pressure-relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 18 oz. and 29 ft. These values are to be used only during the preliminary stages of a job. B-3 The venting capacity of vacuum relief valves should be such that the internal vacuum will not exceed 3/4 oz. spheres. per sq. This is especially important for the atmospheric storage tanks. in nominal diameter. 9 in. the maximum setting of pressure-relief valves should be 8 oz. saddle supported cylindrical vessel with the hemispherical or elliptical heads. relief valves should be of such a size that the pressure in the tank will not exceed 12 oz. at the maximum setting of the valve opening. A "bullet" storage tank is a horizontial.Regarding the relief valves. and builets. 2. ethylene and refinery stocks of similar volatility. TABLES OF DIMENSIONS Tables 1. per sq. the final dimensions are determined by the tank vendor. in nominal diameter. TANK ACCESSORIES . 4.
remote pilot operators should be added and the following capacity through the valve must be reduced accordingly.These are used to prevent overpressure/vacuum in tanks that cannot be allowed to vent freely. some considerations are: minimum boil-off. the other is open. c. so care must be taken to accurately determine the combination of situations that results in the maximum flow for both occurances. In-tank pumps . maximum liquid withdrawl rate. their discharge lines extending up through the roof. barometric pressure drop. these serve as emergency manual shut-off valves . since their use can eliminate bottom and side penetrations of the tanks. heat gain of liquid rundown and recirculating lines. Appropriate locks or seals should be added. The necessary pump data sheets should be sent to Vessel mechanical along with all necessary vessel data. along with their motor drivers. Sizing of these valves is critical. In addition. some clients may require interlocks to ensure that if one relief valve block is closed. b. For vacuum breakers. maximum rundown. Inlet piping pressure losses to relief valves on atmospheric tanks should be limited to 3% of set pressure at design flowrate.For bottom nozzles in low pressure tanks. blocked vapor outlet. so that the tank vendor can design the tank to accommodate the pump(s). A minimum of one spare relief valve and vacuum breaker shall be installed. sit on the bottom of the tank.These pumps. blocked vapor inlet. and barometric pressure rise. The relief valves shall have inlet block valves such that a relief valve can be serviced without jeopordizing the tank.The following are items that Offisites Systems might require and that can be specified as accessories to be provided by the tank vendor: a. Relief valves/vacuum breakers . If the pressure drop exceeds 3%. some of the sources that should be considered are maximum-boil-off. flashing of equilibrium fluid. low pressure tanks. For relief valves. Floor valves (also called internal tank valves) . Their primary advantage is one of safety. and roll-over due to stratification. This may be very difficult with large.
Cooldown system .For floating roof tanks. regardless of service.) should be brought into service by having their internal temperature lowered in a controlled manner. . and close automotically on high flow. h. etc.in the event of a line breaking. The high pressure drop across the spray ring nozzles results in even distributions of small diameter droplets. (For information on cooldown of LNG storage tanks. Rim vents . the vendor should supply a spray ring near the top of the tank with a line extending outside the tank to allow connecting a product source for the tank cooldown. these valves are called excees flow valves.On pontoon roofs. including amount.All open vents require weather caps or goosenecks with bug screens.Storage tanks taht will contain products at a temperature significantly below ambient (ammonia. refer to LNG Systems Manual Subject. Roof drains . The vendor should also supply a recommended "cooldown" procedure. d. e. g.These are used on floating roofs equipped with metallic seals to allow release of excess pressure due to expansion of vapor in the rim space. and temperature of cooldown liquid necessary and the time required to reach a tank temperature at which the product rundown can begin. the formation of cold and hot spots in the tank material could lead to excessive thermal stresses. Require pipe with swivel joints or flexible hose drains. pressure. yielding uniform temperature distribution. In pressure storage tanks. Flame arrestors may also be necessary. For this reason. allow air to be vented during filling and emptying when roof is resting on "stops". f. Weather caps . Care must be taken to ensure that the cooling of the tank is uniform. Automatic bleeder vents . Vessel Mechanical will specify those items that are normally required on tanks. LPG.
if product temperature must be controlled.01416 (5-1) (5-2) (5-3) Where A= Inside circumference in feet B² x D Total Capacity = (5-4) .00118115 = A² x . • Pressure detection circuit. Temperature circuits. INSTRUMENTATION The Instrumentation Division determines the type and quantity of instrumentation required throughout the plant. will probably require more than one stage) and indicators. • 6. Storage tank instrumentation is usually purchased as an accessory from the vendor. level detection circuits with low and high level alarms (usually two stages for each) and both local and remote indicators. SIZE AND CAPACITIES Following formulas are seful in estimating tank capacities when exact accuracy is not required: Capacity of cylindrical tanks in barrels of 42 gallons is : Per inch of depth Per 1/4 inch of depth Per foot of depth = A² x . with high and low alarms (again. and preferably different. Not required on vented cone roof tanks and floating roof tanks. Rules of thumb are as follows: • Two separate.5.00029529 = A² x . local and remote.
1310 .1147 .1963 .1637 .0983 .1800 . TANK STRAPPING Strapping is a procedure for measurment of tanks to provide dimensions .2127 .2454 .0817 .7.0653 . These deductions for different thicknesses of steel plates will be as follows: STEEL TANKS Gauge 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 00000 000000 0000000 Thickness Inches 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 Deduction .15307 Where : B= D= Inside diameter in feet Depth in feet The inside circumference is found by making deduction for the thickness of wall from the measured outside circumference.2290 .1473 .2617 7.
Table 5. The "working" steel tapes.3 Dimensions of an API Small Welded Tank (see Figure 2) Table 5. 8. 2501. can likely be increased to about 20 fps. The automatic bleeder vent will then be closed. Table 5. covers.4C Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank. Second Edition.4D Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank.4B Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank. If so. Pipeline velocities in large diameter tanks. Velocity may be limited to 3 fps until the roof is floating of the lower ends of the pipe supports about 1 feet above the tank bottom. the designer must consider slotted inlet pipe extensions or flared low-type inlets to limit the velocity. This is important in the case of the covered floater. Pumping rates should be reduced as the floating roof nears the top of the tank. Initially inlet pipe velocities higher than 3 fps may be used. Table 5. July 1961. Table 5. 1) depth. Field production tanks may be measured any time after they have once been filled. the tank strapping requirements. Tank strapping involves measurment of thickness of tank walls. API RP 2003 indicates that it is common practice to limit velocity of incoming liquid initially to 3 fps until a floating roof becomes buoyant. PUMPING AND SIZING OF TANK The average size of storage tanks has been increasing steadily. This could be done without causing enough turbulence beneath the roof to be of concern.4A Dimensions of an API Welded Production Tank. among others. And there is a even sharper increase in pumping rates. there has been a dramatic jump in the size of tanks being built. 2) 3) circumference and 4) deadwood. With the advent of the supertanker. API Std. used in strapping have to be calibrated against "standard" tapes. There the roof could . "Crude Oil Tank Measurement and Calibration".necessary for computing the gage tables to show the quantity of oil in a tank at any given depth.
Liquid speed of pump discharge ...Periods of ship ..... level.......... The location should provide good drainage and be on wellpacked soil..... not a fill...... API 650 or BS 2654 is used as a reference in calculating the welded steel tanks for oil storage at atmospheric pressure (+ 38 mm Aqua)< API Std 620 for low pressure (between 38 mm aqua to 15 psig)........BBLS .... Product would then be forced past the seal and through deck openings..Capacity of ship/road tanker/barge. either bolted or welded.Hrs ............. 9. with variable pressure of tank and flash point. held in place by steel bands 8 in high. To determine size of the tanks. Only about 10 second would be required to fill the rim space if the floating roof contacted the fixed roof....000 bbl/hr in a 150 feet diameter tank equipped with a covered floating roof....... crushed rock..... where the pressure of tank above 15 psig.... felt tar paper should . Figure B gives typical Standard is used as a reference in calculating the low pressure tanks. This type of grade allows no water to stand undernearth the tank and provides air circulation... the best grade is one made of small gravel. Tangent value of cone roof between 1/6 to 1/3.. if possible.fps . Consider a pumping rate of 10.Liquid speed of tank suction ..fps .be sunk if pumping is continued after the tank is full..fps .. For steel tanks...... and so ASME Code Section VIII Division I is used as a reference in calculating the pressure vessel... etc........ TANK GRADES AND FOUNDATION Selection of the proper location on the lease for storage tanks is of prime importance. designer needs to know : ..Liquid speed of pump suction . If the tank is to be set directly on the ground.. sinking the roof....Loading time Normally. The tank foundation or grade should be slightly elevated.. and some-what larger in diameter than the tank itself....
good foundations must be provided.So Hrs Where : u = Oil viscosities. If concrete is used for the grade. or if it later settles unevenly. 10. RETENTION TIME An empirical equation for estimating retention time : T=A u -------Sw . Barrels 11. In order to obtain good tanks. hours Liquid Flow Rate to be Storaged. Often the tank builder is blamed for a poor shell that should properly be charged to a poor foundation. the tank will inevitably have a distorted shell. barrels Retention Time. If the grade is not level in the beginning. STORAGE CAPACITY Q x 60 x T V = ------------42 Where : V= T= Q= Storage Capacity. gpm. it should be sligthly larger in diameter than the tank and have shallow grooves on the surface to provide air circulation.be applied to the grade first and the tank set on this. Cp Sw = Specific Gravity of Water .
This usually is a refrigeration system operating on the very rich effluent tank vapors. cone roof tanks.So = Specific Gravity of Oil A = 12. the method and rate of filling and the ratio of liquid surface area to liquid volume. If the tank is filled at the top some splashing or agitation may occur to cause excess liquid entrainment.0 Oil may be stored in a fixed roof tank of constant volume or a floating head (variable volume) tank. Some of the oil must be vaporize to maintain an equilbrium mixture. The calculation of losses involves many factors but the two equations which follow are useful approximations of the breathing loss and filling loss for fixed. One modification uses a layer of small spheres which float on the surface of the oil to from a barrier between the oil and gas.1. A floating head tank is used for most large storage volumes. A type of breathing also occurs when the tank is being emptied. The process of loss involves several mechanisms and thus use of vaporliquid theory is limited to predict said loss. Another alternative is a vapor recovery system.05 . Breathing Loss The basic equation is : . An API study committee has developed some empirical correlations for predicting oil tank losses from fixed volume tanks. If this loss is too great some alternative to a simple fixed volume tank is indicated. Air or gas must be admitted to keep the tank from collapsing. If the fixed volume tank is filled from the bottom some stripping of the liquid already there accurs as gas "breaks out" of the entering oil. LOSSES Constant which varies from 0. The latter is used to minimize breathing losses and those losses which occur by virtue of the filling method. The actual loss will depend on prior conditioning of the oil.
25 Fo Ft 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0.58 6.75 for chalking white.12 1. 1. Liquid Temperature Unit Factor KPa (g) 74 psig 14.33 1.1 for light gray.31 1.10 7.8 B = ------------. 0.25 for black.39 0.(Fo)(F p) A Where : B= D= P= A= Fp = Fo = Annual Breathing loss Tank Diameter TVP at avg.20 13. Outgate factor based on the average distance to the top flange of the tank found from the table below.73 15.63 9. Outgate m 0.53 3.5 Metric English m3 Meters API bbl Feet Paint factor = 1.68 12.87 1.(P) (D)1.72 0.00 1. no paint and tank needing repainting.23 1.0 fro aluminium.55 0. 1.05 4.15 10.43 1.62 .53 1.
The recommended equation is : PV F = ----. The basic cause of loss is the displacement of the air-vapor mixture by the incoming liquid.75 0.00 1.59 0. when storing a 65 KPa (9.(K f) A Where : P= V= F= A= True Vapor Pressure Volume of liquid in Filling Loss Conversion constant Metric kPa (g) m3 m3 22 740 3300 English psig bbl bbl The filling loss prediction is more reliable than that for The value for K f is found from the table below : Kf Tank Turnovers Per year 0 .Above equation is based on a tank being about half full on the average.60 60 -100 Refinery 1.00 1.00 1.50 . (RVP : Reid Vapor Pressure) Filling Losses.50 0.00 1. predicting breathing losses may show a 25% variation because of the many factors that cannot be accounted for in a quantitative manner.00 1.44 Fields and Terminals 1.91 0. the experience varies with the company and the location.00 0.00 1.47 0.00 0.10 12 15 20 25 30 40 40 .5 psia) RVP product. breathing loss. Unfortunately. Once again.80 0.
6 m3 per meter of diameter per bar of TVP per year.Conservation type (floating head) tanks are used to reduce losses. 0. The Pan Type floating head tank is primarily of historical interest. For filling. pontoom floating roof and double deck. Filling losses are usually negligible. the vent capacity is based on flow of a mixture of hydrocarbon vapour and air and a pressure differential equal to the weight of the roof. Accurate value of the proposed pumping rates in and out of a tank should be specified so that bleeder vents can be proearly sizes. The two other common types. 2000 is used as a reference in calculating the required vent capacity. floating roof should not be landed on their supporting legs while carrying any live load. API Std. Allowable vacuum on the roof is assumed to be equal to the specified live load. the capacity is based on the flow of air and a pressure differential equal to the specified live load. Out breathing at maximum filling rate if flash point below 100 BBLS/Hr Flash point above 100 BBLS/Hr b.8-4.6 API bbl per foot of diameter per psi of TVP year.Q = 600 SCFH for each 100?F ------.Q = 1200 SCFH for each . each has its own parricular advantages. For emptying. To estimate total losses the following rule-of-thumb may be used : 3. So. VESSEL SKETCH 100?F ------. In breathing at maximum emtying rate Q = 600 SCFH for each 100 BBLS/Hr 13.5-0. Normally. Filling an emptying venting a.
13.1 Illustration The blank upper half of the form is used to illustrate the type of storage tank and the approximate locations of the various nozzles.etc.). indicating both the letter symbol used (A. etc. care should be taken to show the connections as accurately as possible (bottom penetrations should be from bottom of tank sketch. working pressures will usually range between 0.B.3 Process Data This portion of the vessel sketch gives two very important pieces of information: the working (or normal) temperature and pressure of the tank. Bullets and spheres are determined by process requirements.5 and 1. The third column. to be sent to Vessel Mechanical. should be used to point out any pertinent information concerning that particular connection. 13.) and the service for that particular connection (top liquid inlet. steam inlet for heating coil.2 Table of Process Connections Under this heading. "w/splash plates" and/or "slug flow" for top loading of liquid and "emergency blankes" for inlet gas line. Cone and floating roof tanks should be listed as "ATM". RV connection. 13. list all the nozzle connections flagged out on the tank sketch above. Some examples would be "w/floor valves" for bottom penetration liquid inlets/outlets.). For refrigerated storage. relief valve inlet extending through suspended deck.All offsite storage tanks that do not involved liquid-gas separation or a similar process will have a vessel sketch prepared by Offsite System. The temperature listed should correspon to the highes (for ambient and heated tanks) or lowest (for refrigerated tanks) temperature possible under the worst . Height and diameter should be indicated as being determined by vendor. etc. The nozzle connection should be flagged and assigned a letter symbol.5 PSIG. REMARKS.
double wall. The line "PRESSURE DROP THROUGH INTERNALS" is left blank. the working pressure applies to the outer tank. a battery limit summary will be prepared by Offsite Systems. Certain items should be considered as mandatory: • • • • • Tank type (cone roof. LPG. A note of caution: clients will sometimes request that a tank be capable of handling more than one product (not simultaneously).4 Notes This section is used to supply additional information about the storage tank and its contents and operation. All vendor supplied accessories All special features unique to the job or service involved .) Tank capacity (cubic meters and/or barrels) Product (s) Maximum specific gravity Number of tanks required Additional pieces of information that should be included if applicable are: • • • Maximum liquid rundown to tank and maximum liquid withdrawl from tank Maximum heat leak or gain allowable (heat leak is sometimes phrased as a percentage of tank capacity allowed to boil-off).e LNG. then the flashing conditions should be specified. For double integrity tanks. etc. i.operating conditions. the working temperature applies only to the inner tank. The outer tank must also be capable of handling the thermal shock due to inner tank rupture. When the liquid rundown is superheated and it will flash when it reaches the tank. with suspended decks. the working temperature applies to both inner and outer tanks. 13. • • • In complex cryogenic storage tanks. The working temperature shown should be that corresponding to the product with the highest or lowest temperature. In the case of double wall tanks.
This does not include loss. • All vapor and liquid stream densities • If applicable. At the top of the page. spray rings. note vacuum condition • If drum any have operating liquid level. A section of notes should follow.• • Operating temperature range of other product(s) stored Simultaneous operation of top inlet and vapor outlet (there is a danger of excessive liquid carryover) 14. the drum name and equipment number. etc. note lines must enter above this level. such as knock-out drums.) 3. both in what the notes pad. For compressor knockout drums with demister use 0. will have minimum dimensions and selected nozzle locations determined by Vessel Analytical. along with the sources and destinations of all the streams. velocity head . with a minimum of the following information: • Products contained (composition(s) if available) • Operating pressure • Any special operating procedures • Operating temperature(s) • Maximum allowable pressure drop.2 PSIG. LOAD SHEET Vessels involving liquid-gas separation. The sketch should also show all major internal stuctures (demister pad. 2. Offsites System will prepare a load sheet with the following format and information: 1. The upper half of the page should contain a rough sketch of the drum with lines indicating incoming and exiting flowrates.
this would normally be during dryout and purge. Max. Bullets shall have a minimum design pressure of 100 PSIG or 100% of the maximum normal operating pressure. a. the word "maximum" should be scratched out.0 PSIG for atmospheric tanks. whichever is greater. and two temperatures shown in the space provided separated by a "/". The outer should be the lowest temperature the product will reach. Minimum flange rating . consuit with Process before deciding upon a design pressure. and checking the flange . Usually specified by Project Plan or Client. Vessel type . double integrity.This is determined by consulting the Class "M" specifications for the particular job. One should correspond to the warmest temperature the tank will see when pressurized.Normally ranges from atmospheric to 2. If not specified by Project Plan or Client. operating temperature . whichever is greater. 15. b. Spheres shall have a minimum design pressure of 110% of the maxium normal operating pressure or 10 lbs above maximum normal operating pressure. For refrigerated storage.and on the sketch. d. In the upper left hand corner. etc.Cone roof. Offsites system will also prepare a Vessel Connection Summary based on the vessel sketch received from Vessel Analytical. c. VESSEL CONNECTION SUMMARY This from gives detailed information about the nozzle connections indicated on the corresponding vessel sketch. This should correspond to the highest temperature that the product is expected to attain.Important. Design pressure . there are four lines of information necessary.
relief valves. 1977. 4. and vacuum breakers. this should be noted also. note the rating and facing as dictated for that line spec in the Class "M" specifications. If the connection is welded. TABLE OF CONNECTIONS Each connection shall be listed in the table. If the connection is flanged.g. 1988. 8 1988. 2.ratings for all pipe specs that will flange up to the tank. Kellogg Standard 4-63). PROCESS ENGINEERING "FOLLOW-UP" The responsibility of the Process Engineer with regards to the design of storage tanks does not end with the issue of the vessel sketches and connection summaries. REFERENCES "Bolted Tanks For Storage of Production Liquids" 12 th edition. "Welded Steel Tanks For Oil Storage. 1977. th 1. If drum may be placed in vacuum condition. 6. . 3. battery limit summaries. 16. 7 th edition. etc. 1985. API 12 D API 12 F API 650 API 620 "Field Welded Tanks For Storage of production Liquids"' 8 th edition. API 12 B edition. 17. "Recommended Rules For Design And Construction of Large. remarks should correspond to those given on the appropriate vessel sketch. the symbol designating the letter used to flag out that particular nozzle on the vessel sketch. He should also check relative nozzle locations for possible operating conflicts (e. 5.) 18. API Std 2501 "Crude Oil Tank Measurement And Calibration". "Small Welded Production Tank". He should work closely with vessel mechanical to confirm the accuracy and adequacy of vendor calculations of heat leaks and gain. note the schedule and style (Ref. vapor outlet adjacent to top liquid fill) and effect on previous hydraulic calculations (pump calcs. 10 th edition.
Lightning. Juli 1961. 7. and Stray Currents. 4 th edition. 1982. .Second Edition. API RP 2003 "Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out Of Static.
APPENDIX I FIGURES AND TABLES .
Cone Bottoms of API bolted production tanks ( API Fig.Figure 5.I) .1.
Dimension of an API small welded tank.1) .Figure 5. (From API Fig.2.
2 and 3) .Figure 5.3. Cone Bottom types of API small welded production tank (API Fig.
Typical Tank Grade .4.Figure 5.
5. Recommended Foundation For Large Tanks Supported By Soil .Figure 5.
245 80.512 2.810 40.970 45.5 FLAT BOTTOM STORAGE TANK CAPACITIES Capacity In Barrels Exact 505 1.563 Tank Dimensions In Feet and Inches Diameter 15-0 21-3 21-3 26-0 21-3 25-0 26-0 30-0 33-6 30-0 30-0 33-6 35-0 30-0 35-0 36-8 40-0 36-8 40-0 42-6 48-0 45-0 42-6 52-0 48-0 45-0 50-0 Height 16-0 16-0 24-0 16-0 32-0 24-0 32-0 24-0 24-0 32-0 40-0 32-0 32-0 48-0 40-0 32-0 32-0 40-0 40-0 40-0 32-0 40-0 48-0 32-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 Diameter 48-0 52-0 58-0 50-0 60-0 60-0 67-0 70-0 67-0 73-4 70-0 80-0 85-0 80-0 90-0 100-0 90-0 110-0 100-0 100-0 110-0 110-0 120-0 120-0 134-0 140-0 134-0 Height 48-0 40-0 32-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 32-0 48-0 32-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 40-0 48-0 .700 120.950 10.390 54.515 1.320 44.985 Tank Dimensions In Feet and Inches Capacity In Barrels Exact 15.030 5.040 5.130 15.705 81.Table 5.760 54.020 5.890 13.580 96.020 3.010 7.060 16.140 30.315 11.040 6.010 1.170 25.950 67.120 27.425 42.025 3.765 4.785 20.140 24.100 10.330 12.515 8.855 6.100 12.140 67.595 13.485 6.020 2.415 30.100 32.165 55.690 100.100 12.470 15.470 109.160 7.100 3.905 35.
800 Tank Dimensions Feet and Inches Diameter 150-0 140-0 160-0 150-0 160-0 180-0 180-0 200-0 200-0 Height 40-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 40-0 48-0 Diameter 270-0 240-0 260-0 280-0 300-0 320-0 340-0 343-0 Height 48-0 48-0 48-0 48-0 48-0 48-0 48-0 48-0 .500 223.895 231.800 268.500 526.300 217.600 Tank Dimensions Feet and Inches Capacity In Barrels Exact 325.000 453.000 789.200 150.500 776.000 687.000 604.600 143.Capacity In Barrels Exact 125.000 387.995 171.900 181.
(FT ) 5770 8680 11490 14490 17160 22930 28730 34780 43100 57910 69460 85930 115950 143790 172010 229850 3 INSIDE SURFACE AREA (FT3) 1555 2043 2463 2875 3217 3904 4536 5153 5945 7238 8171 9417 11500 13270 14960 13150 22-3 25-6 28-0 30-3 32-0 35-3 38-0 40-6 43-6 48-0 51-0 54-9 60-6 65-0 69-0 76-0 380 326 299 274 260 234 215 202 136 167 157 144 123 117 109 96 SPHERICAL TANK LIQUID CAPACITIES * + Provides at least two percent vapor space above top liquid capacity line.Table 5. an allowable stress of 17. 100% radiography of welded shell seams for a joint efficiency of 1.. Approximate maximum pressures based on maximum shell thickness of 1½ inches. and for a liquid having a product density of 32 lb/FT3. consequently. .6 SPHERICAL TANK LIQUID CAPACITIES NOMINAL CAPACITY (BBLS) 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 6000 7500 10000 12000 15000 20000 25000 30000 40000 DIAMETER* (FT-IN) PRESSURE + (PSI) ACTUAL VOLUME .0.. or using codes and specifications that allow a higher allowable design stress for design.. higher pressures.. Higher presures may be obtained by using higher strength steels..000 psi.500 psi. A steel having a shell tensile strength of 70. Field postweld heat treating the completed vessel will permit greater shell thickness and.
Table 5.7 SPHERICAL TANK GAS CAPACITIES DIAMETER (FT . OVERALL LENGTH* .IN) 25-6 INSIDE SURFACE AREA (FT ) 2043 2 VOLUME (FT ) 8680 3 PRESSURE (PSI) 20 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 336 FREE GAS (FT3) 11800 17700 23600 29500 35400 44300 59000 73800 88600 118100 147700 198400 23300 35000 46700 58300 70000 87500 116700 145900 233400 310500 32-0 3217 17160 20 30 40 50 75 100 125 150 200 266 Table 5.D.8 BULLET TANK CAPACITIES CAPACITY I.
9 1/8 91 .11 1/4 29 .5 3/8 83 .4 1/2 30 .5 93.1 5/8 76 .4 5/8 57 .8 3/8 92 .(GALLONS) 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 10000 12000 15000 18000 26000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 60000 70000 75000 80000 85000 90000 95000 100000 (IN.10 107 .2 .4 72.7/8 98 .4 5/8 105 .IN.8 7/8 37 . .) 46 46 65 65 72.6 96 .5 108 108 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 144 144 150 150 150 (FT.9 7/8 69 .2 3/8 54 .3 1/4 38 .8 113 .5 3/8 24 .7 1/2 47 .1 1/4 44 .5 41 .10 3/8 35 .5 93.6 1/8 61 .7 1/4 98 .11 1/2 31 .) 23 .4 93.
APPENDIX II EXAMPLE CALCULATION .
3")2/3 assumed ? 4" Flow rate of tank outlet : 30.000 BOPD (Assumed) 30.4 3.525ft = 6.116 BBLS/S : 4.000 BBLS ----------.95 ft3/S .500 BOPD (Real) 10.8x0.86 gps : 0.Field Production Production field Capacity of tanker Loading time Period of loading Number of tank Tank volume 6.65 ft3/S From figure A.000 BBLS (Contact to shipping agency) 8 Hrs (Based on pump rate type) once/3 day (Contact to shipping agency) 3 Pcs 31.65.330 BBLS : Diamater of tank (? ) 45 ft Height of tank (H) 40 ft Flow rate of tank inlet : 10.500/3 = 10500 BBLS Capacity of storage/terminal tank form 31.000 BOPD : 0.3 " Header use 8"? pipe ASTM 106 TS STD WT 3 Tanks ? each tank inlet diameter (6.= 1250 bbls/hr 3 x 8 Hrs = 1.? ft = 0.500 BBLS According API 650 welded oil storage tanks Capacity of tank 11. liquid speed of tank inlet : 3 fps Header diameter of tank inlet : 0.
69 gps = 876 gpm flow rate of pump outlet : 14.96" Use 6"? pipe ASTM 106B STDWT. liquid speed of tank outlet 4 tps Diameter of tank outlet : 1.95.Capacity of pump : 14.95 ft3/S from figure A.1.95.49ft = 5.79ft = 9.46" Use 10"? pipe ASTM 106 B STDWT .For header diameter : 3.4 10? = 0.4 4. . liquid speed 4 pump discharge 10 fps diameter of pump discharge : 1. = 1.36ft .4 4? = 0.6 gps = 1.? Use 18 " ? pipe ASTM 106B STDWT.95.From figure A.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.