Manmohan Singh

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Manmohan Singh
ਮਨਮੋਹ ਨ ਿਸੰਘ मनमोहन िसं ह

Prime Minister of India
Incumbent Assumed office 22 May 2004 Abdul Kalam Pratibha Patil Atal Bihari Vajpayee

President Preceded by

Minister of External Affairs of India
In office 6 November 2005 – 24 October 2006 Preceded by Natwar Singh Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee

Minister of Finance of India
In office 30 November 2008 – 24 January 2009 Preceded by Palaniappan Chidambaram

Singh is a graduate of Panjab University. Singh was the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1982 to 1985. Oxford Economist Sikhism Manmohan Singh (Punjabi: ਮਨਮੋਹਨ ਿਸੰਘ.Pranab Mukherjee In office 21 June 1991 – 16 May 1996 Prime Minister Narasimha Rao Preceded by Madhu Dandavate Succeeded by Jaswant Singh Succeeded by Deputy Chairperson of the Planning Commission of India In office 15 January 1985 – 31 August 1987 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi Preceded by Narasimha Rao Succeeded by Shiv Shankar Governor of the Reserve Bank of India In office 15 September 1982 – 15 January 1985 Preceded by Indraprasad Gordhanbhai Patel Succeeded by Amitav Ghosh Born Political party Spouse(s) Children Residence Alma mater Profession Religion Signature 26 September 1932 (age 77) Gah. He is also a Rajya Sabha member from Assam.Hindi: मनमोहन िसंह. born 26 September 1932) is the 14th and current Prime Minister of India. An economist by profession. British India UPA-INC Gursharan Kaur Upinder Singh Daman Singh Amrit Singh 7 Race Course Road. During his . After serving as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India and the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India. Singh was appointed as the Union Minister of Finance in 1991 by then-Prime Minister Narasimha Rao. India Panjab University. He is the first person of Sikh faith to hold the office. Cambridge Nuffield College. and the University of Oxford. the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India from 1985 to 1987 and the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. currently serving his 4th term. the University of Cambridge. New Delhi. Chandigarh St John's College.

2 Career in the Rajya Sabha 3 Prime ministership o 3.tenure as the Finance Minister. Singh was reappointed as the Prime Minister of India on May 22. as his village . Punjab. During its five year term. After the Indian National Congress won the 2009 general elections. to whom he was very close.1. (now in Chakwal District.1 Finance Minister of India o 2. Singh's administration largely focused on reducing government fiscal deficit. He lost his mother when he was very young.1 Foreign policy  3. He was a hard working student who studied by candlelight.1. along with the First Manmohan Singh Cabinet. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Childhood and education 2 Early career o 2. He was sworn in as the prime minister on May 22.1 14th Lok Sabha  3.3 Healthcare and education  3. making him the first Indian Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full fiveyear term. Pakistan) into a Sikh family.4 Security and Home Affairs  3. 2004.5 Legislation  3.1. Singh was widely credited for carrying out economic reforms in India in 1991 which resulted in the end of the infamous Licence Raj system.6 Criticism o 3. 2009. and he was raised by his paternal grandmother.2 15th Lok Sabha 4 Personal life 5 Degrees and posts held 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] Childhood and education Manmohan Singh was born to Gurmukh Singh and Amrit Kaur on 26 September 1932.2 Economic policy  3. providing debt relief to poor farmers and advancing pro-industry economic and tax policies.1.1.1.[1] Following the 2004 general elections. in Gah. Singh was unexpectedly declared as the Prime Ministerial candidate of the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance.

while the Bharatiya Janata Party . export prospects and policy implications". to an average of 8–9% economic growth in the following years. the University of Alberta presented him with an Honorary Doctor of Laws.Phil. During the 1970s. St. holders of the BA degree with honours are entitled in due course to an MA degree. India was facing an economic crisis.[2] In 1997. At the time. Rao and Singh implemented policies to open up the economy and change the socialist economic system to a capitalist economy. in 1991[3] and was re-elected in 2001 and 2007. he was appointed the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India and held the post until 1985. and in October 2006. 1951-1960. the Rajya Sabha. He was also one of the few recipients of the Wrenbury scholarship. and changing the annual 3%. These economic reforms are credited with bringing high levels of economic growth in India. chose Singh to be the Finance Minister. Singh worked for UNCTAD (1966–1969). After the Partition of India. However. (In the Oxbridge tradition. Chandigarh studying Economics and attaining his bachelor's and master's degrees in 1952 and 1954 respectively.) He won the Wright's Prize for distinguished performance in 1955 and 1957. The title of his doctoral thesis was "India’s export performance. he taught at the University of Delhi and worked for the Ministry of Foreign Trade with then Cabinet Minister for Foreign Trade Lalit Narayan Mishra and for Finance Ministry of India. Rao's government was voted out in 1996 due to non-performance of government in other areas. From this thesis he published the book "India’s Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth".did not have electricity. The University of Oxford awarded him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree in June 2006. [edit] Career in the Rajya Sabha Singh was first elected to the upper house of Parliament. removal of many obstacles for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and initiating the process of the privatization of public sector companies. in spite of these reforms. He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission of India from 1985 to 1987. [edit] Early career After completing his D. the Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship. and his thesis supervisor was Dr I M D Little. In 1982. standing first throughout his academic career. John's College further honored him by naming a PhD Scholarship after him. India's then-Prime Minister. he migrated to Amritsar. In 1962. He went on to read for the Economics Tripos at Cambridge University as a member of St John's College. He attended Panjab University. From 1998 to 2004. The economic reform package included dismantling License Raj that made it difficult for private businesses to exist and prosper.V. [edit] Finance Minister of India In 1991. Singh completed his DPhil from the University of Oxford where he was a member of Nuffield College. the University of Cambridge followed with the same honour. P. Narasimha Rao.

However. becoming the first person of Sikh faith and the first non-Hindu to hold the office in predominantly Hindu-majority India. extending social programs and advancing the proindustry economic and tax policies that have launched the country on a major economic expansion course since 2002. as the UPA candidate for the Prime Minister post. Singh was the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. In a surprise move. 2004. United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Chairperson Sonia Gandhi declared Manmohan Singh. his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi's nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front. providing debt relief to poor farmers.[5] Shown here are BRIC leaders in 2008 – Manmohan Singh. a technocrat. Hu Jintao and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva After the 2004 general elections. his government has been criticized for not carrying forward the momentum in economic reforms. During his tenure. In 1999. the Indian National Congress stunned the incumbent National Democratic Alliance (NDA) by becoming the political party with the single largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Singh's administration has focused on reducing the fiscal deficit. Dmitry Medvedev. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat.[4] Singh is also regarded as one of the "greatest statesmen in Asian history". He took the oath as the Prime Minister of India on May 22.[6] [edit] Foreign policy .was in power. he ran for the Lok Sabha from South Delhi but was unable to win the seat. [edit] Prime ministership [edit] 14th Lok Sabha A renowned economist.

there is a growing trade imbalance.[8] Manmohan Singh talks with American President Barack Obama during the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit at the Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens.[7] During Afghan President Hamid Karzai's visit to New Delhi in August 2008. Manmohan Singh's Government has continued the pragmatic foreign policy that was started by P. Narasimha Rao and continued by BJP's Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Chinese President Hu Jintao visited India which was followed by Singh's visit to Beijing in January 2008. as has reduced terrorism and increased prosperity in the state of Kashmir. Singh's government has worked towards stronger ties with the United States. Exchange of high-level visits by top leaders from both countries have highlighted his tenure. He visited the United States in July 2005 initiating negotiations over the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. signed the agreement on 10 October 2008. Efforts have been made during Singh's tenure to end the border dispute with People's Republic of China. Relations with Afghanistan have also improved considerably. However. In 2007. During Singh's tenure as Prime Minister. the People's Republic of China became the biggest trade partner of India. like the United Kingdom. In November 2006. France. The Prime Minister has continued the peace process with Pakistan initiated by his predecessor.S. India and the U. and defense. infrastructure. Bush's successful visit to India in March 2006.Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8 Summit. during which the declaration over the nuclear agreement was made. giving India access to American nuclear fuel and technology while India will have to allow IAEA inspection of its civil nuclear reactors. After more than two years for more negotiations. relations have improved with Japan and European Union countries. with India now becoming the largest regional donor to Afghanistan.V. and Germany. with bilateral trade expected to surpass US$60 billion by 2010. Manmohan Singh increased the aid package to Afghanistan for the development of more schools. A major development in Sino-Indian relations was the reopening of the Nathula Pass in 2006 after being closed for more than four decades. health clinics. Nuclear Suppliers Group and the US Congress. This was followed by George W. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Relations with Iran have continued and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline have . followed by approval from the IAEA.

[10] Manmohan Singh's government has also been especially keen on expanding ties with Israel. .[9] Relations. nuclear energy and space cooperation. which has mobilized half a million community health workers.[14] [edit] Economic policy Dr. Singh carried forward the momentum which was established after the "Brasilia Declaration" in 2003 and the IBSA Dialogue Forum was formed. have improved with other developing countries.[13] relations between the two remain strong with India and Russia signing various agreements to increase defense. Jeffrey Sachs. particularly Brazil and South Africa. India achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world. This rural health initiative.[12] Though there have been a few diplomatic glitches between India and Russia. in Time magazine. Singh's government introduced the VAT tax that replaced the complicated sales tax. Singh. In 2007 and early 2008. In 2005. Prime Minister Singh and his government's health ministry started the National Rural Health Mission. P. along with the former Finance Minister. [edit] Healthcare and education Manmohan Singh with Indian delegation at the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm. New Delhi hosted an India–Africa Summit in April 2006 which was attended by the leaders of 15 African states. In 2005. In 2007. The Finance ministry has been working towards relieving farmers of their debt and has been working towards pro-industry policies. Singh has also been working on reforming the banking and financial sectors and has been working towards reforming public sector companies.[15][16] Singh's government has continued the Golden Quadrilateral and the highway modernization program that was initiated by Vajpayee's government. Since 2003. the two countries have made significant investments in each other[11] and Israel now rivals Russia to become India's defense partner.taken place. was praised by the prominent American economist. inflation became a big problem globally[17]. especially over the delay and price hike of several Russian weapons to be delivered to India. have presided over a period where the Indian economy has grown with an 8–9% economic growth rate. in an article. Chidambaram.

to fight illiteracy. The ancient Nalanda University shall be restarted in Bihar. [edit] Security and Home Affairs Dr. particularly the BJP. [edit] Legislation The important NREGA act and the RTI act were passed by the Parliament in 2005 during his tenure. Hyderabad. Ahmedabad. however. [edit] Criticism See also: 2008 Lok Sabha vote of confidence and Notes-for-Vote scandal Manmohan Singh received strong criticism from India's Communist Parties for his role in the implementation of the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. in various regions. extended the ban on the radical Islamic terror group Student's Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). The Singh government has also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme. Jaipur. Gujarat. Punjab. Terrorism in Kashmir has. allege that Sonia . especially in rural areas.[18] Opposition parties in India. like in Mumbai.Dr. Orissa. arguing that he was not eligible to become a Member of Parliament from a state where he does not reside. While the effectiveness of the NREGA has been successful at various degrees. for being the "weakest Prime Minister until now". The programme has included the introduction and improvement of mid-day meals and the opening of schools all over India. Some opposition parties have criticized Singh's election as a Rajya Sabha member from Assam. Bihar. the RTI act has proved crucial in India's fight against corruption. Singh's government has.[citation needed] Manmohan Singh has been criticized by the Leader of Opposition and prominent member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Vajpayee. Mr. begun by his predecessor. Lal Krishna Advani. Singh's government has been criticised by opposition parties for revoking POTA and for the many bomb blasts in various cities. Delhi. Shown here are Manmohan Singh and 43rd President of the United States George W. reduced significantly during the Singh administration. etc. Bush exchanging handshakes in New Delhi in 2006. Singh has announced that eight more Indian Institutes of Technology will be opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh. Bangalore. and for not being able to reduce the Naxal terrorism that is menacing rural areas in Eastern and Central India. however. Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.

Gandhi.[24] On 22 May 2009. She has written six books. Strong showing in Andhra Pradesh. The tally of 322 seats included those of the UPA and the external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Manmohan Singh and government officials have strongly rebuked the charge. Gujarat.[22] The Congress and its allies was able to put together a comfortable majority with support from 322 members out of 543 members of the House.Advani by many prominent leaders of the BJP. Delhi and Institute of Rural Management. The UPA won the trust vote with 275–256. Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)). Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) and other minor parties. On 22 July 2008. Rajasthan. the family has largely stayed out of the limelight. after two days of debate and deliberations.This lead to infighting in the BJP and criticism of Mr. Their three daughters . and author of The Last Frontier: People and Forests in Mizoram and a novel Nine by Nine. Maharashtra. Kerala.[25][26] [edit] Personal life Singh married Gursharan Kaur in 1958.[23]. [edit] 15th Lok Sabha India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009.[19][20] Dr. The oppossition having accepted defeat admitted that the specific targeting of Singh as "weak PM" was wrong and had benefited Singh instead. earlier. However. nonpolitical. As is the norm. careers. who became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to win re-election after completing a full five-year term. Singh is also the only Indian Prime Minister to have never won a Lok Sabha election. the current Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance. on 18 May 2009. The vote was delayed by one hour due to allegations from the opposition BJP party that certain coalition allies of the government had bribed certain opposition parliamentarians to abstain from the confidence vote. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh helped the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) form the new government under the incumbent Singh.[27] Upinder Singh is a professor of history at Delhi University. Tamil Nadu. The President had asked Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to prove the majority.[29] Amrit Singh is a staff attorney at the ACLU. the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) faced its first confidence vote in the Lok Sabha after the Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Front withdrew support from the government over India approaching the IAEA for Indo-US nuclear deal. Anand. Daman and Amrit. he submitted his resignation as the Prime Minister to President Pratibha Patil. enjoys greater say in government affairs than the Prime Minister.Upinder. The results of the election were announced on 16 May 2009[21].[28] Daman Singh is a graduate of St. Stephen's College. including Ancient Delhi (1999) and A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India (2008). Manmohan Singh was sworn in as the Prime Minister at the Asoka Hall of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Samajwadi Party (SP).[30] . have successful.

Industrial Development Bank of India (1976–1980) Secretary. New York o 1966 : Economic Affairs Officer 1966 Economic Advisor. United Nations Secretariat. University of Cambridge. (1985–1987) Advisor to Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs (1990–1991) Finance Minister of India. (1977–1980) Governor. India (1971–1972) Chief Economic Advisor. Reserve Bank of India (1982–1985) Deputy Chairman. (21 June 1991 – 15 May 1996) Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (1998–2004) Prime Minister of India (22 May 2004 – Present) [edit] See also • • Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship Economic reforms under Dr Manmohan Singh Rajya Sabha Preceded by Unknown Member for Assam 1991 – present Political offices Incumbent . MA First Class in Economics. 1954 Punjab University. University of Delhi o Honorary Professor (1996) Chief. St John's College. Ministry of Finance. Ministry of Foreign Trade. Planning Commission of India.Singh has undergone multiple cardiac bypass surgeries. Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs). UNCTAD. Financing for Trade Section. Jawaharlal Nehru University. most recently in January 2009. Economics (1957–1959) o Reader (1959–1963) o Professor (1963–1965) o Professor of International Trade (1969–1971) DPhil in Economics. Government of India. (1972–1976) Honorary Professor. Reserve Bank of India (1976–1980) Director. 2009. [edit] Degrees and posts held • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BA (Hons) in Economics 1952. India. Chandigarh. Cambridge (1957) o Senior Lecturer. New Delhi (1976) Director. Nuffield College at University of Oxford.(1962) Delhi School of Economics.[31] He resumed his duties on March 4. India First Class Honours degree in Economics.

Preceded by Indraprasad Gordhanbhai Patel Preceded by Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao Preceded by Yashwant Sinha Governor of the Reserve Bank of India 1982 – 1985 Deputy Chairperson of the Planning Commission of India 1985 – 1987 Minister of Finance of India 1991 – 1996 Prime Minister of India 2004 – present Succeeded by Amitav Ghosh Succeeded by Punjala Shiv Shankar Succeeded by Jaswant Singh Preceded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee Chairperson of the Planning Commission of India 2004 – present Minister of External Affairs of India 2005 – 2006 Minister of Finance of India 2008 – 2009 Incumbent Preceded by Kunwar Natwar Singh Preceded by Palaniappan Chidambaram Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee [edit] References .