MODULE    1  HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION  OF THE INDUSTRY   
INSTRUCTOR GUIDE 

 

 

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................................................ 47  ..........S.......................................... 1  Unit A Instructor Guide ............................................................................................................. 29  PowerPoint: The Science Behind Direct and Alternating Current ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 39  Student Handout for Lab Activity “Smog in a Jar” .................................. 5  Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit A ........................................................................................................... 29  PowerPoint: The Science Behind Static Electricity ................................................................................................... Answer Key for Critical Thinking Exercise “Truth or Urban Legend?” .................................................... 27  Unit A PowerPoints .......................................................................................... 36  Unit A Vocabulary Activity ..................................................................................................................................... 7  Unit A Student Materials .................                        MODULE  1    HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE INDUSTRY    Table of Contents  Unit A: History of the U................... 11  Unit A Teaching Resources .......................... 49  .................................................................................... 31  PowerPoint: The Science Behind Cleaner Air ...... 44  Answer Key for Unit A Vocabulary Activity .............................................. 43  .................................. 41  Student Handout for Unit A Activity “Why Regulate Emissions?” .......................................... Energy Industry and Infrastructure ....................... Module 1 Unit A Quiz ................................................. 46  Answer Key for Unit A Guided Note‐Taking Outline  ....................................................................................................................................................... 5  Unit A Teaching Strategies ............................. 3  Unit A Overview .................... 34  Unit A Guided Note‐Taking Outline .................. 5  Pacing Chart for Unit A Lesson Delivery ................................ 42  Unit A Review Questions ..........................................................................................

.................................................. 56  Answer Key to Unit A Activity “Why Regulate Emissions?”  ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55  Answer Key for Lab Activity “Smog in a Jar” ......................................................................................................................................................................... AC” ....... 57  ....................................... 111  Unit B Activity: “Reading Your Electricity Bill” ................................. 128  Answer Key for Module 1 Unit B Quiz ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Answer Key for Unit A Activity “CO2 Cap and Trade: Pro or Con?” .................................................................... 122  Answer Key for Unit B Guided Note‐Taking Outline .............................. 141  Unit C Overview ...................................................... 68  Unit B: The Energy Industry: Structure and Organization ........................................................................................................................................................Answer Key to Critical Thinking Exercise “DC vs........................................................ 138  Unit C: Energy Flow: Generation........ 144  Unit C Student Materials .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 73  Unit B Teaching Strategies .................................................................................................................................. 137  Unit B Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary Activities ..... Unit B Student Materials .............. 139  Unit C Instructor Guide ............. 69  Unit B Instructor Guide ............................................... 73  Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit B ....................................................................................... 64  Unit A Resources ................................................................................. 81  Unit B Teaching Resources ........................ and Distribution ................... 58  Answer Key for Unit A Review Questions ................................................. 109  Unit B Guided Note‐Taking Outline .................................. 75  ................................................................ 73  Pacing Chart for Unit B Lesson Delivery  .. 117  Module 1 Unit B Quiz ....................................................... 161  ........................................................................................................ 123  Answer Key for Unit B Review Questions .......................................... 67  Unit A Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary Activities ................................................... 118  Answer Key for Unit B Vocabulary Activity ................................................................................................... 143  Teaching Strategies .......................................... ............................... 133  Unit B Resources ................................................................................................................................. 61  Answer Key for Module 1 Unit A Quiz ......... 143  Pacing Chart for Unit C Lesson Delivery ................. 71  Unit B Overview .................................. 143  Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit C ...................................................................... 52  Answer Key to Critical Thinking Exercise “Obligation to Serve” ................................................................................................. 116  Unit B Review Questions ............ Transmission.................................. 107  Unit B Vocabulary Activity ......................................... 147  Unit C Teaching Resources .................................................

......................................................... 171  Answer Key to Guided Note‐Taking Outline ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179  Answer Key for Unit C Review Questions ........................................................... 169  Unit C Review Questions ... 186  Unit C Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary Activities ......................................................................Unit C PowerPoint ........................................................................................................ 166  Unit C Matching Vocabulary Activity ................................................................................................................. 181  Unit C Resources .................................................. 186        ..... 163  PowerPoint: The Science of Energy ............................................................... 176  Answer Key for Unit C Matching Vocabulary Activity ............ 180  Answer Key to Module 1 Unit C Quiz ............... 163  Unit C Guided Note‐Taking Outline ................................................ 170  Module 1 Unit C Quiz ...........................................................................................................................................................................

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 Energy  Industry and Infrastructure        .S.        Unit A: History of the U.

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        Unit A Instructor Guide      .

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There are several techniques that can be used to combat these tendencies including assigning roles. state. and so forth. Give them time for reflection and research. Many of the labs and activities are completed in small groups.Unit A Overview  This unit traces the evolution of the power industry from the discovery and harnessing of electricity to its status as a consumer product. Allow students to work on the Critical Thinking exercises in groups. worksheets. Unit A Teaching Strategies  Throughout this unit and the rest of the course. record answers. you may need to coach students on how to work effectively as a team and be vigilant to students who try to take over every group and do all the work. Another skill that is valued by employers is the ability to work in teams and get along with others. allowing group members to grade their teammates on their teamwork skills which becomes part of their grade on a project. Learning to keep neat and accurate notes is a worthwhile skill. students will be asked to complete short activities. giving individual as well as group grades. and federal) and explain importance of proper documentation to ensure compliance. We begin with a very brief look at the properties of electricity and continue with a discussion of some of the inventors who commercialized its use. Keeping documentation is a skill required in many jobs in the energy industry. Next. as well as give more insight into why the content being covered is important. Collaborative learning—sometimes referred to as “cooperative learning. Explain the role of regulatory bodies in the energy industry (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and others) and understand what “obligation to serve” means. and so forth. if needed. Discuss environmental laws and regulations that impact the energy industry (local. This unit presents many opportunities for small group discussion.” “group learning. having students list the roles each played in a project. They should be read and discussed as they show the range of careers available in the energy industry. as well as students who slack off and let everyone else do the work. Early in the course. students should be able to: • • • Discuss the history of the United States energy industry/infrastructure. we examine the economic principles behind the commercialization and the economic regulation that developed from a system of investor holding companies.” or Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  5  . Career profiles are included throughout each module even though an entire online module devoted to careers will accompany this course. and laboratory activities and answer a variety of questions. take notes. Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit A  Upon completion of this Unit. It is recommended that they keep a spiral notebook or composition book where they can collect data. The unit concludes with an investigation of environmental regulations and methods for reducing toxic emissions.

it gives students the opportunity to develop interpersonal skills required by industry. Collaborative learning allows you to work with smaller groups of students as they apply critical thinking skills to answer questions and perform lab activities. Dedicating less time to lecturing and more to observing and facilitating student learning allows you to monitor student problem solving and understanding in a just-in-time manner.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  6  . Based on your interaction with the small groups you can determine which concepts. if any. need to be reviewed or re-taught before continuing to the next lesson. Additionally.“teamwork”—encourages students to take an active role in solving problems.

The Critical Thinking exercise “Obligation to Serve” asks students to reflect on what they’ve read and decide whether there are limits on the obligation to serve. apply it to a scenario. current electricity.Pacing Chart for Unit A Lesson Delivery  MODULE 1. economies of scale. AC (embedded in text) Instructor Answer Key to Critical Thinking exercise: DC vs. 1-8 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary PowerPoint presentation: The Science Behind Static Electricity Activity: Truth or Urban Legend? (embedded in text) Instructor Answer Key to Critical Thinking exercise: Truth or Urban Legend? PowerPoint presentation: The Science Behind Direct Current and Alternating Current Activity: DC vs. Instructional Resources   Student text: Origin of Economic Laws and Regulations Guided Note-taking Outline. Unit A. Use the presentation “The Science Behind Static Electricity” to introduce the difference between static vs. AC) and introduce the inventors and entrepreneurs who made electricity useful and marketable. These pages introduce the economic concepts of natural monopoly. The Critical Thinking exercise “DC vs.S. Use the presentation “The Science Behind Direct Current and Alternating Current” to introduce the difference between DC and AC electricity. AC Lesson 2  Students should read the section of Module 1. 11-23 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Obligation to Serve (embedded in text) Instructor Answer Key to Critical Thinking exercise: Obligation to Serve  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  7  . You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. called “Origin of Economic Laws and Regulations” in the student text. DC vs. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. AC” asks students to reflect on what they’ve read and answer the questions posed. Instructional Resources   Student text: Introductory section Guided Note-taking Outline. UNIT A: HISTORY OF THE U. and obligation to serve. in the student text. The Critical Thinking exercise “Truth or Urban Legend?” asks students to reflect on what they’ve read. and determine whether it is fact or fiction. ENERGY INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE  Lesson 1  Students should read the first three pages of Module 1. Unit A. These pages provide a brief overview of the science behind electricity (static vs. current electricity. as well as the stockholder circumstances under which economic regulations were deemed necessary.

Allow 1 to 2 weeks to complete this activity. Allow the class to vote on the persuasiveness of each side of the five debates. Lead them through Trial 1. Provide groups of 3 or 4 students with the handout and equipment for the Activity “Smog in a Jar. 8  Instructional Resources   Student text: Origin of Environmental Laws and Regulations Guided Note-taking Outline. Lead them through Trial 2. In reaction to these emissions. The Activity “CO2 Cap and Trade: Pro or Con?” requires students to demonstrate research. governments have established regulatory agencies and laws governing the release of pollutants. UNIT A: HISTORY OF THE U. The PowerPoint presentation “The Science Behind Cleaner Air” is optional.MODULE 1. called “Origin of Environmental Laws and Regulations” in the student text. 24-29 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity Handout: Smog in a Jar Instructor Answer Key to Critical Thinking follow-up: Smog in a Jar PowerPoint presentation: The Science Behind Cleaner Air Student Worksheet for Activity: Why Regulate Emissions? Instructor Key for Activity: Why Regulate Emissions? Activity: CO2 Cap and Trade: Pro or Con? (embedded in text) Rubric for research presentation evaluation Note: the rubric rewards effort more than pure persuasiveness. Set up a debate format for their presentation. These pages introduce the idea that hazardous substances may be released into the air and that these substances have specific detrimental effects on humans and the environment. writing. the class vote will have very little influence on the grade. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary.S.” Go over the instructions with them. Unit A. It can be submitted for a grade. pitting one side against the other. Ask each group to write down responses to the Critical Thinking questions that follow the lab. Scientists are continually developing technologies to mitigate pollution. but provides more detail on the distribution of particulate pollution across the globe and describes the use of NASA instruments to study it. • • Divide class into 10 or more groups of 2 or 3 students Each group will be assigned to represent one of the following positions: Scientist-Pro Scientist-Con Elected Official-Pro Elected Official-Con Regulatory Agency-Pro Regulatory Agency-Con Industry Representative-Pro Industry Representative-Con General Public-Pro Give them a copy of the assessment rubric that outlines performance expectations for this assignment. discussion. • Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . ENERGY INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE  Lesson 3  Students should read the section of Module 1. The Activity “Why Regulate Emissions?” requires a little bit of research by students on a handful of regulated substances and their health and environmental impacts. and presentation skills. Stop and ask for their observations.

Answer student questions.       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  9  . Instructional Resources  Student Text Glossary Guided Note-taking Outline Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Unit A Vocabulary Exercise— Crossword Puzzle Answer Key for Crossword Puzzle Unit A Review Questions Answer Key for Unit A Review Questions Unit A Quiz Answer Key for Unit A Quiz Unit Quiz  Have students complete the quiz for Unit A. Have students complete the review questions for Unit A. ENERGY INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE  Unit Wrap Activity  Orally review and discuss key concepts from Unit A with students.MODULE 1. UNIT A: HISTORY OF THE U. Have students complete the crossword puzzle for Unit A.S.

      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  10  .

        Unit A Student Materials        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  11  .

      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  12  .

Where the  hempen string terminated a key  was fastened….UNIT A: HISTORY OF THE U. who served as a telegraph operator in cities  throughout the Midwest from 1863 to 1867 and then moved to the main Western Union  telegraph company office in Boston in 1868. discoveries about electricity were  primarily confined to the realm of scientific theory and had no  value to the average citizen. Power comes from  current electricity. Starting in the mid‐1800s.     Franklin’s Famous Kite  …it occurred to him that he might  have more ready access to the  region of clouds by means of a  common kite.  his kite was raised. His  continuing experimentation led to multiple patents and his establishment of a research facility  at Menlo Park.  Until 1821. when. clever inventors began to see the potential for  MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. we usually think of  Benjamin Franklin. positive (+) and negative (−). static electricity.  Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus added to our knowledge  of electricity by describing the attraction that develops when  amber is rubbed with fur or a piece of silk. Today we observe  the same phenomenon. a thunder‐ cloud passed over it. Much later. it is not useful as power. Congress authorized funding to construct a telegraph line from  Washington to Baltimore.He placed himself  under a shade to avoid the rain. He almost  despaired of success. when we pull socks  from a warm clothes dryer or rub a balloon across our hair— static “cling” from the attraction between two objects with  different charges. Telegraph lines quickly proliferated throughout the United States and  attracted the attention of Thomas Edison. While static  electricity can give you quite a shock when electrons are  discharged. the flow of electrons along a path  composed of a conductor material such as water or specific  metals.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  13  . The first recorded  observations of the properties of electricity—notably its  ability to shock—were made by ancient Egyptians observing  electric fish in the Nile River. But his famous kite experiment with  lightning didn’t occur until 1752. he observed the loose  fibres of his string to move  towards an erect position. in about 600 BC. New Jersey. In 1844. He soon turned his efforts toward inventing  refinements to the telegraph system.  however. To the upright stick was  affixed an iron point…. revolutionizing  communication by allowing messages to be transmitted long  distances via wires.  and received a strong spark. which would not  suffer so much from the rain as  paper.  harnessing its power to benefit society.  suddenly. He prepared one by  fastening two cross sticks to a silk  handkerchief. when Michael Faraday developed a very  rudimentary electric motor. Samuel Morse  1839  invented the telegraph in 1835. no sign of  electricity appeared.S.  ENERGY INDUSTRY AND  INFRASTRUCTURE  When we think of the history of electricity. He now  presented his knuckle to the key. such as the ability to send multiple messages at once.

 Rather than lift a heavy can full of gas back into the  bed of the truck. Metering allows suppliers  to bill for the actual amount of energy used rather than  the number of lights illuminated per month. A few weeks later.000 to  hydroelectric electricity‐generating plant began operation  build  in Appleton. from 1816 onward in the U.000. Did you know. Jordan escaped with minor burns. but the truck was damaged beyond repair. He put the nozzle into the gas can and flipped the pump switch to the “on” position. 356 dealt with electric lighting and the generation and  transmission of electricity. a  them cost $1. he  developed a light bulb that could burn for 40 hours. seeing great potential for commercialization. Edison opened the Pearl Street  Station—one of the first electricity‐generating plants. however.  Could this really happen? Why or why not?    Of the 1.200 hours..  On September 4. electricity‐ • The power plant to run  conducting copper wire.      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  14  . natural gas was  burned for illumination. 1882.  Powered by steam engines. Two years later Thomas Edison founded the Edison Electric Light Company  in New York City and. A spark flew  and the truck caught fire.093 patents granted to Edison. Consumer demand for electric  service quickly increased with the advent of labor‐saving devices such as the electric iron and  fan that same year. He drove his pickup truck to the gas station to fill a  portable container to take back to his lawnmower. The metered system of measuring  The Chicago Worlds’ Fair   and paying for consumer gas usage eventually became the  model for electricity purchase. In lieu of overhead transmission lines. Jordan reasoned that it would be easier just to fill the can while it sat in the truck  bed. bought a number of patents  related to electric lighting.000 incandescent lights  Edison designed a system of underground tubes called  were used  conduits through which he ran thick. Wisconsin. it provided direct current (DC)  Credit: Brooklyn Museum Archives   only and could distribute electricity to customers within a  one‐mile radius. that Edison didn’t invent the electric  incandescent light bulb? Joseph Swan did in 1876. The trouble was that Swan’s light bulbs  burned out quickly. After many experiments.  Truth or Urban Legend?  Jordan ran out of gas while mowing the lawn.S.  • 120. and  by 1879 his bulbs would last 1. Prior to this    time.

 Other companies charge  one rate for energy used during certain specified hours of the day  and a much lower rate for that used during the remaining hours  of the day. The system allows voltage to be stepped up and the high‐voltage power to be  transmitted long distances and stepped down for consumer use at the outlet. a major investor in electric  utilities. In 1888.Another technological breakthrough was the installation of the  nation’s first large‐scale electric streetcar system covering twelve  miles in Richmond. AC  Why does a regular battery  lose power?  What are the benefits of AC  over DC as a household power  source?   The advent of the induction core and transformer and the ability to use high‐voltage  alternating current (AC) rather than just DC further developed the efficiency of our modern  power system. Each state has a  Public Utility Commission or  Public Service Commission  that governs issues such as  rates. In  an address before a convention of the National Electric Light  Association (1898).  3) the ability of generating stations to serve a wider area. A third method is a system of discounts based on the  total consumption of energy during a given period.    Public Utilities  A public utility provides and  maintains the infrastructure  for providing a public  service. reliability.    DC vs. Municipal or county  utilities not only provide  electric service but also  often include provision of  water and waste‐disposal  service to homes and  businesses. and  telecommunications  providers.  and consumer complaints.   The resulting improvements to the electric power system resulted in   1) economies of scale in generation. considered in  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  15  . Samuel Insull. a rival inventor to Edison. improved upon the safety and  efficiency of others’ designs and successfully launched the line in  1888. outlined the profit structure:   Some companies have adopted the scheme of allowing certain  special discounts provided the income per month per lamp  connected exceeds a certain amount. electric. safety. Thomas Sprague.  market competitiveness.  and  4) the new system’s productivity increasing from load  diversity. bought the patents to Nicola Tesla’s AC current  system and to Charles Bradley’s rotary converter.  2) the need for only one wiring grid. Just as electric illumination eventually replaced the use of  gas lighting—a transformation greatly aided by the public display  of incandescent lighting at the 1893 World’s Columbian  Exhibition in Chicago—so also electric streetcars replaced horse‐ drawn public transportation. entrepreneurs began  buying smaller public utilities and creating larger ones—holding  companies—in an effort to benefit from economies of scale. Consumers  have more choices in  selecting gas. George  Westinghouse. a former  researcher in Edison’s laboratory.  Origin of Economic Laws and  Regulations   With the scale‐up of power companies. Virginia.

 In fact. and into Franklin  Roosevelt’s presidential campaign. These various  methods all have the same object in view—the meeting of the conditions of each individual  consumer.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  16  . consolidated system serving a specific  geographic area. Following his re‐election. regulation of  the utilities was a necessity. Because monopolies in the United States were outlawed by the  Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (followed by the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914).  Roosevelt signed into law the Public Utility Holding Company Act  (PUHCA) of 1935. market competition. The commission was unfunded until 1928  when Congress allocated the money for a five‐person bipartisan committee given the power to  regulate the sale and distribution of electricity under the Federal Power Act and later natural  gas facilities. In 1920. Power companies were exempt from competition and.  As a result.  for example) that oversee  rates.   The PUHCA accomplished the following:  1) Required giant interstate utility holding companies to rid  themselves of several layers of holdings until they each  were a smaller. holding  companies such as those owned by Insull began to take  advantage of the business structure by building pyramid‐type  schemes in which a few stockholders controlled electric  companies nationwide. and yet at the same time earning a fair return on all of the investment provided for  all of your customers. It was difficult for states to regulate  utility holding companies because they conducted business  across many different states.  and service. in return.  equipment must be  adequate to handle the  load. continuing through the stock market crash of 1929  (which destroyed holding company value). the Federal Power Commission (FPC) was created to coordinate  hydroelectric power projects under federal control. the Supreme Court  determined that states could not regulate sales of electricity and  natural gas in interstate commerce. Individual states  have their own utilities  commissions (the Florida  Public Services Commission.  Under this concept.  subject to regulation at first primarily by state agencies.  regulatory agencies were  established to help ensure  that those utilities meet  their obligation to serve. the Federal Trade Commission launched an  investigation into the practices of large utility holding companies  in 1928. consumers  suffered from the increased cost of electricity. the establishment of  the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).  Insull went on to argue that burgeoning electric utilities were essentially natural monopolies to  which exclusive regional franchises should be granted in exchange for public control of the  prices charged for service.  2) Prohibited energy holding companies from engaging in  business other than operation of a single utility.    Obligation to Serve Because consumers have  traditionally had few  choices for utilities service  under the natural  monopolies concept. service  is expected to be reliable  (uninterrupted) and safe. and prices should be  affordable.  With the expansion of the electric utility companies. due to the local nature of electricity  generation. Ultimately.connection with the maximum consumption at any time during the same period.

  Allowed the SEC to authorize restructuring of holding  companies if they failed to streamline as required  under the Act. acquisitions. Another law regulating the gas industry. but more  importantly. At Norris  Dam.  Roosevelt created the  Tennessee Valley Authority  (1933) and the Rural  Electrification Administration  (1935) to ensure that  electricity could be distributed  to outlying areas.S. increased the breadth of its  powers. it  also applied to natural gas companies. a process in which  electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the  same fuel or energy source. increase in natural  gas as a direct fuel source for electricity generation was  limited. This  is accomplished through cogeneration.  4) Required holding companies to register with the SEC. promote energy  efficiency. PURPA was intended to  reduce U. with a notable  increase during the oil supply crisis of the 1970s. to purchase power from independent companies  that produce electricity as a by‐product of other activities. if incorporated in several  states. the  force of falling water is used to  generate electric power. Because of the restrictions placed on electric  utilities under PURPA and PUHCA. and diversify the  electric power industry. and overall business  strategies. restricted the  price gas companies—operating as natural monopolies just like electric companies—could  charge consumers.  Credit: Franklin D. FERC could not  mandate that an electric utility open its transmission system    Providing Electricity Beyond  Large Cities  President Franklin D. to be regulated by the SEC. and soon thereafter passed the Public Utilities  Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). the Natural Gas Act of 1938. develop alternative fuel sources. PURPA  required electric utilities to restructure their rates. Part of that diversification involved  allowing non‐utilities to generate and sell power. which helped promote significant growth in gas‐ fired.  The demand for natural gas for use in the production of  electricity did not grow until after World War II. The Act prevented non‐utility holding companies from  acquiring gas utilities and engaging in activities unrelated to efficient operation of a single  integrated utility system. PUHCA has shaped both the gas and electric utility industries and  their relationships with each other with respect to mergers. dependency on foreign oil.    What are the limits of obligation  to serve?  Are there utilities or services  similar to utilities that do not  operate under an obligation to  serve?  While the PUHCA was targeted at the electric utility industry. however. In 1977.3) Required holding companies to be incorporated in the  state where the utility operates so the company can be  regulated by that state. Roosevelt  Presidential Library and Museum  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  17  . electricity‐generating capacity and marked the beginning  of competition in the electric power industry. Natural gas often serves as the  fuel in cogeneration systems where steam is produced along  with electricity. or.  Congress reorganized the FPC as the Federal Energy  Regulatory Commission (FERC). This changed in 1992 with the passage of the Energy  Policy Act. pictured below.

 The prime lesson of the blackout is that the utility industry must strive not  merely for good but for virtually perfect service. Massachusetts. New York. a system  component fails. leading to a power surge followed by power grid overload and subsequent  generator shutdown. A power outage can occur when a power line is damaged in a storm. in his report to the President. Johnson.S. utilities generally  complied. in a strongly worded memo. more than 3. directed the  Federal Power Commission to investigate the failure. the FPC Commissioner  sagely noted that:   The problem arises not because service is poor but because the universal and increasing  dependence of the American public on this form of energy makes any wide‐scale interruption  seriously disruptive. reliability means having uninterrupted access to  electricity. To put it simply. Vermont. the U.000 power plants which are  owned by several hundred private and public entities and overseen by balancing authorities. The grid system is designed to provide enough electricity during peak load.  Within this grid.  The U. President Lyndon B.000 utilities operate approximately 10. and Texas. Investigators found that one transmission  line relay failed.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  18  .  Multiple balancing authorities within each of the regional power grids ensure the reliable flow  of power to customers. Four million homes in New York City  alone were without power.  encompassing Ontario. NERC consisted of nine regional reliability  organizations that urged voluntary compliance by electric utilities with its procedures for  ensuring the reliability of the power system.S.  connecting not just regions of the continental U. temporary power outages are unfortunately not a thing of the past. regulatory bodies. Congress proposed the creation of an agency charged with  coordinating electric reliability. This fact was driven home in  November 1965 when a massive blackout shut down an 80. and consumers anticipate that equipment modernization and  implementation of a smart grid system will decrease the number and severity of these events. For the good of the industry.000‐square‐mile area. but also parts of Mexico and all of Canada. The U. Connecticut.S. The  power industry. transmission. and parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Western. The postwar era also saw the establishment of the concept of the electrical power grid—a  network we usually envision as transmission lines but actually consisting of many  interconnected electric generation. although NERC had no enforcement power until the passage of another Energy  Policy Act in 2005. New Hampshire.for wholesale electric trade until this Act amended the Federal Power Act and essentially  deregulated the power industry economically. Electric Power Reliability Act of 1967 did not become  law.  Rhode Island. Due to constantly increasing demand for electricity and regular occurrence  of national disasters. One month later. power grid is comprised of three major sections called Eastern. or demand for electricity outweighs supply.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy  Reliability. but urged by industry leaders the FPC recommended the establishment of the North  American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). and hundreds of thousands of commuters were stuck in the subway  system until midnight. and distribution systems over a broad  geographic area.  In response to this event.

 however.  influenza reports.  Tomorrow she will be working with the plant’s Security Manager on revision of the company’s  plans for preventing and reporting acts of theft and sabotage and breaches of cybersecurity. Researchers have analyzed  public health insurance claims. pneumonia cases.  household furnaces. hospital  admission rates for cardiac and respiratory  disease.  yellowish‐black cloud caused by a mixture of  emissions from coal‐fired power plants. when 20 people died and  7. but they are not.  In Florida. In 1285. wears many hats. mortality records.” He proceeded from there to  argue for improved smokestack and home grating  systems designed for more efficient—and less  smoky—combustion of coal. the  Classical period. Thousands of people died. A day‐to‐day issue. at which time a ban against burning coal was  decreed (but largely ignored). CAREER PROFILE: Compliance Manager  As Compliance Manager at a power company serving a large metropolitan area on the East Coast. Fast‐forward to  1854. Her plant is less likely to be crippled by physical  sabotage than by a computer virus. commonly used for gaslight.000 were hospitalized in Donora. Jennifer and her team are examining the feasibility of a two‐pronged approach to  curbing theft: a public awareness campaign and the installation of video cameras at substations. and vehicle exhaust  settled over the city. due to complications from  breathing toxic smog resulting from a  combination of industrial emissions and a  weather condition called a temperature  inversion.  and the situation only got worse when  ambulances stopped running after visibility  dipped to zero.” methods for  complying with Lord Palmerston’s Smoke  Abatement Act. 4. He first examined the use of coal  gas. recorded temperatures. We may think of environmental  quality commissions as a relatively new  development. Today. The significance  of air quality on human health became  apparent in 1948.S.  Pennsylvania. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and governmental authorities in Canada. environmental laws  affect the operation of utilities. With  the increased spotlight on global terrorism.000 consumers were left without power after thieves stripped copper wire from a  transformer. in which “one  pound of coal suffices to make four cubic feet of  luminiferous gas. NERC is a self‐regulatory organization but is still subject to oversight by the  U. In 1952. for example. protection of what is known as the country’s critical  infrastructure has become a bigger part of her job. she’s leading a training seminar for System  Operators on reliability standards established by the North American Electric Reliability  Corporation (NERC). It met again in 1288 and  1306.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  19  . when prolific writer Charles Dickens not only  fictionalized the blackened skies of industrial  London in his novel Hard Times but also outlined.  Origin of Environmental Laws and Regulations  In addition to regulations and commissions  governing the market for electricity and its  availability to consumers. and    The Air We Breathe Keeping the air breathable has long been a human  concern—recorded in ancient civilizations.  in his essay “Smoke or No Smoke. is the theft of valuable copper  wire from power substations. and up through  the present era. the Great Smog of London  captured global attention as an opaque. Copper theft threatens the reliability of electricity delivery systems. Medieval times.  Jennifer L. a London  commission was set up to investigate the smoke  coming from burning coal.

 and  other problems  reduce emissions of toxic chemicals that cause cancer or other serious health problems  phase out the production and use of ozone‐depleting chemicals  require companies that release pollution into the air to obtain a permit stating which  chemicals they release.  Observation: What happens inside the jar?  Trial 2 Directions:  1)  Repeat steps 1 and 2 with the second jar. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) coincided with the passage  of the Clean Air Act of 1970. The Act and its amendments are designed to:  • • • • • reduce the concentration of outdoor air pollution that causes smog.000 who died immediately  during the event. how much.  3)  Repeat steps 3 and 4 (above). Wet the sides only. Cover immediately with the foil lid.S.  From 1955 to 1967. the researchers found an additional 12.  Observation and Critical Thinking: What happens inside the jar this time? What conclusions can you  draw about smog from the behavior of the smoke under each set of circumstances?      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  20  . toxic rain. The Air Quality Act of  1967 signaled the beginning of federal enforcement of environmental standards. and their plan for reducing pollution  strengthen EPA enforcement of air quality standards    LAB ACTIVITY: Smog in a Jar  Materials needed for each group of 3 or 4 students: • 2 glass canning or mayonnaise jars (or 1 to re‐use if you have access to a sink)  • paper towels  •  6 ice cubes  • 2 tablespoons salt  •  aluminum foil  • matches  •  a small amount of water  Trial 1 Directions:  1)  Create a tight lid for the jar out of aluminum foil. These disasters served as a catalyst for laws in many countries designed  to protect public health.  2)  Twist a piece of paper towel into a rope.   4)  Place 3 ice cubes in the indentation and sprinkle 1 tablespoon of salt on the ice. Congress passed a series of air pollution and air quality acts that funded  research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution.air pollutant concentrations for December‐February 1952‐1953 and compared the figures with  those for the previous year. Mortality rates during and following the Great Smog were  dramatically higher than the previous year.  2)  Tilt the jar and pour a few drops of water into the jar.  3)  Light the paper towel rope and drop it into the dry jar.000 who subsequently died from  smog‐related illnesses. In addition to the 3. The  establishment of the U. Press a small indentation into the top.

     Power plants and other industries that burn fossil fuels have various technologies for mitigating  air pollution.  The EPA calculates the Air Quality Index (AQI) for five of the air  pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act. particulate matter.5) is produced naturally from blowing dust but  also any time fuels such as coal. sulfur dioxide.  they fall to the bottom and can then be removed.   Carbon dioxide emissions. use an electric field that charges the pollutant particles.   Particle pollution (also called particulates. consist of  cylinders through which polluted air is passed. state. Cyclones. Under this  system. in turn. sulfur oxides. When the power is turned off.   ACTIVITY: Why Regulate Emissions?  Various federal. The Clean Air Act of 1990 established a system of emissions trading (“cap and  trade”) designed to lower sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the air. Wet scrubbers remove sulfur dioxides and some particulates from smokestacks by  allowing exhaust gases to pass through a fine water spray that contains lime.  These particles then are attracted to the walls of the precipitator. you will research regulated pollutants (nitrogen oxides. The EPA also regulates effluents—polluted water discharged  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  21  . The incentive for participation is financial— pollution reduction has a market value. a compound that  absorbs most of the sulfur.  substances such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds. oil. the walls no longer hold their charge and the  particulates detach and fall into a collection chamber. ground‐level ozone.5 micrometers Your Air Quality Forecast  You can check your local AQI  are labeled PM2. carbon monoxide. In this activity. Each day more than a  thousand monitors throughout the country gather and report air quality data. Electrostatic precipitators. much smaller in diameter than a  human hair. which has an opposite  charge.The EPA enforces rules requiring power plants that burn fossil fuels to reduce emissions of  particle pollution. but utilities can buy  and sell emission permits called allowances. and PM2.gov/ to  view your regional conditions  because they tend to be composed of more dangerous  and forecast.  PM10. diesel. and local agencies regulate what can and cannot be discharged into the  environment. sometimes described as centrifugal separators. there is a limit to the amount of emissions a company may release. The smaller particles are more dangerous to human  health because they can penetrate the lungs more easily and also  http://www. lead. And this. nitrogen oxides. while monitored. which remove  about 99 percent of the particulates. or wood are burned.    Particulate matter is much. provides an incentive for investment  in technologies that reduce regulated emissions. and  particulate matter) and their potential health and environmental impacts and complete the table on  the worksheet provided by your instructor. including particulates. Particles with a diameter of up to 2.  and mercury. are not regulated at this time although the EPA has  studied the issue in depth and Congress has proposed legislation for a cap and trade system for  regulating this greenhouse gas.airnow. As the particulates hit the walls of the cylinder.5 and with a diameter of up to 10 micrometers  by visiting  are PM10.

 this law allows the  Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice to approve all proposed mergers  Clean Air Act of 1970 and Clean Air Act of 1990—laws that defines EPA's responsibilities for  protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer  cogeneration—process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the  same fuel or energy source   conductor—a material along which electrons easily flow. Each group will be assigned an affiliation (scientist.  regulatory agencies. Regulation of these outputs is overseen by the  Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DC results from a constant  polarity power source (see “polarity” in Glossary)  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  22  . Plants generating power from nuclear energy produce  radioactive waste. for example) and a side (for or against  carbon cap and trade) and will investigate the issues and concerns of interest to their affiliated group.    Unit A Glossary  alternating current (AC)—an electric current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring  intervals  balancing authority—a regional organization responsible for planning for and maintaining the  balance of electricity resources and electricity demand  blackout—power loss affecting many consumers over a large geographical area for a significant  period of time  Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914—building on the Sherman Antitrust Act. such as a conductive wire  direct current (DC)—current that moves in only one direction.   Equipment required: Computer with Internet access for research  Optional: PowerPoint. release non‐radioactive emissions. industry representatives. poster board. and create thermal effluents— overheated water that can impact marine life. the opposite of a conductor is an  insulator  current—a flow of electrons along a path. Divide into 10 groups of 2 or 3  students. and markers  Research questions to be addressed:  • Who is your affiliated group?   • Why are you interested in carbon emissions?  • What is your point of view (pro or con)?  • What will happen if your affiliated group is not able to persuade others?  You will be asked to present your persuasive argument to the class.into wastewater—to a lesser degree. elected officials.   ACTIVITY: CO2 Cap and Trade: Pro or Con?  The need for capping carbon emissions has been vigorously debated by scientists. and the general public.

economies of scale—when cost of production falls because output has increased  effluent—substance released into a body of water  electrical power grid—interconnected electric generation, transmission, and distribution  systems over broad geographic areas—Eastern, Western, and Texas  electron—negatively charged particle outside the nucleus of an atom   electrostatic precipitator—a device for removing small particles (such as smoke, dust, or oil)  from a gas, such as air, by passing the gas first through an electrically charged screen that  gives a charge to the particles, then between two charged plates where the particles are  attracted to one surface  emissions—substances released into the environment; usually used to refer to substances  discharged into the air  Energy Policy Act of 1992—marked the beginning of competition in the electric power industry   Energy Policy Act of 2005—gave NERC enforcement power for reliability standards  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—agency tasked with enforcing laws protecting human  health and the environment  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)—independent regulatory agency within the  Department of Energy and the successor to the Federal Power Commission; it governs  interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas  pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification   Federal Power Act 1928—provided funding for the Federal Power Commission, a five‐person  bipartisan committee given the power to regulate the sale and distribution of electricity   Federal Power Commission of 1920—created to coordinate hydroelectric projects under  federal control  Federal Trade Commission (FTC)—created in 1914 to enforce laws against monopolies; has  since evolved into the agency that also administers consumer protection laws   greenhouse gas—gases that trap heat in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, methane,  nitrous oxide, and hydrofluorocarbons  holding company—a company which owns or holds stock in other companies, which it then  manages and operates  hydroelectric power—power generated by using moving water to power a turbine generator to  produce electricity  load—device or customer that receives power from the electric system. Load should not be  confused with demand, which is the measure of power that a load receives or requires  load diversity—when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different  times  Natural Gas Act of 1938—legislation restricting the prices gas utilities could charge consumers 

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natural monopoly—a situation in which smaller companies are not able to compete with big  companies in a particular industry sector and as a result a large company dominates the  market; this results from the large company benefiting from economies of scale (meaning  that the bigger company is able to operate more efficiently and offer services more cheaply  to the consumer) and/or requires huge capital investments for equipment (meaning that  no other companies want to spend the money needed to compete in the market)  North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)—formed in 1968 in response to the  1965 blackout, NERC is the electric reliability organization certified by the Federal Energy  Regulatory Commission to establish and enforce reliability standards for the bulk‐power  system. All bulk power system owners, operators, and users are required to register with  NERC  Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)—regulates nuclear power plants and other uses of  nuclear materials, such as nuclear medicine, while protecting humans and the environment  obligation to serve—the obligation of a utility to provide electric service to any customer who  seeks that service, and is willing to pay the rates set for that service; traditionally, utilities  have assumed the obligation to serve in return for an exclusive monopoly franchise  peak load—time of highest demand for and use of electricity  polarity—the orientation of the positive and negative poles of a power source  pollution—the introduction of harmful contaminants into the environment  public utility—maintains the infrastructure for providing a public service such as gas, electric,  water, and waste‐disposal service  Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)—a law passed promoting more  efficient use of fossil fuels and greater use of renewable energy for generating electricity.  Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)—law that severely limited acquisition of  any wholesale or retail electric business through a holding company and restricted  ownership of an electric business by non‐utility corporations  reliability—the power system is able to meet the electricity needs of customers even when  equipment fails or other factors reduce the amount of available electricity; consists of the  adequacy and security of the electricity supply to consumers  Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)—agency created by Congress in 1933; regulates  interstate transactions in corporate securities and stock exchanges  Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890—outlawed monopolies in the United States  smart grid—modernization of the current grid technology; has the ability to monitor energy  flow and communicate data back to utility companies; uses smart meters; takes advantage  of distributed generation allowing smaller power sources to feed energy back into the grid;  stores energy generated in off‐peak hours and distributes it during peak hours 

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static electricity—an electrical charge that cannot move, created when two objects have been  in contact and then are separated—leaving them with either too many or too few electrons  (an electric charge)  stepped down—conversion of high voltage electricity to lower voltage through the use of  transformers at power substations  stepped up—conversion of low voltage electricity to higher voltage through the use of  transformers; a step‐up transmission substation receives electric power from a nearby  generating facility and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for  transmission to distant locations  transformer—a device that changes the voltage of an electric current  wet scrubbers—installed on smokestacks to remove sulfur dioxides and some particulates by  allowing exhaust gases to pass through a fine water spray that contains lime, a compound  which absorbs most of the sulfur   

Unit A References 
Bell, M., and Davis, D.L. (2001). Reassessment of the Lethal London Fog of 1952. Environmental  Health Perspectives Supplement, 109(S3),   http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2001/suppl‐3/389‐394bell/bell‐full.html  Dickens, C. (1854, July 1). Smoke or No Smoke? Household Words, 464‐466.   Electrostatic Discharge Association. (2010). Fundamentals of Electrostatic Discharge, Part 1:  Introduction to ESD. Rome, NY. http://www.esda.org/documents/FundamentalsPart1.pdf  Electrostatic Discharge Association. (2010). Fundamentals of Electrostatic Discharge, Part 3:  Basic ESD control procedures and materials. Rome, NY.  http://www.esda.org/documents/FundamentalsPart3.pdf  Flinn, J. (1893). The Official Guide to the World’s Columbian Exposition. Chicago, IL: The  Columbian Guide Company.  Franklin, B. (1839). Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Harper & Bros.  Insull, S. (Ed.). (1915). Central‐Station Electric Service. Chicago: privately printed.  Kuphaldt, T. (2009). Vol. 1: Basic Concepts of Electricity [Static electricity].  http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_1/1.html  Nielsen, J. (Producer). (2002, December 11). The Killer Fog of '52 [Audio Podcast]. All Things  Considered. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=873954 
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 Norris Dam. Washington. From the Goodyear Archival Collection (S03_06_01_016  image 2152). Department of Labor. Brooklyn  Museum Archives.227.  http://www.html  U. World’s fair administration building at night. (2003.doe. (2009). Controlling  Electrical Hazards.doe. D.eia.234.C. (1999). http://www. http://www. Environmental Protection Agency. L.  http://www. (2009).nasa.org/opencollection/archives/goodyear_archival_collection  Tennessee Valley Authority.marist. Energy Information Administration. Brooklyn.fdrlibrary. W.eia.S. A. Copper Thefts Threaten U.edu/images/photodb/27‐0928a.S. Critical  Infrastructure. Tennessee.pdf  U. Historical Overview of the Electric Power  Industry.130/Publications/osha3075.pdf  U.S. The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.S.energy.gov/cneaf/electricity/corp_str/chapter2. Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution. The Smart Grid: An Introduction. Courtesy of the  Franklin D. New Map Offers a Global View of Health‐Sapping Air  Pollution. (2002).gov/index.cfm?action=pubs.U. September 22). [Photo].gov/stats‐services/publications/copper‐thefts  Voiland. September 15).S.gov/cneaf/electricity/chg_stru_update/chapter2. (September 1893).fbi. N.aqguidepart  U.gov/DocumentsandMedia/DOE_SG_Book_Single_Pages(1). http://www.S. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Department of Energy.  http://www.Y. Energy Information Administration.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration. January 1937.airnow.html  U. [Photo]. (2010. New York. accessed at:  http://docs.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/analysis_publications/ngmajorleg/pubutility.oe. Energy Information Administration.html  Unit A Photo Credits  Starks. accessed at:  http://www.doe. August). (2008. Organizational Components of the Electric  Power Industry.   http://63.brooklynmuseum.gov/topics/earth/features/health‐sapping. Federal Bureau of Investigation.gif            Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  26  .S.html  U. Hyde Park.eia. http://www.

        Unit A Teaching Resources      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  27  .

      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  28  .

Title: The Science of Static Electricity 2. b. c. Atoms are electrically neutral. Opposite Charges Attract 5. e. What Happens? Do the balloons move apart or stick together? Why? Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  29  . Removing an electron creates a charged atom (an “ion” having an uneven number of protons and electrons). 1. Neutrons have no charge. 2 balloons. A simple static lab activity or demonstration is embedded in the presentation. orbited by electrons. f. Atoms have the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-) and have no charge. d.Unit A PowerPoints  These presentations are designed to help students think about the science behind what they are learning about the power industry. a. It is easier to remove an electron from an atom than to remove a proton. and about 1 yard of string for every pair of students Directions Blow up the balloons Tie each end of the string to a balloon Rub each balloon across the same partner’s hair 7. All Matter Is Made of Atoms 3. Atoms consist of a nucleus made of particles called protons and neutrons. POWERPOINT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND STATIC ELECTRICITY  This presentation contains a very basic introduction to the components of an atom and a short exercise demonstrating the power of electrons in static electricity. a negative charge indicates more electrons than protons. Activity Equipment needed: scissors. A positive charge indicates more protons than electrons. Hold the string in the middle so that the balloons hang at an equal distance 8. Like Charges Repel 6. 4.

What Is Static Electricity? a. b. Electrical current consists of electrons flowing over a wire or some other conducting pathway. 12. Static means staying in place. b. If you shuffle your feet across a carpet. When two of the materials on this list are rubbed together. It can overload circuits and melt electronic components. your extra electrons move from you to the knob and you feel a shock. Your hand Glass Nylon Wool Fur Silk Paper Cotton Hard rubber Polyester PVC plastic 15. there is no path for the electrons to move along. Static Safety a.9. What Happens? Does the balloon stick to the wall or fall away? Why? 11. What’s the Most Powerful Natural Static Discharge on Earth? 16. so the charge builds up until there is enough energy for the electrons to jump to something with a positive charge. 13. the one higher on the list will give up electrons and become positively charged. it is an electric charge that is not moving. If you touch a metal doorknob next. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  30  . 14. you pick up electrons from the rug. Materials have been ranked according to their ability to hold or give up electrons. With static electricity. Activity (continued) Cut the string off one balloon Try to stick it to the wall 10. What problems might static cause in the industrial workplace? Static discharge can throw a spark and start a fire. Now you have extra electrons. c.

Electrons then jump from atom to atom. b. Static electricity = an imbalance of positively and negatively charged atoms. Employees exposed to electrical hazards must never wear conductive shoes. b. d. Batteries consist of two or more cells filled with chemicals. Batteries a. releasing energy. Title Slide: The Science Behind Direct Current and Alternating Current 2. b. Current = a flow of electrons along a pathway Direct current (DC) means that electrons flow in one direction. leaving behind positively charged ions. 4. The voltage produced depends on the chemicals used. A “D” cell flashlight battery uses an alkaline reaction. special footwear conducts static away. What are the conditions or measures for preventing static discharge? Various means of grounding are used.17. (Students may find the battery description helpful in answering the Critical Thinking exercise question related to batteries. a metal conductor leads to the ground. Batteries provide DC. electrons are removed. Conductive shoes must be removed when the task requiring their use is completed. For More Information A Health and Safety Guide for Your Workplace: Static Electricity from the Industrial Accident Prevention Association http://www. As the chemicals react. 1. c. Static Electricity a. c. Current Electricity a. c. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  31  . e. The separation between the electrons and the ions creates voltage.iapa. d.) They will also learn relevant vocabulary and circuitry symbols. and alternating current. such as that produced by a household battery.ca/pdf/2004_feb_Static%20Electricity. Static Safety a. Examples of static electricity: Lightning Shocks from scuffing your feet across the carpet on a dry day and then touching a metal surface such as a doorknob 3.pdf POWERPOINT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT  This presentation refreshes students’ knowledge of the difference between static and current electricity and introduces the difference between direct current. A car battery uses a lead-acid reaction. 18. On machinery. On workers.

25 × 1018 electrons. (When the switch is open. Capacitor: a device with the ability to store electric charge (e.. Vocabulary a. symbol is A Load: device or customer that receives power from the electric system.g. Vocabulary a. used in electronic circuits for blocking DC while allowing AC to pass Transformer: transfers electricity from one circuit to another with an increase or decrease in voltage Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  32  . Batteries (diagram) 6.) 11. Series DC Circuit A series circuit has a single path for current to flow. Parallel DC Circuit A parallel circuit has multiple paths for current to flow. and conductors connecting the three parts. Circuits A simple DC circuit consists of a source. c. a control. The voltage of a cell drops over time as the chemical reaction slows down and the battery dies. 1 Coulomb = 6. the circuit is incomplete and the electrons cannot flow. condenser in a car) and release it. Symbol: R 9. Load should not be confused with demand. Resistors a. Voltage is the “push” behind the movement of electrons (current flow) Unit is the volt Symbols 8. in one second. which is the measure of power that a load requires 7. 10.b. symbol is C 1 Ampere of current = the movement of 1 Coulomb of electrons past one point. a load. Unit is Ohm (Ω) c. Resistor: A component used to limit current flow in a circuit or to provide a voltage drop d. c. Resistance is the opposition to current flow b. 12. b. b. Voltage a. b. 5.

ac. For More About… Batteries and power systems: http://www. The War of Currents: General Electric (DC) vs.uk/DesignOffice/mdp/electric_web/DC/DC_11.html Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  33  .cam. AC could be “stepped down” easily through the use of transformers Separate transmission lines meant great cost and more danger to the public from overhead lines DC required power plants to be located close to the end user (electric load). b. AC electricity is more efficient and more cost-effective than DC. AC Circuit diagram 15. Edison hired Nikola Tesla to find a solution and Tesla delivered. AC current is generated when a conductor—often a coil of wire—is rotated in a magnetic field The magnetic field has polarity (north and south poles). Tesla quit and investors helped him establish a competing industrial laboratory where he manufactured the prototype for today’s AC generation and transmission system. but then Edison allegedly refused to pay him.S. Alternating current (AC) means that electrons flow in two directions. An AC power system benefits from: a. 60 full 360º rotations through the field (cycles) happen every second. it will create an opposing or reverse voltage 13. AC could transmit high voltage over long distances requiring fewer plants AC motors are simpler in design than DC motors b. a. In the U.eng. when cost of production decreases because output has increased Load diversity.. The directional change happens at regular intervals. the change in polarity causes a change in direction of the current flow. Current Electricity a. d.c. when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times 18. 14. c. d. b. Westinghouse (AC) a. DC was difficult to convert from higher to lower voltages and required separate transmission lines for different voltages. Economies of scale in generation. 16. Inductor: a coil of wire that can store energy in its magnetic field and resists any change in the amount of current flowing through it. As the coil rotates between the opposing poles. when the current flowing through an inductor changes. b. 17. Power plants provide AC. c. Thomas Edison’s power plants provided DC to customers but could only send it about one mile before it lost power.

Electrical components and systems: http://science.howstuffworks.com/electricitychannel.htm Inventor Nikola Tesla: http://www.pbs.org/tesla/

POWERPOINT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND CLEANER AIR 
This presentation complements the text material on environmental regulations and particulate pollution by illustrating how researchers are studying particulates in the atmosphere using NASA satellites. 1. Title Slide: The Science Behind Cleaner Air 2. Monitoring Particulate Air Pollution a. Many developing countries do not have air-monitoring sensors, so it is difficult to estimate the amount of pollution b. Particle pollution is one-tenth the diameter of a human hair (PM2.5 = 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter) c. Suspected of contributing to millions of premature deaths around the world each year 3. Health Impacts a. b. c. Fine particulate matter can enter the lungs and then the bloodstream Cause asthma, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis The American Heart Association estimates that PM2.5 contributes to 60,000 deaths a year in the U.S.

4. Satellites Offer a Global Perspective a. b. Problem: most satellite instruments cannot tell the difference between particles that are close to the ground from those high in the atmosphere Canadian researchers Donkelaar & Martin used data from two NASA satellite instruments and a computer-modeling program to develop a new map

5. NASA’s Scientific Instruments (graphic) 6. The New Map a. b. Provides an estimate of PM2.5 pollution over developing countries, something that has been hard to do in the past When compared with maps of population density, the new map suggests that more than 80 percent of the world’s population breathe air that exceeds the World Health Organization’s limits on air particulates

8. Global Satellite-Derived Map of Particulates over 2001-2006

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9.

Where do you see the highest concentrations of PM2.5? a. b. c. d. Saudi Arabia (Middle East) Niger, Chad, Mali, Western Sahara (Africa) Eastern China Northern India

10. Why are particulate emissions higher in these areas? a. b. c. d. e. Hint #1: particulates come from both natural and man-made sources Hint #2: particulates come from coal-fired power plants and factories Hint #3: particulates come from vehicle exhaust Hint #4: particulates come from burning of fields Hint #5: wind blows dust from roads and deserts into the air

11. What’s going on in North America? 12. “New Map Offers a Global View of Health-Sapping Air Pollution,” Adam Volland, Sept. 22, 2010, NASA’s Earth Science News Team, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/health-sapping.html

 

 

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Unit A Guided Note‐Taking Outline 
1. ________________electricity comes from the attraction between two objects with different charges, positive (+) and negative (−). It can give you quite a shock when ____________ are discharged. 2. ________________________electricity comes from the flow of electrons along a ____________ such as a metal wire. 3. Thomas Edison established a ____________________ at Menlo Park, New Jersey. 4. Prior to the invention and commercialization of the electric light bulb, __________________ was burned for illumination. 5. ___________________________ allows suppliers to bill for the actual amount of energy used rather than the number of lights illuminated per month. 6. Edison’s Pearl Street Station operated on __________ current. This limited the _______________________________ to which he could transmit power. 7. The first _______________________ began operation in Appleton, Wisconsin. 8. Consumer demand for electric service quickly increased with the invention of ___________________________________________________________. 9. An example of a mode of electric transportation is the _____________________. 10. The discovery and harnessing of ________________________ current revolutionized the power industry. 11. Energy entrepreneurs bought smaller public utilities and created larger companies called _____________________________________________. 12. ________________________________________ are exclusive regional franchises granted in exchange for public control of the prices charged for service. 13. The ______________________________was created in 1920 to coordinate hydroelectric projects under federal control and later to regulate the sale of electricity and natural gas.

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Implementation of a smart grid system is intended to decrease ________________________ by increasing ________________________. The Federal Trade Commission launched an investigation into the practices of large utility ________________________________________________. 23. 20. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  37  . The ________________________________________________ established a system of emissions trading. 17.14. 25. 15. 19. The passage of the U. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act allowed ________________________ to generate and sell electric power. 22. The ________________________ enforces rules requiring power plants that burn fossil fuels to reduce emissions of particle pollution. sulfur oxides. Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave ________________________________________________ the authority to enforce reliability standards. 24. President Roosevelt signed into law the_________________________________ Act. lead.S. the Energy Policy Act marked the end of the concept of the natural monopoly and the beginning of ________________________ in the electric power industry. The ________________________ consists of many interconnected electric generation. ________________________ is a process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the same fuel or energy source. transmission. 18. 21. nitrogen oxides. 16. and distribution systems over a broad geographic area. and mercury. ground-level ozone. which strenuously regulated the activities of holding companies. commonly referred to as ________________________. The Federal Power Commission became the _________________________________ in 1977. In 1992. ________________________ means having uninterrupted access to electricity. carbon monoxide.

29. Three types of technologies for reducing air pollution include: ________________________. and ________________________. Plants generating power from ________________________ are overseen by the U. 27.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  38  .S. A ________________________ system has been proposed by Congress for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. ________________________. 28. it can penetrate a person’s ________________________ easily.26. Because particulate matter is smaller in diameter than a human hair. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Unit A Vocabulary Activity    1 3 2 4 5 6 8 9 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  39  .

hydroelectric licensing. such as a conductive wire 8. and gas pipeline certification 6. abbreviation for an electric current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals 7. ______________ grid. ability to meet the electricity needs of customers even when equipment fails 12. marked the beginning of competition in the electric power industry 18. utilities have assumed this in return for an exclusive monopoly franchise 14. ___________________ to serve. _________________ Policy Act of 1992. oil pipeline rates. when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times 2. economies of ______________ occur when the cost of production falls because output has increased     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  40  . power loss affecting many consumers over a large geographical area for a significant period of time 3. to provide electric service to any customer who seeks that service and is willing to pay the rates set for that service. __________________company. load _________________. a flow of electrons along a path.Across  4. enforces reliability standards 10. substances discharged into the air Down  1. process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the same fuel 14. the modernization of the current grid technology 15. __________________ power is generated by using moving water 7. a device that changes the voltage of an electric current 17. traditionally. negatively charged particle outside the nucleus of an atom 5. wholesale electric rates. acronym for the agency that governs interstate electricity sales. acronym for the agency formed in 1968 in response to the 1965 blackout. a company which owns or holds stock in other companies. which it then manages and operates 11. natural gas pricing. acronym for the agency tasked with enforcing laws protecting human health and the environment 16. the opposite of an insulator 9. acronym for the Act that severely limited acquisition of any wholesale or retail electric business through a holding company and restricted ownership of an electric business by non-utility corporations 13.

  2) Tilt the jar and pour a few drops of water into the jar.  3) Repeat steps 3 and 4 (above).  Light the paper towel rope and drop it into the dry jar. Wet the sides only.   Place 3 ice cubes in the indentation and sprinkle 1 tablespoon of salt on the ice.  • • • • • • • Observation: What happens inside the jar?  Trial 2 Directions:  1)  Repeat steps 1 and 2 with the second jar.  Observation: What happens inside the jar this time?        What conclusions can you draw about smog from the behavior of the smoke under each set of  conditions?    Under what weather conditions might you be most likely to experience smog in the atmosphere?      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  41  .Student Handout for Lab Activity “Smog in a Jar”     Materials needed for each group of 3 or 4 students:  2 glass canning or mayonnaise jars (or 1 to re‐use if you have access to a sink)  paper towels  6 ice cubes  2 tablespoons salt  aluminum foil  matches  a small amount of water    Trial 1 Directions:  1) 2) 3) 4) Create a tight lid for the jar out of aluminum foil. Cover immediately with the foil lid.  Twist a piece of paper towel into a rope. Press a small indentation into the top.

hcdoes.   Potential sources of information:  Reducing Acid Rain: http://www.gov/acidrain/reducing/  Nitrogen Oxides: http://www.htm  What fuel goes into  the system?    What comes  out?  Nitrogen oxides          Sulfur dioxide              Particulates                Released into air. and local agencies regulate what can and cannot be discharged into the environment.Student Handout for Unit A Activity “Why Regulate Emissions?”   ACTIVITY: WHY REGULATE EMISSIONS?   Various federal.epa. you (or your  assigned group) are to research several regulated pollutants and complete the table provided by your instructor.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.gov/air/sulfurdioxide/  Particulate Matter: http://www.html and http://www.gov/air/nitrogenoxides/index.epa.epa.epa. or soil?    Human Activity  Sources     Effects on Human  Health    Environmental  Impact                        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  42  . state.gov/air/particlepollution/basic.html  Sulfur Dioxide: http://www. In this activity.  water.

Section: Origin of Environmental Laws and Regulations  12. 3. 10. What is the significance of the Menlo Park research laboratory? 2. Section: History of the U.Unit A Review Questions  Answer these on another sheet of paper. Name two pieces of legislation that impacted natural gas utilities and describe the impact. Energy Industry and Infrastructure  1. 11. the problems associated with it. How is a natural monopoly different from a purely competitive market system? 8.S. What were the advantages and disadvantages of public utility holding companies? 7. Describe the intent of the Clean Air Act of 1970. How can power plants mitigate air pollution?     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  43  . Describe the intent of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). What does a public utility do? 6. 13. Why is the alternating current system better than the direct current system for large-scale power? Section: Origin of Economic Laws and Regulations  5. Describe the problems with utility holding companies and how these problems were resolved through regulation. 9. List five characteristics of the Pearl Street Station. Name three inventions that boosted electric power’s popularity among consumers. and attempts to remedy those problems. How is cap and trade supposed to reduce emissions? 14. Describe the North American power grid. 4.

Module 1 Unit A Quiz  This quiz covers the history of electricity. and electrostatic precipitators b) phase out the use of ozone-depleting chemicals d) regulate the release of carbon dioxide into the air Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  44  . The obligation to serve is: a) c) the requirement to provide a reliable power supply the same thing as a smart grid b) established by law d) the result of natural monopolies 5. Static electricity is the result of: a) c) the attraction of negative charges to other negative charges electrons being discharged b) the attraction of positive and negative charges d) electrons moving along a conductor 2.S. the development of the infrastructure of the U. cyclones. energy industry. and the economic and environmental regulatory bodies that oversee the industry. Natural monopolies are characterized by: a) c) being unregulated serving a specific geographic area b) having public control of their pricing structure d) having no competition in their service area 4. Alternating current was a better choice for public utilities because: a) c) it could be stepped down Edison designed underground conduits for it b) it was safer than direct current to the end user d) it could be distributed to a wider geographic area 3. The Clean Air Act of 1970 was designed to: a) c) prevent blackouts require power plants to install wet scrubbers. Multiple Choice  Circle the letters of all that apply. 1.

Federal Power Commission _____ 2. load diversity _____ 5. The intent of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act was to stamp out competition with utility companies. Energy Policy Act of 1992 h) i) j) e) f) g) b) c) d) a) oversees use and possession of nuclear material and the management of nuclear power plants in the U. by Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. 3. A massive blackout on the East Coast led to an examination of the reliability of the electric grid. Thomas Sprague invented the incandescent light bulb. Nuclear Regulatory Commission _____ 7. 9. NERC _____ 6. Air Quality Index _____ 9. 2. Pearl Street Station was powered by steam engines. Natural gas often serves as the fuel source in cogeneration.S. 8. created to coordinate hydroelectric projects electrons flow freely through this material promoted the growth of natural gas as a fuel for generating electricity investigated the practices of utility holding companies gauge of how much pollution is in the air in many locations across the country prohibited energy holding companies from engaging in business other than the operation of a single utility when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times organized to ensure the reliability of the power system gave NERC its power to enforce standards     45  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . Holding companies were created as an attempt to benefit from economies of scale. PUHCA of 1935 _____ 4. 6. The invention of the transformer made providing DC power to individual customers easier. 5. 4. 7. Federal Trade Commission _____ 3. conductor _____10.S. Prior to the invention of the electric light bulb.  True‐False   T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1. Matching  _____ 1. Energy Policy Act of 2005 _____ 8. burning coal was the primary source of illumination. Monopolies were outlawed in the U.

5 points Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  46  .Answer Key for Unit A Vocabulary Activity  1 3 D I V 2 B L A C K O U T E L E C T R O 6 9 5 4 H Y D R O E L F E E C T R I R S I Y A 7 C U R R E N T O N C I N G 12 8 N E R C E L I 11 10 H O L D U A B I P U H C A T O 14 C 13 O B L G 15 I G A T I O N L I 16 S M A R T C L 17 E P A N R A T I T R A N S F O R M E R Y E N E R G Y 18 E M I S S I O N S N   Note: If you wish to use this activity for a grade. each of these words is worth approximately 5.

2. STATIC electricity comes from the attraction between two objects with different charges. Energy entrepreneurs bought smaller public utilities and created larger companies called HOLDING COMPANIES. This limited the DISTANCE/AREA to which he could transmit power. The FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION was created in 1920 to coordinate hydroelectric projects under federal control and later to regulate the sale of electricity and natural gas. 12. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  47  . The Federal Power Commission became the FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY  COMMISSION (FERC) in 1977.Answer Key for Unit A Guided Note‐Taking Outline  1. 17. Prior to the invention and commercialization of the electric light bulb. 13. 11. 7. The discovery and harnessing of ALTERNATING current revolutionized the power industry.  9. which strenuously regulated the activities of holding companies. 6. It can give you quite a shock when ELECTRONS are discharged. 14. positive (+) and negative (−). New Jersey. 5. CURRENT electricity comes from the flow of electrons along a CONDUCTOR such as a metal wire. GAS was burned for illumination. 3. 15. Thomas Edison established a RESEARCH LABORATORY at Menlo Park. 10. Consumer demand for electric service quickly increased with the invention of ELECTRIC  LIGHTING/HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES. METERS/METERING allows suppliers to bill for the actual amount of energy used rather than the number of lights illuminated per month. 16. NATURAL MONOPOLIES are exclusive regional franchises granted in exchange for public control of the prices charged for service. 4. An example of a mode of electric transportation is the STREETCAR. The Federal Trade Commission launched an investigation into the practices of large utility HOLDING COMPANIES. Wisconsin. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act allowed NON‐UTILITIES to generate and sell electric power. President Roosevelt signed into law the PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY/PUCHA Act. 8. The first HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT began operation in Appleton. Edison’s Pearl Street Station operated on DC current.

it can penetrate a person’s LUNGS easily. nitrogen oxides. 25. ground-level ozone. 19.  CYCLONES. Three types of technologies for reducing air pollution include: WET SCRUBBERS. 29. carbon monoxide. COGENERATION is a process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the same fuel or energy source. Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave THE NORTH AMERICAN  RELIABILITY CORPORATION (NERC) the authority to enforce reliability standards.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  48  . 28. the Energy Policy Act marked the end of the concept of the natural monopoly and the beginning of COMPETITION in the electric power industry. and mercury.S. Implementation of a smart grid system is intended to decrease BLACKOUTS by increasing RELIABILITY. 26. 22. The CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1990 established a system of emissions trading. lead. commonly referred to as CAP AND TRADE. 27. and ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS. Plants generating power from NUCLEAR ENERGY are overseen by the U.18. RELIABILITY means having uninterrupted access to electricity. sulfur oxides. 21. The passage of the U. The ELECTRIC GRID consists of many interconnected electric generation. 24. Because particulate matter is smaller in diameter than a human hair. 23. The ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) enforces rules requiring power plants that burn fossil fuels to reduce emissions of particle pollution.S. and distribution systems over a broad geographic area. In 1992. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 20. transmission. A CAP AND TRADE system has been proposed by Congress for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

The most familiar example of this is when a person reaches for a doorknob or other metal object on a cold. Could this really happen? Why or why not? Answer Yes. The discharge of this buildup to the grounded gasoline dispenser nozzle may cause a spark and ignite the gasoline. as when friction causes a high level of static electricity to build up at a specific spot on an object. relatively dry day and receives a shock. He put the nozzle into the gas can and flipped the pump switch to the “on” position. but the truck was damaged beyond repair. can discharge to a person. Follow-up Questions How can this be prevented? • • • always place the gas can on the ground before filling (provides a path to dissipate the static charge to the ground) touch can with gas nozzle before removing can lid (provides another path to dissipate the static charge to the ground) keep nozzle in contact with can while filling (this dissipates the static charge buildup from the flow of gasoline) What is the danger of static electricity? Static electricity can build up on the surface of an object and. Jordan escaped with minor burns. static electricity can potentially discharge when sufficient amounts of flammable or combustible substances are located nearby and cause an explosion. This can happen simply through handling plastic pipes and materials or during normal operation of rubberized drive or machine belts found in many worksites. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health reports fires have been spontaneously ignited when someone attempted to fill portable gasoline containers in the backs of pickup trucks equipped with plastic bed liners or in cars with carpeted surfaces. Rather than lift a heavy can full of gas back into the bed of the truck. for example. These fires resulted from the buildup of static electricity. static electricity also can cause shocks or can just discharge to an object with much more serious consequences. causing a shock—electrostatic discharge (ESD). However. A small static spark can ruin an electronic device or computer chip. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  49  . He drove his pickup truck to the gas station to fill a portable container to take back to his lawnmower. under the right conditions. In these cases. A spark flew and the truck caught fire. Jordan reasoned that it would be easier just to fill the can while it sat in the truck bed. The insulating effect of the bed liner or carpet prevents the static charge generated by gasoline flowing into the container from grounding.Answer Key for Critical Thinking Exercise “Truth or Urban  Legend?”  Jordan ran out of gas while mowing the lawn. Both ungrounded metal (most hazardous) and plastic gas containers have been involved in these incidents. this could happen.

The simplest way to prevent ESD is through grounding.500 V 250 V 100 V 1. A universal ground or common point ground is defined as a “system or method for connecting two or more grounding conductors to the same electrical potential.000 V 6. Examples of Static Generation: Typical Voltage Levels  Generation Activity Walking across carpet Walking across vinyl tile Standing and working at workstation tabletop Picking up a plastic bag from the workstation tabletop Fidgeting in chair with foam cushion Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  Voltage Generated at 10%-25% Relative Humidity 35. The ESD Association recommends the identification of the common point ground with this symbol: Other protective measures include the use of workspace anti-static tabletop mats and floor mats. Appliances with metal casings and computers use three-prong plugs to take advantage of the built-in ground.500 V 50  . Styrofoam packing peanuts accumulate a static charge quickly.” Equipment and workstations are grounded to this common ground.000 V 20.000 V 18.000 V 12.000 V Voltage Generated at 65%-90% Relative Humidity 1.200 V 1. Note how they stick to the packed item and you. Workers may also be required to wear heel straps that will increase the body-to-ground contact and wrist straps attached to an earth-to-ground connection that will channel static to ground. The common three-prong outlet has a ground slot that connects the outlet to a ground in the fuse box. Additional Facts  • • • There is less static build-up in humidity.

esda.pdf Electrostatic Discharge Association. Part 1: Introduction to ESD.terrauniversal.com/static_control/heel_straps. Available online at: http://www.130/Publications/osha3075.com/Floor_options_snaps_1. Rome. DC: Department of Labor. Washington. Available online from http://63.234. Controlling electrical hazards.html       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  51  . see the following commercial sites: Terra Universal (heel straps) http://www.pdf Occupational Health and Safety Administration.org/documents/FundamentalsPart1. (2002). NY: ESD Association.esda. (2010). Fundamentals of electrostatic discharge. Fundamentals of electrostatic discharge. Rome.pdf For additional information on grounding equipment.References  Electrostatic Discharge Association. Part 3: Basic ESD control procedures and materials.php United Static Control Products http://ultrastat2000. Available online at: http://www. (2010).227. NY: ESD Association.org/documents/FundamentalsPart3.

5 volts.5 V 1.3 V 1.Answer Key to Critical Thinking Exercise “DC vs.   The voltage of a cell drops over the course of its life as the chemical reaction that produces the voltage slows down. current is sent through the battery in a reverse direction.4 V Carbon-Zinc Alkaline Mercury Silver Oxide Lithium Zinc-Air 2.0 volts—yielding a 12-volt battery. For example. Most car batteries have six lead-acid cells.6 V 3. there are cells that house one or more chemicals.0 V 1. leaving behind positively charged ions. This reverses the direction of the chemical reaction and makes the material available again to produce voltage. AC”  Why does a regular battery lose power? Answer: Within a battery. The electrons and ions are separated. which is why we don’t use them for many household appliances. we say the battery is “dead. Types of Primary and Secondary Cells for Batteries  Primary (One‐Time Use) Cells  Cell Voltage  Chemically‐active Materials    Secondary (Rechargeable) Cells    Cell Voltage  Chemically‐active Materials  1. each with a cell voltage of 2. a standard D cell flashlight battery uses an alkaline reaction and has a cell voltage of 1.” Primary cells are those designed for one-time use.0 V Lead Acid Nickel-Cadmium Nickel Metal Hydride Lithium Ion Lithium Metal Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  52  . The voltage produced by a cell’s chemical reaction depends on the materials used in the reaction. such as the one shown in the PowerPoint presentation and below. Secondary cells can be recharged. As the chemicals react.6 V 3.2 V 1. A battery is a collection of two or more of these cells connected together. and this charge separation creates a voltage. When the voltage drops below the requirement for the device it is being used for.5 V 1. electrons are removed from certain molecules.2 V 3. In a typical recharging process.0 V 1.

voltage. the need for only one wiring grid. although it is not connected to the home wiring system. (60 Hz) and European (50 Hz) households. his system also required separate lines for different voltages. Since direct current could not be easily transformed to different voltages. Typical household AC current can give a dangerous shock. resistance. DC or AC? W. not the type of current. In Edison’s direct current system. it can be more dangerous than highEnergy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  53  . type of current. and increased productivity from load diversity. professor of electrical engineering and assistant dean of engineering at The Johns Hopkins University.B. power could be generated and stepped up to transmit at much. much higher voltages—making the voltage drops less important—and then stepped down to either a safe voltage level for household use or a higher than household voltage for industrial machinery. A flashlight battery is an example of modern household use of DC power. in terms of AC’s business benefits over DC. reaching many more customers AC can easily be stepped down to provide safe household electrical current The popularity of alternating current arises from its ability to transmit electrical energy great distances without large heat losses in the wires. the ability of generating stations to serve a wider area. Edison’s system was expensive. and duration of contact.What are the benefits of AC over DC as a household power source? Answer: • • AC can be stepped up to be transmitted over large distances. Follow‐up Questions  Which shock is more dangerous. Kouwenhoven.to 60-Hz) AC is used in U. A flashlight battery is too weak to shock someone. Both of these scenarios are due to the amount of voltage being applied. many local areas could not afford their own generating station. he could only transmit electricity a short distance because it would experience a voltage drop over long distances. current pathway. How AC affects the body depends largely on frequency. outlined the following criteria for determining the result of an electric shock: • • • • • • type of circuit. With the discovery of alternating current and the development of the transformer. the system demonstrated: • • • • economies of scale in generation.S. Low-frequency (50. As mentioned in the text. particularly on wet skin.

ieeeghn.” IEEE Global History Network References  Cooper.merckmanuals. various power companies. In part through grants from the Edison Electrical Institute. electric currents high enough to cause involuntary muscle action are dangerous and are to be avoided at all costs.B. This is why “defibrillating” equipment used by emergency medics works: the jolt of current supplied by the defibrillator unit is DC. (October 2009). (January 2009). T. (December 2009). now known as CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation.” Volume I – DC. The Merck manual online. A. IEEE Global History Network.com/professional/sec21/ch316/ch316b.org/wiki/index.html Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ELECTRICAL SAFETY Additional Facts  Kouwenhoven originally devised the closed-chest defibrillator for power companies to use in resuscitating workers who had been electrocuted in the field. He studied autopsy reports for every case of death by electrocution in the country and was a leader in establishing electrical safety standards. —“Physiological Effects of Electricity. All about circuits: Volume I. Available online from: http://www. Electrical injuries._Kouwenhoven Kuphaldt. M. Kouwenhoven investigated the health effects of high voltages on installers of power lines across the country. he founded closed-chest cardiac massage. DC is most likely to cause a single convulsive contraction. whereas DC tends to just make the heart stand still.allaboutcircuits. a “frozen” heart has a better chance of regaining a normal beat pattern than a fibrillating heart. Kouwenhoven.html     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  54  . Physiological effects of electricity.php/William_B. which may freeze the hand to the current's source. —“W. which halts fibrillation and gives the heart a chance to recover. Available online at: http://www. Once the shock current is halted. DC.com/vol_1/chpt_3/2. Kouwenhoven. Available online at: http://www. prolonging exposure. and the National Heart Institute. which includes massaging the lungs as well as the heart).frequency AC and is three to five times more dangerous than DC of the same voltage and amperage. William B. In addition to that. In either case. used to sustain a heartbeat after cardiac arrest by using only the hands. which often forces the victim away from the current's source. Low-frequency AC produces extended muscle contraction (tetany). R. AC's alternating nature has a greater tendency to throw the heart's pacemaker neurons into a condition of fibrillation.

acf. in which they were considered regulated monopolies. and gas. Obligation to serve does not mean the service is free. This concept stems from utilities’ economic past. Services commonly considered essential and falling under the obligation to serve include: water. Waste-disposal companies usually compete for municipal contracts. electricity. the utility had an obligation to serve all those customers. For example. In response. It also is available from a variety of contractors. telephone. they had to serve all customers within the area. These services are available from many providers. the federal Low Income Energy Assistance Program. however. http://www. and Internet service compete for individual consumers’ service contracts.hhs. the service must be necessary. widely used.gov/programs/ocs/liheap/ Are there utilities or services similar to utilities that do not operate under an obligation to serve? Answer Utilities are seen as providing an essential service to a prescribed area. it means that the utility should be planning for a reliable supply of gas or electricity in the future. There are.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  55  . Garbage collection does not fall under the obligation to serve. Companies providing cable television. Furthermore. To be considered a monopoly. and be without a good substitute.Answer Key to Critical Thinking Exercise “Obligation to  Serve”  What are the limits of obligation to serve? Answer Obligation to serve means that a natural gas or electric utility must provide service to any customer within their service area who requests it and is willing to pay the rates established by the state Public Utilities Commission for that service. assistance programs for those who cannot pay the entire amount. They couldn't choose to serve only the most economically beneficial customers.

 Press a small indentation into the top.  3)  Light the paper towel rope and drop it into the dry jar. The moisture was necessary for the formation  of the smog.)      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  56  .Answer Key for Lab Activity “Smog in a Jar”   LAB ACTIVITY: SMOG IN A JAR  Background  Smog is a mixture of smoke.  Smog develops when rising air meets a layer of cold air that stops its rise. Fog.  Trial 2 Directions:  1)  Repeat steps 1 and 2 with the second jar. unburned hydrocarbons. These gases  include sulfur oxides. becomes smog when combined  with pollutants (from the burning paper). formed when moisture in the cool air (from  the ice) condenses close to the earth's surface (in the jar).  2)  Tilt the jar and pour a few drops of water into the jar.  3)  Repeat steps 3 and 4 (above).  Observation: What happens inside the jar?  A smoke cloud forms.  What conclusions can you draw about smog from the  behavior of the smoke under each set of conditions?    Moisture in the air is needed to create smog.  Observation: What happens inside the jar this time?  Students should see that the cloud of vapor formed in this jar containing moisture is  somewhat denser than the cloud in the dry jar. and gases trapped near the ground. nitrogen oxides. Additionally. and ozone.  Materials needed for each group of 3 or 4 students:  • • • 2 glass canning or mayonnaise jars (or 1 to re‐use if you have access to a sink)  paper towels  2 tablespoons salt  •  6 ice cubes  •  aluminum foil  • matches  •  a small amount of water  Trial 1 Directions:  1)  Create a tight lid for the jar out of aluminum foil. carbon monoxide. the closed walls of the jar simulate  the proximity of mountains to a valley—mountains which tend to hold smog in place. The end result is a cloud of dirty particles suspended in air. (Less  air circulation means that the smog stays around longer.  2)  Twist a piece of paper towel into a rope. Cover immediately with the foil lid. Wet the sides only. Water vapor  condenses around smoke particles.   4)  Place 3 ice cubes in the indentation and sprinkle 1 tablespoon of salt on the ice. water droplets.

 gasoline. road  construction. sand  and dust  Particulates  Very small particles  can be inhaled and  enter the  bloodstream.  kerosene. steel  mills.gov/air/sulfurdioxide/ Particulate Matter: http://www.gov/acidrain/reducing/ Nitrogen Oxides: http://www.epa.  premature death  Reduces visibility.epa. Each is worth approximately 6 points. there are 15 blanks the students must research and complete. wood.epa. gasoline.htm What fuel goes  into the system?  Coal. vehicle  exhaust. forest fires  Asthma and  worsening of other  respiratory illnesses  such as emphysema  Reacts with other chemicals  to form acid rain.  asthma.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  57  . or  soil?   Nitrogen oxides are  released into the air  first and then react  and come down into  water and soil as  acid rain  Sulfur dioxide is  released into the air  first and then reacts  and come down into  water and soil as  acid rain  Released into the air  Human Activity  Sources  Vehicle exhaust. irregular  heartbeat.Answer Key to Unit A Activity “Why Regulate Emissions?”  Potential sources of information: Reducing Acid Rain: http://www. wood.  fatal in high  concentrations  Environmental Impact  Reduces plant growth and  seed production.gov/air/particlepollution/basic.epa.html Sulfur Dioxide: http://www.  interferes with  photosynthesis  If you wish to use this activity for a grade.  tobacco  Sulfur dioxide  Fossil fuel  combustion at power  plants and industrial  facilities and in home  furnaces  Fossil fuel  combustion at power  plants.   Coal and other fossil  fuels. eyes. damages  fish eggs. settles  into soil and water and  changes nutrient content. diesel  (fossil fuels)  What comes  out?  Nitrogen oxides  Released into  air.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.  industrial and power  plant furnaces  Effects on  Human Health  Irritates lungs.gov/air/nitrogenoxides/index. reacts with other  chemicals to form acid rain  Coal. water.hcdoes. stunts  plant growth.  throat and nose.html and http://www.

 ACTIVITY: CO2 CAP AND TRADE: PRO OR CON?  The need for capping carbon emissions has been vigorously debated by scientists.   Equipment required: Computer with Internet access for research  Optional: PowerPoint. industry representatives. researcher. Divide into 10 groups of 2 to 3  students.. You will want to add criteria of your own and then provide a copy of this to each of the students.e. artist. poster board.) The following rubric gives you some ideas on how to assess student work on this activity.Answer Key for Unit A Activity “CO2 Cap and Trade: Pro or Con?”  Students will find this general description of the Cap and Trade Activity in their text (Module 1. primary speaker). Consider giving them at least a week to complete this assignment.  regulatory agencies. Each group will be assigned an affiliation (scientist. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1    58  . elected officials. You will need to give them very specific instructions so that you can assess their performance effectively. or do you want them each to work on all parts of the assignments? What kind of project deliverable do you wish to see? A short research paper? A community action flyer designed to encourage others to support their point of view? A presentation before the city council or a Congressional hearing? Will you give a grade or points for the group process in addition to the outcome/product? Will you allow students to contribute to the assessment process by providing feedback on how their teammates contributed to the project? Will you have the class vote on the most persuasive presentations? (And perhaps write a follow-up paragraph on why they were swayed by that argument. and the general public. writer. as it spells out your expectations clearly. Unit B). for example) and a side (for or against  carbon cap and trade) and will investigate the issues and concerns of interest to their affiliated group. and markers  Research questions to be addressed:  • Who is your affiliated group?   • Why are you interested in carbon emissions?  • What is your point of view (pro or con)?  • What will happen if your affiliated group is not able to persuade others?  You will be asked to present your persuasive argument to the class.    Consider the following:  • • • • • Do you want the team members to take on specific roles within the project (i.

ability to focus on a particular viewpoint. educational level. understanding of key concepts.Learner Expectations   CO2 CAP AND TRADE: PRO OR CON?     Criteria Student name   _______________________________________________   Affiliated group  ______________________________________________   Pro or Con?   _________________________________________________   CO2 CAP AND TRADE  Rubric p. 1  Student Learning  Objectives   Student team describes its constituency thoroughly (five components for full credit) Student team cites five resources correctly (not Wikipedia) Student team is able to correctly describe the concept of cap and trade Demonstrates: ability to research general and specific information about the topic. grassroots/political activity level Presentation refers to five sources Presentation explains concept correctly and describes both economic and environmental issues related to cap and trade Presenters identify issues on both sides and can articulate their opponents’ best argument Three of the five characteristics are described Two of the five characteristics are described One of the five characteristics is described No characteristics are described Presentation refers to three or four sources Presentation explains concept correctly and describes either economic or environmental issues related to cap and trade Presenters identify issues on both sides Presentation refers to two sources Presentation explains concept of cap and trade correctly Presentation refers to one source Presentation explains concept of cap and trade incorrectly Presentation refers to no sources Presentation makes no attempt to explain cap and trade Student team identifies both the pros and cons of the issue as studied by their assigned person Presenters identify issues on their side only Presenters understand issues but not the pros and cons of those issues Presenter identifies no issues or sides   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1    59  . income level. and present a persuasive argument EXCELLENT—5 pts 100% proficiency GOOD—4-3 pts 90%-85% proficiency ADEQUATE—2 pts 75%-70% proficiency UNSATISFACTORY—1 pt Less than 70% proficiency Insufficient evidence—0 pts Field in which person works. ability to document. organize.

ability to document. but do not support that argument from research Presenters have anticipated their opponents’ arguments. 2  Student Learning  Objectives   Students articulate their side’s arguments (plural) and support them through research Students can refute their opponents best arguments by anticipating and researching them Demonstrates: ability to research general and specific information about the topic. researched them. and present a persuasive argument EXCELLENT—5 pts 100% proficiency GOOD—4-3 pts 90%-85% proficiency ADEQUATE—2 pts 75%-70% proficiency UNSATISFACTORY—1 pt Less than 70% proficiency Insufficient evidence—0 pts Presenters articulate their own side’s best arguments and support those arguments with research Presenters have anticipated their opponents’ arguments. understanding of key concepts. have not researched them and are unable to refute them Presenters were unable to anticipate opponents’ arguments Add your own expectations here Add your own expectations here Add your own expectations here Add your own expectations here [tab here to add row]       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1    60  . but are unable to refute them Presenters articulate one of their side’s best arguments. have not researched them. but are still able to refute them Presenters articulate their side’s best argument (but no others). researched them. and offer no research support No articulation of arguments made Presenters anticipated opponents’ arguments. organize.Criteria CO2 CAP AND  TRADE Rubric p. ability to focus on a particular viewpoint. and refuted them Presenters articulate their own side’s best arguments but with little support for those arguments with research Presenters have anticipated their opponents’ arguments.

List five characteristics of the Pearl Street Station.  2. Energy Industry and Infrastructure  1. electric. What is the significance of the Menlo Park research laboratory? This facility was begun by Thomas Edison as a laboratory where he and scientists he  hired could work on inventions involving electricity. Why is the alternating current system better than the direct current system for large-scale power? • • • • Electricity can be sent longer distances  Ability to achieve economies of scale in generation in which the cost of production  decreases because output has increased  The need for only one wiring grid  The ability to take advantage of load diversity in which the peak demands of a  variety of electric customers occur at different times  Section: Origin of Economic Laws and Regulations  5.S.Answer Key for Unit A Review Questions  Section: History of the U.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  61  . or waste‐disposal service. What were the advantages and disadvantages of public utility holding companies? A holding company could grow very large and thus take advantage of an economy of  scale and make more money for its investors. • • • • • • Established by Thomas Edison  One of the first electricity generating plants  Powered by steam engines  Provided direct current only  Could distribute electricity to a very small area  Was connected through underground conduits  3.  6. consumers suffered from an  increase in prices. Name three inventions that boosted electric power’s popularity among consumers: • • • Electric household appliances  Electric streetcars  Electric incandescent lighting  4. Ultimately. What does a public utility do? A public utility provides and maintains the infrastructure for providing vital public  services such as gas. water.

  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  62  . In a purely  competitive system. a utility company would be granted an exclusive regional  franchise in return for public control of the prices charged for services. and attempts to remedy those problems.  8. Describe the North American power grid. Severe disruptions in service. several companies could vie for the same regional customers. The next step in ensuring reliability is the implementation of a  smart grid system. How is a natural monopoly different from a purely competitive market system? In a natural monopoly.S. Holding companies built pyramid structures in which few stockholders controlled  electric companies nationwide. develop alternative fuel sources. run only utility  ventures. and diversify the electric power industry. Consumers  suffered from the increased cost of electricity.7. The Natural Gas Act of 1938: restricted the prices that gas companies could charge  consumers  The Energy Policy Act of 1992: promoted growth in the use of natural gas as a fuel in  electricity generation  10. States had a difficult time regulating the holding  companies because they conducted business across many different states.  9. The Federal Trade Commission  investigated these practices.S. and be restructured by the SEC if  they do not comply. and Canada and  parts of Mexico. The  North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was established and sets  standards for reliability. Describe the intent of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). It is designed to provide enough power during peak load times as a  part of its reliability. which required holding companies to downsize. incorporate in the state which they serve or be regulated by the Securities  and Exchange Commission (SEC). promote energy  efficiency. register with the SEC. The grid is divided into three major sections covering all of the U. Name two pieces of legislation that impacted natural gas utilities and describe the impact. can occur. called blackouts. Describe the problems with utility holding companies and how these problems were resolved through regulation. Roosevelt signed into law the Public Utility Holding  Company Act of 1935. dependency on foreign oil.  11. the problems associated with it. PURPA was intended to reduce U.

 cyclones. cancer and other health problems. Describe the intent of the Clean Air Act of 1970.        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  63  .  13. and electrostatic precipitators. How is cap and trade supposed to reduce emissions? Emissions trading sets a maximum amount of emissions that can be released into the  atmosphere. How can power plants mitigate air pollution? Power plants can mitigate air pollution through the installation of technologies such as  scrubbers.  14. but utilities can buy and sell permits to release more. and utility companies have the incentive to install  technology that reduces pollution. The Clean Air Act of 1970 and its amendments are designed to reduce air pollution that  causes smog. and  strengthen the ability of EPA to enforce air quality standards. require companies that release pollution into the air to obtain permits. phase out ozone‐depleting  chemicals. Pollution reduction  has a market value as a result.Section: Origin of Environmental Laws and Regulations  12. acid rain.

The obligation to serve is: A)  THE OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE A RELIABLE POWER SUPPLY  b) established by law c) the same thing as a smart grid D)  THE RESULT OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  64  .Answer Key for Module 1 Unit A Quiz  This quiz covers the history of electricity.S. Static electricity is the result of: a) the attraction of negative charges to other negative charges B)  THE ATTRACTION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGES  C)  ELECTRONS BEING DISCHARGED   d) electrons moving along a conductor 2. Natural monopolies are characterized by: a) being unregulated B)  HAVING PUBLIC CONTROL OF THEIR PRICING STRUCTURE  C)  SERVING A SPECIFIC GEOGRAPHIC AREA  D)  HAVING NO COMPETITION IN THEIR SERVICE AREA  4. the development of the infrastructure of the U. Alternating current was a better choice for public utilities because: A)  IT COULD BE STEPPED DOWN  b) it was safer than direct current to the end user c) Edison designed underground conduits for it D)  IT COULD BE DISTRIBUTED TO A WIDER GEOGRAPHIC AREA  3. 1. energy industry. and the economic and environmental regulatory bodies that oversee the industry. Multiple Choice  Circle the letters of all that apply.

5.The Clean Air Act of 1970 was designed to: a) c) prevent blackouts require power plants to install wet scrubbers. Natural gas often serves as the fuel source in cogeneration. Holding companies were created as an attempt to benefit from economies of scale. 3. 4. 9. 2. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  65  . Thomas Sprague invented the incandescent light bulb. The intent of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act was to stamp out competition with utility companies. cyclones. Pearl Street Station was powered by steam engines. 6. 8. by Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Prior to the invention of the electric light bulb. 5. 7. A massive blackout on the East Coast led to an examination of the reliability of the electric grid. Monopolies were outlawed in the U. burning coal was the primary source of illumination. The invention of the transformer made providing DC power to individual customers easier. and electrostatic precipitators B)  PHASE OUT THE USE OF OZONE‐DEPLETING CHEMICALS  d) regulate the release of carbon dioxide into the air True‐False   T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1.S.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission 7. Federal Trade Commission 3. Energy Policy Act of 1992 h) i) j) f) g) b) c) d) e) a) oversees use and possession of nuclear material and the management of nuclear power plants in the U. PUHCA of 1935 4. Federal Power Commission 2.S. load diversity 5. NERC 6. created to coordinate hydroelectric projects electrons flow freely through this material promoted the growth of natural gas as a fuel for generating electricity investigated the practices of utility holding companies gauge of how much pollution is in the air in many locations across the country prohibited energy holding companies from engaging in business other than the operation of a single utility when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times organized to ensure the reliability of the power system gave NERC its power to enforce standards       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  66  . Air Quality Index 9. Energy Policy Act of 2005 8. conductor 10.Matching   B E G H I A J F C D 1.

Unit A Resources 
Abramson, L. (Producer). (2009, April 30). Young Workers Find Opportunity in the Power Industry [Audio Podcast]. All Things Considered. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103629929 Allen, N. (Reporter). (1965, November 9). The 1965 'Great Northeastern Blackout' [Audio Podcast]. CBC Digital Archives. http://archives.cbc.ca/science_technology/energy_production/clips/5031/ Brindlecombe, P. (1993). Case Study: The History and Ethics of Clean Air. In R. Berry (Ed.), Environmental Dilemmas: Ethics and Decisions (pp. 73-74). London: Chapman & Hall. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. What is FERC? http://www.ferc.gov/students/whatisferc/history.htm Galvin Electricity Initiative. (2007). Power Through Time: Energy Timeline. http://www.galvinpower.org/history/energy-timeline-power-through-time Halpin, J. (2009). Metuchen Edison History. http://www.jhalpin.com/metuchen/metindex.htm Heath, D. Benjamin Franklin: How Shocking. http://www.pbs.org/benfranklin/exp_shocking.html Hurt, A. (2009). Visualizing the Electric Grid http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=110997398 Johnson City Power Board. (2010). Basic Electricity: What Is It? http://www.jcpb.com/quickLinks/basicElectricity/what.asp National Park Service. (2010, October 6). Thomas Edison National Historic Site. http://www.nps.gov/edis/faqs.htm National Service Center for Environmental Publications, Initials. Project A.I.R.E. (Air Information Resources for Educators—Instructional Materials). http://tinyurl.com/2wmcevz Naturalgas.org. (2010). Naturalgas.org History. http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/history.asp U.S. Energy Information Administration, (2000). The Restructuring of the Electric Power Industry. http://www.eia.gov/ftproot/other/x037.pdf U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2010, January 7). Energy and the Environment. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/?page=environment_home Uth, R. (2000, December 12). Tesla: Master of Lightning. http://www.pbs.org/tesla/index.html Walsh, B. (2010, June 23). The Electrifying Edison. TIME.com. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1999143_1999200,00.html

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Unit A Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary  Activities 
computer with Internet access for research computer with PowerPoint software installed, screen, and projector poster board and markers 2 glass canning or mayonnaise jars (or 1 to re-use if you have access to a sink) paper towels 6 ice cubes 2 tablespoons salt aluminum foil matches a small amount of water

 

 

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        Unit B: The Energy Industry: Structure  and Organization 
     

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        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  70  .

        Unit B Instructor Guide    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  71  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  72  .

The U. Collection and evaluation of information and data. and distribution organizations. and local distribution facilities and lines. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  73  . An enormous number of people and systems must work together on a local and national scale to meet the constant energy needs of consumers in the United States.Unit B Overview  We rarely think about the vital presence of energy in our daily lives until there is some type of interruption in services that provide our modern-day conveniences. electric power system is an integrated system of interconnecting networks composed of generating plants.S. Critical Thinking  • • Small and large group discussions. Independent and small group work in collection of data. In this unit students will gain an understanding of the basic structure of the electric energy industry and will also follow Shawn and Brianna as they look for ways to reduce their electricity bill. transmission facilities and lines. Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit B  • • • • Explain the different structures of energy companies. Project‐Based Learning  • • Conducting activities and technical skills related to the learner expectations. Generation. Independent and group learning via research with textbooks and Internet sites. adequate. Identify the role and function of generation. transmission. and distribution entities must work in a cooperative manner to provide reliable. Explain the different types of energy businesses. and safe power to customers. transmission. Describe the process of electric metering and billing for energy consumption. Unit B Teaching Strategies  What teaching and learning experiences will equip students to demonstrate the targeted understandings? Teamwork  • • Independent and group learning via research with textbooks and Internet sites.

and decision making. Student completion of assigned activities: • • • • • Quizzes Crosswords Guided Note-taking Review questions Discussion The instructor should evaluate the performance task items and review their evaluation with the students. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  74  . Instructors should take the initiative to make modifications to customize the strategies for implementation in their classrooms. Additional Strategies  Instructors may choose to use the following assessment strategies in a variety of ways to meet their specific assessment needs. and define or assign specific parameters of student understanding or achievement. Examples include the embedded assessment of: • • • Mastery of content through discussion and questioning. problem solving. Reasoning skills through observation of critical thinking. Student participation in individual and group activities. Mastery of technical skills through completion of activities and procedures. Strategies can be modified by an instructor to assess different levels of student understanding.ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES  Embedded Assessment  There are opportunities for assessment embedded within the unit in addition to the strategies listed above. Instructors should select or customize strategies that are appropriate for the content they are assessing. Instructors can identify and select areas of embedded assessment within the unit.

aspx Additional student background materials available in the Secondary Energy Sourcebook produced by Project NEED.” These pages provide an overview of the energy system in the United States. natural-gas pipeline.eei. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. Instructional Resources  Student text: Overview of the Energy System.com/289395 Lesson 2  Students should read the sections of the text called “Electrical Energy. Hydroelectric and Renewable Sources Guided Note-taking Outline. In the Activity: “Pipeline Transportation Systems” students will explore and analyze pipeline transportation concepts.” and “Natural Gas Energy.” “Nuclear.createspace. Fossil Fuel. http://youtu. “Overview of the Energy System. UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Lesson 1  Students should read the sections of the text called.” “Fossil Fuel.org/whoweare/AboutInd ustry/Pages/KeyFacts.pdf Accompanying worksheets and activities available in the Secondary Energy Sourcebook Activities: http://www. Petroleum Energy. The Career Profile: Pipeline Engineer. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. Exciting technology involved includes computer simulation and robotics.” and “Hydroelectric and Renewable Sources.be/PnRoJ80WDnU (clip 1) There are a series of seven short clips or the 14-minute DVD can be ordered from http://amazon.need.” “Petroleum Energy.” “Electric Power Generation. Instructional Resources Student text: Electrical Energy. http://www. Nuclear. 5-9 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Key Facts About the Electric Industry: http://www.need. taking a look at electrical power generation and the different electrical energy fuel sources.pdf Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  75  . 1-4 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Pipeline Transportation Systems (embedded in text) Website (videos): Ultimate Engineering covers the design and construction of the world’s longest sub-sea.” These pages provide an overview of the electrical energy system in the United States.org/needpdf/Secondary %20Energy%20Infobook.com or https://www. Natural Gas Energy Guided Note-taking Outline. Electric Power Generation. is provided to give students an idea of one of many career opportunities in pipeline services.Pacing Chart for Unit B Lesson Delivery  MODULE 1.org/needpdf/Secondary %20Infobook%20Activities.

MODULE 1. but instructors should feel free to provide alternate topics. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. Electric Power Distribution Guided Note-taking Outline. UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Lesson 3:   Students should read the sections of the text titled “Electric Power Transmission” and “Electric Power Distribution. 10-11 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Debate (embedded in text)                                 Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  76  .” These pages provide a continued overview of the electrical energy system in the United States and of electrical power transmission and distribution.” The debate topic of open transmission access has been provided. Students will have the opportunity to hold a debate about an electrical service-related topic in Activity: “Debate. Instructional Resources  Student text: Electric Power Transmission.

For the Activity: “Energy Audit/Efficiency Spokesperson. Scenario: A Trip to the Power Company. Before sharing them.pickocc. Can they relate to the couple with the high bills? With younger students who are still living at home.” You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. they should be able to access usage data online through their power company.aspx Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  77  .MODULE 1: UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Lesson 4  Students should read the sections of the unit text called “Introduction.065 kWh and the digital meter shows 7. If students still have analog meters. What is a Public Utility? Utility Service Standards Guided Note-taking Outline. If sufficient bills are available.com/texas/cho ice-education/how-to-read-your-electricmeter How to Read Your Smart Electric Meter http://www.bounceenergy.” “Bill 2. do some simple statistics such as mean.consumerspower. median. see if there are significant differences that could be caused by seasonal heating and cooling for instance. The analog reading is 34.org/publications/ele ctric/Electric_Bill_Made_Easy. Have them research how to do this and make a list of the types of data they can get regarding their usage. review how the kWh usage is read from the meter. If students have smart meters in their homes. Ideally every student should have at least one bill to review. many students may have additional energy bills for natural gas. A guest speaker will help students become more familiar with the benefits of home energy audits and techniques for conserving energy and reducing their monthly bill.” “Scenario: A Trip to the Power Company. and mode for the aggregated data. Ask who their energy suppliers are.pdf Reading Gas and Electricity Meters http://www.php Reading Electricity Bills http://www. Allow students to use the Internet to research energy-saving ideas. Prior to the activity you should collect example electricity bills from various individuals or ask students to bring in copies of their own electricity bills. Discuss the types of information found on the bills.com/smartmeter/readM eter.shtml Online Usage Calculator http://www. Let them read the two meters at the end of the scenario.com/guides/gasand-electricity-bills. Instructional Resources  Student text: Introduction. 12-14 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity Worksheet: Reading Your Electricity Bill Career Profile: Customer Service Representative Activity: Energy Audit/Efficiency Spokesperson (embedded in text) Websites: How to Read Your Electric Meter http://www. black out or replace the names and addresses on the bills with made-up names and addresses or simply label them “Bill 1. ask them if they have ever looked at their family’s utility bills.org/home_ energy/billestimator.” contact your local power company. While this unit focuses on electricity. and other utilities.” and so forth.sdge. Point out that the dials rotate in alternating directions. With older students.gocompare.” “What is a Public Utility?” and “Utility Service Standards. Have students read Scenario: A Trip to the Power Company and Career Profile: Customer Service Representative. heating oil. If bills cover multiple seasons. The research activity could be completed even without having actual bills. ask them if they are responsible for paying their own bills. Ask students what type of electricity meter they have at their home: analog or digital.124 kWh.

The Activity: “Energy Utilities Business Structure” provides students with an opportunity to do additional research pertaining to the different business structures covered in this lesson.pdf Accompanying activities available in the Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide. See: http://zoomerang.MODULE 1: UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Lesson 5  Students should read the sections of the text called “InvestorOwned Utilities. In the Activity: “Electricity Demand Questionnaire and Poll” students will create a brief electricity-use questionnaire to conduct a poll.” “Commercial. Note: Students may opt to use a free online survey tool to create and administer their poll.pdf     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  78  .need. http://www. http://www.need. 15-26 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Energy Utilities Business Structure (embedded in text) Lesson 6  Students should read the sections of the text titled: “Demand for Electrical Energy.org/needpdf/Learning% 20Conserving%20Student%20Guide.” “Cooperatives.” “Government Owned. Instructional Resources  Student text: Investor-Owned Utilities.com In the Activity: “Residential Electricity Demand” students will brainstorm ways in which they use electricity in their homes. The Activity: “Commercial Electricity Demand” requires groups of students to investigate the commercial demand for electrical energy in their community. Cooperatives. Residential.” These pages describe the demand for electrical energy in the United States.” “Municipal Utilities. Municipal Utilities. Industrial Guided Note-taking Outline. Instructional Resources  Student text: Demand for Electrical Energy.” These pages describe the different business structures of utility companies. produced by Project NEED. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. The Activity: “Industrial Electricity Demand” requires students to research and answer questions about the industrial use of electricity in their communities. 27-30 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Electricity Demand Questionnaire and Poll (embedded in text) Activity: Residential Electricity Demand (embedded in text) Activity: Commercial Electricity Demand (embedded in text) Activity: Industrial Electricity (embedded in text) Additional student background materials available in the Learning and Conserving Student Guide.” “Residential.” and “Independent Power Producers. Government Owned.” and “Industrial. Independent Power Producers Guided Note-taking Outline.org/needpdf/Learning% 20Conserving%20Teacher%20Guide. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. Commercial.com or http://surveymonkey.

Organizations.   Instructional Resources  Student text: The National Electricity System.ferc.asp FERC Order 2000 http://www.php?cid=2%7 C20 Supplementary Activity   Activity: “NERC and FERC Standards and Regulations” Provide copies of NERC and FERC standards for your students to refer to in class (Orders 888. 889. students (individually or in teams) could be assigned specific portions of the standards and regulations to research using the links provided. and 2000). Describe the overall organization of NERC and FERC standards with your students. Students can complete the Activity: “Electricity Reliability” to explore the occurrences of electricity disruptions in their community.” “Independent System Operators. 31-37 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Electricity Reliability (embedded in text) Activity: Independent System Operator (embedded in text) Activity: Regional Transmission Operator (embedded in text) Websites: FERC Order 888 http://www.pdf NERC Standards http://www. Independent System Operators. In the Activity: “Regional Transmission Operator” students will research what RTO is responsible for oversight of their community.” “Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.gov/legal/maj-ordreg/land-docs/RM99-2A.” “North American Reliability Council.com/page.gov/legal/maj-ordreg/land-docs/order888. Have students discuss the purpose and intent of the standards.ferc.” These pages describe the structure of the electricity system in the United States.gov/legal/maj-ordreg/land-docs/order889.MODULE 1: UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Lesson 7  Students should read the sections of the unit called “The National Electricity System.” and “Regional Transmission Organizations.nerc. Regional Transmission Organizations Guided Note-taking Outline.” “Organizations. You may wish to have them complete the applicable parts of the Guided Note-taking handout and look up underlined vocabulary words in the unit glossary. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Alternatively.asp FERC Order 889 http://www.ferc. North American Reliability Council. In the Activity: “Independent System Operator” students will research what ISO is responsible for oversight of their community.       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  79  .

The company’s business structure. Unit Review  Orally review and discuss key concepts from Unit B with students. Sectors of customers that are served by the company. How the company fits into the national electricity system. Demand for the company’s product/services.MODULE 1: UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY—STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Unit Wrap Activity  Authentic Utility Company Visit and Report  Obtain permission and give students an opportunity for a field trip to an energy utility company. How the company is affected by regulatory agencies such as the North American Reliability Council. Have students compile their notes into a formal report. Set up a visit with company representatives who can speak about concepts covered in Unit B such as: • • • • • • The company’s service standards. consider requiring each student to craft one very specific question on an appropriate topic. Have students complete the review questions for Unit B. Have students complete the crossword puzzle for Unit B. Answer student questions. Unit Quiz  Have students complete the quiz for Unit B. the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission What types of careers the company offers Instructional Resources  Student text Glossary Guided Note-taking Outline Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Unit A Vocabulary Exercise— Crossword Puzzle Answer Key for Crossword Puzzle Unit A Review Questions Answer Key for Unit A Review Questions Unit A Quiz Answer Key for Unit A Quiz • Have students take notes regarding pertinent business structure and organization content and other applicable subject matter that has been presented in this unit. In preparation for the field trip.        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  80  .

        Unit B Student Materials      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  81  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  82  .

 for  instance. its use is primarily as fuel for  transportation. in the U. Energy Information Agency    Energy from Petroleum  The petroleum‐based segment of the energy industry includes the  exploration. we need energy. during recreation. control. To get to us. electrical energy is generated. heat water. production. natural  gas. processing. and the list goes on and on. and to  perform thousands of useful tasks in shops.  transportation.S.    Oil and Natural Gas Systems  Exploration and Extraction  Processing and Storage  Control Systems  Transport and Distribution  Pipelines play an important role in the petroleum energy sector. You use many petroleum‐based products  on a daily basis such as diesel. gasoline.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  83  . in transportation. heat and cool homes.S. to lift an object. Energy is needed to provide us with heat and light and power.  Natural gas is a fuel that can be used to cook food. and heating oil and also non‐ energy petroleum products like plastics. Americans use an enormous amount of energy in their daily  lives. When we need heat  and light and power. at home.   Energy from Natural Gas    rights reserved. or to start it moving. perhaps the most widespread  use of pipeline transportation is for the transfer of petroleum products.UNIT B: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY:  STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION  Overview of the Energy System  Energy is essential in our daily lives. plants. extraction. our main sources of energy are the fossil fuels oil. storage. on the job.  While pipelines are used for the transportation of various goods.  What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work.  U. transmitted  and distributed. In the United States. and distribution of crude and refined  petroleum‐based products. and coal. While petroleum is a very  versatile compound. It is made mostly of methane. and factories.

 and tasteless gas. production. All rights reserved    To move natural gas from the  Natural Gas Storage places where it is produced to  the places where it is needed. is treated this  way.   ©2010.  move the gas to a compressor  station or a gas storage field  before being fed again into high‐pressure transmission  lines. Once natural gas is  extracted from the ground in onshore or offshore fields. PG&E. Even small gas leaks can then be detected and  stopped. and all of the gas in city utility systems. and distribution. however. both offer the opportunity for careers in the exploration. Both also rely heavily on  pipelines.   The natural gas system starts with exploration and  extraction through gas wells. it  is processed through cleaning and treatment systems  before it enters the long  distance pipelines. Pipes carry the gas under the streets to buildings in the  community. These principal underground pipes are called gas mains.  After passing through the city gate station. extraction. The natural gas industry has constructed over 200. which provide a way to isolate sections of the  main for maintenance or repair. Most of the gas in pipelines. the gas enters the underground network of pipes of  the local distribution system. Distribution mains connect to  local valves.an odorless.  A local gas company receives natural gas from the long distance pipeline at what is called a city  gate station.  storage. Because of the hazards associated with gas leaks. pipelines then  state natural gas. processing.  miles of large‐diameter  Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  pipelines. Regulators on the  transmission lines reduce pressure for high‐ and low‐ pressure distribution mains.000  transportation or storage.  Natural gas can be liquefied  the natural gas industry has  for the purpose of  constructed more than 200. Transmission lines may be buried or suspended to  cross rivers or other obstructions. colorless.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  84  . the local distribution system. For  example. as a safety precaution a  scented chemical is injected into the gas. Individual service connections are attached to each home or  business. After cleaning and  takes up about 600 times  less space than gaseous  processing. transportation. You are probably familiar with the distinctive odor of  natural gas.  There are similarities between the petroleum and natural gas sectors of the utility industry.000 miles of large‐diameter  pipelines for transporting gas. control. This is the connecting point where the pipeline joins the local gas company’s  system of underground piping.

 explore.    ACTIVITY: Pipeline Transportation Systems  Using resources in the library or online sources. Each section can be shut off by closing a  valve in the street main. the environmental and right‐of‐way impacts. The service pipes  that supply gas to consumers’ homes are usually one or two inches in diameter. environmental and land subcontractors. find general information regarding pipeline  transportation and specific information regarding pipeline transportation of petroleum  products. right‐of‐way acquisition. governmental agencies. and the  other gas appliances in your home. and  approves the preparation of pipeline project drawings and other engineering documents  required for permitting.  Monica travels to job sites and project meetings as necessary and also serves as a technical  expert in meetings with customers and vendors. Monica directs. water heater. is a pipeline engineer for a petroleum company. and others. Gas flows through the meter  into the pipes that supply your range. codes. and construction of pipelines for  her company. regulatory  departments.      CAREER PROFILE: Pipeline Engineer  Monica M. and standards regulated by clients. and analyze the following concepts as they pertain to pipeline  transportation systems:   • Advantages and disadvantages  • Cost‐effectiveness  • Product time in transit  • Lead time for suppliers  • Consistency (delivery time variability)  • Flexibility (adjustment to shipper’s needs)  • Loss or damage  • Safety  • Accessibility  Hypothesize and research what variables affect quality‐assurance factors in pipeline  transportation systems. These valves can be closed in emergency situations.   Research what government regulations and environmental constraints apply to pipeline  transportation systems.Local gas distribution systems are divided into sections.” Monica  uses her knowledge of construction methods to create pipeline designs for intrastate and  interstate pipeline systems. Monica says she enjoys the challenges of  analyzing data to solve problems and is proud of the quality‐control functions she performs  that ensure safe and efficient pipeline operations. A service pipe  extends from the street main underground to a home gas meter. landowners. It’s like solving a puzzle. reviews.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  85  .  Research. bidding.  Monica says “My favorite part of my job is performing technical engineering assignments like  pipeline route selection. I have to take many variables into  consideration such as constructability. home heating furnace or boiler. Monica must have knowledge of compliance with contract information  requirements.

 transmission.  Historically.S.Electrical Energy  The electrical energy system has to generate and transfer electricity based on the demand of  customers. which requires the system to immediately respond to customers’ energy needs. transmission. and distribution of electrical  energy for customers 24 hours a day. while other utilities actually purchase some of their needed supply on the wholesale  market from other power producers. and oil) is the most common method of  electric generation in the U. electric companies were vertically integrated in that electric utility companies  provided generation.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  86  . and distribution services are now commonly separate  entities. and the majority of generating plants are  privately‐owned and subject to federal and state laws and regulations. is generated by three main fuels:  coal. 365 days per year. Electric power generation is decentralized. This  requires the careful coordination of generation. This has changed somewhat to  less vertically integrated structures due to recent regulatory changes occurring in the industry  in which generation. Electrical  energy is created in a generator when a conductor is moved through a magnetic field or a  magnet is moved across a conductor. natural gas.  Fossil Fuel  The burning of fossil fuels (such as coal.  The source of electricity used by consumers varies.   Although there are many fuel sources for powering the mechanical processes that generate  electricity.S. Some utilities generate all the electricity  they sell. transmission. and nuclear. gas. the majority of the electricity used in the U. electrical power is generated by a number of different methods and  then stepped up by a transformer to a higher voltage to be sent out over the transmission  lines.  Electric Power Generation  At generating plants.   Electricity can be generated through:  • • • • • • Magnetism   Light             (generators and alternators)  (batteries and fuel cells)  (solar cells)  (lightning)  (thermocouple)  Chemical Reaction   Static Charges   Heat    Piezoelectric (Pressure)  (microphone and telephone)  The majority of electrical energy used today is produced through magnetism. and distribution services.

 all hydroelectric  plants need a constant flow of water in order to operate efficiently. In nuclear power  generation. Natural gas and oil are also removed from their sources and transported  by pipelines to power‐generating plants.  Electric Power Transmission  Electric power transmission is the bulk transfer of high‐voltage electrical energy from its  source at generating plants to substations. the entry and  exit points are:  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  87  . However. to power plants for use  in generation. The source  of water for hydroelectric generation is usually a lake or reservoir located several  hundred feet above the level of the water turbine and generator.  Nuclear  There has been a recent resurgence in the interest of nuclear power. steam is produced by the heating of water by nuclear fission.  In power plants comprised of wind turbines. so that the  output of the windmills can be combined in order to provide usable capacity levels.Coal is mined at its source and then transported. Smaller hydroelectric  plants can operate with less of a distance. More in depth information  regarding alternative energy sources will be covered in Module 3. As mentioned  earlier. usually by rail. and other renewable power generation sources are a small but  growing percentage of electrical power generated in the U. multiple windmills will be located along mountain or hilltop. substations. the mechanical energy to rotate the generator comes  from the force of falling water pushing against the blades of a water turbine. as little as 20 feet. The electric power transmission system consists  of power lines. windmill.  The bulk energy transmission system can be compared to an interstate roadway network. electrical transmission networks are interconnected in order to provide reliable and  redundant routes for electrical power transmission.  Hydroelectric. the mechanical energy that is used to  create electricity comes from the force of wind pushing against the blades of a windmill.S.  Large amounts of electrical energy flow along the transmission system and enter and leave  the interstate highway at key intervals. and control centers.  After the steam leaves the turbine it is usually condensed back to water and pumped  back into the nuclear‐fueled boiler for the process to begin again.  The output capacity of windmills is limited by the size of the windmill blades and volume  of wind.  Hydroelectric and Renewable Sources  In hydroelectric power plants. In the electrical transmission system. Transmission lines provide the network  that moves electricity from generation plants to distribution substations. The steam  passes through turbines creating mechanical energy that produces electrical current. Fossil fuels are burned to create high‐pressure  steam or hot combustion gases that turn turbine‐generator units that produce  electricity. Usually.

   As mentioned earlier. rather than the transmission or sub‐transmission systems.  Other power grids. FERC also encouraged transmission‐ owning utilities to turn over control of transmission systems to  Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent  System Operators (ISOs) to ensure fair access to the  transmission grid.  Electric Power Distribution  Electric power distribution is the transfer of high voltage electrical energy from substations  to the end customer.  The electric power distribution system consists of power lines.  ©2010.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  88  .   Have teams take five minutes for opening statements. five minutes each for rebuttal  statements. substations and control  centers.  • • • In 1996. and five minutes for closing statements. All rights reserved. One team will take the “Pro” position and another  team will take the “Con” position on the topic. The majority of customers are supplied from a distribution system  that is an output of a substation.  Teams should take time to prepare their position. This allowed an enormous influx  of suppliers to compete for use of the lines in the wholesale  electricity market. have teams switch positions and repeat. such as manufacturing  plants or research facilities. FERC opened the transmission lines owned by investor‐ owned utilities to all suppliers. IRC Council.  Substations that lower the voltage so that electrical  energy circuits are permitted to be routed to  commercial and residential areas. are sometimes directly connected to transmission lines.  If time allows.   Make sure large teams allow an opportunity for everyone to participate during the debate.   An example topic might be: Open transmission access is always best for the community.• • Power plants that generate electrical energy and can be located several hundred  miles away from the customers.  Switching stations that provide control facilities for monitoring system operation  and also provide interconnection with other transmission systems.  Customers requiring high volumes of energy at high voltages. even if they  operate at a different voltage level.  ACTIVITY: Debate  Students should form two debate teams. which can extend the interconnection of production facilities and  allow for alternative routing in the event of operating emergencies and  maintenance.

” Corey took their electric bill and walked them through the information on the bill describing what each section and charge on the bill meant. When they paid their bill. Madyson referred them to Corey in customer relations. Internet. Since their electricity bill was one of the highest and also one where they felt they could have better control over the amount they paid each month. Distribution circuits have a stepped‐down voltage to  provide lower voltages for specific customer applications. Distribution systems are routed along local streets on overhead and  underground distribution circuits. on top of their rent and car payments. electricity. they asked to speak to someone who could explain the bill to them and help them figure out how they could save money on future bills. satellite dish. So they made a trip to their electric company’s local business office.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  89  . and how they could minimize them. they decided to start there.Distribution lines provide the network that moves electricity from distribution substations  to the end customer.” “Let’s take a look then and see what’s going on.” Brianna added.” said Shawn. They quickly determined that they needed to find out more about each of their bills. “and we want to know what we can do to save money on electricity in the future. cell phone. “Our electric bill seems really high. “How may I help you?” asked Corey.  A Trip to the Power Company  Shawn and Brianna got married after she graduated from college and he returned from his second tour in Iraq.  The Utility Industry  We rarely think about the vital presence of energy in our daily lives until there is some type of  interruption in services that provide our modern‐day conveniences. An enormous number of  people and systems must work together on a local and national scale to meet the constant  energy needs of consumers in the United States. When they moved into their first house. “and we want to understand what all these charges are. they were shocked when they started getting piles of bills each month for water-sewer-trash pickup. and natural gas.

Not that he has ever bitten anyone. What was the highest usage for a month? What was  the lowest usage? What was the highest cost per kWh? What was the lowest cost?  Research: What steps can be taken to lower your energy bill? In class or small groups. Different utility companies in different states will have their own schedules for the phase-in process.” “That’s a good question. or website that will help others save on their energy bills. you will be in the next several months. low‐cost ideas to ones that will require greater  effort and more expense. If you haven’t been switched to the new meters. Compare the information from your  worksheet with others in the class. Make a chart  on the board of the total kWh used on each bill. for each student  Answer the questions from the worksheet for the bill(s) you were given. Now most of our customers have been switched to digital ‘smart’ meters that relay information back to the company without the need for someone to read them each month. ACTIVITY: Reading Your Electricity Bill  Materials Needed:  • Copies of electricity bill(s).  create a brochure. Reading Your Electric Bill. yours or one given to you by your teacher. In the past we used analog meters that required a meter reader to come and read the dials on your meter each month.  • Copy of the worksheet.” “Will all meters be switched to the smart type all over the country?” “Eventually yes. and we have a pit bull that goes crazy barking if someone even walks by the house on the road. fact sheet. Not too many people would be brave enough to go back in the yard to read the meter.  When Corey explained that the usage was based on their meter reading each month. “Our meter is on the back of the house. Brianna interrupted to ask how the meter was read. the sweet lummox. but it will take time. If possible estimate the amount of energy each step could  save.” Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  90  .  Include a range of steps from simple.

 which are subjected to the regulation of rates and service  practices. and water. and water services. waste‐management  service. gas. or by e‐mail. public  utilities play a major role in the American economy by contributing to business activities such as  investment opportunities. which can be challenging. or other means.  Public utilities differ from other regulated business sectors in the way in which they provide and  charge for services.  In the previous unit. They might deal with customers in person. Employers look for people who are friendly and possess a professional  demeanor. utility companies were established as vertically integrated entities.  online chats.  They must be able to listen and discern customer problems. It is essential that the  customer service representatives have good communication and problem‐solving skills. communications. telephones. and employees may  choose to move into other areas of the company as they learn more about the industry. which means  the companies were involved in multiple steps for accomplishing the creation.   Most customer service representatives use computers. Public utility is a term commonly used to refer to a group of  businesses that supply vital services. He assists customers that come into the office with questions about their  electricity bills and electrical service. and electric service. the historical and legal precedent for regulation of the energy industry was  reviewed. and employment. by phone. from the scenario above is a customer service representative at an electrical  energy retailer.  standards. Sometimes he goes to customers’ homes and conducts  energy audits to help customers identify things they can do to save electricity. such as electricity. However the ability to resolve  customers’ problems can be rewarding also. provide vital services that have a significant  impact on our daily lives.  Most customer service representative jobs require a high‐school diploma. and markets have changed. Customer service representatives may have to deal with  difficult or irate customers. phone service. Public utilities usually include water service. production. Basic to intermediate computer  skills are required as well as good interpersonal skills.  Historically. The ability to deal patiently with  problems and complaints and to remain courteous when faced with difficult or angry  people is critical. Career Profile: Customer Service Representative  Corey S. customer service jobs are a good introduction to a company.  What Is a Public Utility?  Public utilities. however. While traditional vertically operated utilities  are still the most common. tax revenues. and  distribution of the goods or service they provided. some  companies are requiring an associate’s or bachelor’s degree. A key point is the involvement of government in the regulation of prices and quality  of services in sectors whose services are vital to society.  Often.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  91  . and other technology  extensively in their work. a multitude of new companies have emerged as energy regulations. In addition to providing energy.

 As mentioned in the previous unit.  historically the electric power industry operated in a strictly regulated environment well into  the early 1980s when a regulatory shift began to occur. deregulation. These investors elect  a board of directors who select the management and leadership teams that operate the  organization. The industry is being restructured and becoming increasingly diverse to include new  entities that produce. and maintain the  business system. not to the ownership of the  organizations. adequate. Presently.S. and re‐ regulation. today. adequate. private funds. sell.  Investor owned utilities are privately owned by individual investors. upgrade. and  reliable services to the public. the industry is changing again  due to factors such as retail competition. Governmental  organizations and the service users own the remaining public utilities.  Investor‐Owned Utilities (IOU)  Privately invested electric power companies were the earliest form of business structure for  the electric power industry.  Most investor‐owned utilities perform generation. Service standards that ensure safe. Investors of any company take on a  risk that the company will be profitable and provide an annual return. wholesale competition. transmit. There are more than 180 investor‐owned utilities in the U. The organization charges customers for the use of the delivery system  based on the amount of energy that they purchase from the energy producer of the  customer’s choice.  These organizational leaders use investors’ money to build. and  private pension plans that purchase shares or stocks in the investor‐owned utility for the  purpose of receiving a financial return on investment.S. Most public utilities in the United States are investor‐owned.Utility Service Standards  The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries is to provide safe. and distribution functions  and work in a vertically integrated manner. Ask the speaker to discuss the costs and effectiveness of energy efficiency  measures and strategies for reducing monthly bills. or distribute electricity.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  92  . Investor‐owned utilities are the most predominant type of  utility in the U.   ACTIVITY: Energy Audit/Efficiency Spokesperson  Invite a spokesperson from a local energy utility to speak about measures to save energy in  the home. and reliable service  are critical to the infrastructure of energy utilities.  Utility Company Structures  The term “public utility” refers to the nature of the business. transmission.

 Profits are reinvested into capital improvements.  American Municipal Power (AMP) and the American Public Power Association (APPA)  are nonprofit organizations that serve as advocates for public (municipal) electric  utilities. Cooperatives were  created to provide rural Americans with electric and phone service. delivery and use  of electricity. Historically. utility cooperatives were formed to serve areas  that were not serviced by larger.  water. These cooperatives were  financed through the Rural Electrification Administration (REA).   Municipal Electric Utilities  Most municipal electric utilities just distribute power to their customers. and telecommunications.  Municipal Utilities (Muni)  Local municipalities are the most numerous type of utility. Municipal utilities may include the following services: natural gas. which enables them to elect a  board of directors. Today.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  93  .   Electric Cooperatives operate in a manner similar to an investor‐owned utility. sewage. privately‐owned utility providers.  Municipal utilities are nonprofit entities that are publicly‐owned and controlled by local  government agencies. Historically.S. There are more than 2. a bureau of the U. and any excess is returned to shareholders on annual basis.000  community‐owned utilities in the United States. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is  another industry association that conducts research regarding generation.  Cooperatives (Co‐op)  Cooperative energy utilities are nonprofit entities that are owned by the customers who  are supplied with the services. but a small  number actually generate and transmit electricity too. municipal utilities were  created to provide service to their respective local community in cases where service needs  were not being met by other providers. federal government  loans to ensure the supply of electric service to rural areas. Electric  Cooperative customers each own a share in the company.The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) is a nonprofit organization that serves as an advocate for  shareholder‐ (investor‐) owned utilities. Electric  Cooperatives were originally created and financed by low‐cost. human  resource expenditures. who select the management and leadership teams that operate the  organization.  Department of Agriculture starting in 1935. cooperatives  serve consumers a variety of public utility needs. loan payments.  Electric Cooperatives  There are more than 900 electric cooperatives in the United States.

  a small number of Co‐ops are generation and transmission co‐ops that create and send  power to customers. taxes. Federal electric utilities primarily sell  electricity to municipalities and public‐utility districts. labor.  • The Tennessee Valley Authority.  and New York Power Authority are considered to be among the largest federal and state  energy utilities. and the Army Corps of  Engineers are involved in the building and operation of the facilities that produce the  majority of the power that is sold by the federal government.  but gather electricity from a variety of sources and distribute it to customers. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  94  . local agencies.  Federal agencies that are a part of federal utilities  include:  • • • • The Department of the Interior (Bureau of Indian  Affairs and Bureau of Reclamation)  The Department of State (The International  Boundary and Water Commission)  The Army Corps of Engineers  The Department of Energy Power Marketing  Administrations:  – The Bonneville Power Administration  – The Southeastern Power Administration  – The Southwestern Power Administration  – The Western Area Power Administration  The Tennessee Valley Authority    The Bonneville Power  Administration (BPA) is the largest  supplier of electricity in the Pacific  Northwest.  Government‐Owned  Government‐owned utilities include entities such as local authorities.  Federal  Authorities such as Bonneville Power Authority (BPA). The BPA sells the  output of 31 federal hydroelectric  dams and one non‐federal nuclear  power plant. Some of these were originally established for the dual purpose of flood  control and energy production in the 1930s. and other human resources.Electric Cooperatives are typically distribution cooperatives that do not own generation. Profits from government‐owned utilities are used to pay for  operating costs such as interest on loans.  The National Rural Cooperative Association (NRECA) is the national nonprofit  organization dedicated to representing the national interests of cooperative electric  utilities and their customers. and  county‐governing powers. However. the Bureau of Reclamation.

 Each group should be assigned one of the different types of  business structures listed above. gas turbine. Cogenerators use the heat and electricity that is generated to  power their own operations and often sell excess power back to local utilities. transmission.  Cogeneration  Cogeneration. and create a master list or table showing the advantages  and disadvantages of the different business structures. is the use of a primary  fuel to simultaneously produce heat and electricity. adequate. Using the library or other resources. is an  entity which is not a public utility. Cogeneration accounts for the  largest part of the IPP sector. also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Cogeneration typically involves the coproduction of power  and useful heat from an energy source such as a steam turbine.   ACTIVITY: Energy Utilities Business Structures  Break into five student groups. and  safe electricity.Independent Power Producers (IPP)  An Independent Power Producer (IPP). Consumers depend on reliable. There are more than 1. renewable resources must provide at least 75 percent of the total  energy input. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to  sell. also known as a Non‐Utility Generator (NUG).700 IPPs in the United States.  Research what types of utility business structures are in your area. IPPs  must use the transmission capabilities of other utilities to transmit the power they  generate. What factors might have  influenced the selection of the business structures in your area (rural. research the  advantages and disadvantages of the assigned business structure.  Merchant Generators  Merchant generators are businesses that have been formed to own power plants and  market their output. which allows the plant to be more competitive in the wholesale energy  market.  Demand for Electrical Energy  Electricity is an essential modern convenience. A merchant plant is one that has been built without a specific end  user selected. urban. usually to public utilities. The electric power industry provides for the generation. and solar. and  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  95  . geothermal. or internal  combustion engine. wind.  Small Power Producers  Small Power Producers are small power plants that generate power for resale to others  through renewable technologies such as biomass. To meet  the criteria for the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) classification for a small  power producer. suburban)?  Share research findings as a class.

   ACTIVITY: Electricity Demand Questionnaire and Poll  Create a brief questionnaire and conduct an informal poll of people you know to find out how  electricity is used in their homes and workplaces.” Does residential  energy demand include many high‐energy‐use appliances? What are ways that you can  reduce the impact of high‐energy‐use appliances?  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  96  .distribution of electric power to consumers.  What similarities and differences do you see in residential electricity uses among the class?  What general conclusions can you make about electricity use from the information collected?  Conduct research on what appliances could be classified as “energy hogs. electricity is most  commonly used for the following:  • • • • • • •         Air conditioning and heating  Water heating  Lighting  Cooking  Refrigeration  Clothes washing and drying  Miscellaneous appliances   ACTIVITY: Residential Electricity Demand  Make a list of the ways you use electricity in your home.  As a class. compile the results of the collected information to come up with a list of ways  electricity is used. commercial. Consumers of electricity can be classified into three  main categories: residential. Are there 50? 100?  Compare your list with lists made by other classmates. Ask participants to be as specific as possible  in their answers. and industrial. Are there any trends in the information? What general conclusions can you  make about electricity use from the information collected?  Residential  In the residential category.

 manufacturing.   ACTIVITY: Industrial Electricity Demand  Identify the major industries in your area and answer these questions about them:  • How do the industries use electricity?  • How would the industries in your community be affected by electricity shortages?  • How might electricity shortages otherwise affect your community?  • How might regulatory issues related to electricity affect each industry?  As a class. refining.  Present your information to the class.  Industrial  In the industrial category.Commercial  In the commercial category. develop a table of electricity use that lists local commercial consumers and the  major functions of electricity in that sector. electricity is most commonly used for the following:  • • • Powering industrial facilities  Powering industrial equipment  Powering military bases  The most common industrial energy users are agriculture. discuss which industries are likely to have the greatest impact on electricity  demand.  mining. gas stations. electricity is most commonly used for the following:  • • • • • • • Powering commercial buildings  Retail and Service: Shopping centers. and others  Education: Schools. medical offices  Lodging: Hotels. and others  Office: Professional offices. colleges  Health Care: Hospitals. and construction. forestry. banks. investigate the commercial sector’s electricity demand in your area by interviewing  a company representative or by using the library or other sources.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  97  . restaurants.  As a class. motels  Miscellaneous social and religious institutions and their facilities   ACTIVITY: Commercial Electricity Demand  In groups.

 there are nearly 160. and operated by Independent  System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to ensure equitable  and reliable service. and the Eastern and  Western Interconnections have connections to Canada.S.  Main Interconnections    Source: U. transmission.  In the U.. Energy Information Administration (Nov 2010)  Each of the three interconnections are designed to have systems of connections between  individual utilities to allow for the transfer of power from one network to another to maximize  coordination and planning that ensures system reliability.S.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  98  . adequate.000 miles of high‐voltage transmission lines that move electric  power from generating plants to local distribution systems to be sent to customers. and  the Eastern and Western Interconnections have limited connection to one another.  The Texas Interconnection is not connected to the Western or Eastern Interconnections. the Western Interconnection. electric power system is an integrated system of interconnecting networks composed  of generating plants.”  The U. or simply the “grid.  Generation.  The three major interconnections are monitored. transmission facilities and lines. and local distribution facilities and lines. electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems. controlled. and the Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection. and distribution entities must work in a cooperative manner to  provide reliable. These high‐ voltage transmission lines are also referred to as the electrical power grid.S. and safe power to customers.The National Electricity System  The U. or grids: the  Eastern Interconnection.S. Both the  Western and Texas Interconnections have connections to parts of Mexico.

  NERC Regional Entities:  • • • • • • • • Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC)  Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO)  Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC)  ReliabilityFirst Corporation (RFC)  SERC Reliability Corporation (SERC)  Southwest Power Pool. there are typically multiple balancing authorities that operate  control centers that monitor the national grid.”  NERC is composed of regional entities that are responsible for the coordination of the  adequacy and reliability of power in their respective region. or other service issues?  Research the circumstances behind any service disruptions and discuss research findings as a  class. the  industry formed the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). ACTIVITY: Electricity Reliability  Using the library or other resources.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  99  . research the occurrence of electricity service disruptions  in your community. and enforcing standards  Providing education and training  Analysis and assessment of system operations  including disturbances and failures    NERC’s mission is to  “ensure the bulk power  system in North America is  reliable. RE (SPP)  Texas Reliability Entity (TRE)  Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)  Within the regional entities.   NERC’s major areas of responsibility:  • • • Developing.    Organizations  North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)  As a result of the 1965 blackout of the East Coast that affected 30 million people. monitoring. blackouts. Balancing authority operators are  responsible for maintaining the load/interchange/generation balance within the control  area. The overall  reliability and coordination of the national interconnected power systems are the  responsibilities of the NERC.  Has your community experienced brownouts.

 FERC  required transmission owners to provide nondiscriminatory access to transmission lines  while permitting utilities to recover stranded costs associated with providing open  access to transmission.  FERC’s Regulatory Functions:  • • • • • Regulate wholesale sales of electricity  Interstate transmission transactions  Interconnections and power agreements  Rates set by federal power marketing administrations  Hydroelectric licensing  In 1996 and 1999. FERC issued orders that affected operations for all generation. Through FERC Orders 888 and 889. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) was created to provide  additional standards to ensure the reliability of electric power. FERC acknowledged that barriers to competitive wholesale  markets existed and should be removed.  FERC Orders Number 888 and 889  In Orders 888 and 889.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  100  .  transmission. and distribution entities.NERC Regions   ©North American Electric Reliability Corporation  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)  In 1977.

 generation. RTOs are designed to administer the transmission  grid on a regional basis.  FERC Order Number 2000  FERC Orders 888 and 889 were created with the idea of facilitating open access to  transmission with a provision for equitable information access. and distribution entities  collaborated to form Independent System Operators (ISOs).  FERC’s establishment of ISOs and RTOs as regulatory bodies helps to maintain the  coordination. All rights reserved. secure. Similar to ISOs. too. FERC stated that entities desiring to be qualified as RTOs must  first meet a specific list of characteristics and functions. and  reliable electric service.  FERC stated that ISOs could provide assurance of independence from transmission  owners and the elimination of multiple rates to transmit electricity over long distances. FERC Order Number  2000 formally outlined the requirements and mandates for Regional Transmission  Organizations (RTOs).To comply with FERC directives and assure the operation of transmission lines in an  independent and equitable manner. IRC Council.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  101  . and monitoring of electric transmission to ensure safe. control.  North American ISOs and RTOS    ©2010.  which allows for open access rule and fair access to the competitive wholesale market. transmission.

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  102  . and adequate services. Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) were formed under the  authority of FERC from Order Number 2000.  Contact local electricity providers in your community and ask them how they work with the  ISO to maintain safe.  Current ISOs operating in North America:   • • • • • • Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO)  California ISO (CAISO)  Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)  Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO).  Independent System Operators are nonprofit organizations that combine the transmission  capabilities of multiple transmission providers into a single transmission system that can be  accessed by many other energy entities. Independent System Operators (ISOs) were formed under the  authority of FERC from Orders 888 and 889. (Ontario. RTOs provide equal access to the electric transmission  network. Canada)  New York Independent System Operator (NYISO)  New Brunswick System Operator (NBSO)   ACTIVITY: Independent System Operator  Using the library or other resources.  ISOs coordinate. FERC established ISOs as a way to provide non‐ discriminatory access to transmission. reliable. ISOs can ensure unbiased transmission service.  Regional Transmission Organizations  As mentioned earlier. FERC encouraged transmission‐owning utilities  to turn over control of transmission systems to Regional Transmission Organizations.Independent System Operators  As mentioned earlier. find the ISO that is responsible for your geographic  region. control.  RTOs coordinate. control. Order  Number 2000 also specified twelve standards that an entity must comply with in order to  become Regional Transmission Organizations. By combining transmission capabilities into one  equally accessed system. and monitor the operation of the transmission grid in their  respective geographical area. and monitor the operation of the electric power system in their  respective geographical area. RTOs differ from ISOs in that they are required to meet specific FERC regulations.

 nonprofit utility entities that are owned by  the customers who are supplied with the services. and adequate services. find the RTO that is responsible for your geographic  region. All rights reserved. IRC Council.  Contact local electricity providers in your community and ask them how they work with the  RTO to maintain safe.  Unit B Glossary  balancing authority—a regional organization responsible for planning and maintaining the  balance of electricity resources and electricity demand  blackout—power loss affecting many consumers over a large geographical area for a significant  period of time  cogeneration—process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the  same fuel or energy source  cooperative energy utilities—nonprofit utility entities that are owned by the customers who  are supplied with the services  electric cooperatives—commonly known as co‐ops. (ISO‐NE)  PJM Interconnection LLC (PJM)  Southwest Power Pool (SPP)   ACTIVITY: Regional Transmission Operator  Using the library or other resources. and distribution  systems over broad geographic areas    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  103  .There are currently four RTOs operating in North  America:  • • • •     ©2010. reliable. transmission. Midwest Independent Transmission  System Operator (MISO)  ISO New England Inc. originally created and financed by low‐ cost federal government loans to ensure the supply of electric service to rural areas  electric power distribution—the transfer of high voltage electrical energy from substations to  the end customer  electric power generation—process of creating electrical energy from other forms of energy  electrical power grid—interconnected electric generation.

 FERC stated that  entities desiring to be qualified as RTOs must first meet a specific list of characteristics and  functions  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  104  . which allows the plant to be more competitive in the wholesale energy market  municipal utilities (muni)—nonprofit entities that are publicly‐owned and controlled by local  government agencies. designed to  administer the transmission grid on a regional basis in a neutral manner  investor‐owned utilities (IOU)—utility entities that are privately owned by individual investors. natural gas  pricing.  water. oil pipeline rates. and gas pipeline certification  fossil fuels—carbon‐rich energy sources such as petroleum. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell.electric power transmission—the bulk transfer of high‐voltage electrical energy from its source  at generating plants to substations  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)—an independent regulatory agency within the  Department of Energy and the successor to the Federal Power Commission. and waste‐disposal service  regional transmission organization (RTO)—created under the authority of FERC. a merchant plant is one that has been built without a specific end user  selected. municipal utilities may include the following services: natural gas. operators. taxes. designed to  administer the transmission grid on a regional basis in a neutral manner. or natural gas. hydroelectric licensing. Profits from government‐owned utilities are used to pay for  operating costs such as interest on loans. NERC is the electric reliability organization certified by the Federal Energy  Regulatory Commission to establish and enforce reliability standards for the bulk‐power  system. FERC governs  interstate electricity sales. sewage.  usually to public utilities  independent system operator (ISO)—created under the authority of FERC. which are  derived from the decomposition of ancient (fossilized) living matter  government‐owned utilities—these include entities such as local authorities. and telecommunications  North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)—formed in 1968 in response to the  1965 blackout. wholesale electric rates. labor. electric. and users are required to register with  NERC  public utility—maintains the infrastructure for providing a public service such as gas. and private pension plans that purchase shares or stocks for the purpose of  receiving a financial return on investment  merchant generators—businesses that have been formed to own power plants and market  their output. and other human resources  hydroelectric power—power generated by using moving water to power a turbine generator to  produce electricity  independent power producer (IPP)—also known as a Non‐Utility Generator (NUG). coal.  private funds.  and county governing powers. all bulk power system owners.  water. an entity  which is not a public utility. local agencies.

 Sedano. (2008).  Reading Electricity Bills  http://www.pdf  Kaplan.  U. R40511.eia. VA. Arlington.pickocc. (2007). Energy: Critical Infrastructure and Key  Resources Sector‐Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan  (Redacted).C. Stan Mark.S.isorto.  National Council on Electric Policy. Energy Information Administration (November 2009). CRS  Report for Congress.org/Pubs/ELECTRICITYTRANSMISSION.pdf  U. Electric Power Transmission: Background and Policy Issues.S. wind. a step‐up transmission substation receives electric power from a nearby  generating facility and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for  transmission to distant locations  transformer—a device that changes the voltage of an electric current  vertically integrated—a business structure in which the same company owns several or all  levels of the production processes for a product or services    Unit B References  Brown. Electricity Transmission: A Primer.  http://www.S. Department of Homeland Security. and solar  stepped down—conversion of high‐voltage electricity to lower voltage through the use of  transformers at power substations  stepped up—conversion of low‐voltage electricity to higher voltage through the use of  transformers. and Richard P. Energy Information Administration.pdf  ISO/RTO Council Markets Committee.pdf  U. (October 2007).org/publications/electric/Electric_Bill_Made_Easy. (April 2009). Electric Power Data. 7‐5700. Delivery of Service.org/atf/cf/%7B5B4E85C6‐7EAC‐40A0‐8DC3‐ 003829518EBD%7D/IRC_DR_Report_101607. geothermal. VA. Vienna. (June 2004). D. Harnessing the Power of Demand: How  ISOs and RTOs Are Integrating Demand Response into Wholesale Electricity Markets. Matthew H.doe.raponline. Introduction to the Energy Utility  Industry.  Public Utilities Reports Guide. Electric Power Annual 2009.   Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G).eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa.  http://www. (January 2003).  http://www.   http://www. (Course).small power producer—small power plants that generate power to resell to others through  renewable technologies such as biomass.gov/electricity/  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  105  . Washington.

com/page.nerc. D.C. Washington.Warwick.php?cid=1|9|119. (May 2002). Electricity Markets: Version 2. Deregulation.energy. and the U.   http://www1.  Energy Information Agency. the IRC/RTO Council. U. A Primer on Electric Utilities. Department of Energy. William M.S. The content may not be reproduced in whole or  any part without the prior express written permission of the North American Electric Reliability  Corporation.gov/femp/pdfs/primer.S. and Restructuring  of U.       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  106  .S.pdf  Unit B Photo Credits  Images courtesy of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation’s website are the  property of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and are available at  http://www.eere.  Photos and graphics also used with permission from PG&E.

          Unit B Teaching Resources      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  107  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  108  .

Unit B Vocabulary Activity  1 3 2 4 5 8 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 E li C d Across  3. sewage. __________ utilities may include the following services: natural gas. also known as a Non-Utility Generator (NUG). An independent power __________ is an entity which is not a public utility. Nonprofit entities that are publicly-owned and controlled by local government agencies. usually to public utilities. 5. water. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  109  . and telecommunications.

13. transmission. ______________-owned utilities are privately owned by individual investors. 11. and distribution system over broad geographic areas form an electrical power _____. federal government loans to ensure the supply of electric service to rural areas. 10. ____________ system operators are created under the authority of FERC. and solar. 9. Businesses that have been formed to own power plants and market their output. 6. A _______ utility maintains the infrastructure for providing a public service such as gas. Electric ______________. agencies. 4. 12. Utilities owned by entities such as local authorities. Originally created and financed by low-cost. water. designed to administer the transmission grid on a regional basis in a neutral manner. 2. 14. wind. private funds. electric. Electric power _____________. and private pension plans that purchase shares or stocks for the purpose of receiving a financial return on investment. and waste-disposal service. _______ power producers are plants that generate power to resale to others through renewable technologies such as biomass. the transfer of high-voltage electrical energy from substations to the end customer. geothermal. and counties are called ______________-owned utilities. Interconnected electric generation.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  110  . which allows the plant to be more competitive in the wholesale energy market. Process in which electricity and heat are produced at the same time from the same fuel or energy source. A ___________ generator plant is one that has been built without a specific end user selected. The bulk transfer of high-voltage electrical energy from its source at generating plants to substations is referred to as electric power _______________.8. The process of creating electrical energy from other forms of energy is called electric power _________________. 7. Down  1. nonprofit utility entities that are owned by the customers who are supplied with the services.

In __________________________________________________ plants. the majority of the electricity used in the U. 7. Petroleum-based products are also used for _______________________ and _____________________________________________________________________. 8. __________________________________________ is the transfer of high-voltage electrical energy from substations to the end customer. 4. steam is produced by heating water by _________________. The electrical energy system has to generate and transfer electricity based on ________________________________________________________.S. the mechanical energy to rotate the generator comes from the force of falling water pushing against the blades of a water turbine. ___________________________________________ is the bulk transfer of high-voltage electrical energy from its source at generating plants to substations. In nuclear power generation. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  111  . and _________________________________________ is the most common method of electric generation in the U. The primary use of petroleum energy is in ______________________________________. 5. _____________________. _____________________. 9. 6. _____________________.S. _____________________. The burning of fossil fuels such as _____________________. which requires the system to ____________________________ to customers’ energy needs. 10. 2. Although there are many fuel sources for powering the mechanical processes that generate electricity. _____________________. _____________________. 3. is generated by three main fuels: ________________________________________________________________________. and _________________________________________ of these products. The petroleum and natural gas based segments of the energy industry includes the _____________________.Unit B Guided Note‐Taking Outline  1.

15. _____________________________________ were originally created and financed by lowcost federal government loans to ensure the supply of electric service to rural areas. production. 16. ___________________________. provide vital services which have a significant impact on our daily lives. 13. and _________________________________________ who purchase shares or stocks in the investor-owned utility for the purpose of receiving a financial return on investment. and _________________________________________. 17. and ______________________________functions and work in a vertically integrated manner. and distribution of the goods or service they provided. Privately-invested electric power companies were the earliest form of business structure for the electric power industry. gas. 19. and water. utility companies were established as _____________________________________________________________ entities. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  112  . Most investor-owned utilities perform __________________________________. Public utilities usually include _________________________________________________________________.S. The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries are to provide _____________________. Investor-owned utilities are privately owned by individual _____________________. ________________________________________ are nonprofit entities that are publiclyowned and controlled by local government agencies and may include the following services: ____________________________. _____________________. ____________________________________. _____________________. such as electricity. which means the companies were involved in multiple steps for accomplishing the creation. today. ___________________________________. _____________________. 12. 14. Historically. ______________________________________________ are nonprofit entities that are owned by the customers who are supplied with the services.11. and ______________________ __________________________ to the public. 18. _______________________________________________ are the most predominant type of utility in the U.

is the use of a primary fuel to simultaneously produce heat and electricity. __________________________________ include entities such as local authorities. __________________________________ are businesses that have been formed to own power plants and market their output Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  113  . 21. An _____________________________________________. and solar. local agencies. Federal agencies that are a part of federal utilities include: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 22. _______________________________. also known as combined heat and power (CHP). wind. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell. and county-governing powers. usually to public utilities. ____________________________________ are small power plants that generate power to resale to others through renewable technologies such as biomass. 25. 24. also known as a Non-Utility Generator (NUG). is an entity which is not a public utility. 23. geothermal.20.

26. In the commercial category. electricity is most commonly used for the following: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  114  . In the residential category. electricity is most commonly used for the following: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 28. Consumers of electricity can be classified into three main categories: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 27.

31. there are typically multiple _____________________________ that operate control centers which monitor the national grid. 33. or grids: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 32. NERC is composed of ______________________________________________________ that are responsible for the coordination of the adequacy and reliability of power in their respective region. The three major interconnections are monitored. 36. The U. ________________________________________________________________________. In the industrial category. controlled. 34. and operated by _____________________________________________________________. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  115  . and ___________________________________________________________________.S. electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems. 35. electricity is most commonly used for the following: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 30.S. The _______________________________________________________ was created to provide additional standards to ensure the reliability of electric power. The U. and _____________________________________________ to ensure equitable and reliable service. The overall reliability and coordination of the national interconnected power systems are the responsibility of the ____________________________________________________. _____________________________________________________________. Within the regional entities. electric power system is an integrated system of interconnecting networks composed of __________________________________________________________________.29.

When is payment due for this bill? 9. describe the rate schedule used in determining the bill. What might cause monthly variations? BONUS: What other types of information were found on the bill(s) you analyzed? Give examples. Was all usage billed at the same rate? If not. see if the average charge varies from month to month. 8. 1. After you and your classmates have averaged the number of kilowatt-hours used for all of the different bills. compare the usage on your bill to the average. List all additional charges included on this bill and explain each charge.Unit B Activity: “Reading Your Electricity Bill”  Looking at your electricity bill or the one(s) provided by your instructor. If there are sufficient bills from different months. Use your course notebook or a separate sheet of paper to answer the questions. Was it higher or lower? 10.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  116  . What was the period of time covered during this billing cycle? 4. What is the number of the meter that was read to generate the usage information? 3. What was the charge per kilowatt-hour? 6. What is the name of the company that provides the electricity for this home? 2. 7. answer the following questions. How many kilowatt-hours were used during this time period? 5.

Describe the responsibilities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). 2. electric power system. and what are its roles? Section: Overview of the Energy System  14. 15. List and describe three types of independent power producers. 10. 18. Section: Organizations  8. Describe the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). 9. Section: The Utility Industry  1. What is an ISO. List and describe the following fuel sources that are used for powering the mechanical processes that generate electricity. Describe the electrical power transmission system and process. Describe what happens at electrical power generation plants. and what are its roles? 13. What types of vital services do public utilities provide? What does it mean for a utility company to be vertically integrated? Why are service standards a concern for energy utilities? Section: Utility Company Structures  4. 5. 11. 12. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  117  . Describe the petroleum-based segment of the energy industry.Unit B Review Questions  Use a blank sheet of paper to answer the following questions. 17. 16. 19. List and describe the differences between the three types of energy utility business structures.S. 3. Section: Demand for Electrical Energy  6. List and describe the three main categories of electricity consumers. Section: The National Electricity System  7. Describe the responsibilities of NERC’s balancing authorities. Describe the requirements of FERC orders 888 and 889 and 2000. Describe the interconnections that make up the U. Describe the electrical power distribution system and process. Describe the natural gas segment of the energy industry. What is an RTO.

Public utility service standards ensure service that is: a) c) Safe Reliable b) Adequate d) All of the above 3. various utility structures and national and regional regulatory organizations. What type of utility is a non-profit entity that is publicly-owned and controlled by local government agencies? a) c) Investor owned Independent Power Producer b) Municipal d) Cooperative Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  118  . 1. The most predominant type of utility in the United States is what type of business structure? a) c) Investor owned Independent Power Producer b) Non-profit d) Cooperative 4. Multiple Choice  Circle the letters of all that apply.Module 1 Unit B Quiz  This quiz covers the structure of the utility industry including the three parts of the electric power system. Public utilities usually include what types of services? a) c) Water service Electric service b) Phone service d) All of the above 2.

Who uses the co-production of power and useful heat from an energy source such as a steam turbine. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell? a) c) Investor owned Independent Power Producer b) Municipal d) Cooperative 7. What businesses have been formed to own power generation plants and market their output without a specific end user selected? a) c) Small power producers Merchant generators b) Cogenerators d) All of the above Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  119  . geothermal. and is an entity which is not a public utility. The type of utility organization whose customers each own a share. What are small power plants that generate power to resale to others through renewable technologies such as biomass. gas turbine.5. What type of utility is also known as a Non-Utility Generator (NUG). and receive rebates if excess revenue is collected at the end of the year: a) c) Investor Owned Independent Power Producer b) Municipal d) Cooperative 6. wind and solar? a) c) Small power producers Merchant generators b) Cogenerators d) All of the above 9. or internal combustion engine? a) c) Small power producers Merchant generators b) Cogenerators d) All of the above 8.

health care and lodging? a) c) Commercial Industrial b) Residential 12. cooking and refrigeration? a) c) Commercial Industrial b) Residential 11. education. What category of electricity consumer includes the use of electricity for retail and services. Historically. The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries are to provide safe. 5. 3. clothes washing. water heating. Privately invested electric power companies were the earliest form of business structure for the electric power industry. not to the ownership of an organization. 6. What category of electricity consumer includes the use of electricity for powering industrial facilities and equipment? a) c) Commercial Industrial b) Residential 13. 2. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  120  . lighting. The primary use of petroleum energy is in manufacturing. 7. The term public utility refers to the nature of the business. offices. What category of electricity consumer include the use of electricity for air conditioning and heating.10. Federal electric utilities primarily sell electricity to investor-owned utilities. adequate and reliable services to the public. Independent power producers must use the transmission capabilities of other utilities to transmit the power they have generated. Most investor-owned utilities perform what function(s)? a) c) c) Generation Distribution All of the above b) Transmission True‐False  T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1. utility companies were established as horizontally integrated entities. 4.

10. Non-profit organizations that combine the transmission capabilities of multiple transmission providers into a single transmission system that can be accessed by many other energy entities. The transfer of high voltage electrical energy from substations to the end customer. hydroelectric licensing. natural gas pricing. 6. 9. Entities desiring to be qualified must first meet a specific list of characteristics and functions. The U. is the most common method of electric generation in the U. Electrical transmission networks are not interconnected.S. An independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy that governs interstate electricity sales. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) electric power generation electric power transmission electric power distribution independent system operator regional transmission organization Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation ____ ____ ____         Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  121  . and the Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection. oil pipeline rates. 5. electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems: the Eastern Interconnection. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal. the Western Interconnection. The bulk transfer of high voltage electrical energy from its source at generating plants to substations.T/F T/F 8. 7. 2. gas and oil. 4. wholesale electric rates. 3. and gas pipeline certification. Process of creating electrical energy from other forms of energy. T/F Matching  ____ ____ ____ ____ 1.S. The electric reliability organization certified by FERC to establish and enforce reliability standards and regulations for the bulk-power system. Designed to administer the transmission grid on a regional basis in a neutral manner.

Answer Key for Unit B Vocabulary Activity  
 
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Answer Key for Unit B Guided Note‐Taking Outline 
1. The petroleum and natural gas based segments of the energy industry includes the EXPLORATION, EXTRACTION, PROCESSING, STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION, CONTROL,  and DISTRIBUTION of these products. 2. The primary use of petroleum energy is in TRANSPORTATION. 3. Petroleum-based products are also used for HEATING and PLASTICS. 4. The electrical energy system has to generate and transfer electricity based on THE  DEMAND OF CUSTOMERS, which requires the system to IMMEDIATELY RESPOND to customers’ energy needs. 5. Although there are many fuel sources for powering the mechanical processes that generate electricity, the majority of the electricity used in the U.S. is generated by three main fuels: COAL, NATURAL GAS, and NUCLEAR. 6. The burning of fossil fuels, such as COAL, GAS, and OIL, is the most common method of electric generation in the U.S. 7. In nuclear power generation, steam is produced by heating water by NUCLEAR FISSION. 8. In HYDROELECTRIC POWER plants, the mechanical energy to rotate the generator comes from the force of falling water pushing against the blades of a water turbine. 9. ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION is the bulk transfer of high voltage electrical energy from its source at generating plants to substations. 10.  ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION is the transfer of high voltage electrical energy from substations to the end customer. 11. PUBLIC UTILITIES, such as electricity, gas and water, provide vital services which have a significant impact on our daily lives. Public utilities usually include WATER SERVICE,  PHONE SERVICE, WASTE‐MANAGEMENT SERVICE, and ELECTRIC SERVICE.

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12. Historically, utility companies were established as VERTICALLY INTEGRATED entities, which means the companies were involved in multiple steps for accomplishing the creation, production, and distribution of the goods or service they provided. 13. The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries are to provide SAFE, ADEQUATE,  and RELIABLE SERVICE to the public. 14. Privately-invested electric power companies were the earliest form of business structure for the electric power industry. INVESTOR‐OWNED UTILITIES are the most predominant type of utility in the U.S. today. 15. Investor-owned utilities are privately owned by individual INVESTORS, PRIVATE FUNDS,  and PRIVATE PENSION PLANS who purchase shares or stocks in the investor-owned utility for the purpose of receiving a financial return on investment. 16. Most investor-owned utilities perform GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, and  DISTRIBUTION functions and work in a vertically integrated manner. 17. MUNICIPAL UTILITIES are nonprofit entities that are publicly-owned and controlled by local government agencies and may include the following services: NATURAL GAS,  WATER, SEWAGE, and TELECOMMUNICATIONS.  18. COOPERATIVE ENERGY UTILITIES are nonprofit entities that are owned by the customers who are supplied with the services. 19. ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES were originally created and financed by low-cost federal government loans to ensure the supply of electric service to rural areas. 20. GOVERNMENT‐OWNED UTILITIES include entities such as local authorities, local agencies, and county-governing powers 21. Federal agencies that are a part of federal utilities include: • • THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND BUREAU OF  RECLAMATION)  THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE (THE INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER  COMMISSION) 

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and solar. An INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCER. MERCHANT GENERATORS are businesses that have been formed to own power plants and market their output. COGENERATION. wind. 23.• • THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS  THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS:  • • • • THE BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION  THE SOUTHEASTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION  THE SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION  THE WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION  •   THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY  22. 25. SMALL POWER PRODUCERS are small power plants that generate power to resale to others through renewable technologies such as biomass. is the use of a primary fuel to simultaneously produce heat and electricity. In the residential category. 24. electricity is most commonly used for the following: • • • • • • • AIR CONDITIONING AND HEATING  WATER HEATING  LIGHTING  COOKING  REFRIGERATION  CLOTHES WASHING AND DRYING  MISCELLANEOUS APPLIANCES  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  125  . geothermal. Consumers of electricity can be classified into three main categories: • • • RESIDENTIAL  COMMERCIAL  INDUSTRIAL  27. usually to public utilities. 26. also known as a Non-Utility Generator (NUG). is an entity which is not a public utility. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell. also known as combined heat and power (CHP).

electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems. TRANSMISSION FACILITIES AND LINES. In the commercial category. 34. RESTAURANTS  OFFICE: PROFESSIONAL OFFICES. GAS STATIONS. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  126  . electricity is most commonly used for the following: • • • • • • •   29. COLLEGES  HEALTH CARE: HOSPITALS. MOTELS  MISCELLANEOUS SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR FACILITIES  30. 35. electricity is most commonly used for the following: • • POWERING INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES  POWERING INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT  POWERING COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  RETAIL AND SERVICE: SHOPPING CENTERS. and LOCAL  DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES AND LINES. Within the regional entities. The U. 33. there are typically multiple BALANCING AUTHORITIES that operate control centers which monitor the national grid. The three major interconnections are monitored. The overall reliability and coordination of the national interconnected power systems are the responsibility of the NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL (NERC). MEDICAL OFFICES  LODGING: HOTELS. NERC is composed of REGIONAL ENTITIES that are responsible for the coordination of the adequacy and reliability of power in their respective region. 31.28. electric power system is an integrated system of interconnecting networks composed of GENERATING PLANTS. or grids: • • • THE EASTERN INTERCONNECTION  THE WESTERN INTERCONNECTION  THE TEXAS (ERCOT) INTERCONNECTION    32. controlled and operated by INDEPENDENT SYSTEM OPERATORS (ISOS) and REGIONAL TRANSMISSION  ORGANIZATIONS (RTOS) to ensure equitable and reliable service.S. The U. In the industrial category.S. BANKS  EDUCATION: PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

36.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  127  . The FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC) was created to provide additional standards to ensure the reliability of electric power.

  Cooperative energy utilities: Nonprofit utility entities that are owned by the  customers who are supplied with the services.  Municipal utilities (muni): Nonprofit entities that are publicly‐owned and  controlled by local government agencies. and county‐governing powers.  and reliable services to the public. labor. private funds. Cogeneration is  the use of a primary fuel to simultaneously produce heat and electricity. An entity that is not a public utility. provide vital services that have a  significant impact on our daily lives. taxes.  Government‐owned utilities: Include entities such as local authorities. adequate. List and describe the difference between the three types of energy utility business structures. Service standards that ensure safe. and distribution of the goods or  service they provide. gas. and  other human resources. What does it mean for a utility company to be vertically integrated? Vertically integrated entities are ones in which the company is involved in multiple  steps for accomplishing the creation. and private pension plans that purchase  shares or stocks for the purpose of receiving a financial return on investment. Why are service standards a concern for energy utilities? The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries is to provide safe.Answer Key for Unit B Review Questions  Section: The Utility Industry  1. usually to public utilities.  2. local  agencies. • Cogeneration: Also known as combined heat and power (CHP). List and describe three types of independent power producers.  128  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . • Investor owned utilities (IOU): Utility entities that are privately owned by  individual investors. sewage. but which owns facilities to generate  electric power to sell.  3. What types of vital services do public utilities provide? Public utilities. and telecommunications. and water. production.  Independent power producer (IPP): Also known as a Non‐Utility Generator  (NUG). Municipal utilities may include the  following services: natural gas. such as electricity. Profits from government‐owned utilities  are used to pay for operating costs such as interest on loans. water. adequate.   Section: Utility Company Structures  4.  • • • • 5. and  reliable service are critical to the infrastructure of energy utilities.

• • Cogeneration typically involves the coproduction of power and useful heat from  an energy source such as a steam turbine. which allows the plant to be more competitive in the  wholesale energy market.  Section: Demand for Electrical Energy  6. gas turbine.  Merchant generators: Businesses that have been formed to own power plants  and market their output.  Small power producers: Small power plants that generate power for resale to  others through renewable technologies such as biomass. gas stations. A merchant plant is one that has been built without a  specific end user selected. restaurants  Office: Professional offices. Cogenerators use the heat and electricity that is generated to power their  own operations and often sell excess power back to local utilities. medical offices  Lodging: Hotels. geothermal. List and describe the three main categories of electricity consumers. To meet the criteria for the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA)  classification for a small power producer. and  solar. wind. banks  Education: Schools. motels  Miscellaneous social and religious institutions and their facilities  Industrial  • • Powering industrial facilities  Powering industrial equipment  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  129  . renewable resources must provide at  least 75 percent of the total energy input. or internal combustion  engine. colleges  Health Care: Hospitals. Residential  • • • • • • • Air conditioning and heating  Water heating  Lighting  Cooking  Refrigeration  Clothes washing and drying  Miscellaneous appliances  Commercial  • • • • • • • Powering commercial buildings  Retail and Service: Shopping centers.

S. FERC was created to provide additional standards to ensure the reliability of electric  power. and the Texas (ERCOT)  Interconnection. The overall reliability and coordination of the national interconnected power  systems are the responsibility of the NERC. and enforcing standards  Providing education and training  Analysis and assessment of system operations.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  130  . Balancing authority operators  are responsible for maintaining the load/interchange/generation balance within the  control area. Describe the responsibilities of the NERC’s balancing authorities. or grids:  the Eastern Interconnection.S. electric power system.  10. Describe the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).  Section: Organizations  8. monitoring. including disturbances and  failures  9. Within the regional entities. electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems. the Western Interconnection.Section: The National Electricity System  7.  FERC’s Regulatory Functions:  • • • • • Regulate wholesale sales of electricity  Interstate transmission transactions  Interconnections and power agreements  Rates set by federal power marketing administrations  Hydroelectric licensing  11. Describe the responsibilities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). there are typically multiple balancing authorities that  operate control centers that monitor the national grid. Describe the interconnections that make up the U. Describe the requirements of FERC orders 888 and 889 and 2000. FERC orders 888 and 889  • Through orders 888 and 889. FERC required transmission owners to provide  nondiscriminatory access to transmission lines while permitting utilities to  recover stranded costs associated with providing open access to transmission. The U.   NERC’s major areas of responsibility:  • • • Developing.

At generating plants. Petroleum‐based products  are also used for heating. and what are its roles? RTOs coordinate. and other miscellaneous chemical and  consumer products. control. control. By  combining transmission capabilities into one equally accessed system.   12.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  131  . The petroleum‐based segment of the energy industry includes the production.  Section: Overview of the Energy System  14. and  distribution entities collaborated to form Independent System Operators  (ISOs).  13.  The primary use of petroleum energy is in transportation. RTOs provide equal access to the electric transmission  network.  storage. storage. ISOs can  ensure unbiased transmission service. Pipelines play an  important part of the natural gas energy sector. and monitor the operation of the transmission grid in their  respective geographical area.  15. Describe the petroleum-based segment of the energy industry. generation. electrical power is generated by a number of different methods  and then stepped up by a transformer to a higher voltage to be sent out over the  transmission lines. Describe what happens at electrical power generation plants. transportation. and distribution of natural gas. and what are its roles? Independent System Operators are nonprofit organizations that combine the  transmission capabilities of multiple transmission providers into a single  transmission system that can be accessed by many other energy entities. transmission. and factories.  FERC order 2000  • FERC order 2000 formally outlined the requirements and mandates for  Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). heat water. RTOs differ from ISOs in that they are required to meet specific FERC  regulations. and distribution of crude and refined  petroleum‐based products. Natural gas is a fuel that can be used to cook food.  processing.  16. processing. transportation. control.  and to perform thousands of useful tasks in shops. plants. heat and cool homes. lubricants. Describe the natural gas segment of the energy industry. What is an RTO.• To comply with FERC directives and assure the operation of transmission lines  in an independent and equitable manner.   The natural gas segment of the energy industry includes the production. What is an ISO.

   Nuclear: In nuclear power generation. steam is produced by heating water by  nuclear fission. and control centers.   Hydroelectric power: The mechanical energy that rotates the generator comes  from the force of falling water pushing against the blades of a water turbine. • • Fossil fuel: The burning of fossil fuels. List and describe the following fuel sources that are used for powering the mechanical processes that generate electricity.  19.S. such as coal. and oil. substations. Electrical transmission networks are interconnected in  order to provide reliable and redundant routes for electrical power transmission. gas. Describe the electrical power distribution system and process.  Transmission lines provide the network that moves electricity from generation plants  to distribution substations. is the most  common method of electric generation in the U.  • 18. Describe the electrical power transmission system and process. The majority of customers are supplied from a  distribution system that is an output of a substation.17. The steam passes through turbines creating mechanical energy  that produces electrical current. The electric power  transmission system consists of power lines.    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  132  . Electric power distribution is the transfer of high‐voltage electrical energy from  substations to the end customer. The electric power distribution system consists of power  lines. Electric power transmission consists of the bulk transfer of high‐voltage electrical  energy from its source at generating plants to substations. substations. and control centers. rather than the transmission or  sub‐transmission systems.

various utility structures and national and regional regulatory organizations Multiple Choice  1. What type of utility is a non-profit entity that is publicly-owned and controlled by local government agencies? a) c) Investor owned Independent Power Producer B)  MUNICIPAL  d) Cooperative 5.Answer Key for Module 1 Unit B Quiz  This quiz covers the structure of the utility industry including the three parts of the electric power system. and receive rebates if excess revenue is collected at the end of the year: a) c) Investor Owned Independent Power Producer b) Municipal Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  133  . The most predominant type of utility in the United States is what type of business structure? A)  INVESTOR OWNED  b) Non-profit c) Independent Power Producer d) Cooperative 4. The type of utility organization whose customers each own a share. Public utilities usually include what types of services? a) c) Water service Electric service b) Phone service D)  ALL OF THE ABOVE 2. Public utility service standards ensure service that is: a) c) Safe Reliable b) Adequate D)  ALL OF THE ABOVE 3.

What businesses have been formed to own power generation plants and market their output without a specific end user selected? a) Small power producers b) Cogenerators C)  MERCHANT GENERATORS  d) All of the above 10. offices. clothes washing. cooking and refrigeration? a) c) Commercial Industrial B)  RESIDENTIAL  11. Who uses the co-production of power and useful heat from an energy source such as a steam turbine. health care and lodging? A)  COMMERCIAL  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  134  . What type of utility is also known as a Non-Utility Generator (NUG). education. but which owns facilities to generate electric power to sell? a) Investor owned b) Municipal C)  INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCER  d) Cooperative 7. What category of electricity consumer includes the use of electricity for retail and services. geothermal. lighting. What category of electricity consumer include the use of electricity for air conditioning and heating. and is an entity which is not a public utility. water heating. What are small power plants that generate power to resale to others through renewable technologies such as biomass.D)  COOPERATIVE 6. or internal combustion engine? a) c) Small power producers Merchant generators B)  COGENERATORS  d) All of the above 8. wind and solar? A)  SMALL POWER PRODUCERS  b) Cogenerators c) Merchant generators d) All of the above 9. gas turbine.

not to the ownership of an organization. Electrical transmission networks are not interconnected. What category of electricity consumer includes the use of electricity for Powering industrial facilities and equipment? a) Commercial b) Residential C)  INDUSTRIAL 13. and the Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection. The primary purpose of the energy and utility industries are to provide safe. 5.b) Residential c) Industrial 12. 4. Most investor-owned utilities perform what function(s)? a) c) Generation Distribution b) Transmission C)  ALL OF THE ABOVE  True‐False  T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1. The term public utility refers to the nature of the business. 7. 10. electric power system is an interconnection of three major systems: the Eastern Interconnection. is the most common method of electric generation in the U. Privately invested electric power companies were the earliest form of business structure for the electric power industry. The U. utility companies were established as horizontally integrated entities. 8. Federal electric utilities primarily sell electricity to investor-owned utilities.S. adequate and reliable services to the public. gas and oil.S. 9. the Western Interconnection. 2. The primary use of petroleum energy is in manufacturing. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal. Independent power producers must use the transmission capabilities of other utilities to transmit the power they have generated. T/F   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  135  . 6. 3. Historically.

natural gas pricing. The transfer of high voltage electrical energy from substations to the end customer. Entities desiring to be qualified must first meet a specific list of characteristics and functions. E 6. Process of creating electrical energy from other forms of energy. wholesale electric rates. hydroelectric licensing. The bulk transfer of high voltage electrical energy from its source at generating plants to substations. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) electric power generation electric power transmission electric power distribution independent system operator regional transmission organization Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation          Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  136  . The electric reliability organization certified by FERC to establish and enforce reliability standards and regulations for the bulk-power system. Non-profit organizations that combine the transmission capabilities of multiple transmission providers into a single transmission system that can be accessed by many other energy entities. and gas pipeline certification. F 5.Matching  C 1. An independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy that governs interstate electricity sales. Designed to administer the transmission grid on a regional basis in a neutral manner. B 3. G 4. oil pipeline rates. A 2. D 7.

com/smartmeter/readMeter.doe.com/smartmeter/readMeter.shtml ISO/RTO Council http://www.eia.org/ Edison Electric Institute (EEI) http://www.com/environmental/energy/power.gov/SLTC/etools/electric_power/illustrated_glossary/index.publicpower.html Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) http://www.gocompare.org/ North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) http://www.htm How to Read Your Electric Meter http://www.gov/ How Stuff Works: How Power Grids Work http://science.php Pipeline 101: Introduction to Pipelines http://www.com/index.shtml Reading Electricity Bills http://www.aspx Electric Power Generation.gov/ Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) http://www.osha.com/ Online Usage Calculator http://www.pdf Reading Gas and Electricity Meters http://www.org/publications/electric/Electric_Bill_Made_Easy.ferc.bounceenergy.consumerspower.html Reading an Electric Meter http://www.epri.isorto.sdge.eei.aspx Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  137  . Transmission and Distribution Industry eTool Illustrated Glossary http://www.pickocc.org National Energy Education Development Project http://www.pipeline101.howstuffworks.org/home_energy/billestimator.Unit B Resources  American Public Power Association (APPA) http://www.com/texas/choice-education/how-to-read-your-electric-meter How to Read Your Smart Electric Meter http://www.com/guides/gas-and-electricity-bills.com Energy Information Administration (EIA) http://www.sdge.org/Pages/default.nerc.need.

php?storyId=110997398 Unit B Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary  Activities  computer with Internet access for research sample electricity bills calculator   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  138  . Electric Grid http://www.npr.energy. Department of Energy (DOE) http://www.S.org/templates/story/story.gov/ Visualizing the U.U.S.

  Transmission.        Unit C: Energy Flow: Generation. and Distribution                Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  139  .

      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  140  .

        Unit C Instructor Guide  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  141  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  142  .

While students can memorize the parts of the electric power system without this knowledge. they are helpful in conveying the concepts. While the comparisons are not precise. Teaching Strategies  A field trip to a utility company or generating station would be a great opportunity for students to understand the magnitude of the equipment discussed in this unit. Using familiar concepts to illustrate new ones aids students in constructing mental scaffolding on which they can “hang” new knowledge. The text opens with a description of very simplified power plants—one wind-driven and the other steam-driven. Learner Expectations (SLOs) for Unit C  • Explain the flow of energy from generation through distribution to the customer. voltage in electric circuits is compared to pressure in fluid circuits. Note: If needed. The text also provides two analogies which may be useful in conveying how electricity flows and how the transmission system works. and distribution of power. the transmission system is compared to the interstate highway system with many on-ramps and off-ramps. use the scavenger hunt activity around the immediate neighborhood to see how many parts of the transmission and distribution system can be located. The content of the PowerPoint presentation explores the concept of energy from the scientific perspective by providing examples of the transformation of energy from one form to another and consideration of the law of energy conservation. Ideally you will get someone from a local power company to lead the trip and answer students’ questions about the local utility. at the most basic level. If this is not possible.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  143  . Along the way they will discover how the utility industry has changed to become more efficient in the production. and this comparison is explored in a hands-on activity. transmission. So. In another analogy. they will better understand the processes if you provide this foundational information. this field trip could wait until after the material in Module 3 Unit A has been covered. These illustrate. preparing students for the more complex technical information in subsequent modules. conversion of one form of energy into another. for example.Unit C Overview  This unit provides an introduction to the three parts of electric power system.

Tell students they will learn more about other gaseous pollutants produced by fossil-fueled power plants later in this module.” “Simple Steam Power Plant. The Tea Kettle System. Explain that the → is read as “yields” and the ↑ means “evolves” (is given off). however. and prompt students to reflect on how this might relate to efficiency of power. “The Science of Energy. Transmission and Distribution  Lesson 1  Introduce Unit C using the PowerPoint presentation. the Turbine.” “The Boiler.” “The Generator. Simple Steam Power Plant.” “The Furnace. but they certainly have seen a boiling pot of water. Younger students may or may not have used a tea kettle. The Furnace. if they don’t already know. The transformation aspect is particularly important when thinking about the generation of electricity: • • • • the chemical energy within coal being transformed into thermal energy the thermal energy being transformed into kinetic energy of steam the kinetic energy being transformed into mechanical energy of the turbine the mechanical energy being transformed into electrical energy Instructional Resources   PowerPoint presentation. and distribution activities.Pacing Chart for Unit C Lesson Delivery  MODULE 1. Ask students if they have studied chemistry at any point. the forms it can take. The Boiler.” The text purposefully begins with the simplest analogy for generation possible—that of a tea kettle releasing a concentrated blast of steam. UNIT C: Energy Flow: Generation. Discuss the difference between the closed kettle system and a boiling pot of water without a lid.” and “Better Plant Efficiency. 1-15 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline       Science Connection: The Chemistry of Combustion Students should read the sections of the unit text called “Overview of the Electric Power System. and its transformation. Coal-fired generating plants are the most common type of plant in use today. transmission. in some geographical areas other types might predominate.” “Simple Power Plants. The Generator. Better Plant Efficiency Glossary Guided Note-taking Outline.” “The Turbine. utilities are also striving to improve the efficiency of generation. The Science of Energy Student text: Overview of the Electric Power System. Go over the simple chemical equations for combustion given in the Science Connection. Improving the Tea Kettle Power Plant. Just as individuals make changes to save money on their energy bills by using energy more efficiently.” The slides reintroduce some basic concepts about energy.” “The Tea Kettle System. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  144  . Simple Power Plants.” “Improving the Tea Kettle Power Plant. Ask students why utilities would want to make their operations more efficient. Have students find out how their electricity is produced.

phyastr.howstuffworks. i. outlets. distribution.” “Common Concepts for Electric Power Transmission. The Transmission System. Transformers  Guided Note-taking Outline.com/envir onmental/energy/question501.” “The Transmission System.htm Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  145  . which will be covered in greater detail in Module 5. 25-30 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Activity: Electricity Flow (embedded in text) Websites related to activity: Voltage: What Is it Really? http://tinyurl. Instructional Resources   Student text: Overview of Electric Power Transmission. and Ohms? http://science.” “Transmission System Interface. which will be covered in greater detail in Module 4. Residential Distribution Guided Note-taking Outline.com/what-is-voltage DC Circuit Water Analogy http://hyperphysics.e.” and “Transformers.” This lesson introduces the second part of the electric power system.edu/hbase/electric/watcir. it will be more effective if done in groups of 3 or 4 with each student having hands-on experience with the flow pressure. Safety precautions should be followed. and plugged-in equipment. Transmission and Distribution  Lesson 2  Students should read the sections of the text called “Overview of Electric Power Transmission. This lesson introduces the third part of the electric power system.MODULE 1. UNIT C: Energy Flow: Generation. 16-24 Answer Key for Guided Note-taking Outline Glossary Lesson 3  Students should read the sections of the text called “Overview of Electric Power Distribution” and “Residential Distribution. While the activity could be done as an instructor demonstration. wiping up spilled water immediately to prevent falls. Volts. The Activity: “Electricity Flow” should be done outdoors or in a lab with sinks. Watts. Common Concepts for Electric Power Transmission. transmission.” You may wish to have students look up unfamiliar vocabulary in the glossary and complete the related Guided Note-taking questions..html# c1 What Are Amps. Instructor Resources  Student text: Overview of Electric Power Distribution. Transmission System Interface. using water far away from electrical cords.gsu. You may wish to have students look up unfamiliar vocabulary in the glossary and complete the related Guided Note-taking questions.

Instructor Resources  Field trip (optional) Activity: Scavenger Hunt (embedded in text) Glossary Vocabulary Matching Activity Answer Key for Vocabulary Matching Activity Unit C Review Questions Instructor Answer Key for Unit C Review Questions Module 1.MODULE 1.” You can either allow students to take digital photos of equipment from their neighborhood or go online and find sites that show/discuss the different items. Transmission and Distribution  Lesson 4  If you are able to arrange a field trip. have students complete the Activity: “Scavenger Hunt. If not. UNIT C: Energy Flow: Generation. Go over the answers in class. Unit C Quiz       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  146  . Allow time for the students to complete the review questions and the vocabulary matching activity. Unit C Quiz Answer Key for Module 1. Review the unit with your students. now would be a good time to take it.

        Unit C Student Materials  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  147  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  148  .

 The creation and delivery of electrical energy for  customers occurs through three main steps: electric power generation.  Figure 1C. and  distribution. Electric power generation is the process of creating electricity from other sources  of energy. in turn. TRANSMISSION. Distribution is the delivery  of electric energy to consumers.UNIT C: ENERGY FLOW:  GENERATION. such plants are being used  today. When the windmill shaft turns. the energy of the wind is  converted to mechanical energy as shown in  Figure 1C. AND  DISTRIBUTION  Overview of Electric Power System  Energy and utility companies must provide customers with instant access to reliable energy  service 24 hours a day. Electric power transmission is the transfer of electric energy in bulk between the  generation point and points at which it is transformed for delivery. in fact. A  discussion of energy generation from steam  power plants can begin with a simple wind‐ powered generating plant. but wind is not a dependable source of energy in many locations.     © National Energy Education Development Project Simple Power Plants  Generation is the first step in the delivery of  electric power service to consumers. they begin to turn. 365 days a year.1. In  this process. illuminates the bulb.    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  149  .1 Wind power plant  the generator changes the mechanical energy  into electrical energy that. transmission.   Simple power plants such as this windmill actually work. As wind strikes the  blades of the windmill.

  Improving the “Tea Kettle” Power Plant  Now let’s return to the  “tea kettle” power plant to  see if some improvements  can be made to increase  the efficiency of the overall  operation.2. like controlled wind. Blades turned by steam are the basic principle on which steam  power plants operate.  At this point in the course. the boiler. As  Figure 1C.  consists of a bar magnet spinning  inside a stationary coil of wire. the initial current is  added to the current in the other turns of wire creating a more powerful current.  The major components of  the power plant are the  furnace.  The “Tea Kettle” System  One possible source of power could be a tea kettle. We’ll use actual  steam‐electric generation  plant terminology to  describe equipment and  processes from now on.3 Improved “tea kettle” power plant  150  . an electric current is set up in the wire. When a tea kettle is placed over a  source of heat.Simple Steam Power Plant  In the search for a reliable source of power.2 “Tea kettle” power plant  the magnetic field issuing from the  ends of the magnet moves across  the turns of wire in the stationary coil. The actual equipment in a steam power plant is much more  sophisticated. yet the principle remains the same. the  turbine. the water inside the kettle begins to boil and steam is discharged from  the spout. it is  enough to know that an electric  generator is a rapidly rotating  magnet inside a stationary coil of  wire that creates an electric  current.   A simple generator.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1    Figure 1C.  Steam. steam has long been recognized as a source  more dependable and controllable than wind. such as the  one depicted in Figure 1C. can be used to turn blades on a shaft to generate electricity  to illuminate a light bulb. By  winding a large number of turns of wire into a ring or doughnut. and the generator.

 the equation  may become:  2C + O2 → 2CO + heat↑  or  3C + O2 → 2CO + C + heat↑  where carbon monoxide (a  poisonous gas) is produced. or conversion. The blades were  then enclosed.    The Chemistry of Combustion Pure carbon would burn  following the equation below:  C + O2 → CO2 + heat↑  or in words  carbon + oxygen → carbon  dioxide + heat  When there is insufficient  oxygen present.  Generating Plant Components  The Furnace   The furnace is the site of one of the basic energy  processes. In the furnace.  incomplete combustion will  generally produce some carbon  dioxide.  releasing various oxides of  sulfur (SOx). this power plant explanation began using a simple windmill. now  known as the boiler (or steam generator).  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  151  .  To review. and  some carbon may remain totally  unburned. It has hundreds of blades. the heat energy that is released as the coal burns is absorbed by water  in the boiler.  The Boiler   In a coal‐fired plant.  Additionally impurities in the  coal. The  turbine and associated equipment are used to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. Each component is becoming more  complicated and specialized. The turbine is essentially a windmill. Pollution control  equipment such as scrubbers  remove SOx. In actuality. Because of  the relative cost and availability of the various fuels used  in plants today. and some unburned  carbon. some of which rotate and some of which  are stationary. which  are all chemically classified as hydrocarbons.  The windmill has also been enclosed and is now  known as a turbine. as combustion is  not part of the hydroelectric power or nuclear power  generation processes. oil. and the windmill became a turbine. coal is the first choice. but  it is far more complex. the chemical energy of the fuel is  converted into thermal energy (heat) through  combustion. which in power plant terms is called a stack. The three most common fuels used in fossil‐ fueled plants today are natural gas. Hydropower and  nuclear power do not require a furnace. The tea kettle. such as sulfur. even though it still has the same  function. from one form of energy to  another.3. is the  equipment that converts water to steam when heated  by the furnace.Note that in the diagram in Figure 1C. and coal. some carbon  monoxide. The turbine blades are arranged in groups called stages.   The Turbine   The third major component of a steam‐electric generating station is the turbine. converting it to steam. To the furnace structure is added a  chimney. are burned. several pieces  of equipment have been enclosed. but the principle is still  the same as in the “tea kettle” power plant.   The portion containing the fire and fuel‐burning  equipment is called the furnace.

 knock an electron free. a generator uses a magnet force to push electrons along. In the same way.  station designers and operators strive to obtain the maximum number of kilowatt hours of  electricity from the least amount of fuel. Today the national average is less than one pound of  coal per kilowatt hour.  one conveying energy to another in sequence. All generators are supplying the common load and  are said to be operating in parallel.  A generator in a power plant may operate by itself or in tandem with other generators. while going through a conductor.  This is an oversimplification.   Seventy‐five years ago.  Only instead of pushing water. Like the person who wants the most miles per gallon of gas from a car.  one electron from one atom will become excited to the point it will leave its atom.The Generator   The main function of a generator is to convert the heat energy of steam into more easily  used electrical energy.  The main reason for the reduction in fuel consumption is the gradual improvement of  generating stations. but it paints a helpful picture of the properties at work in a  generator. In cases where a system is small or a system has only  one power plant. In other words. and then join the atom with which it  collided. more generators are  placed in operation to meet the demand. Instead electrons act more like a Newton’s  cradle—the toy in which aligned spheres on strings are set to knock against one another.  Most electrical power utilities have more than one power plant. each plant having more  than one generator. Both the individual pieces of equipment and the system as a whole have  been made more efficient. one may ask why people continue to complicate things. To deliver electricity to millions of  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  152  .  Better Plant Efficiency  If a power plant is basically this simple. electric‐generating plants used more than three pounds of coal to  produce one kilowatt hour of electricity. It should be noted that a single electron  doesn’t flow through a conductor and return.  The answer is efficiency.  Overview of Electric Power Transmission   Electricity has unique properties that make it not easily stored. only a few generators will be in  operation. A water pump moves a certain number of water molecules and applies a certain  amount of pressure to them. it is possible that only one generator is supplying the total system  demand. As the customer demand for electric power increases. During low system load periods. seventy‐five years ago three times as much fuel was  required to produce the same amount of electricity. It might  collide with another atom. A single generator operating to supply the demand is called an isolated generator. The electricity that is created by  generation plants must be delivered as it is generated. An analogy for a generator is a pump pushing water through a pipe. Similarly. the magnet in a generator excites electrons  in the conductor and generates an electrical force.

   The transmission system used to transmit electrical energy long distances can be compared  to the interstate roadway network.    Common Concepts for Electric Power Transmission  Voltage: Voltage is electrical force or potential measured in volts (V) or kilovolts (kV) for transmission  applications.  Power: In the context of electricity transmission. The voltages of transmission lines affect their transmitting ability. Power is a  variable that must be considered when dealing with transmission system capability and capacity  design and function. In the electrical  transmission system (Figure 1C.  Current: Current is a measurement of the rate of electricity flow. isolated systems evolved into compatible.  The Transmission System  The electrical energy transmission system is designed to step up the output voltage from  the production system generation units to high voltages that can be used to interconnect  various production sources and power grids.  interconnected grids.customers. Power is measured in watts (W) or megawatts (MW).4). Conflicting. early electric power transmission systems encountered two main obstacles. the entry and exit points are:  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  153  . Large amounts of electrical energy flow along the  transmission system much as traffic from towns and cities. Industrialization and  new technologies allowed for the voltages used in the bulk transmission of electricity to  gradually increase over time. Electrical energy is expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh). electricity travels from generation plants to customers though transmission lines. This system continued to progress into what we now consider a critical  part of our country’s infrastructure. Transmission line current is a measurement of the amount of electricity that is  flowing through the transmission line. other major highways or  expressways enter and leave the interstate highway at key intervals. 2007    Electric power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy from power generation  plants to substations along various interconnected systems within the electrical power grids. Current flow is measured in  amperes (amps).  proximity to a generation source and incompatibility of different voltages.   Historically. power is defined as a rate at which electricity  (electrical energy) is produced.  Argonne National Laboratory.  Electrical Energy: Electrical energy is the generation or use of electric power over a specified amount  of time.  Electric power transmission is the second of three steps in the electric power system.

• • Power plants that generate electrical energy.  Some customers are connected directly to the transmission system at these high voltages.000 miles of high‐voltage (greater than 230 kV) transmission lines.  Substations that lower the voltage so that electrical energy circuits are permitted  to be routed to commercial and residential areas. at the start of the twenty‐first  century.  Other power pools or power grids. research  nuclear reactors. These high voltages are established at production sources where the  voltages are stepped up so that more electrical energy can be transferred from one point to  another with a minimum of loss.000 volts. even if they operate at different voltage  level. which can be  located several hundred miles away from the customers. which can extend the  interconnection of production facilities and allow for alternative  routing in the event of operating emergencies and maintenance. and steel recycling facilities. the transmission system in the United States was an interconnected network with  more than 150. The high‐voltage transmission system lines are carried on  tall steel or aluminum towers or poles well above the ground.25 Transmission System (Apogee Energy)   The transmission system operates at high voltages in ranges from 138.  Customers requiring high volumes of energy at high voltages.  The customers requiring these extremely high levels of electrical energy.000 to more than  1.000.  Switching stations that provide control facilities for monitoring  system operation and provide interconnection with other  transmission systems. such as  manufacturing processes and research facilities.  Additionally some power is transmitted underground. but this is much more expensive since  coolant must be circulated through the pipes carrying the electrical cables. Examples might include electrical component manufacturers.  According to the National Council on Electricity Policy.   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  154  .  • • •   Figure 1C. are sometimes directly connected to  transmission lines.

   Overview of Electric Power Distribution   Electric power distribution begins with the flow of electric power from a substation and ends  with the final delivery of electrical power through a customer’s electric meter (Figure 1C. The distribution system delivers electrical power to residential customers and to smaller  commercial customers at voltages of 4 kV and below.5).000 volts (4 kV) to 35. A switchyard contains all the equipment  necessary to transform and route power. not produce it.Transmission System Interface  The interface between the power generation plant and the transmission system takes place  in a switching station.000 volts (44  kV) to 500.000 volts (35 kV). which ranges from 44. steps down the voltage from a  high transmission voltage level to a lower distribution voltage level. Besides the main power transformer  that steps up voltage to transmission levels.  Transformers  A transformer is an electrical device by which alternating current of  one voltage is changed to another voltage. Lower voltages are  required for the safe distribution of electric power to customers. The subtransmission system  delivers electrical power to large commercial customers at voltages between 4 kV and 69  kV. which in turn is connected to a distribution system. Power generated in a power plant passes from the generation plant  into the transmission system through a switchyard.    Figure 1C. a variety of other  transformers are found along the transmission and distribution lines  that adjust voltages for the power grid and step down voltages to the  voltages needed by various consumers. The lower voltage of  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  155  . A transformer can only  transfer power.5 Transmission System (Apogee Energy) A distribution system takes power from the transmission grid.000 volts (500 kV) to distribution voltage. which ranges  from 4. Transformers step down the  voltage from transmission voltage. The transmission system is generally  connected to a subtransmission system.  The transmission system delivers power to transmission substations of the utility and to  larger industrial consumers at voltages of 69 kV and above.

  The distribution system is connected by the following  main links: • Distribution Substations – Substations lower  voltages so that electrical energy is at an  appropriate level to be routed to commercial  and residential customers.electricity in the distribution system also allows for the construction of smaller power lines  within neighborhoods and enables economical underground distribution abilities.  Residential Connections – Residential  customers typically require distribution voltage  levels to be stepped down to 120/240 single  phase service. In 1880 Edison  patented the first electric power  distribution system.    Early Distribution Thomas Edison originated the concept  and implementation of electric power  generation and distribution to homes  and businesses.  In 1882. as  it has multiple interconnections that provide opportunities for input and output at key  junctions.   The majority of customers are  supplied from distribution  circuits that are the outputs of  the substation.  These lower voltages also allow for customer equipment to operate at standardized  voltages. However. The distribution  circuits are routed along local  streets on overhead and  underground distribution  circuits. rather than the  transmission or subtransmission  systems. distribution  circuit voltages of 4 and 13 kV   Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  156  . Typically. Edison received many  awards for his developments in power  distribution systems. lower voltages are needed to  allow smaller power lines and associated equipment to be built for residential purposes.  Commercial and Industrial Connections – Some  commercial and industrial customers require a  higher voltage of electrical power service  because they require high volumes of energy or  operate equipment or machinery that requires  special voltages. the “Edison Illuminating  Company” began to distribute  electrical power to 59 customers in  New York City.  While the electric power transmission system is often compared to an interstate highway  network.  • • Residential Distribution  We have mentioned that higher voltages are needed to move large amounts of electricity  long distances with minimum losses (voltage drops). the electric power distribution system is similar to state highways and city streets.

 faucet). the poles are generally shorter and often made of wood.   Common customer voltage levels are:  Residential (Single‐Phase Services)  • • • 120 volts  120/240 volts  120/208 volts  Commercial and Light Industrial (Three‐Phase Services)  • • • • • 120/208 volts (three‐phase wye)  277/480 volts (three‐phase wye)  120/240 volts (three‐phase delta)  240 volts (three‐phase delta)   480 volts (three‐phase delta)     ACTIVITY: Electricity Flow  Voltage in electric circuits is similar to pressure in fluid circuits.. using an approximately constant‐pressure water source (e. All pipes and tubes resist  the flow of water. The customer application voltages are referred to as secondary and service  voltages. just as all electrical devices have some resistance to charge flow.g.  What variables do you notice with long versus short lengths of tubing?  What variables do you notice with smaller‐diameter tubing?  How do these findings relate to how electricity is transferred through the transmission  system?                 In the distribution system.  measure and compare fill time for a large bucket using different lengths of garden hose  and other smaller‐diameter types of plastic tubing.  Working in teams.are stepped down at designated intervals to provide lower voltages for specific customer  applications.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  157  . Examples of distribution poles and transformers are below. Within  cities they may be built with breakaway metal poles to reduce injuries in case a vehicle runs  into one.

 Find each of the following and record its location. and  distribution systems over broad geographic areas  furnace—the portion of the generating unit containing the fire and fuel‐burning equipment. If your instructor allows. the  site where the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to thermal energy  generator—the portion of the generating unit where the rotating mechanical energy is  converted to electrical energy.  The nearest generating station Transmission substation  Distribution substation  Step‐down transformer  Step‐up transformer     Residential transformer  High‐voltage transmission lines  Analog electric meter  Digital electric meter    Unit C Glossary  boiler—a device for generating steam for power. use  digital cameras to take pictures of your “finds. Activity: Scavenger Hunt  Work in small groups. transmission. fossil  fuels are made of hydrocarbons  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  158  . If available. when drawn in a line diagram.” Bring your completed assignment to the  next class. it consists of a stator containing the armature windings and  a rotor (center shaft) that is turned by the turbine to produce the magnetic field  hydrocarbons—simple compounds containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. this activity can be completed virtually using the  Internet. such as a conductive wire   distribution system—the portion of electric system that is dedicated to delivering electric  energy to an end user  delta–a method of wiring for a three‐phase connection in which three windings of a  transformer or generator are connected end to end. the  shape resembles the Greek letter “delta” (Δ)  energy—the capacity to do work  electrical energy—potential energy and kinetic energy associated with the position or  movement of electrical charge  electrical power grid (the “grid”) —interconnected electric generation. heat from an external combustion source is  transmitted to water contained within the waterwall tubes that line the furnace walls  conductor—materials such as copper and aluminum that allow electrical current to flow freely  through them  current— a flow of electrons along a path.

  Fossil‐Fuel Power Plant Technology Series: Power Plant Fundamentals and Systems II.  used to lower voltage  step‐up transformer—a transformer that has fewer turns in the primary winding than in the  secondary winding. when drawn in a line diagram. while step‐down transformers lower voltage from the primary to the  secondary circuit while raising current proportionally  transmission system—an interconnected group of electric transmission lines and associated  equipment for moving or transferring electric energy in bulk between points of supply and  points at which it is transformed for delivery over the distribution system lines to  consumers or to other electric systems  turbine—a machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the thermal energy of steam  voltage (volts)—the difference in electrical potential between any two conductors or between  a conductor and ground. It is a measure of the electric energy per electron that electrons  can acquire and/or give up as they move between the two conductors  wye—a method of wiring for a three‐phase connection in which all three phases are connected  to a common point.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  159  . voltages are higher in the primary circuit than in the secondary circuit. usually an electrical ground. step‐up transformers  increase voltage from the primary to the secondary circuit while lowering current  proportionally. the shape  resembles a “Y”  Unit C References  Argonne National Laboratory (2007)  http://www. that steps up voltages from the generator and  routes it to the transmission lines  system load—the amount of electric power required by consumers   transformer—a device that transfers power from one circuit to another.gov/  Fossil‐Fuel Power Plant Technology Series: Power Plant Fundamentals and Systems I.   Electric Utilities Technical Education Council and the Center for Occupational Research and  Development. the voltage in the primary circuit will be less than in the secondary  circuit.anl. used to increase voltage  substation—a location along a transmission or distribution route containing equipment to  transform and route power  switchyard—the area at the generating station.kilowatt hours—the unit which expresses how much electrical energy a consumer uses  step‐down transformer—a transformer that has more turns in the primary winding than in the  secondary winding.   Electric Utilities Technical Education Council and the Center for Occupational Research and  Development.

htm  Steam: Its Generation and Use  http://www.howstuffworks.         Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  160  .com/doc/17396655/Babcock‐Wilcox‐Co‐Steam‐Its‐Generation‐and‐Use  Unit C Photo Credits  Graphics courtesy Apogee Energy and the National Energy Education Development Project.Fossil‐Fuel Power Plant Technology Series: Power Plant Operator‐Level II.com/electricity.scribd.  How Electricity Works   http://science.   Electric Utilities Technical Education Council and the Center for Occupational Research and  Development.

        Unit C Teaching Resources        Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  161  .

    Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  162  .

A battery contains chemicals which react to release electrons b. It reviews the law of conservation of energy and asks students to identify types of energy as they transform into other types. Title slide: The Science of Energy 2. How do these objects store potential energy? • • • • Battery Auto suspension spring Water tower Sugar 4. It is the property of a substance. POWERPOINT: THE SCIENCE OF ENERGY  This presentation contains an overview of the two major types of energy—potential and kinetic—and the classifications within each. A spring that is compressed or stretched stores mechanical potential energy c. Water at a height has gravitational potential energy due to its position d. substances. mechanical. atoms. Potential Energy a. electrons. radiant) 8. sound. It can only be transformed from one form to another Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  163  . Energy is classified into two major categories: potential and kinetic 3. The Scientific Law of Conservation of Energy a. Kinetic Energy (motion. Energy is broadly defined as the ability to do work b. and objects 7. Potential Energy a. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion—of waves. electrical. Energy is neither created nor destroyed b. 1. Kinetic Energy a. molecules. gravitational. Sugar contains chemicals that react with chemicals in your body to produce energy 5. What is Energy? a.Unit C PowerPoint  This presentation is designed to help students think about the science behind the electricity as they are learning about the power industry. Potential energy is either due to stored energy in the object or substance or to the position of the object b. thermal. nuclear) 6. object or material that allows it to do work c. Potential Energy (chemical.

Slides 9 – 12: What kind of energy is being transformed? What is it being transformed into? 13. For More Information a.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  164  . Energy Explained: Your Guide to Understanding Energy http://www.

      Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  165  .

8. the generator changes the _____________________ energy into electrical energy that. 9. 4. _____________________. The _____________________ (or steam generator). The _____________________ and associated equipment are used to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. _____________________ is the first step in the delivery of electric power service to consumers. which are all chemically classified as _________________________________________. the _____________________ energy of the fuel is converted into _____________________ energy (heat) through _____________________. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  166  . and _____________________. When the turbine shaft turns. 11.Unit C Guided Note‐Taking Outline  1. The portion of a power plant containing the fire and fuel-burning equipment is called the _____________________. The creation and delivery of electrical energy for customers occurs through three main steps: electric power _____________________. in turn. In the furnace. 3. Electric power generation is the process of creating electricity from other sources of _____________________. 7. converting it to steam. the ____________________________. 6. _____________________. is the equipment that converts water to steam when heated by the furnace. the _____________________. 5. The __________________________________________ that is released as coal burns is absorbed by water in the boiler. The major components of the power plant are the _____________________. can light up a lightbulb. 10. The three most common fuels used in fossil-fueled plants today are_____________________. and _____________________. 2. and the _______________________________________.

Electric power _____________________ is the bulk transfer of electrical energy from power generation plants to substations along various interconnected systems within the _______________________________________________________________. the entry and exit points are: ____________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________. The electrical energy transmission system is designed to step up the output voltage from the production system generation units to ______________________________________ that can be used to interconnect various production sources and power grids. 15. proximity to a generation source and incompatibility of different ___________________. 17. 18. more generators are placed in operation to meet the demand. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  167  . In the electrical transmission system.12. 20. each plant having more than one generator. early electric power transmission systems encountered two main obstacles. 19. 13. 16.  21. The main function of a _____________________ is to convert the heat energy of steam into more easily used electrical energy. As the ______________________________________________________________  increases. Electricity has unique properties that make it not easily _____________________. 14. The transmission system in the United States was an interconnected network with more than _________________________________ of high-voltage (greater than 230 kV) transmission lines. The main reason for the reduction in fuel consumption is the gradual improvement of ________________________________________. Most _______________________________________________________________ have more than one power plant. Historically.

A distribution system takes power from the transmission grid and steps _________________________________ the voltage from a _________________________________ transmission voltage level to a _________________________________ distribution voltage level. Electric power distribution begins with the flow of electric power from a _________________________________ and ends with the final delivery of electrical power through a customer’s _______________________________________________. 28. _________________________________________________________________.22. Typically. A _________________________________ is an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage 25. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  168  . 23. The customer application voltages are referred to as _________________________________ and _________________________________  voltages. 26. 24. The distribution system is connected by the following main links: __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________ 29. The transmission system is generally connected to a _________________________________ system. ____________________________________________________________. 27. and __________________________________________________________________. for example. The interface between the power generation plant and the transmission system takes place in a __________________________________________________________________. distribution circuit voltages of 4 and 13 kV are stepped down at designated intervals to provide lower voltages for specific _________________________________. Some customers are connected directly to the transmission system at these high voltages. which in turn is connected to a _________________________________ system. 30.

An interconnected group of electric transmission lines and associated equipment for moving electric energy in bulk between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery 5. The portion of electric system that is dedicated to delivering electric energy to an end user 6. A device for generating steam for power a) b) c) d) e) f) g) electrical energy boiler system load distribution system generator transmission system furnace ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____       169  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . it consists of a stator containing the armature windings and a rotor (center shaft) that is turned by the turbine to produce the magnetic field 2. Potential energy and kinetic energy associated with the position or movement of electrical charge 4. The portion of the generating unit containing the fire and fuel-burning equipment 7.Unit C Matching Vocabulary Activity  Matching  ____ 1. The portion of the generating unit where the rotating mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. The amount of electric power required by consumers 3.

What is the purpose of the transmission system? 4. What does a transformer do? Why is this important?       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  170  . 1. 3. List the major processes involved in the creation and delivery of electric power to customers. 2. Describe the major components of a generating unit and the energy conversions that occur in each.Unit C Review Questions   Answer these questions in your notebook or on a blank sheet of paper.

The power plant main __________________ produce electrical power. Early electric power transmission systems encountered problems primarily due to: a) c) incompatible voltages thermal limits b) the need to locate the generation station close to the transmission lines d) lack of lightning arresteors 3. 1. a) c) transformers switchyard b) generators d) rotors 5. Which of the following is not part of the power transmission system? a) c) power grids substations b) switching stations d) residential customers 4. Multiple Choice  Circle the letters of all that apply. transmission. a) c) capacitor resistor b) transformer d) generator Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  171  . Creation and delivery of electricity to consumers occurs through: a) c) transformation distribution b) generation d) transmission 2. and distribution of electric power.Module 1 Unit C Quiz   This quiz covers introductory material on the generation. A____________ is an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage.

thermal b) electrical. thermal d) electrical.000 d) 120 to 240 7. thermal mechanical.000. b) turbine d) transformer Common residential customer voltage is: a) c) 480 volts (three-phase delta) 120/208 volts (three-phase wye) b) 277/480 volts (three-phase wye) d) 120 volts Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  172  . chemical 8. oil-fueled nuclear-powered boiler generator The ____________ is used to convert steam to mechanical energy. a) c) 240 to 1000 1000 to 5000 b) 138. graphite coal b) natural gas d) hydrogen Which of these types of generation do not require a furnace? a) coal-fueled b) hydroelectric (hydropower) c) d) 10. a) c) 11.000 to 1. Which of these are fossil fuels used in electric generating plants? a) c) 9.The transmission system operates at high voltages in ranges from ____________ to _________ volts.6. a) c) chemical. In the furnace the __________________ energy of the fuel is converted into __________ energy through combustion.

The main function of a _______________ is to convert the heat energy of steam into more easily used electrical energy. Electricity has properties that make it difficult to _____________. The transmission system is designed to ______________ the output voltage from the generating units so that it can be used to interconnect production sources and power grids. a) c) Distribution Lower b) Higher d) Residential 13. a) c) transformer switchyard b) generator d) conductor 17. The distribution system is connected by: a) c) commercial and industrial connections generating switchyards b) residential connections d) distribution substations 14. ______________________ voltages are needed to move large amounts of electricity long distances with minimum losses. a) c) transmit store b) generate d) distribute 16. During low _________________ periods.12. only a few generators will be in operation. a) c) customer demand isolated demand b) system load d) parallel load     173  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . a) c) step up create b) step down d) lower 15.

Nuclear power involves the combustion of uranium. 12. 3. 6. Electric power distribution begins with generation and ends at the distribution substation. Common residential customer voltage levels are 120/240 volts. The distribution system takes power from the transmission grid and steps down the voltage. 5. Electric power transmission is the final step in the delivery of electric power service to consumers. 10. A transformer is a rapidly rotating magnet inside a stationary coil of wire that creates an electric current. 8. 11. Coal is classified as a hydrocarbon. 13. 7. 9. Electricity is delivered as it is generated (rather than stored for later use). It takes more fuel today to produce one kilowatt of power than it did 75 years ago. Residential voltages are carried by three-phase services. 4. Generators only work in isolation.True‐False  T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1. Power generation is connected with power transmission at a switching station. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  174  . 2. A transformer cannot produce power.

transmission _____ 5. boiler _____ 9. furnace _____ 7. subtransmission system _____ 6.Matching  _____ 1. distribution _____ 2. current a) c) steam generator the bulk transfer of electrical energy b) flow of electrons through a conductor d) delivers electric power to large commercial customers at voltages between 4 kV – 69 kV e) f) designed to step up or step down voltage creation of electrical energy g) delivery of electric power to small commercial and residential consumers h) where chemical energy is converted to thermal energy through combustion i) in the generating system it is used to convert steam energy to mechanical energy       Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  175  . transformer _____ 3. generation _____ 8. turbine _____ 4.

The main function of a GENERATOR is to convert the heat energy of steam into more easily used electrical energy. 9. converting it to steam.Answer Key to Guided Note‐Taking Outline  1. When the turbine shaft turns. The creation and delivery of electrical energy for customers occurs through three main steps: electric power GENERATION. TRANSMISSION. the CHEMICAL energy of the fuel is converted into THERMAL energy (heat) through COMBUSTION. The BOILER (or steam generator). The portion of a power plant containing the fire and fuel-burning equipment is called the FURNACE. The TURBINE and associated equipment are used to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. the generator changes the MECHANICAL energy into electrical energy that. Electric power generation is the process of creating electricity from other sources of ENERGY. which are all chemically classified as HYDROCARBONS. 10. 4. 6. and DISTRIBUTION. and COAL. OIL. 5. 7. 8. In the furnace. and the GENERATOR. GENERATION is the first step in the delivery of electric power service to consumers. 11. in turn. The three most common fuels used in fossil-fueled plants today are NATURAL GAS. the BOILER. the TURBINE. 12. can light up a lightbulb. is the equipment that converts water to steam when heated by the furnace. 3. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  176  . The HEAT ENERGY that is released as coal burns is absorbed by water in the boiler. The major components of the power plant are the FURNACE. 2.

Historically. each plant having more than one generator. 19. In the electrical transmission system. proximity to a generation source and incompatibility of different VOLTAGES. 17. the entry and exit points are: POWER PLANTS THAT GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY  SWITCHING STATIONS THAT PROVIDE CONTROL FACILITIES FOR MONITORING SYSTEM  OPERATION AND PROVIDE INTERCONNECTION WITH OTHER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS  OTHER POWER POOLS OR POWER GRIDS. As the CUSTOMER DEMAND FOR ELECTRIC POWER increases. The main reason for the reduction in fuel consumption is the gradual improvement of GENERATING STATIONS.  CUSTOMERS REQUIRING HIGH VOLUMES OF ENERGY AT HIGH VOLTAGES  SUBSTATIONS THAT LOWER THE VOLTAGE  21. early electric power transmission systems encountered two main obstacles. Electric power TRANSMISSION is the bulk transfer of electrical energy from power generation plants to substations along various interconnected systems within the ELECTRICAL POWER GRIDS. Most ELECTRICAL POWER UTILITIES have more than one power plant.13. Some customers are connected directly to the transmission system at these high voltages. MANUFACTURERS AND RESEARCHERS SUCH AS: ELECTRICAL  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  177  . 22. 14.000 MILES of high-voltage (greater than 230 kV) transmission lines. 18. The electrical energy transmission system is designed to step-up the output voltage from the production system generation units to HIGH VOLTAGES that can be used to interconnect various production sources and power grids. Electricity has unique properties that make it not easily STORED. for example. 20. The transmission system in the United States was an interconnected network with more than 150. 15. 16. more generators are placed in operation to meet the demand.

A TRANSFORMER is an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage 25. Electric power distribution begins with the flow of electric power from a SUBSTATION and ends with the final delivery of electrical power through a customer’s ELECTRIC  METER. The transmission system is generally connected to a SUBTRANSMISSION system. and STEEL  RECYCLING FACILITIES. The customer application voltages are referred to as SECONDARY and SERVICE voltages.     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  178  . RESEARCH NUCLEAR REACTORS.COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS). A distribution system takes power from the transmission grid and steps DOWN the voltage from a HIGH transmission voltage level to a LOWER distribution voltage level. The distribution system is connected by the following main links: DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS  COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONNECTIONS  RESIDENTIAL CONNECTIONS 29. distribution circuit voltages of 4 and 13 kV are stepped down at designated intervals to provide lower voltages for specific CUSTOMER APPLICATIONS. The interface between the power generation plant and the transmission system takes place in a SWITCHING STATION. 28. 24. 26. which in turn is connected to a DISTRIBUTION system. 30. 27. 23. Typically.

it consists of a stator containing the armature windings and a rotor (center shaft) that is turned by the turbine to produce the magnetic field 2. Potential energy and kinetic energy associated with the position or movement of electrical charge 4. An interconnected group of electric transmission lines and associated equipment for moving electric energy in bulk between points of supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery 5. A device for generating steam for power a) b) c) d) e) f) g) electrical energy boiler system load distribution system generator transmission system furnace C A F D G B     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  179  .Answer Key for Unit C Matching Vocabulary Activity  Matching  E 1. The portion of the generating unit containing the fire and fuel-burning equipment 7. The portion of electric system that is dedicated to delivering electric energy to an end user 6. The portion of the generating unit where the rotating mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. The amount of electric power required by consumers 3.

  3. The main power transformer steps up voltage to  transmission levels and a variety of other transformers found along the transmission  and distribution lines adjust voltages for the power grid and step down voltages to the  voltages needed by various consumers. chemical energy in the form of fuel is converted to heat energy. The turbine  “blade” is connected to the generator. The  lower voltage of electricity in the distribution system also allows for the construction  of smaller power lines within neighborhoods and enables economical underground  distribution abilities.  4.  High voltages are established at production sources where the voltages are stepped  up so that more electrical energy can be transferred from one point to another with a  minimum of loss. What does a transformer do? Why is this important? Transformers step up or step down electric voltage to an appropriate level for  transmission and distribution.  thereby converting the heat energy into rotating mechanical energy. Electric power  generation is the process of creating electricity from other sources of energy. The transmission system  transmits electrical energy long distances and serves as the connection between the  generation and distribution systems. Electric  power transmission is the transfer of electric energy in bulk between the generation  point and points at which it is transformed for delivery.Answer Key for Unit C Review Questions   Answer these questions in your notebook or on a blank sheet of paper. it rotates a magnet  inside a stationary coil of wire that creates an electric current. transmission. What is the purpose of the transmission system? The electrical energy transmission system is designed to step up the output voltage  from the production system generation units to high voltages that can be used to  interconnect various production sources and power grids. In the furnace. Distribution is the delivery of  electric energy to consumers. and distribution. Electrical energy is the end product for which the  power plant is built. which is  sent to the transmission system. voltage is stepped down because lower  voltages are required for the safe distribution of electric power to customers. The creation and delivery of electrical energy for customers occurs through three main  steps: electric power generation. The action of the  rotating magnetic field changes the mechanical energy into electrical energy. 1. The steam turns a turbine.   2. Heat  energy is used to boil water in the boiler and create steam. Describe the major components of a generating unit and the energy conversions that occur in each. As the turbine blade turns.  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  180  . Along distribution lines. List the major processes involved in the creation and delivery of electric power to customers.

a) c) transformers switchyard B)  GENERATORS  d) rotors 5. transmission. Early electric power transmission systems encountered problems primarily due to: A)  INCOMPATIBLE VOLTAGES  B)  THE NEED TO LOCATE THE GENERATION STATION CLOSE TO THE TRANSMISSION  LINES  c) thermal limits d) lack of lightning arresteors 3. Which of the following is not part of the power transmission system? a) c) power grids substations b) switching stations D)  RESIDENTIAL CUSTOMERS  4. A____________ is an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage.Answer Key to Module 1 Unit C Quiz   This quiz covers introductory material on the generation. Creation and delivery of electricity to consumers occurs through: a) transformation B)  GENERATION  C)  DISTRIBUTION  D)  TRANSMISSION  2. 1. The power plant __________________ produce electrical power. Multiple Choice  Circle the letters of all that apply. and distribution of electric power. a) c) capacitor resistor B)  TRANSFORMER  d) generator Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  181  .

The transmission system operates at high voltages in ranges from ____________ to _________ volts. THERMAL  b) electrical. Which of these types of generation do not require a furnace? a) coal-fueled B)    HYDROELECTRIC (HYDROPOWER)  c) 10. chemical 8. Which of these are fossil fuels used in electric generating plants? a) graphite B)  NATURAL GAS  C)  COAL  d) hydrogen 9. a) c) 11. oil-fueled D)    NUCLEAR‐POWERED  The ____________ is used to convert steam to mechanical energy. thermal c) mechanical. A)   CHEMICAL.6. boiler generator B)  TURBINE  d) transformer Common residential customer voltage is: a) c) 480 volts (three-phase delta) 120/208 volts (three-phase wye) b) 277/480 volts (three-phase wye) D)  120 VOLTS  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  182  . In the furnace the __________________ energy of the fuel is converted into __________ energy through combustion.000 TO 1.000  d) 120 to 240 7. a) c) 240 to 1000 1000 to 5000 B)  138. thermal d) electrical.000.

a) c) Distribution Lower B)  HIGHER  d) Residential 13. The distribution system is connected by: A)  COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONNECTIONS  B)  RESIDENTIAL CONNECTIONS  c) generating switchyards D)  DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS  14. a) transmit b) generate C)  STORE  d) distribute 16. During low _________________ periods. A)  CUSTOMER DEMAND  B)  SYSTEM LOAD  c) isolated demand d) parallel load     183  Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  . Electricity has properties that make it difficult to _____________. The main function of a _______________ is to convert the heat energy of steam into more easily used electrical energy. A)  STEP UP  b) step down c) create d) lower 15.12. The transmission system is designed to ______________ the output voltage from the generating units so that it can be used to interconnect production sources and power grids. a) c) transformer switchyard B)  GENERATOR  d) conductor 17. ______________________ voltages are needed to move large amounts of electricity long distances with minimum losses. only a few generators will be in operation.

6. Electricity is delivered as it is generated (rather than stored for later use). 11. A transformer is a rapidly rotating magnet inside a stationary coil of wire that creates an electric current. 12. Electric power transmission is the final step in the delivery of electric power service to consumers. 9. Common residential customer voltage levels are 120/240 volts. 4. Nuclear power involves the combustion of uranium. Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  184  . 10. The distribution system takes power from the transmission grid and steps down the voltage.True‐False  T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 1. 5. Electric power distribution begins with generation and ends at the distribution substation. 7. 8. 13. Residential voltages are carried by three-phase services. Generators only work in isolation. Coal is classified as a hydrocarbon. 2. It takes more fuel today to produce one kilowatt of power than it did 75 years ago. A transformer cannot produce power. 3. Power generation is connected with power transmission at a switching station.

subtransmission system 6.Matching  G E I C D H F A B 1. current a) c) steam generator the bulk transfer of electrical energy b) flow of electrons through a conductor d) delivers electric power to large commercial customers at voltages between 4 kV – 69 kV e) f) designed to step up or step down voltage creation of electrical energy g) delivery of electric power to small commercial and residential consumers h) where chemical energy is converted to thermal energy through combustion i) in the generating system it is used to convert steam energy to mechanical energy     Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  185  . distribution 2. generation 8. furnace 7. transformer 3. turbine 4. transmission 5. boiler 9.

com/history.Unit C Resources   A Brief History of Meter Companies and Meter Evolution http://watthourmeters.scribd.S.html Steam: Its Generation and Use http://www..howstuffworks.gsu.allaboutcircuits. flowing out of a faucet) Energy Industry Fundamentals — Module 1  186  . Sedano.com/what-is-voltage What Are Amps.ncouncil.g. Watts.htm How Electricity Works http://science. http://www.com/environmental/energy/question501. DC Circuit Water Analogy http://hyperphysics. and R.aspx Visualizing the U.com/doc/17396655/Babcock-Wilcox-Co-Steam-Its-Generation-and-Use Three-phase power systems http://www.npr.edu/hbase/electric/watcir. and Ohms? http://science. Electricity Transmission: A Primer.php?storyId=110997398 Voltage: What Is it Really? http://tinyurl.html#c1 Delta and Wye Power http://www.com/vol_2/chpt_10/1.myelectrical. (2004).com/products/App%20note%20AN-15.com/vol_2/chpt_10/2.allaboutcircuits.htm Single-phase Power Systems http://www. M.htm Unit C Materials and Equipment List for Discretionary  Activities  computer with Internet access tubing: various lengths and diameters buckets water under pressure (e.com/wikis/myelectricalwiki/three-phase.howstuffworks.phy-astr.H.html Brown.org.html Three Phase http://community. National Council on Electricity Policy.org/templates/story/story. Volts.P.teal. Electric Grid http://www.com/electricity.

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