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ANGLES FORMED BY TRANSVERSALS

Angles formed by a Transversal with Two lines
Let us know what we mean by a transversal. Look at figure 3-32 (i)
Here, lines l and m lie in the same plane. Line PQ intersects line l at L and line
m at M. M and N are different points. In the figure, line PQ is called transversal
intersecting the lines l and m . Thus, a line that intersects two or more lines in a
plane at distinct point is called a transversal. On observing figure 3-32 (ii), line
p intersects line l , m and n at distinct points P, Q and R respectively. Therefore,
line p is a transversal to the lines l , m and n . But in figure 3-32 (iii) none of the
three lines is a transversal to the other two because they do not intersect at
distinct points.

Classification of Angles formed by a Transversal
suur
In figure 3-33, transversal PQ intersects lines l and m in two distinct points A and
suur
B respectively. The transversal PQ makes four angles with line l and as many
angles with line m . To simplify the process, they have been named as
∠1, ∠2, ∠3, ∠4, ∠5, ∠6, ∠7 and ∠8 in the figure.
These angles have been classified in the following groups:

1. Exterior Angles: The angles whose arms do not include the line segment AB
are called exterior angles. In figure 3-33, ∠1, ∠2, ∠7 and ∠8 are exterior angles.

2. Interior Angles: The angles whose arms contain the line segment AB are
called interior angles. In figure 3-33, ∠3, ∠4, ∠5 and ∠6 are interior angles.
∠3 and ∠6 are on the same side of the transversal. These angles are called interior
angles on the same side of the transversal. These angles are also called
consecutive interior angles. Thus ∠4 and ∠5 are the angles on the same side of
the transversal and hence, consecutive interior angles.

3. Alternate Angles: In figure 3-33 out of the angles ∠3, ∠4, ∠5 and ∠6 two
suur
angles, ∠3 and ∠4 are the opposite sides of the transversal PQ and form a linear
suur
pair ∠3 and ∠5 are also on the opposite side of the transversal PQ , but they do
not form a linear pair. Here, ∠3 and ∠5 are called alternate interior angles or
simply alternate angles. So, we conclude; if a transversal intersects two lines,
lying in the same plane, a pair of interior angles which do not form a linear pair
and are on the opposite side of the transversal is called a pair of alternate angles.

We also have the pairs ∠2 and ∠8 , ∠1 and ∠7 in figure 3-33, these are known as
alternate exterior angles.
4. Corresponding Angles: In figure 3-33, we find that ∠2 and ∠6 , are on the
same side of the transversal and do not forma linear pair. Such pair of angles is
called corresponding angles. Thus, we conclude. If a transversal interests two
lines, lying in the same plane, a pair of interior and exterior angles which do not
form a linear pair and are on the same side of the transversal is called a pair of
corresponding angles.

In figure 3-33, there are four pairs of corresponding angles, namely ∠2 and ∠6 ,
∠3 and ∠7 , ∠1 and ∠5 ,and ∠4 and ∠8 .

Angles formed by a Transversal to two parallel lines

If a transversal intersects two or more parallel lines in a plane, by measurement
of angles using a protractor, we find that:

1. Pairs of alternate interior/exterior angles have equal degree measures.

2. Pairs of corresponding angles have equal degree measures.

3. Interior/Exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary,
that is, the sum of the measures of interior/exterior angles on the same side of
the transversal is 180o .

It should be noted that if two lines are intersected by a transversal and any of the
properties (1) to (3) mentioned above holds good, then the lines are parallel.

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