Cloud Computing in Conjunction with Libraries: Descriptive Literature Review

Mayank Yuvaraj Junior Research Fellow Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India mayank.yuvaraj@gmail.com Ajay Pratap Singh Head & Associate Professor Dept. of LIS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India apsingh_73@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Cloud computing is the essence of future computing needs that has emerged to be a savior for library professionals. It is an emerging technology characterized by an element of novelty where the research community has recently embarked. Since, 2008 explosively increasing amount of research has been conducted. This paper presents a descriptive literature review of cloud computing paradigm from vivid perspectives. There has been drastic shift in the trinity of libraries: books which have become electronic, user which prefers web resources than print and the staff which has become cybrarian. In this changed library landscape there is need to shift our competencies for the challenges offered by IT. Availability of independent computing components on demand like cloud as CPU, Storage in cloud has removed the web of IT and librarians can focus on their mission and services. In this paper we analyze the normative literature to extract a functional methodology or working model of cloud computing to be implied in libraries. KEYWORDS: Cloud computing, Literature review, Libraries, Cloud computing in libraries

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INTRODUCTION With the encroachment of IT in library services the commitment of library and information professionals to provide people with information has come to stake. Library and information professionals are involved in the business of buying, configuring, installing, and maintaining servers which has nothing to do with the day-to-day library mission and services. One must engage in such affairs unless we absolutely must do so. In such circumstances Cloud computing has emerged as blessings in disguise that has brought decentralization to the computing world. It is concerned with the abstraction of software, services and storage facilities provided the access to network. The concept of cloud computing has sprung from the “intergalactic computer network” developed by J.C.R Licklider in 1960s where he wanted that everyone could use computer and anyone could get data irrespective of location and time in world. In 1961 John McCarthy, a computer scientist predicted that someday the computational power will be offered as a public service, such as water and electricity. This concept however, declined in early 1970`s due to the lack of physical infrastructure that could satisfy the needs of implementation of cloud

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technology. The relative novelty and exploding growth of cloud computing makes it an exciting area for research. The present paper aims to assess the state of cloud computing research. METHODOLOGY Defining any term seeks to study the qualitative and quantitative behavior. Henceforth, the four methods of literature review viz. narrative review, descriptive review, vote counting and meta analysis has to be given the same treatment. King and He32 have placed the four methods in a “qualitative-quantitative continuum”. Figure 1. Qualitative-quantitative continuum

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Narrative review is the traditional method of reassessment of literature slanted towards qualitative behavior of the literature. According to King and He32 this method is conducted by “verbally describing the past studies, focusing on theories and frameworks, elementary factors and their research outcomes, regarding a hypothesized relationship. However, Yang and Tate (2009) argues that “there is no consensus towards a standardized procedure of narrative review. How to conduct a narrative review largely depends on the reviewer’s personal preference, thus this approach is easily vulnerable to subjectivity”. (p. 808). It is not rare for “two reviewers to arrive at rather different conclusion from the same general body of literature” (Guzzo et al., 1987, p. 408). Descriptive review focuses on revealing an interpretable pattern from the existing literature (Guzzo et al., 1987). King and He (2005) surmises that descriptive review studies “produces some quantification, often in the form of frequency analysis, such as publication time, research methodology, research outcomes etc. Such a review method often has a systematic procedure including searching, filtering and classifying processes. First a reviewer needs to

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2009. In most cases. Vol. even some of them are non-significant. 2005. (Yang and Tate.” (p. Only similar quantitative studies are collected for a meta-analysis. Efforts were laid to get information from online databases. 809).2 No. 668). 808) Vote counting is generally used to “draw qualitative inferences upon focal relationships by combining individual research findings”. Most likely it is applied to generate insights from a series of experiments”. It attempts to explore pertinent literature through computer or manual searches. (King and He . 667). All the Web based references mentioned in 88 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. The premise underlying this approach is that “repeated results in the same direction across multiple studies. or theories. may be more powerful evidence than a single significant result” (King and He. p. according to Yang and Tate (2009) “focusing on limited outlets cannot be justified for a literature review on cloud computing as this is a recent phenomenon which just emerged two years ago. Traditionally this is done by scanning some prominent journals and conferences exclusively dedicated to the subject. p. However. As the concept is still in its infancy which has not fully ripened so it was difficult to fetch information from the library collections. which makes it next to impossible to examine any variables. Then the reviewer treats an individual study as one data record and identifies trends and patterns among the papers surveyed . correlations. therefore the publication channels are still largely scattered” (p. ” (Yang and Tate. Under such circumstances descriptive review is the most appropriate one. 2005. search engines and repositories. journals. 2009. p. Hence due to an element of novelty it was difficult to find plethora of information on this topic. The facets of cloud computing is a dawning research area.The outcome of such a review is often claimed to be representative of the state of art of a research domain. Since. The incentive of this approach is to generate a much less judgmental and subjective literature review upon a specific research context. 668).conduct a comprehensive literature search to collect as many relevant papers as possible in an investigated area. 809). p. “Here a tally is made of the frequency with which existing research findings support a particular proposition. “Qualitative studies have to be excluded by a meta-analysis due to its extremely quantitative nature. For most of the concurrent phenomena Information Science researchers and scholars are using online databases as their first literature collecting strategy. Meta-analysis aims at statistically providing supports to a research topic by “combining and analyzing the quantitative results of many empirical studies” (King and He. cloud computing arena is one of the sprouting sectors of computing world. 809). p. LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is a pre-requisite for reviewing literature on any subject. it may specifically examine the relationships between certain Independent Variables (IVs) and Dependent Variables (DVs) derived from existing research findings.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . 2005.

Efforts have been laid to mention only those web addresses which are likely to work during this work but there are possibility that some links may not work. However due to the dynamicity of web they may not be functional now.2 No. attempts have been undertaken to review literature relevant to present study.com Google. Vol.com Google books Google scholar Google analytics BASE JURN Total papers or documents 132 Relevant papers or documents 54 Online databases Institutional repositories or archives PDF documents search PPT search 20 5 80 48 89 60 75 38 55 Search engines Specialized searching Academic search engines 54 31 118 46 INFORMATION FILTERING PROCESS Out of the total information retrieved from the web-sources two methods were employed to get the desired information on cloud computing.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .org NOPR DJLIT Pdfgeni. Impediments like language. In spite of these. it is almost impossible to review all the literature available on a concerned subject.com Scribd.com Pdfqueen.rclis. Table 1. Secondly.com Slideshare.this work were retrieved during research period of September 2011 to March 2012. Firstly. Moreover.com Dogpile.com Freefullpdf.com Mamma.net Authorstream. Keyword and abstract searching was done on following web-resources TOOLS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o SOURCES ACM Digital library IEEE Xplore Proquest (ABI/INFORM) ScienceDirect (Elsevier) Eprints.com Scirus. the full text of the documents were reviewed and the Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. time and proficiency keeps a check on it. accessibility. the title and abstract of the document was scanned properly and those found to be relevant were take out.

2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 90 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. LITERATURE REVIEW Most challenging task of a research study is to review the past related literature to extract a functional methodology or working model for a research problem. Another feather in the cap was added by Google that developed Google Apps entirely based on architecture of cloud computing. In May 1997.com which used a simple website to deliver its enterprise application to users. dissertations.(1999-2006): Internet developed as a mechanism to provide application as a service. the University of California. xiii). The great idea remained in history pages until it was put in application by salesforce. The term cloud computing was coined in 2007. Microsoft in 2008 developed cloud based Azure services platform. p. “Cloud computing evolution can be split into three phases. or theory.(1960s-pre internet bubble era): During this period core ideas of utility and grid computing developed. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Banerjee (2011):  Idea Phase. Foster et al. conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue. Berkeley. and critical evaluation of each work. typically referring to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. the University of Maryland and the University of Washington”. Cyberpassionteam (2011). “The history of cloud computing faced huge competition only when Amazon started its cloud-based Amazon web services”. Stanford University. Lohr (2008). providing a description. The purpose of a literature review is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM in cooperation with “six American universities: Carnegie Mellon. area of research. For convenience the review study can be divided into various sections: Section I: Transition to cloud computing The roots of cloud computing can be traced to the days of mainframe computers (1960s) when the concept of utility computing came to light where the computing power could be split into metered service like power and telephone supply. The first public usage of the term “cloud” as a metaphor for the internet in a paper published by MIT in 1996. summary. To keep pace with the technology. books and other sources (e.g. Vol.” Substantial amount of literature relating to cloud computing was collected. 2002.  Pre Cloud Phase. NetCentric tried to trademark “cloud computing” but was abandoned in April 1999.2 No. According to Lyons (2010) “Not to be confused with a book review. scanned and reviewed.(2008) compare and contrasted cloud computing with grid computing and inferred that “cloud computing is an evolved version of grid computing”.documents rich in information content having no sketchy ideas dealing fundamentally with the research problem were finally taken into consideration for the research work. Literature review is an essential approach to “conceptualize research areas and survey and synthesize prior research” (Webster and Watson. a literature review surveys scholarly articles.

(2007. (2008) find “Cloud computing as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using internet technologies”.” Sultan (2010) argues that “A study by McKinsey (the global management consulting firm) found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of cloud computing. expertise with. IBM. R. They are joined by Gardner (2012) who argues that “cloud computing is often regarded as a revolution. cloud Computing delivers scalable IT services via the Internet on a payper-use basis” (p.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 91 . Users would not need to know or care about how the computers. Basically cloud is a metaphor for internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals”. But. For IT.” Commenting on the evolution of the cloud landscape Yang and Hsu (2011) concludes that “Cloud computing services first emerged as an IT paradigm five years ago. grid computing and distributed computing. Cloud Phase. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service allowing users to access technology enabled services from the internet without knowledge of. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements. Further. But to IT. 286). Weinhardt et al. such as Google. (2009) argues that “combining elements of existing technologies such as virtualization. Plummer et al. and Software as a Service (SaaS). and Salesforce. 109). Out of these in fact. Vol. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. applicationcentric environment. application service position (ASP). (p. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.” According to Mohamed (2009) “Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which included grid and utility computing. it`s just an evolution of infrastructure efficiency.com. scholars like Wohl (2009) perceive “Cloud Computing to be a vague term for a very vague and distant future in which computing would occur in a few remote locations without the need for very much human intervention. Infinite computing resources would be available for any need at costs approaching zero. or the network functioned. their software. soon followed”. several prominent technology companies.” Section II: The concept of cloud computing Plethora of interpretations has been contested on the conceptualization of Cloud Computing. 392). SUN.2 No. no common standard or definition for cloud computing seems to exist Grossman (2009). But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties. (p.till date) Cloud computing became popular and the sub classification IaaS. Voas & Zhang (2009)”. it`s all about ways to improve delivery of the server-centric. Madhubala. Oracle.” On the other hand. It is first initiated by Amazon. Contrary to above arguments. (2012) put forth her view that “Cloud computing is a paradigm that focuses on sharing data and computations over a scalable network of nodes. PaaS & SaaS got formalized. According to Farber (2008) “The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do.

( p. 55). according to Weiss (2007). Boss et al.2 No. (2010).” (p. 122). (p. “Cloud computing has spread out through the main areas related to information systems and technologies. Pyke (2009) that “cloud computing services can provide the user seamlessly. ” Under such circumstances there is a general agreement of scholars like Buyya et al. According to Low.. Mingchang (2011) Cloud computing provides the opportunity of flexibility and adaptability to attract the market on demand. (2011) opines that “as we could expect. (2007) argues that “Cloud is a pool of virtualized computer resources which allows:  The dynamic scale-in and scale-out of applications by the provisioning and deprovisioning of resources. software-as-a-service. Cloud computing is also. Chen.However. and centralized data centres. application software. Chinyao. and we access everything not only through our PCs 92 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. in which the imagery of a cloud is traditionally used to represent the internet or some large networked environment. The concept is derived from the imagery of the Internet cloud. and the quality-stable technological support that can develop the enormous potential demand”. Yahsueh and Wu. Sultan. the term cloud is derived from the idea of businesses and users being able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand”. Hartig (2008) refers to Cloud Computing as the phenomenon of “virtualization of resources that maintains and manages itself”.  The monitoring of resource utilization to support dynamic load-balancing and reallocations of applications and resources”. 17). (2010) (p. In nutshell. (p. Chen and Wu. defined as a collection of disembodied services accessible from anywhere using any mobile device with an internet-based connection. (2009). virtualization and pay-as-you-go pricing model.4). Misra and Mondal. His arguments are supplemented by Hand (2007) who argues that “in cloud computing not just our data but even our software resides within the cloud. Erdogmus. He opined that cloud computing is a new model of computing used widely in today`s industry and society. such as utility computing.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . such as operating systems. Geelan. (2009). e. and technological solutions for firms” Armbrust et al. What is new is that cloud computing combines and integrates these approaches. Inspired by similar thoughts Low. distributed computing. However. Vol. Kossmann and Kraska (2010) have put forth three important principles that depend on each other and can only provide additional value if implemented in concert These are: automation. (2010). Some of the scholars have attempted to trace the roots of Cloud Computing from business. the convenience. 1007). “cloud computing is not a fundamentally new paradigm.g by means of virtualization. (2009) argues that “Cloud computing is the infrastructural paradigm shift that is sweeping across the Enterprise IT world that has as many definitions as there are squares on a chess-board”. It draws on existing technologies and approaches.

clients are being offered with storage. networking and processing of data. the mega-computer enabled by virtualization and software as a service”. applications.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) 93 . Windows Azure. Public cloud available to public users to register and use the available infrastructure.  Platform as a Service (PaaS) Consumers purchase access to the platforms. (p. & Grance (2009): The service delivery models are: Private cloud: a cloud platform is dedicated for specific organization. Scholars have also used models to study cloud computing. PDAs. The operating systems and network access are not managed by the consumer. In IaaS.2 No. VMWare vCloud are some of its examples Jericho Forum (2009) has put forth “cloud cube model to differentiate cloud formations from each other and the manner of their provision. Generally models are employed to study such phenomenon which cannot be seen or felt. to run applications. Hotmail. The cube represents four dimensions of cloud activities:  Location of data: Internal/ External Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Vol.but also cloud friendly devices. and there might be constraints as to which applications can be deployed. etc. Section III: Models of cloud computing Models are mental or pictorial representation of an event or phenomenon. Client does not require to know programming language. Skype etc. Sify. database management systems. The deployment models are:  Software as a Service (SaaS) Consumers purchase the ability to access and use an application or service that is hosted in the cloud. Mell. The Cloud Computing model constitutes three service delivery and three deployment models. enabling them to deploy their own software and applications in the cloud. For example email and few other services offered by Google.com can be few of good examples of PaaS  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Consumers control and manage the systems in terms of the operating systems. and Hybrid cloud: a private cloud that can extend to use resources in public clouds. 963). To run required service a special platform or application infrastructure is also being provided to the clients where clients can build their web based applications. Yahoo. Google App Engine and Force. such as smart phones. and network connectivity. but do not themselves control the cloud infrastructure. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) or Simple Storage Service (S3). storage.

Section IV: Standardization of cloud computing There are three active bodies working towards standardizing cloud computing practices:    Cloud computing Interoperability Forum Open cloud consortium DMTF Open Cloud Standards Incubator 94 However. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .   Ownership of cloud technology: Proprietary/ Open Operations: Perimeterised (Within traditional IT perimeter)/ De-perimeterised (Outiside IT perimeter) Availability of service: Insourced (By third party)/ Outsourced (By own)” Mikkilineni and Sarathy (2009) “compared the evolution of cloud computing with intelligent network infrastructure in telecommunications and proposed a Virtual Resource Mediation Layer (VRML) to support interoperability between public and private clouds. there is also a document called the open cloud manifesto in which various stake holders express why open standards will benefit cloud computing Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010). From the financial point of view. achieving standardized API appears to be rather politically than technically challenging”. 156). government agencies. VRML is an abstraction layer that sits on top of the IaaS layer and allows applications to access CPU. (2009) has enlisted the various difficulties of developing standards for effective cloud computing. Keahey et al. memory.2 No. These were resisted by the vendors just like the fate of cloud computing”. However. bandwidth and storage depending on needs” (p. Vol. Grossman (2009) asserts that” the current state of standards and interoperability in cloud computing is similar to the early Internet era where each organization had its own network and data transfer was difficult. These are business models for companies with an existing IT infrastructure and business models for startup companies. businesses and/or individuals can either provide or use services within a near limitless computing environment (storage. 58). Section V: Adoption of cloud computing The emergent phenomenon of cloud computing aims at transforming the traditional way of computing by providing both software applications and hardware resources as a service. According to Sriram and Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) “cloud computing can benefit from standardized API interfaces as generic tools that manage cloud infrastructures can be developed for all offerings. Thus.26 -27). which changed with the introduction of TCP and other Internet standards. Misra and Mondal (2010) built two types of business models that can be drawn for companies (cloud users) willing to adopt cloud computing services. CPU power etc) Tsaravas and Themistocleous (2011) (p. (p.

This way. and thus.2 No. and automating the tasks that traditionally has also to be carried out by experts. Sotomayor et al. such as IBM. On the supply side. Ironically. and emerging economies such as China. and Salesforce. cloud computing helps optimizing the long tail of processes which are currently not supported by IT and helps to reduce the cost of those processes that indeed are already automated” (p.virtual infrastructure manager and Haizea. On the demand side. Google. and traditional IT service firms. Buschman and Leckie (2009) posit that “librarians need to be critical in their use of technology”. Lim et al. Su (2011) In the field of education Thomas (2011) argues that “Cloud Computing has a significant place in the higher education landscape both as a ubiquitous computing tool and a powerful platform that can enhance engagement among educational researchers and educators to understand and improve practice. Under such conditions. Section VI: Adoption of cloud computing in libraries Library and information centres are constantly in search of low-cost solutions due to low funding. (2009) stresses on “feedback control service for scaling in the cloud. Vol. Grossman et al.resource lease manager. increase the quality of their students’ learning outcomes”. According to Kossmann and Kraska (2010) “Cloud Computing promises to lower the bar for new services to become worthwhile by making things cheaper. Scaling choices must be under control of the users.Various researches have been undertaken to imply cloud computing in various domains. including both firms that specialize in cloud computing. Buyya et al.S. cloud computing is the savior of all the ebbs of the information technology. such as utility computing and the smart data centre. cloud computing is being rapidly adopted by organizations in both developed countries such as the U. in order to have control over spending and to be able to work towards maximizing return on investments”. faster.com. (2009) developed a cloud-based infrastructure that had been optimized for performance networks and supported necessary data mining applications. ( 2009) presents two tools for managing cloud infrastructure: OpenNebula. (2009) opines that Cloud computing and web collaboration are two major concepts that underlie new and innovative developments in library 95 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. cloud computing is becoming a key service offering of many IT firms. Banerjee (2009) provides an overview of technological research studies that were performed in HP labs and that adopted cloud-scale smart environments. Governments that are looking for answers against bureaucracy and complication of procedures are almost obligated to implement new technological solutions to provide public services effectively”. such as Amazon. 124). (2009) have also dealt with market-oriented resource allocation of cloud computing by leveraging third-generation Aneka enterprise grid technology.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . with the involvement with IT the commitment as well as services has been miserably infested. Vaquero et al. HP and Fujistu.

The web has also expanded the scope of services provided by librarians. With these success libraries are motivated for using subscription based cloud IT infrastructure. Instead. and more effective cost reduction. p. library and information science scholarship has remodeled the future for libraries. whose major goal is reducing the cost of IT services while increasing processing throughput. Historically libraries have turned to huge capital investment on IT infrastructure for various online as well as subscription based services. 96 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. the economics. To meet their needs. 27). The future of computing lies in cloud computing. The introduction of the internet to libraries was part of a significant shift from print/in-house-focused services to online/ externally provided services. OCLC web scale management services. 59-60). and the Library of congress suggests that this mode of computing will have a significant impact on the configuration. Recently. recognizing that future libraries may not own their collection of resources Lancaster. (1997). Today. libraries need to adopt the communication and information tools and services that users are accustomed to Sadeh. From the emergence of World Wide Web.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Moulasion and Corrado. Vol. (2010). (2007). and perhaps the personnel requirements of library computing in years to come”. availability and flexibility and decreasing processing time Hayes (2008). (2007). reliability. “Migrating to a cloud-based application may turn out to be cost neutral but at the same time still have the benefit of allowing staff to concentrate on libraryspecific issues”.automation. Cloud computing will bring an end to the ILS server. 6). OhioLink. The growing internet usage among library users and potential users. Wolf (2010).2 No. (2010). easier access. plus the time these users spend on the internet. including OCLC. SirsiDynix. has made it imperative that libraries offer their services online. scholastic predictions indicated that the library in serving future users may offer referral to “potentially appropriate points in a vast network of resources accessible through the internet or its successors” (Lancaster. (2011) (p. the library`s users are accessing the information needed in the comfort and security of their homes or in their own personal or customized spaces. Cloud computing is important in the context of LIS education for two reasons Tomer and Alman (2011). OCLC started Web-scale management services which can perform the in-house library operations through mutual co-operation. Much of these tools and services will not be owned by the library but are necessary to carry out the enduring work of making library collections and services known and accessible to users. Mitchell. These predictions have to come true. Cloud services allow for more optimal resource utilization. the embrace of cloud computing by many organizations. It will provide all its web-scale subscribers with a vendor database which will list their details avoiding data redundancy in libraries. “First. 1997. Libraries can work cooperatively in a flexible environment where they can share solutions to problems instead of having to reinvent the wheel at each library. Today`s consumers of information have more alternative and attractive ways of finding information than using the traditional library Sadeh. (p.

2 No. and impacts and. Now the information formats have also changed. (2009).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . While cloud computing has been discussed as a new technology develop that can provide several advantages. the cloud computing adoption rate is not growing as fast as expected Banerjee. 97 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. (2011). which many libraries wouldn`t be able to create on their own. so you don`t need a client on your local PC. categorization and analytics to help users manage the vast repositories of both structured and unstructured information) as well as the cost-savings and flexibility that they can provide. As such cloud computing has the seeds for reinvigoration of library and information science professions. Moreover. Blowers (2010). (2010) Section VII: Security concerns of cloud computing ENISA firstly addressed the security risks related to adopting cloud computing along with the affected assets. There seems to be an utmost use of web based services in libraries and information centres since the evolution of internet. Internet world stats (2011). Vendors can provide a remotely hosted service which allows for the creation of modular content. “A study conducted by IMAI and IMRB reveals that there are 121 million internet users in India out of which 97 million access atleast once in a month” Times of India. Smartphones are being used by the users these days for accessing information services for fast and easy communication. “In World India is the third and in Asia second largest country in internet adoption”. Further. vulnerabilities in cloud computing that may lead to such risks.Other vendors can take advantage of the cloud. “There is a tremendous amount of enthusiasm around cloud-based solutions and services (filtering.. They have also emerged as an key players in the provision of internet services to the user communities Kinney (2010) During this time libraries have re-directed services both to support in-house internet use and to serve the needs of users via digital means. both strategic and operational. Wolf (2010). Moore (2010) asserts that “use analysis now requires a cloud computing orientation”. It also lowers the technical skills needed to create web pages. Libraries are in a unique position to experiment with cloud computing given their service oriented mission and need to find appropriate solutions using limited resources. Buyya et al. Vol. (2009). Goscinski and Brock. Like other cloud applications it is accessible from any internet connection. sorting. to its adopters. (2009). through cloud computing instead of having own servers and employing personnel for its maintenance libraries can hire a vendor on a monthly charge and enjoy the benefit of same server function. Fox (2009) observes that the goals of the organization have an impact on their use of cloud solutions. It is imperative that all senior technologists have a solid understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing since its impact is likely to permeate the entire IT landscape” Rhoton.

Section VIII: Benefits of cloud computing Pyke (2009) has described the following benefits of cloud computing: scalability. (2010) raises issues concerning the “security vulnerabilities existing in the cloud platform”. The expected benefits of embedded cloud computing services include the following: speed of business communications. simplification and convenience of the way computing-related services are delivered seem to be among the main drivers of cloud computing Erdogmus. (2009). (2009) discuss the security SLA`s specifications and objective relating to data locations. Economic. and access to market information mobilization.. It may take users a long time to understand and implement the new system. compared to $40. get it on paper”. Trappler (2010) asserts that “if it is in the cloud. (2008). (2009).2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . (2010) discusses high level security concerns in the cloud computing model such as data integrity. The shift to Cloud computing moved much of a user’s normal activity to the Web browser. Vol. complexity of an innovation can act as a barrier to implementation of new 98 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Fu.2 No. As such it is possible for malicious websites to exploit browser vulnerabilities in order to steal information associated with other existing or previous browsing sessions. Armbrust et al. and quality of service. ease of implementation. Kresimir et al. payment and privacy of sensitive information.Similar efforts have been laid by CSA . the market is expected to reach $241 billion in 2020. Meiko et al. browser`s related attacks and flooding attacks. Thus.7 billion in 2010. browsing history and other sensitive information in a single place. “Providing IT services in the cloud shifts much of this expense to a pay-as-you-go-model and consequently offers significant cost advantages according to one view”. (p. IT research firm Forrester published the first industry report that offered a sizing of the cloud computing market.. Dasmalchi. Lin. However. efficient coordination among firms. Buyya et al. Many see huge potential of the technology in reducing the cost of IT to organizations and freeing them from the expense and hassle of having to install and maintain applications locally Leavitt. (2010). Subashini (2010) discusses the security challenges of the cloud service delivery model. (2009).. segregation and data recovery. is using the skilled practitioners. Balchandra et al. Some scholars are of the opinion that Cloud computing service providers are incentivized by the profits to be made from charging consumers for access to these services. (2009) discuss the technical security issues arising from adopting the cloud computing model such as XML-attacks. According to this report. Web browsers generally store all of a user’s saved passwords. firms may not have confidence in a cloud computing system because it is relatively new to them. freeing up of internal resources. (2009). Hayes. Bernd et al. Firms are attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services Buyya et al. better customer communications. Zhu. (2009). such as a logged in email account or online banking session. 50).

As every technological concept. (2010). thereby allowing their own employees to take care of other obligations in lieu of monitoring version changes and upgrades. Depending on the service. Madhubala. complexity factor is usually negatively affected. service portability. Wolf. This will free libraries from the shackles of IT management and allow us to focus on services and resources. they can also rely on the software provider to carry out all updates. they can save their parent institution money. (2011) “If librarians can save on buying and maintaining servers.. there are reasons for concern about what can happen to the information. Vendor lock-in. Furthermore. research has shown that there are some major obstacles which hinder the adoption and growth of Cloud computing. This risk of confusion will likely increase when cloud based applications lack any recognizable browser branding. availability and reliability of data. (2010) Katz (2009) focuses on many areas where the cloud may impinge on education. data management. (1994). With cloud computing we are getting closer to the reality of purchasing computer power. just like they did before the digital age. employers and universities deploy cloud based tools on desktops.(2010) “As computer manufacturers.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Vol. multi-tenancy and isolation. “The elastic aspect of cloud computing allows applications to scale and grow without needing traditional ‘fork lift’ upgrades”. Morsy. several concerns arise about security. the model still has a lot of open issues that impact the model creditability and pervasiveness. 4-5). Grundy and Muller. (2012) (p. (p. . but 99 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. quite a few of the cloud-based software platforms are available for free. meaning that librarians can make use of services without incurring any cost for their libraries”. and cloud security are well known open research problems in the cloud computing model. According to Moulasion and Corrado. many users may fail to realize that they are in fact using an Internet based service.elasticity engines.287). Potential Cloud organisations and vendors need to be aware that it may become easier for attackers to threaten clouds by moving towards a single cloud interface.” Ramgovind et al.2 No. Premkumar et al. He advocates that because companies might be storing documents which should not be made public. Section IX: Downsides of cloud computing However. Further cloud computing will given even the smallest organization the ability to use the power of network computing within a minimal infrastructure.(2011) “the services that libraries can acquire through the use of cloud computing platforms may indeed be valuable. cloud computing is not an exception in terms of trust and security issues.. and continue to function when the user is not connected to the Internet. R. Once data are outsourced to a third-party cloud provider.technology.Moulasion and Corrado. Tsaravas and Marinos (2011) Despite the potential benefits and revenues that could be gained from the cloud computing model. SLA management.

2008.2010. can become a considerable hurdle to effective provision of services”.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .. Keahey 2009. even if bandwidth is not currently at a premium.2010.. et al.2010.the cost of internet access. 2010.. 2009.Stefan. Dodda et al.2009. 2009. 2009.. et al. Pueschel & Neumann. 2010. Mika and Tummar Chun and Maniatis 2009.2009.2009. Shigeo and Nagamori. 2010.2009. 2008. Holger and Matzke.2010.. Joint et al.. 5). Vaquero et al. Pearson. 2010.. 2009 Bernstein.2009. 2009. Koehler and Anandasivam.. Armbrust et al. Mitshuharu.2010... et al. Yeo et al.2009. Ratogi.. Leimeister et al. 2009. Delic and Riley. Ried. Lenk.2 No. Sugimoto.. Wolf. Weinhardt et al. Askhoj. Matthew and Spraetz. Ohlman. 2011 Buyya et al. 2009. 2009. 2009. 2009. Assuncao et al.. 2009. Nurmi. 2008.2009. et al. et al. Baars & Kemper. 2009. 2009. Dikaiakos et al.2010. 2009. Overview of cloud computing research ISSUES Adoption CONTRIBUTORS Hazelhurst. Jan. Bhardwaj et al. Furht and Escalante. Sun. Mikkilineni and Sarathy. Jericho forum (2009). 100 Benefits Business Impediments Model Pricing Privacy Standards Security Storage Technology Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Velte et al. Table 2. Saya et al. Pascal.. Vol. et al. 2009. (p.. Youseff et al. 2009.. et al. Vaquero et al. Harmer.. Briscoe and Marions. et al. Kisker.2009. 2009.. Anandasivam & Weinhardt.. Ramireddy. Briscoe... 2010. Lim et al. Zeng etal. Matthews. Grossman. Wilson 2009. elo. 2007. 2009. 2010..

com. Vol. It revealed that the term gained momentum post-2009. It revealed that cloud computing has gained tremendous popularity in India.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) .2 No. During 2010 onwards it was at its peak. a comparative study of cloud computing.RESULTS Popularity of the terms and search To analyse the popularity of “cloud computing” searching was done on Google Trends. Figure 2. libraries and online services was done on Google Insights to determine the interest areas worldwide. Also there is high scope of research on cloud computing in conjunction with libraries in near future. Searches for cloud computing on Google. taken from Google Trends 101 Further. Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.

Searches for cloud computing taken from Google Insights To analyse the average use of the term “cloud computing” in books searching was done on Google Books Ngram Viewer. Table 4.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science. Searches for cloud computing from Google books Ngram Viewer 102 It reveals that post 2006 there has been sharp increase in the usage of the term in books. It revealed that post 2006 there has been sudden increase in the usage of the term in books.Figure 3.2 No. Vol.

Distribution of articles by year 30 20 10 2 0 Distribution of articles by publication 19 15 18 20 22 10 12 14 12 Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science.Distribution of articles by year An analytical study of the references was done to find out the most productive year for cloud computing literature.2 (Jul – Dec 2012) . We found that during 2010 maximum number of literature was written. It revealed that conference proceedings were the best source of dissemination of the concept on cloud computing Figure 6. Figure 5.2 No. Distribution of articles by year 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 1 12 15 Distribution of articles by year 26 29 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 103 Distribution of articles by publication To analyse the most productive sources for “cloud computing” literature an analysis of the available literature was done. Vol.

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